Sample records for childhood cognitive function

  1. Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

  2. Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Aas; Paola Dazzan; Helen L. Fisher; Craig Morgan; Kevin Morgan; Abraham Reichenberg; Jolanta Zanelli; Paul Fearon; Peter B. Jones; Robin M. Murray; Carmine M. Pariante

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundA history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in

  3. Childhood Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley

    2000-01-01

    While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitive functioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitive functioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,

  4. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  5. Cognitive Functioning, Behavior, and Quality of Life After Stroke in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regula Everts; Julia Pavlovic; Franz Kaufmann; Birgit Uhlenberg; Ulrich Seidel; Krassen Nedeltchev; Walter Perrig; Maja Steinlin

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: To provide a better understanding of cognitive functioning, motor outcome, behavior and quality of life after childhood stroke and to study the relationship between variables expected to influence rehabilitation and outcome (age at stroke, time elapsed since stroke, lateralization, location and size of lesion).Methods: Children who suffered from stroke between birth and their eighteenth year of life underwent an

  6. Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

  7. Long-term supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function following cerebellar tumour resections in childhood.

    PubMed

    Moberget, T; Andersson, S; Lundar, T; Due-Tønnessen, B J; Heldal, A; Endestad, T; Westlye, L T

    2015-03-01

    The cerebellum is connected to extensive regions of the cerebrum, and cognitive deficits following cerebellar lesions may thus be related to disrupted cerebello-cerebral connectivity. Moreover, early cerebellar lesions could affect distal brain development, effectively inducing long-term changes in brain structure and cognitive function. Here, we characterize supratentorial brain structure and cognitive function in 20 adult patients treated for cerebellar tumours in childhood (mean age at surgery: 7.1 years) and 26 matched controls. Relative to controls, patients showed reduced cognitive function and increased grey matter density in bilateral cingulum, left orbitofrontal cortex and the left hippocampus. Within the patient group, increased grey matter density in these regions was associated with decreased performance on tests of processing speed and executive function. Further, diffusion tensor imaging revealed widespread alterations in white matter microstructure in patients. While current ventricle volume (an index of previous hydrocephalus severity it patients) was associated with grey matter density and white matter microstructure in patients, this could only partially account for the observed group differences in brain structure and cognitive function. In conclusion, our results show distal effects of cerebellar lesions on cerebral integrity and wiring, likely caused by a combination of neurodegenerative processes and perturbed neurodevelopment. PMID:25665770

  8. Academic potential and cognitive functioning of long-term survivors after childhood liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ee, L C; Lloyd, O; Beale, K; Fawcett, J; Cleghorn, G J

    2014-05-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed intellect, cognition, academic function, behaviour, and emotional health of long-term survivors after childhood liver transplantation. Eligible children were >5 yr post-transplant, still attending school, and resident in Queensland. Hearing and neurocognitive testing were performed on 13 transplanted children and six siblings including two twin pairs where one was transplanted and the other not. Median age at testing was 13.08 (range 6.52-16.99) yr; time elapsed after transplant 10.89 (range 5.16-16.37) yr; and age at transplant 1.15 (range 0.38-10.00) yr. Mean full-scale IQ was 97 (81-117) for transplanted children and 105 (87-130) for siblings. No difficulties were identified in intellect, cognition, academic function, and memory and learning in transplanted children or their siblings, although both groups had reduced mathematical ability compared with normal. Transplanted patients had difficulties in executive functioning, particularly in self-regulation, planning and organization, problem-solving, and visual scanning. Thirty-one percent (4/13) of transplanted patients, and no siblings, scored in the clinical range for ADHD. Emotional difficulties were noted in transplanted patients but were not different from their siblings. Long-term liver transplant survivors exhibit difficulties in executive function and are more likely to have ADHD despite relatively intact intellect and cognition. PMID:24646364

  9. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    a significant detrimental effect on cognitive functioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse abuse, cognition, ApoE, gene-environment interaction inserm-00584172,version1-7Apr2011 Author manuscript, for women, loss of a parent, were associated with poorer verbal retrieval whereas being sent to a foster

  10. The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and cognitive function from childhood through adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Gaysina, Darya; Xu, Man K.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Croudace, Tim J.; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) can influence cognitive function, and this effect may depend on developmental stage. Using a large representative British birth cohort, we investigated the effect of COMT on cognitive function (verbal and non-verbal) at ages 8 and 15 years taking into account the possible modifying effect of pubertal stage. Five functional COMT polymorphisms, rs6269, rs4818, rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599 were analysed. Associations between COMT polymorphisms and cognition were tested using regression and latent variable structural equation modelling (SEM). Before correction for multiple testing, COMT rs737865 showed association with reading comprehension, verbal ability and global cognition at age 15 years in pubescent boys only. Although there was some evidence for age- and sex-specific effects of the COMT rs737865 none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are necessary in order to make firmer conclusions. PMID:23178897

  11. Associations between Skeletal Growth in Childhood and Cognitive Function in Mid-Life in a 53-Year Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Robert; Hardy, Rebecca; Richards, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Background Several studies have found that shorter stature (height and limb length) in late life is associated with dementia and cognitive impairment. The extent to which childhood environment and early life cognitive function accounts for these associations is not clear. Methods We investigated associations of adult trunk height and leg length with cognitive function in middle age, analysing data from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development: a cohort followed from birth to age 53, 1677 of whom had data on all covariates. The four cognitive tests measured verbal ability, word list memory, verbal fluency and speed/concentration. Early life environmental measures included parental education, poverty, parental divorce, physical health, cognitive ability at age 15, own education and own adult social class. Results After adjusting for gender, shorter trunk length was associated with lower cognitive function on all four tests and shorter leg length with lower verbal intelligence and word list memory. These associations were only partially attenuated following adjustment for childhood adversity/health but were substantially accounted for by cognitive ability at age 15. Conclusions Shorter stature was associated with lower cognitive function at age 53, the majority of this association being accounted for by cognitive function at age 15. Reduced cognitive reserve may well account for later associations between anthropometric measures and dementia. PMID:25875444

  12. [Development of human visual cognitive function in childhood: evaluation by exploratory eye movements to a picture of a smiling face].

    PubMed

    Egami, Chiyomi; Morita, Kiichiro; Ishii, Youhei; Yamashita, Yushiro; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the development of human visual cognitive function in childhood, we examined exploratory eye movements in 78 healthy subjects using affective pictures. We divided them into six groups, each of which comprised 14 subjects (7 boys or men, 7 girls or women) at the indicated ages. Exploratory eye movements were recorded via gazing points using an eye-mark recorder. The total eye scanning length (TESL) of gaze points increased significantly with age, and the mean eye scanning length, in 4-6-year-olds was significantly shorter than in the others groups. The total number of gaze points (TNGP) on the left half of the screen increased significantly with age. The left TNGP in 4-6-year-olds was significantly smaller than in the other groups. The response search score (RSS) measured in 8 areas of the screen increased significantly with age. It was concluded that exploratory eye movements are useful markers to estimate the development of human visual cognitive function in childhood. PMID:20845764

  13. The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

  14. Childhood, death, and cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald P. Koocher

    1973-01-01

    Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

  15. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

  16. Dietary Patterns in Infancy and Cognitive and Neuropsychological Function in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; Martyn, Christopher N.; Marriott, Lynne D.; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has…

  17. Childhood Functional GI Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

  18. Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michelle Heys; Chaoqiang Jiang; C. Mary Schooling; WeiSen Zhang; Kar Keung Cheng; Tai Hing Lam; Gabriel M. Leung

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation\\u000a with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive\\u000a function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China\\u000a where the older population lived through significant hardship during

  19. A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Ferrari

    2009-01-01

    Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

  20. Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Darci N; Assis, Ana Marlúcia O; Bastos, Ana Cecília S; Santos, Letícia M; Santos, Carlos Antonio ST; Strina, Agostino; Prado, Matildes S; Almeida-Filho, Naomar M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2008-01-01

    Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation and nursery school attendance. The effect of these on Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence scores at five years of age was investigated using a multivariable hierarchical analysis, guided by the proposed conceptual framework. Results Unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, poorly educated mother, absent father, poor sanitary conditions at home and in the neighbourhood and low birth weight were negatively associated with cognitive performance at five years of age, while strong positive associations were found with high levels of domestic stimulation and nursery school attendance. Conclusion Children's cognitive development in urban contexts in developing countries could be substantially increased by interventions promoting early psychosocial stimulation and preschool experience, together with efforts to prevent low birth weight and promote adequate nutritional status. PMID:18534035

  1. IV. The cognitive implications of obesity and nutrition in childhood.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Donovan, Sharon M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population. PMID:25387415

  2. Executive Functioning in Childhood Epilepsy: Parent-Report and Cognitive Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Joy; Geary, Elizabeth; Jones, Jana; Seth, Raj; Hermann, Bruce; Seidenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the assessment of executive function (EF) in pediatric clinical populations but only a few well-standardized measures exist. We examined EF in 53 children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (31 males, 22 females) and 50 control children (23 males, 27 females) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of…

  3. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in First-Episode Psychosis, Including a Discussion on Childhood Trauma, Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157

  4. Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall

    2010-01-01

    AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhood cognitive function. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six

  5. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  6. Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivia N. Saracho

    1988-01-01

    Cognitive style is a psychological construct used in research concentrating on functional components of cognitive processes, particularly how they affect an individual's mental, personality and social behaviors. These functional components are manifested in an individual's perceptual and intellectual experiences in a highly consistent and pervasive manner. A dimension of cognitive style is field-dependence-independence, which denotes the individuals' spatial orientation. Individuals

  7. Neural correlates of cognitive control in childhood and adolescence: Disentangling the contributions of age and executive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Connie Lamm; Philip David Zelazo; Marc D. Lewis

    2006-01-01

    Dense-array (128-channel) electroencephalography (EEG) was used to record event-related potentials (ERPs) from 33 participants between 7 and 16 years of age while they performed a Go\\/Nogo task. The frontal (Nogo) N2 component of the ERP was taken as an index of cognitive control, and examined in relation to both age and independent assessments of executive function (EF), including the Iowa

  8. Childhood Maltreatment and Depressotypic Cognitive Organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret N. Lumley; Kate L. Harkness

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that how information is organized in the mind may be important for determining one’s vulnerability to depression. The purpose of the\\u000a current study was to examine potential developmental precursors to a depressotypic cognitive organization (i.e., tightly-connected\\u000a negative schemas and loosely-connected positive schemas) in a sample of young adult men and women (N = 91). The relation between childhood maltreatment

  9. Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

  10. Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

  11. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

  12. Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

  13. Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2015-02-01

    For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

  14. Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?

    PubMed Central

    Heys, Michelle; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Zhang, WeiSen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M.

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China where the older population lived through significant hardship during their early years. Multivariable linear regression was used in a cross-sectional study of 20,086 Chinese men and women aged ? 50 years from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phases 2 and 3) 2005–8. We assessed the association of childhood meat eating with delayed 10-word and immediate recall score. Adjusted for age, sex, education, childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and current physical activity, childhood meat eating almost daily, when compared to yearly or never childhood meat eating, was positively associated with delayed recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 10 = 0.22 [95% confidence interval = 0.11–0.31]). Similarly adjusted, childhood meat eating about once a month, about once a week and almost daily were positively associated with immediate recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 30 = 0.38 [0.23–0.54], 0.73 [0.56–0.89] and 0.76 [0.55–0.98] respectively). More frequent childhood meat eating was associated with better cognition through to old age. If confirmed, these results highlight the importance of adequate childhood nutrition and they also emphasise the childhood and adolescent antecedents of adult disease, with corresponding public health implications for healthy aging. PMID:20526800

  15. Cognitive Distortions Among Women Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GINA P. OWENS; KATHLEEN M. CHARD

    2001-01-01

    Seventy-nine female adults reporting a history of childhood sexual (CSA) abuse were assessed to determine the relationship between severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive distortions as part of a larger study involving cognitive processing therapy for sexual abuse. The association between two cognitive measures, the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale (PBRS) and World Assumptions Scale (WAS), was

  16. Education, Other Socioeconomic Indicators, and Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunmin Lee; Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman; Francine Grodstein

    The authors investigated the relation of educational attainment, husband's education, household income, and childhood socioeconomic status to cognitive function and decline among community-dwelling women aged 70- 79 years. Information on exposures was self-reported, except for income (which was derived from census tract data). Between 1995 and 2000, six cognitive tests were administered to 19,319 Nurses' Health Study participants. Second assessments

  17. Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piacentini, John

    2008-01-01

    Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

  18. Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenmei Zhang; Danan Gu; Mark D. Hayward

    2010-01-01

    Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger

  19. Cerebellar Disorders in Childhood: Cognitive Problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maja Steinlin

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade, increasing evidence of cognitive functions of the cerebellum during development and learning processes\\u000a could be ascertained. Posterior fossa malformations such as cerebellar hypoplasia or Joubert syndrome are known to be related\\u000a to developmental problems in a marked to moderate extent. More detailed analyses reveal special deficits in attention, processing\\u000a speed, visuospatial functions, and language. A study

  20. Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia Natividad

    Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood

  1. Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, Sargoor R; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Wills, Andrew K; Hill, Jacqueline C; Kurpad, Anura V; Muthayya, Sumithra; Karat, Samuel C; Nalinakshi, Mahadevu; Fall, Caroline HD

    2012-01-01

    Aim Several studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breast-feeding on childhood cognitive function. Our main objective was to examine whether duration of breast-feeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9-10 year old school going children in South-India. Methods We examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breast-feeding duration (6 categories from <3 to ?18 months) and age at introduction of complementary foods (4 categories from <4 to ?6 months) were collected at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year annual follow-up visits. Their cognitive function was assessed at a mean age of 9.7 years using 3 core tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children and additional tests measuring long-term retrieval/storage, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results All the children were initially breast-fed. The mode for duration of breast-feeding was 12-17 months (45.7%) and for age at introduction of complementary foods 4 months (37.1%). There were no associations between longer duration of breast-feeding, or age of introduction of complementary foods, and cognitive function at 9-10 years, either unadjusted or after adjustment for age, sex, gestation, birth size, maternal age, parity, socio-economic status, parents’ attained schooling, and rural/urban residence. Conclusions Within this cohort, in which prolonged breast-feeding was the norm (90% breast-fed ?6 months and 65% breast-fed for ?12 months), there was no evidence suggesting a beneficial effect of longer duration of breast-feeding on later cognitive ability. PMID:19946010

  2. Does childhood intelligence predict variation in cognitive change in later life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria J. Bourne; Helen C. Fox; Ian J. Deary; Lawrence J. Whalley

    2007-01-01

    Lower childhood cognitive ability may be a risk factor for greater cognitive decline in late life and progression to dementia. To assess variation in age-related cognitive change, it is helpful to have valid measures of cognitive ability from early life. Here, we examine the relation between childhood intelligence and cognitive change in later life in two samples, one born in

  3. The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

  4. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Kurt P.; Bédard, Anne-Claude V.; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD. PMID:24918067

  5. Developing interventions for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Castellino, Sharon M; Ullrich, Nicole J; Whelen, Megan J; Lange, Beverly J

    2014-08-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

  6. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  7. Cognitive–behavioral treatment for childhood sleep disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Sadeh

    2005-01-01

    Sleep problems are very prevalent during childhood and may have adverse developmental impact. The efficacy of a number of cognitive–behavioral interventions for the most prevalent problems such as difficulty falling asleep and night-wakings has been repeatedly demonstrated with relatively rapid outcomes and high success rates. Preventive interventions in infancy have shown some promise in lowering the rates of sleep problems

  8. Is there a link between childhood trauma, cognition, and amygdala and hippocampus volume in first-episode psychosis?

    PubMed

    Aas, Monica; Navari, Serena; Gibbs, Ayana; Mondelli, Valeria; Fisher, Helen L; Morgan, Craig; Morgan, Kevin; MacCabe, James; Reichenberg, Abraham; Zanelli, Jolanta; Fearon, Paul; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M; Dazzan, Paola

    2012-05-01

    Patients with psychosis have higher rates of childhood trauma, which is also associated with adverse effects on cognitive functions such as attention, concentration and mental speed, language, and verbal intelligence. Although the pathophysiological substrate for this association remains unclear, these cognitive deficits may represent the functional correlate of changes observed in relation to trauma exposure in structures such as the amygdala and the hippocampus. Interestingly, these structures are often reported as altered in psychosis. This study investigated the association between childhood trauma, cognitive function and amygdala and hippocampus volume, in first-episode psychosis. We investigated 83 patients with first-episode psychosis and 63 healthy controls. All participants underwent an MRI scan acquired with a GE Sigma 1.5-T system, and a standardized neuropsychological assessment of general cognition, memory, processing speed, executive function, visuo-spatial abilities, verbal intelligence, and language. In a subsample of the patients (N=45) information on childhood trauma was collected with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). We found that amygdala, but not hippocampus, volume was significantly smaller (p=0.001) in patients compared to healthy controls. There was a trend level interaction for hippocampus volume between group and sex (p=0.056). A history of childhood trauma was associated with both worse cognitive performance and smaller amygdala volume. This smaller amygdala appeared to mediate the relationship between childhood trauma and performance on executive function, language and verbal intelligence in patients with psychosis. This points to a complex relationship between childhood trauma exposure, cognitive function and amygdala volume in first-episode psychosis. PMID:22353995

  9. Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?

    PubMed

    Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; van den Berg, Gerard J

    2014-10-01

    Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households. PMID:25042942

  10. Evidence of Change in Brain Activity among Childhood Cancer Survivors Participating in a Cognitive Remediation Program

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ping; Li, Yimei; Conklin, Heather M.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Butler, Robert W.; Ogg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive remediation is needed to facilitate development of intervention strategies for childhood cancer survivors experiencing cognitive late effects. Accordingly, a pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with 14 cancer survivors (12.02 ± 0.09 years old), who participated in a cognitive remediation clinical trial, and 28 healthy children (12.7 ± 0.6 years old). The ventral visual areas, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, and left inferior frontal cortex were significantly activated in the healthy participants during a continuous performance task. In survivors, brain activation in these regions was diminished at baseline, and increased upon completion of remediation and at a 6-month follow-up. The fMRI activation index for each region of interest was inversely associated with the Conners' Clinical Competence Index (p<.01). The pilot study suggests that fMRI is useful in evaluating neural responses to cognitive remediation. PMID:23079152

  11. [Sex hormones and cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Akishita, Masahiro

    2014-04-01

    Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper. PMID:24796093

  12. Physiologic Function and Childhood Obesity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melinda S. Sothern; J. Mark Loftin; Robert M. Suskind; John N. Udall; Uwe Blecker

    1999-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a devastating chronic disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Successful prevention and treatment of child- hood obesity is dependent on increasing the physical activity of obese youth; however, motivating the obese child to participate in physical activity is difficult. Structured and vigorous, aerobic-type activities are often prescribed, but obese children are often noncompliant. Obese and non-obese children

  13. Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Merrill F.; Dore, Gregory A.; Davey, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We provide a brief review of research on chronic kidney disease and cognitive performance, including dementia. We touch briefly on the literature relating end-stage-renal disease to cognitive function, but focus on studies of modest and moderate forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that precede dialysis and transplantation. We summarize previous reviews dealing with case control studies of patients but more fully examine community-based studies with large samples and necessary controls for demographic risk factors, cardiovascular variables, and other confounds such as depression. In addition we suggest potential biological and social-psychological mediators between CKD and cognition. Studies follow in two categories of design: (1) cross-sectional studies; (2) longitudinal studies. In each, CKD is related to a wide range of deficits in cognitive functioning including, verbal and visual-memory and organization, and components of executive functioning and fluid intellect. In general, prior to the need to treat with hemodialysis (HD) or kidney transplant (KT), magnitude of effect with relation to CKD and function are small or modest in persons free from acute stroke and dementia. However, HD and KT can result in major impairment. We discuss needed controls, the greater demand on controls after HD and KT begin, and suggest that mechanisms intervening relations between hypertension, or diabetes, and cognitive performance may be similar to those intervening between hypertension and cognitive performance and the hypertension and diabetes literature on cognition provides a good model for the study of early stage kidney disease and cognitive ability. We posit that the mechanisms linking CKD and cognition may be similar to those linking hypertension or diabetes to cognition. We identify the need for more studies with multiple cognitive test batteries, measures of every-day cognitive abilities relevant to patient understanding of the disease and treatments, and more studies with prevalent and incident dementia outcomes. PMID:23652448

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude in depressed patients with and without childhood neglect

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To date, the relationships between childhood neglect, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude in depressed patients are still obscure. Methods The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood emotional neglect and physical neglect. Twenty-eight depressed patients with childhood neglect and 30 depressed patients without childhood neglect from Guangzhou Psychiatric Hospital were compared with 29 age- and gender-matched control subjects without childhood neglect and 22 control subjects with childhood neglect. Cortisol awakening response, the difference between the cortisol concentrations at awakening and 30 minutes later, provided a measure of HPA axis functioning. The Dysfunctional Attitude Scale measured cognitive schema. Results HPA axis functioning was significantly increased in depressed patients with childhood neglect compared with depressed patients without childhood neglect (p childhood neglect was significantly higher than in the depressed group without childhood neglect (p childhood neglect were positively correlated with HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude scores, but not with severity of depression. We did not find correlations with HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude or with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Conclusions Childhood neglect may cause hyperactivity of the HPA axis functioning and dysfunctional attitude, but does not affect depression severity. PMID:24548345

  15. The emergence of cognitive control abilities in childhood.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nina S; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control, otherwise known as executive function, refers to our ability to flexibly adjust or regulate habitual actions or behaviors. As a cluster of separable components, it depends heavily on the prefrontal cortex, one of the last brain regions to reach adult maturity. Cognitive control processes are thought to be among the key factors for scholastic success, and thus, underdeveloped cognitive control abilities might contribute to an achievement gap. In this chapter, we first discuss the prolonged maturation of the prefrontal cortex that leads to delayed emergence of cognitive control abilities in children. We briefly describe some of the functional effects of prolonged maturation of the prefrontal cortex. We then discuss how experience and environmental factors such as education and socioeconomic status may affect the development of cognitive control abilities, before turning to cognitive training interventions as a promising avenue for reducing this cognitive "gap" in both healthy children and those with developmental disabilities. Taken together, our hope is that by understanding the interaction of brain development, environmental factors, and the promise of cognitive interventions in children, this knowledge can help to both guide educational achievement and inform educational policy. PMID:23943551

  16. Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

    Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:17686739

  17. Cognitive functioning in complicated grief.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charles A; Reynolds, Charles F; Butters, Meryl; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Lebowitz, Barry D; Begley, Amy; Mauro, Christine; Shear, M Katherine

    2014-11-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is increasingly recognized as a debilitating outcome of bereavement. Given the intensity of the stressor, its chronicity, and its association with depression, it is important to know the impact CG may have on cognitive functioning. This exploratory and descriptive study examined global and domain-specific cognitive functioning in a help-seeking sample of individuals with CG (n = 335) compared to a separately ascertained control sample (n = 250). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Controlling for age, sex and education effects, CG participants had lower total MoCA, visuospatial and attention scores relative to control participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in the domains of executive function, language, memory or orientation. Age, sex, and education accounted for much of the variance in MoCA scores, while CG severity and chronicity accounted for a very small percentage of MoCA score variance. Major depression was not a significant predictor of MoCA scores. This study is consistent with previous work demonstrating lower attention and global cognitive performance in individuals with CG compared to control participants. This study newly identifies the visuospatial domain as a target for future studies investigating cognitive functioning in CG. PMID:25088285

  18. HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

  19. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  20. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  1. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  2. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

    2014-01-01

    The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

    2004-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

  4. Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. PMID:25380530

  5. Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?

    PubMed

    Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane; Perelman, Sergio

    2012-05-01

    This paper analyses the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using a longitudinal survey among older Americans, which allows controlling for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for social security as an instrument. The results highlight a significant negative effect of retirement on cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that reforms aimed at promoting labour force participation at an older age may not only ensure the sustainability of social security systems but may also create positive health externalities for older individuals. PMID:22538324

  6. Reasoning about childhood nutritional deficiencies by mothers in rural India: A cognitive analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malathi Sivaramakrishnan; Vimla L. Patel

    1993-01-01

    This study examines reasoning about the cause and treatment of three types of childhood protein energy malnutrition (PEM) by 108 mothers in rural South India. The mothers were interviewed and their explanations of the childhood nutritional problems were verbally recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using cognitive methods of analysis. The results indicated that knowledge and practices associated with traditional systems

  7. Long-Term Cognitive and Academic Effects of Early Childhood Education on Children in Poverty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steven Barnett

    1998-01-01

    It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and

  8. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  9. Cognitive and academic functions are impaired in children with all severities of sleep-disordered breathing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Bourke; Vicki Anderson; Joel S. C. Yang; Angela R. Jackman; Asawari Killedar; Gillian M. Nixon; Margot J. Davey; Adrian M. Walker; John Trinder; Rosemary S. C. Horne

    2011-01-01

    Study objectiveThe impact of the broad spectrum of SDB severity on cognition in childhood has not been well studied. This study investigated cognitive function in children with varying severities of SDB and control children with no history of SDB.

  10. Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was

  11. An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

  12. Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II, cognitive function, memory, psychosocial factors, longitudinal, SF-36 inserm-00390640,version1-3Jun2009

  13. Effects of Growth Hormone Substitution Therapy on Cognitive Functioning in Growth Hormone Deficient Patients: A Functional MRI Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucia I. Arwert; Dick J. Veltman; Jan Berend Deijen; P. Sytze van Dam; Madeleine L. Drent

    2006-01-01

    Patients with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) show impairments in mood and cognitive functioning which may resolve following GH substitution. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance of a memory task was used to assess the cerebral activity of such patients. Thirteen childhood-onset GHD patients (mean age 27.3 ± 6.9 years) were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

  14. Executive functioning of 4 children with hyperphenylalaninemia from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rachael; Sullivan, Karen A; Jones, Toni; Young, Ross McD; McGill, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia is a variant of phenylketonuria, and debate remains as to what, if any, active management of this condition is required to preserve cognitive function and psychological well-being. This study is the first to examine longitudinally the executive function (EF) in adolescents with hyperphenylalaninemia. Two sibling pairs with mild hyperphenylalaninemia underwent neuropsychological examination in early childhood and again in adolescence using EF tests that were highly sensitive to phenylalanine exposure. By early adolescence, none of the 4 children demonstrated EF impairment. The children demonstrated a typical developmental trajectory of EF from childhood to adolescence, given phenylalanine exposure consistent with their condition. PMID:25825540

  15. Childhood Cognitive Ability: Relationship to Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in India

    PubMed Central

    Veena, S R; Krishnaveni, G V; Srinivasan, K; Kurpad, A V; Muthayya, S; Hill, J C; Kiran, K N; Fall, C H D

    2012-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis To test the hypothesis that maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poorer cognitive ability in children born to mothers with GDM compared to children born to non-GDM mothers in India. Methods During 1997-98 maternal GDM status was assessed at 30±2 weeks of gestation. Between 2007-2008, at a mean age of 9.7 years, 515 children (32-offspring of GDM mothers (ODM’s); 483-offspring of non-GDM mothers (controls)) from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort underwent cognitive function assessment using tests from the Kaufman Assessment Battery for children-second edition and additional tests measuring learning, long-term storage/retrieval, short-term memory, reasoning, attention and concentration, visuo-spatial and verbal abilities. Results Compared to controls, ODM’S scored higher in tests for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (p=0.008), reasoning (p=0.02), verbal ability (p=0.01) and attention and concentration (p=0.003). In multiple regression, adjusted for the child’s age, sex, gestation, neonatal weight and head circumference, maternal age, parity, BMI, parent’s socio-economic status, education and rural/urban residence, this difference remained significant only for learning, long-term retrieval/storage (?=0.4SD (95% CI: 0.01, 0.75); p=0.042) and verbal ability (?=0.5SD (95% CI: 0.09, 0.83); p=0.015) and not with other test scores. Conclusions/interpretation In this population of healthy Indian children, there was no evidence of lower cognitive ability in ODM’s. In fact some cognitive scores were higher in ODM’s. PMID:20614102

  16. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  17. The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  18. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  19. Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

  20. A Review of Chronic and Acute Physical Activity Participation on Neuroelectric Measures of Brain Health and Cognition during Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hillman, Charles H.; Kamijo, Keita; Scudder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has detailed the beneficial relation of chronic participation in- and acute responses to- physical activity on aspects of cognition that underlie scholastic achievement. Here, we review the relevant neuroelectric findings on this beneficial relation in children, providing support for the influence of physical activity on specific cognitive processes that comprise academic performance. Method A review of studies examining physical activity and neuroelectric concomitants of cognition during childhood is described. When applicable, research involving adult populations is also described to better inform on this relationship in children. Results Collectively, the data support a beneficial relation of chronic and acute participation in physical activity to brain health and cognition. The results suggest more effective allocation of cognitive processes involved in stimulus engagement and action monitoring during tasks requiring variable amounts of cognitive control in children. Conclusion Physical activity may influence brain health and cognition in children, leading to enhanced scholastic performance and greater overall effective functioning across the lifespan. PMID:21281669

  1. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  2. Effects of Growth Hormone on Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith L. Ross

    2005-01-01

    Whether growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and\\/or treatment in childhood and adolescence influences cognitive outcome in children with GHD or girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is controversial. Previous studies also suggest that quality of life (QoL) is reduced in adults with GHD, particularly in the areas of social isolation and fatigue. Baseline QoL scores were significantly lower in patients with GHD

  3. Implications of Piagetian Theory for Early Childhood Industrial Arts: Cognitive Development. ACESIA Monograph 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Richard J.

    The two purposes of this paper are to provide the uninitiated reader with a skeletal overview of Piaget's cognitive development theory and to identify general educational implications, especially for the development of early childhood industrial arts (ECIA) programs. The "Piaget Primer" for ECIA educators overviews such topics as (1) the four…

  4. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  5. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  6. [Cognitive function in eating disorders].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuri

    2014-04-01

    Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

  7. Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Depression and Anxiety in Childhood: Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity and Rumination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah M; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Woods, Harriet; Lester, Kathryn J

    2014-11-11

    Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely considered together within a single study. Aims: The current study explored specific and shared associations between anxiety sensitivity subscales and rumination and anxiety and depressive symptoms in unselected children. Method: Multiple regression analyses explored to what extent specific self-reported anxiety sensitivity subscales (physical, social and mental concerns) and rumination predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms in 147 unselected children, aged 7-11 years. Results: Physical and social concern subscales of anxiety sensitivity were specifically associated with anxiety, whilst rumination was specifically associated with depressive symptoms. The mental concerns subscale of anxiety sensitivity was independently associated with both anxiety and depressive symptoms. These associations were only partially mediated by rumination. Conclusions: Anxiety and depression in young people are characterized by specific and shared cognitions. Evidence for shared and specific associations between the cognitive vulnerabilities of anxiety sensitivity and rumination, and anxiety and depression highlight the utility of transdiagnostic research and confirm that cognitive therapies may benefit from targeting cognitive concerns relating specifically to the patient's presenting symptoms. PMID:25384533

  8. Continuity in Social Cognition from Infancy to Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Mariko; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Wynn, Karen; vanMarle, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Research examining the development of social cognition has largely been divided into two areas: infant perception of intentional agents, and preschoolers' understanding of others' mental states and beliefs (theory of mind). Many researchers have suggested that there is continuity in social cognitive development such that the abilities observed in…

  9. Cognitive Tests in Early Childhood: Psychometric and Cultural Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Marian E.; Sando, Lara; Soles, Tamara Glen

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive assessment of young children contributes to high-stakes decisions because results are often used to determine eligibility for early intervention and special education. Previous reviews of cognitive measures for young children highlighted concerns regarding adequacy of standardization samples, steep item gradients, and insufficient floors…

  10. Multimedia Interactive Software for Childhood: Analysis of the Communicative Effectiveness, the Usability and the Function of the Iconic Code

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Largo Gemelli

    A multimedia interactive software devoted to childhood is presented here, together with some research aimed at investigating communicative effectiveness, usability and the function of iconic code. The software architecture is characterized by two elements: firstly, it concerns several cognitive and communicative abilities: narrative thinking, procedural thinking, logical thinking and the competences related to the use of different languages and media.

  11. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

  12. Measuring Executive Function Deficits in Male Delinquents Using the Cognitive Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enns, Richard A.; Reddon, John R.; Das, J. P.; Boukos, Helen

    2007-01-01

    Executive functions in 111 adolescent male offenders were examined using the Cognitive Assessment System (CAS). As hypothesized, mean scores for the sample were significantly lower than norms on CAS measures of Planning, Attention, and Successive Processing, and deficits remained for individuals with a childhood-onset when the sample was divided…

  13. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according

  14. Cognitive function in subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sarita; Sachan, Shivam; Misra, Vatsala; Varma, Anurag; Saxena, Piyush

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of cognitive function with subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly. Materials and Methods: It's a cross-sectional, case-control study of 103 patients (?65 years) who met the criteria for subclinical hypothyroidism. Similarly 103 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls were taken. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 were measured. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Folstein Mini Mental Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test. Results: Out of the 103 diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism cases, cognitive impairment (by MMSE) was found in 33 (30.9%) while it was present in only 15 (14.54%) out of 103 controls (P = 0.003), cognitive impairment (by CDT) was present in 32 patients (31.06%) out of 103 cases while it was present in 26 patients (25.24%) out of 103 controls (P > 0.05, insignificant). Mean TSH of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognitive impairment was 7.67 ± 1.22 mIU/liter and without cognitive impairment was 6.47 ± 0.98 mIU/liter (P value = 0.0001, significant) Conclusions: Prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to controls. Presence of cognitive impairment correlated with the level of TSH; as TSH increased cognitive function declined. PMID:25364675

  15. 9.85 Infant and Early Childhood Cognition, Fall 2005

    E-print Network

    Schulz, Laura

    This course is an introduction to cognitive development focusing on children's understanding of objects, agents, and causality. Students develop a critical understanding of experimental design and how developmental research ...

  16. Cognitive Styles: Implications for the Preparation of Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracho, Olivia N.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes research on the field dependence-independence (FDI) dimension of cognitive styles of teachers. Argues for the integration of FDI knowledge into teacher preparation programs and more attention to teachers' and students' cognitve styles. (DE)

  17. Cognitive functioning predicts survival in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Duff; James W. Mold; Yori Gidron

    2009-01-01

    Prior studies of aging have identified a number of predictors of survival, including performances on some cognitive-functioning tests. However, few studies have used a multidomain test battery to identify which specific cognitive abilities predict death. The current study examined the 12 subtests of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) to see which subtests predicted death in

  18. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  19. A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial of a Cognitive Remediation Program for Childhood Survivors of a Pediatric Malignancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Robert W.; Copeland, Donna R.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Katz, Ernest R.; Kazak, Anne E.; Noll, Robert B.; Patel, Sunita K.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.

    2008-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer whose malignancy and/or treatment involved the central nervous system may demonstrate a consistent pattern of neurocognitive deficits. The present study evaluated a randomized clinical trial of the Cognitive Remediation Program (CRP). Participants were 6- to 17-year-old survivors of childhood cancer (N = 161; 35%…

  20. Does Childhood Executive Function Predict Adolescent Functional Outcomes in Girls with ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan Miller; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of\\u000a measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes in adolescence. Measures of neuropsychological\\u000a functioning comprised the childhood predictors, with academic,

  1. Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonid Perlovsky

    2007-01-01

    The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

  2. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

  3. Aspects of Emotional and Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micari, Susan

    This paper examines the concept of friendship that is displayed by an 8-year-old homeless immigrant Taiwanese-Chinese child. Through the use of interviews with the child as well as observations, the author attempts to interpret the child's understanding of friendship according to the theories of cognitive, emotional, and moral development of…

  4. Clinically Significant Change After Cognitive Restructuring for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André T. Möller; Henry R. Steel

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the outcome of cognitive restructuring for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse in terms of clinically significant change. Twenty-six participants were assessed for depression, State anxiety, State anger, State guilt and self-esteem before and after 10 weekly sessions of group Rational-emotive behavior therapy, and at follow-up after 8 weeks. In contrast to a previous analysis of the

  5. Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Wang; P. J. Veugelers

    2008-01-01

    Summary Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized

  6. Early Childhood Nurse-Delivered Cognitive Behavioural Counselling for PostNatal Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Prendergast; Marie-Paule Austin

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aims were (1) to establish whether Early Childhood Nurses (ECNs) can be trained in a modified Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for Post-natal Depression (PND), and (2) to compare the outcome of women treated with this therapy with ‘ideal standard care’ using non-specific counselling by ECNs with no additional training.Method: Five ECNs were trained in CBT and supervised weekly.

  7. A Pilot Study of Modified Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Traumatic Grief (CBT-CTG)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUDITH A. COHEN; ANTHONY P. MANNARINO; VIRGINIA R. STARON

    2006-01-01

    ObjectiveThis pilot study evaluated outcomes for a modified 12-session protocol of cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CBT-CTG) conducted between March 2004 and October 2005. CTG is an emerging condition characterized by a combination of posttraumatic stress and unresolved grief symptoms. This two-module treatment model consisting of sequential trauma- and grief-focused components was shortened from a previously presented 16-session protocol.

  8. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2011-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

  9. The Negative Association of Childhood Obesity to Cognitive Control of Action Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Khan, Naiman A.; Raine, Lauren B.; Scudder, Mark R.; Drollette, Eric S.; Evans, Ellen M.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    The global epidemic of childhood obesity has become a major public health concern. Yet, evidence regarding the association between childhood obesity and cognitive health has remained scarce. This study examined the relationship between obesity and cognitive control using neuroelectric and behavioral measures of action monitoring in preadolescent children. Healthy weight and obese children performed compatible and incompatible stimulus–response conditions of a modified flanker task, while task performance and the error-related negativity (ERN) were assessed. Analyses revealed that obese children exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) relative to healthy weight children for the incompatible condition, whereas no such difference was observed for the compatible condition. Further, obese children had smaller ERN amplitude relative to healthy weight children with lower post-error response accuracy. In addition, healthy weight children maintained post-error response accuracy between the compatible and incompatible conditions with decreased ERN amplitude in the incompatible condition, whereas obese children exhibited lower post-error response accuracy for the incompatible relative to the compatible condition with no change in ERN amplitude between the compatibility conditions. These results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with a decreased ability to modulate the cognitive control network, involving the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which supports action monitoring. PMID:23146965

  10. Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Metzler, Megan J; Saucier, Deborah M; Metz, Gerlinde A

    2013-01-01

    Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks. PMID:23423702

  11. Pretreatment cognitive deficits and treatment effects on attention in childhood absence epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Masur, David; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Shinnar, Ruth C.; Clark, Peggy; Wang, Jichuan; Weiss, Erica F.; Hirtz, Deborah G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the neurocognitive deficits associated with newly diagnosed untreated childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), develop a model describing the factorial structure of items measuring academic achievement and 3 neuropsychological constructs, and determine short-term differential neuropsychological effects on attention among ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Methods: Subjects with newly diagnosed CAE entering a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial had neuropsychological testing including assessments of general intellectual functioning, attention, memory, executive function, and achievement. Attention was reassessed at the week 16–20 visit. Results: At study entry, 36% of the cohort exhibited attention deficits despite otherwise intact neurocognitive functioning. Structural equation modeling of baseline neuropsychological data revealed a direct sequential effect among attention, memory, executive function, and academic achievement. At the week 16–20 visit, attention deficits persisted even if seizure freedom was attained. More subjects receiving valproic acid (49%) had attention deficits than subjects receiving ethosuximide (32%) or lamotrigine (24%) (p = 0.0006). Parental assessment did not reliably detect attention deficits before or after treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Children with CAE have a high rate of pretreatment attentional deficits that persist despite seizure freedom. Rates are disproportionately higher for valproic acid treatment compared with ethosuximide or lamotrigine. Parents do not recognize these attentional deficits. These deficits present a threat to academic achievement. Vigilant cognitive and behavioral assessment of these children is warranted. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that valproic acid is associated with more significant attentional dysfunction than ethosuximide or lamotrigine in children with newly diagnosed CAE. PMID:24089388

  12. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  13. Childhood Parental Loss and Adult Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function

    PubMed Central

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function. PMID:18339361

  14. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenna R. Rinsky; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing

  15. Fruits, vegetables, 100% juices, and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Lamport, Daniel J; Saunders, Caroline; Butler, Laurie T; Spencer, Jeremy Pe

    2014-12-01

    Although reviews of the association between polyphenol intake and cognition exist, research examining the cognitive effects of fruit, vegetable, and juice consumption across epidemiological and intervention studies has not been previously examined. For the present review, critical inclusion criteria were human participants, a measure of fruit, vegetable, or 100% juice consumption, an objective measure of cognitive function, and a clinical diagnosis of neuropsychological disease. Studies were excluded if consumption of fruits, vegetables, or juice was not assessed in isolation from other food groups, or if there was no statistical control for education or IQ. Seventeen of 19 epidemiological studies and 3 of 6 intervention studies reported significant benefits of fruit, vegetable, or juice consumption for cognitive performance. The data suggest that chronic consumption of fruits, vegetables, and juices is beneficial for cognition in healthy older adults. The limited data from acute interventions indicate that consumption of fruit juices can have immediate benefits for memory function in adults with mild cognitive impairment; however, as of yet, acute benefits have not been observed in healthy adults. Conclusions regarding an optimum dietary intake for fruits, vegetables, and juices are difficult to quantify because of substantial heterogeneity in the categorization of consumption of these foods. PMID:25399992

  16. Nutraceutical Intervention Improves Older Adults' Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Kerri S.; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L.; Sanberg, Cyndy D.; McEvoy, Cathy L.; Sanberg, Paul R.; Shytle, R. Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65–85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains—episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

  17. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2012-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

  18. An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach

    E-print Network

    Cook, Robert

    An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition of the ontology. The model is built on functional needs of animals, relating it to the existing literature

  19. Social cognitive maternal-mediated nutritional correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs of environment, emotional coping, expectations, self-control, and self-efficacy predicted child fruit and vegetable consumption and sugar-free beverage intake. Instrumentation comprised three stages of data collection and analysis. Stage 1 included item generation, face and content validity by a panel of six experts, and readability by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level tests. Stage 2 assessed stability of the theoretical constructs using the test-retest procedure with 30 participants. Structural equation modeling was used during Stage 3 to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and to establish predictive validity of the models. A total of 224 respondents participated in this study. Maternal-facilitated home environment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of child fruit and vegetable consumption while maternal-mediated home environment and emotional coping were significant predictors of child sugar-free beverage intake. PMID:25856808

  20. Carotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a,

    E-print Network

    Nemeth, Dezso

    largely remain unidentified. It is unclear whether a cognitive assessment may facilitate decisions, and on the influence of carotid interventions on cognitive functioning. 2. Assessment of cognitive funCarotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a, , Dezso Nemeth b , Tamas Sefcsik b

  1. Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Marie McHugh O’Leary; Paula Barrett; Krister W. Fjermestad

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13–24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment,

  2. Effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschools when used to address childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    LaSala, Kathleen Bradshaw; Abbot Eng, CaSandra Rene'

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effectiveness of a child's fable on the cognition of preschoolers when used to address childhood obesity. A single group, pretest/posttest design was used with 57 preschool children. Analysis of variance compared pre-existing differences between the four classes with respect to pre-test scores. A repeated measures t-test analyzed changes in scores as a result of the intervention. Following the fable intervention, students showed a significant difference (0.5) between their pre- and post-test scores, indicating this method to an effective learning strategy in this setting and age population. PMID:25150619

  3. The long-term cognitive consequences of early childhood malnutrition: the case of famine in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ampaabeng, Samuel K; Tan, Chih Ming

    2013-12-01

    We examine the role of early childhood health in human capital accumulation. Using a unique data set from Ghana with comprehensive information on individual, family, community, school quality characteristics and a direct measure of intelligence together with test scores, we examine the long-term cognitive effects of the 1983 famine on survivors. We show that differences in intelligence test scores can be robustly explained by the differential impact of the famine in different parts of the country and the impacts are most severe for children under two years of age during the famine. We also account for model uncertainty by using Bayesian Model Averaging. PMID:24103497

  4. The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function

    E-print Network

    Jornsten, Rebecka

    The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24.D., Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University Title and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition

  5. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2014-09-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development-the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem-solving strategies-are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 7-9-year-old children revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Longitudinal improvements in retrieval-strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval-strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood and was associated with decreased activation but more stable interproblem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  6. Phytoestrogens and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef

    2014-03-01

    Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046

  7. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  8. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  9. Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: Cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Tony T.; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Selby, Edward A.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive “scars” that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

  10. Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Selby, Edward A; Beevers, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive 'scars' that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA and cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

  11. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  12. DHEA and cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Colizzi, Elena; Provenzano, Sandra; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Caffarra, Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate conjugate (DHEAS) steadily decrease with age by 10% per decade reaching a nadir after the age of 80. Both DHEA and DHEAS (DHEA/S) exert many biological activities in different tissues and organs. In particular, DHEA and DHEAS are produced de novo in the brain, hence their classification as neurosteroids. In humans, the brain-to-plasma ratios for DHEA and DHEAS are 4-6.5 and 8.5, respectively, indicating a specific neuroendocrine role for these hormones. DHEA/S stimulates neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion. Together with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glucocorticoid properties, it has been hypothesized a neuroprotective effect for DHEA/S. We conducted an accurate research of the literature using PubMed. In the period of time between 1994 and 2013, we selected the observational human studies testing the relationship between DHEA/S and cognitive function in both sexes. The studies are presented according to the cross-sectional and longitudinal design and to the positive or neutral effects on different domains of cognitive function. We also analysed the Clinical Trials, available in the literature, having cognitive domains as the main or secondary outcome. Although the cross-sectional evidence of a positive association between DHEA/S and cognitive function, longitudinal studies and RCTs using DHEA oral treatment (50mg/day) in normal or demented adult-older subjects, have produced conflicting and inconsistent results. In summary, the current data do not provide clear evidence for the usefulness of DHEA treatment to improve cognitive function in adult-older subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24794824

  13. Abnormal cortisol awakening response predicts worse cognitive function in patients with first-episode psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Aas, M.; Dazzan, P.; Mondelli, V.; Toulopoulou, T.; Reichenberg, A.; Di Forti, M.; Fisher, H. L.; Handley, R.; Hepgul, N.; Marques, T.; Miorelli, A.; Taylor, H.; Russo, M.; Wiffen, B.; Papadopoulos, A.; Aitchison, K. J.; Morgan, C.; Murray, R. M.; Pariante, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, particularly in memory and executive function, is a core feature of psychosis. Moreover, psychosis is characterized by a more prominent history of stress exposure, and by dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis. In turn, stress exposure and abnormal levels of the main HPA axis hormone cortisol are associated with cognitive impairments in a variety of clinical and experimental samples; however, this association has never been examined in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Method In this study, 30 FEP patients and 26 controls completed assessment of the HPA axis (cortisol awakening response and cortisol levels during the day), perceived stress, recent life events, history of childhood trauma, and cognitive function. The neuropsychological battery comprised general cognitive function, verbal and non-verbal memory, executive function, perception, visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and general knowledge. Results Patients performed significantly worse on all cognitive domains compared to controls. In patients only, a more blunted cortisol awakening response (that is, more abnormal) was associated with a more severe deficit in verbal memory and processing speed. In controls only, higher levels of perceived stress and more recent life events were associated with a worse performance in executive function and perception and visuospatial abilities. Conclusions These data support a role for the HPA axis, as measured by cortisol awakening response, in modulating cognitive function in patients with psychosis; however, this association does not seem to be related to the increased exposure to psychosocial stressors described in these patients. PMID:20529412

  14. Family stress and adolescents' cognitive functioning: sleep as a protective factor.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Tu, Kelly M; Erath, Stephen A; Buckhalt, Joseph A

    2014-12-01

    We examined 2 sleep-wake parameters as moderators of the associations between exposure to family stressors and adolescent cognitive functioning. Participants were 252 school-recruited adolescents (M = 15.79 years; 66% European American, 34% African American). Youths reported on 3 dimensions of family stress: marital conflict, harsh parenting, and parental psychological control. Cognitive functioning was indexed through performance on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Sleep minutes and efficiency were measured objectively using actigraphy. Toward identifying unique effects, path models controlled for 2 family stress variables while estimating the third. Analyses revealed that sleep efficiency moderated the associations between negative parenting (harsh parenting and parental psychological control) and adolescents' cognitive functioning. The highest level of cognitive performance was predicted for adolescents with higher levels of sleep efficiency in conjunction with lower levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control. The effects of sleep were more pronounced at lower levels of negative parenting, in which adolescents with higher sleep efficiency performed better than their counterparts with poorer sleep. At higher levels of either harsh parenting or psychological control, similar levels of cognitive performance were observed regardless of sleep. Results are discussed in comparison with other recent studies on interrelations among family stress, sleep, and cognitive performance in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25329625

  15. Differential Associations Between Alcohol Expectancies and Adolescent Alcohol Use as a Function of Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Sarah L.; Harty, Seth C.; Pelham, William E.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Molina, Brooke S. G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for experiencing alcohol-related problems. However, previous research has not examined alcohol expectancies, a widely studied risk factor for alcohol use, in this population. The current study examined mean differences in alcohol expectancies for adolescents with and without a history of childhood ADHD. The differential association between alcohol expectancies and alcohol use 1 year later as a function of ADHD status was also examined. Method: Two hundred and eighty-six adolescents ages 11–17 (ADHD: n = 165; non-ADHD: n = 121) reported their alcohol expectancies and alcohol use over a 1-year period as part of the Pittsburgh ADHD Longitudinal Study. Results: Individuals with a history of ADHD had lower mean levels of alcohol expectancies compared with individuals without ADHD. Specifically, at Time 1, individuals with ADHD reported lower levels of sociability, cognitive and behavioral impairment, and liquid courage expectancies than individuals without ADHD. Further, the association between negative alcohol expectancies at Time 1 and alcohol use at Time 2 differed for individuals with and without a history of ADHD. Conclusions: These findings highlight the possibility that individuals with a history of ADHD may rely less on explicit cognitions, such as alcohol expectancies, when making decisions to drink alcohol. This is consistent with the dual process model of alcohol cognitions that has posited that individuals with decreased executive control may rely more on implicit cognitions about alcohol. PMID:24411806

  16. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  17. Developmental Differences in the Structure of Executive Function in Middle Childhood and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Han, Yan; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Wang, Tengfei; Ren, Xuezhu; Li, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been argued that the structure of executive function (EF) may change developmentally, there is little empirical research to examine this view in middle childhood and adolescence. The main objective of this study was to examine developmental changes in the component structure of EF in a large sample (N?=?457) of 7–15 year olds. Participants completed batteries of tasks that measured three components of EF: updating working memory (UWM), inhibition, and shifting. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to test five alternative models in 7–9 year olds, 10–12 year olds, and 13–15 year olds. The results of CFA showed that a single-factor EF model best explained EF performance in 7–9-year-old and 10–12-year-old groups, namely unitary EF, though this single factor explained different amounts of variance at these two ages. In contrast, a three-factor model that included UWM, inhibition, and shifting best accounted for the data from 13–15 year olds, namely diverse EF. In sum, during middle childhood, putative measures of UWM, inhibition, and shifting may rely on similar underlying cognitive processes. Importantly, our findings suggest that developmental dissociations in these three EF components do not emerge until children transition into adolescence. These findings provided empirical evidence for the development of EF structure which progressed from unity to diversity during middle childhood and adolescence. PMID:24204957

  18. Cognitive estimations as a measure of executive dysfunction in childhood epilepsy.

    PubMed

    MacAllister, William S; Vasserman, Marsha; Coulehan, Kelly; Hall, Ari F; Bender, H Allison

    2014-11-11

    Children and adolescents with epilepsy are known to demonstrate executive function deficits. Despite prior work that has shown that cognitive estimation tasks are sensitive to executive dysfunction in children, such tasks have not been studied in children with epilepsy. This is particularly important given the fact that executive tasks have heretofore shown poor ecological validity, and it has been speculated that estimation tasks may show stronger ecological validity than other executive tests. One hundred and thirteen clinically referred children and adolescents with epilepsy were included. The Biber Cognitive Estimations Test was sensitive to cognitive dysfunction, with about half showing impairments on this task in comparison to age-matched normative data; the most frequently impaired subscales were quantity estimation and time estimation. Moreover, the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test showed moderate correlations with not only overall intellectual functions and academic achievement but also other commonly administered tests of executive functions, including digit span, Trailmaking, and the Tower of London but not with the contingency naming test. Cognitive estimations were also modestly correlated with age of epilepsy onset but not other epilepsy-severity variables such as number of antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs) or seizure frequency. Unfortunately, the hypothesis that the Biber Cognitive Estimation Test would show strong ecological validity was not supported, as it showed weak relations with parent-reported executive function deficits. The significance and limitations of this investigation are discussed. PMID:25387349

  19. Measuring cognitive function in mdd: emerging assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  1. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  2. Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

  3. [Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].

    PubMed

    Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

  4. A Longitudinal Intergenerational Analysis of Executive Functions During Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Wang, Zhe; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of executive function (EF) in both clinical and educational contexts, the etiology of individual differences in early childhood EF remains poorly understood. This study provides the first longitudinal intergenerational analysis of mother-child EF associations during early childhood. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Mother and child EF were modestly correlated by 24 months of age and this association was stable through 48 months. Importantly, maternal-child EF associations were still robust after controlling for verbal ability (potential indicator of verbal/crystallized intelligence) and maternal education (correlate of socioeconomic status and verbal intelligence). Potential implications of these findings as well as underlying mechanisms of the maternal-child EF association (gene-environment interplay) are discussed. PMID:25284715

  5. Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function

    E-print Network

    Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learn- ing Test. Functional of cognitive paradigms that assess Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M

  6. Retinal Vascular Fractal Dimension, Childhood IQ, and Cognitive Ability in Old Age: The Lothian Birth Cohort Study 1936

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Adele M.; MacGillivray, Thomas J.; Henderson, Ross D.; Ilzina, Lasma; Dhillon, Baljean; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cerebral microvascular disease is associated with dementia. Differences in the topography of the retinal vascular network may be a marker for cerebrovascular disease. The association between cerebral microvascular state and non-pathological cognitive ageing is less clear, particularly because studies are rarely able to adjust for pre-morbid cognitive ability level. We measured retinal vascular fractal dimension (Df) as a potential marker of cerebral microvascular disease. We examined the extent to which it contributes to differences in non-pathological cognitive ability in old age, after adjusting for childhood mental ability. Methods Participants from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 Study (LBC1936) had cognitive ability assessments and retinal photographs taken of both eyes aged around 73 years (n = 648). IQ scores were available from childhood. Retinal vascular Df was calculated with monofractal and multifractal analysis, performed on custom-written software. Multiple regression models were applied to determine associations between retinal vascular Df and general cognitive ability (g), processing speed, and memory. Results Only three out of 24 comparisons (two eyes × four Df parameters × three cognitive measures) were found to be significant. This is little more than would be expected by chance. No single association was verified by an equivalent association in the contralateral eye. Conclusions The results show little evidence that fractal measures of retinal vascular differences are associated with non-pathological cognitive ageing. PMID:25816017

  7. Can Intensive Early Childhood Intervention Programs Eliminate Income-Based Cognitive and Achievement Gaps?

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Greg J.; Sojourner, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    How much of the income-based gaps in cognitive ability and academic achievement could be closed by a two-year, center-based early childhood education intervention? Data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), which randomly assigned treatment to low-birth-weight children from both higher- and low-income families between ages one and three, shows much larger impacts among low-than higher-income children. Projecting IHDP impacts to the U.S. population’s IQ and achievement trajectories suggests that such a program offered to low-income children would essentially eliminate the income-based gap at age three and between a third and three-quarters of the age five and age eight gaps. PMID:25620809

  8. Life Course Socioeconomic Position and Mid-Late Life Cognitive Function in Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitive function observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries. PMID:24598045

  9. Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.

    PubMed

    Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

  10. Cognitive correlates of gray matter abnormalities in adolescent siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wagshal, Dana; Knowlton, Barbara Jean; Cohen, Jessica Rachel; Bookheimer, Susan Yost; Bilder, Robert Martin; Fernandez, Vindia Gisela; Asarnow, Robert Franklin

    2015-02-01

    Patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) display widespread gray matter (GM) structural brain abnormalities. Healthy siblings of COS patients share some of these structural abnormalities, suggesting that GM abnormalities are endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Another possible endophenotype for schizophrenia that has been relatively unexplored is corticostriatal dysfunction. The corticostriatal system plays an important role in skill learning. Our previous studies have demonstrated corticostriatal dysfunction in COS siblings with a profound skill learning deficit and abnormal pattern of brain activation during skill learning. This study investigated whether structural abnormalities measured using volumetric brain morphometry (VBM) were present in siblings of COS patients and whether these were related to deficits in cognitive skill learning. Results revealed smaller GM volume in COS siblings relative to controls in a number of regions, including occipital, parietal, and subcortical regions including the striatum, and greater GM volume relative to controls in several subcortical regions. Volume in the right superior frontal gyrus and cerebellum were related to performance differences between groups on the weather prediction task, a measure of cognitive skill learning. Our results support the idea that corticostriatal and cerebellar impairment in unaffected siblings of COS patients are behaviorally relevant and may reflect genetic risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25541139

  11. Cognitive correlates of gray matter abnormalities in adolescent siblings of patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wagshal, Dana; Knowlton, Barbara Jean; Cohen, Jessica Rachel; Bookheimer, Susan Yost; Bilder, Robert Martin; Fernandez, Vindia Gisela; Asarnow, Robert Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Patients with childhood onset schizophrenia (COS) display widespread gray matter (GM) structural brain abnormalities. Healthy siblings of COS patients share some of these structural abnormalities, suggesting that GM abnormalities are endophenotypes for schizophrenia. Another possible endophenotype for schizophrenia that has been relatively unexplored is corticostriatal dysfunction. The corticostriatal system plays an important role in skill learning. Our previous studies have demonstrated corticostriatal dysfunction in COS siblings with a profound skill learning deficit and abnormal pattern of brain activation during skill learning. This study investigated whether structural abnormalities measured using volumetric brain morphometry (VBM) were present in siblings of COS patients and whether these were related to deficits in cognitive skill learning. Results revealed smaller GM volume in COS siblings relative to controls in a number of regions, including occipital, parietal, and subcortical regions including the striatum, and greater GM volume relative to controls in several subcortical regions. Volume in the right superior frontal gyrus and cerebellum were related to performance differences between groups on the weather prediction task, a measure of cognitive skill learning. Our results support the idea that corticostriatal and cerebellar impairment in unaffected siblings of COS patients are behaviorally relevant and may reflect genetic risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25541139

  12. Early Childhood Practitioner Involvement in Functional Behavioral Assessment and Function-Based Interventions: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Brenna K.; Drogan, Robin R.; Janney, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers analyzed studies published from 1990 to 2012 to determine early childhood practitioner involvement in functional behavioral assessment (FBA) and function-based behavioral intervention plans (BIP) for children with challenging behavior, age 6 and younger. Coding of 30 studies included practitioner involvement in FBA and BIP processes,…

  13. Cognitive Improvement Associated with Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, R. Dennis; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the results of detailed neuropsychological testing done before and during drug-induced remission of depressive illness in 11 children (ages 6-13 years), demonstrating significant improvement in cognitive function, especially that of the right hemisphere and frontal lobes. (Author/SJL)

  14. Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800

  15. Primed to be inflexible: the influence of set size on cognitive flexibility during childhood

    PubMed Central

    FitzGibbon, Lily; Cragg, Lucy; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human cognition is cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt thoughts and behaviors according to changing task demands. Previous research has suggested that the number of different exemplars that must be processed within a task (the set size) can influence an individual's ability to switch flexibly between different tasks. This paper provides evidence that when tasks have a small set size, children's cognitive flexibility is impaired compared to when tasks have a large set size. This paper also offers insights into the mechanism by which this effect comes about. Understanding how set size interacts with task-switching informs the debate regarding the relative contributions of bottom-up priming and top-down control processes in the development of cognitive flexibility. We tested two accounts for the relationship between set size and cognitive flexibility: the (bottom-up) Stimulus-Task Priming account and the (top-down) Rule Representation account. Our findings offered support for the Stimulus-Task Priming account, but not for the Rule Representation account. They suggest that children are susceptible to bottom-up priming caused by stimulus repetition, and that this priming can impair their ability to switch between tasks. These findings make important theoretical and practical contributions to the executive function literature: theoretically, they show that the basic features of a task exert a significant influence on children's ability to flexibly shift between tasks through bottom-up priming effects. Practically, they suggest that children's cognitive flexibility may have been underestimated relative to adults', as paradigms used with children typically have a smaller set size than those used with adults. These findings also have applications in education, where they have the potential to inform teaching in key areas where cognitive flexibility is required, such as mathematics and literacy. PMID:24575074

  16. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annmarie McDonagh; Matthew Friedman; Gregory McHugo; Julian Ford; Anjana Sengupta; Kim Mueser; Christine Carney Demment; Debra Fournier; Paula P. Schnurr; Monica Descamps

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in decreasing PTSD and related symptoms.

  17. Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

  18. Sexual function in women with a history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ellids Kristensen; Marianne Lau

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated sexual function in women with a history of severe intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the correlation between sexual problems and the severity of CSA, adult support during childhood and current psychiatric symptoms. The sample consisted of 158 women who subsequently began specialized group psychotherapy for CSA sequellae. Clinical interview and questionnaires (Present Sexual Function, Sexual and

  19. Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

    Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

  20. Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

  1. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  2. Trait Routinization, Functional and Cognitive Status in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zisberg, Anna; Zysberg, Leehu; Young, Heather M.; Schepp, Karen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the associations between trait routinization and functional and cognitive as well as demographic indicators. A sample of American older adults living independently in a retirement community (n = 80) were assessed regarding their functional status, cognitive status, and preference for routine. Robust associations between…

  3. Growth and cognitive function of Indonesian children: Zero-inflated proportion models.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Yin Bun

    2006-09-15

    This is a study of the cognitive function of Indonesian children. The cognitive function assessment consisted of 17 items and the number of correct answers a child could score therefore ranged between 0 and 17. In this upper bounded situation, a zero-inflated binomial model and a zero-inflated beta-binomial model were considered. The purpose of the analysis was to examine whether the growth status in infancy and at the age of 7 years was related to the cognitive function of the children. The four regression models proposed by Lucas, Fewtrell and Cole were fitted, i.e. an 'early model' relating early body size to the outcome, a 'later model' relating later body size to the outcome, a 'combined model' including both early and later anthropometry measures, and an 'interaction model' further including an interaction term calculated as the product of early and later body size. It was found that social variables predicted the probability of zero-inflation, while weight-for-age at 7 years predicted the proportion of correct answers. The results do not support the existence of a critical window of cognitive development in infancy. Rather they suggest that it is the lack of catch-up growth after poor growth in infancy that is hazardous, and that childhood weight gain is influential regardless of weight in infancy. PMID:16345028

  4. Cerebrovascular markers in lowered cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Mataró, Maria; Soriano-Raya, Juan José; López-Olóriz, Jorge; Miralbell, Júlia; Dacosta-Aguayo, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of age-related cognitive decline and dementia. The identification of cognitive-related cerebrovascular markers is crucial in the early detection of individuals at high risk of cognitive decline. In vivo markers of CVD can help to characterize the underlying pathology, stage the progression of the disease, as well as identify and monitor candidates who could benefit from preventive interventions. We review the most common cerebrovascular markers of cognitive decline in subclinical individuals. These include neuroimaging, sonographic, and blood markers. PMID:25190627

  5. The effects of exercise under hypoxia on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15). Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time) and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions. PMID:23675496

  6. Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

  7. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  8. Childhood Trauma and Adult Interpersonal Functioning: A Study Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method (CCRT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drapeau, M.; Perry, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the long-term correlates of childhood trauma in regard to interpersonal functioning in adulthood. Method: One hundred and nineteen (N=119) subjects from the Austen Riggs Follow-along Study were included in the study. The Traumatic Antecedent Interview scoring method was used to assess 10 types of childhood

  9. Relation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    a history of physical or sexual abuse to be associated with a broad array of physical symptoms and medicalRelation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning measures of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), risky early family environment (RF), adult psychosocial

  10. Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

  11. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  12. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  13. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  14. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  15. Minimal effects of severe depression on cognitive functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred S. Friedman

    1964-01-01

    Severe and psychotic depression which grossly disables the patient socially, could be expected to impair his cognitive-perceptual functioning significantly, and is generally considered to do so. To test this hypothesis, 55 depressives and 65 normals were matched for age, sex, education, vocabulary score, and nativity, and were tested on 33 cognitive, perceptual, and psychomotor tests, yielding 82 test scores. The

  16. The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ihab Hajjar; Vera Novak

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive outcomes in elderly adults has implications for global health care. Both hypertension and hypotension affect brain perfusion and worsen cognitive outcomes. The presence of hypertension and other vascular risk factors has been associated with decreased performance in executive function and attention tests. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring

  17. Cognitive functioning, weight change and therapy in anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Green; Nicola A. Elliman; Anthony Wakeling; Peter J. Rogers

    1996-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with impairments in cognitive function which have been hypothesized to be fundamentally attentional in nature. The current study investigated whether therapy and weight gain affect these impairments. A group of anorexics (N = 12) completed a battery of cognitive performance tasks and self-report measures of psychopathology on three occasions, over the course of 12 weeks of

  18. Effects of Donepezil on Cognitive Functioning in Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitive functioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…

  19. Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials. PMID:24653952

  20. The association of healthful diets and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Allegro, Deanne; Stave, Emily

    2014-01-01

    The association of diet with mild cognitive impairment has not been extensively studied. Consumption of a healthful diet may help to attenuate age-related decline in older adults. Published studies have suggested that greater adherence to a Mediterranean-style dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer's disease and with a slower rate of cognitive decline with age. However, published findings are inconsistent. The discrepancies most likely can be explained by the variations in both dietary and cognitive methodologies. It is not clear how diet contributes to the development of neurocognitive changes with age. This review will update available knowledge on the relationship between adherence to healthful diets and cognition and document the need for researchers to adopt more coherent and uniform methodology to allow for better quantification of the association of diet with cognitive function. There appears to be a relationship between diet and cognition. PMID:24827060

  1. Carotid Atherosclerosis and 10-year Changes in Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Acher, Charles W; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Chappell, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid atherosclerosis has been suggested to be involved in cognitive decline. Methods The Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study is a longitudinal study of aging among Beaver Dam residents, WI. In 1998–2000, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were measured by ultrasound; cognitive function was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Follow-up examinations were conducted in 2003–2005 and 2009–2010. Incidence of cognitive impairment was defined as a MMSE score <24 or reported physician-diagnosed dementia during the follow-up. In the last examination, five additional cognitive tests were added. The associations of carotid atherosclerosis with incident cognitive impairment and cognitive test performance ten years later were evaluated. Results A total of 1651 participants (mean age 66.8 years, 41% men) without cognitive impairment at baseline were included in the incidence analysis. IMT was associated with incidence of cognitive impairment after multiple adjustments (hazard ratio: 1.09, p=0.02 for each 0.1 mm increase in IMT). A total of 1311 participants with atherosclerosis data at baseline had the additional cognitive tests 10 years later. Larger IMT was associated with longer time to complete the Trail-Making Test-part B after multiple adjustments (0.1 mm IMT: 2.3 seconds longer, p=0.02). Plaque was not associated with incident cognitive impairment or cognitive test performance 10 years later. Conclusions In this population-based longitudinal study, carotid IMT was associated with a higher risk of developing cognitive impairment during the 10-year follow-up, and was associated with poorer performance in a test of executive function 10 years later. PMID:22854188

  2. Dance and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease 

    E-print Network

    Michalska, Beata

    2012-11-28

    Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly accompanied by reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive decline which decreases participation in activities of daily living. Moreover, worsened motor ...

  3. Impact of fMRI Environment on Cognitive Function 

    E-print Network

    Sim, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an increasingly important tool in psychological research, but its reliability is somewhat undermined by concerns about the fMRI environment’s impact on cognition. The unusual scanner environment...

  4. Monitoring cognitive functioning: psychometric properties of the brief test of adult cognition by telephone.

    PubMed

    Lachman, Margie E; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Tun, Patricia A; Weaver, Suzanne L

    2014-08-01

    Assessment of cognitive functioning is an important component of telephone surveys of health. Previous cognitive telephone batteries have been limited in scope with a primary focus on dementia screening. The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT) assesses multiple dimensions central for effective functioning across adulthood: episodic memory, working memory, reasoning, verbal fluency, and executive function. The BTACT is the first instrument that includes measures of processing speed, reaction time, and task-switching/inhibitory control for use over the telephone. We administered the battery to a national sample (N = 4,268), age 32 to 84 years, from the study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) and examined age, education, and sex differences; reliability; and factor structure. We found good evidence for construct validity with a subsample tested in person. Implications of the findings are considered for efficient neuropsychological assessment and monitoring changes in cognitive aging, for clinical and research applications by telephone or in person. PMID:24322011

  5. Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

    2014-09-01

    Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411

  6. Cognitive and symptomatic predictors of functional disability in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Shamsi, Syed; Lau, Adam; Lencz, Todd; Burdick, Katherine E.; DeRosse, Pamela; Brenner, Ron; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Neurocognition and negative symptoms play a major role in predicting functional outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Few studies have assessed the relationship between functional outcomes and the MATRICS consensus cognition battery (MCCB), which will be central to future clinical trials of cognitive enhancing agents. Aims To assess the role of individual MCCB domains on functional outcomes. Method 185 stable outpatients with schizophrenia were enrolled and assessed with the MCCB, Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II) and Multidimensional Scale for Independent Functioning (MSIF), along with BPRS and SANS. Results We found significant relationships between MCCB neurocognitive domain scores, negative symptoms and aspects of functional outcome in schizophrenia. Specifically, we found that work/education functioning is predicted by working memory performance and negative symptoms; residential status (independent living) is predicted by verbal memory scores; and social functioning is predicted by social cognition, attention and negative symptoms. We also found that negative symptom severity was not related to residential status, even though it demonstrated the predicted associations to work and social functioning. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess cognition and functional outcomes using MCCB, SAS II and MSIF. Our results extend prior work and help provide more data on the relationships between cognition, symptoms and functional outcome using “real world” measures. PMID:20828991

  7. Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers; Linda Kok; Diederick E. Grobbee; Edward H. F. de Haan; Yvonne T. van der Schouw

    2007-01-01

    Background. Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function; we explored the possible influence of dietary phytoestrogens on this decline. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 301 Dutch women aged 60-75 years. Dietary isoflavone and lignan intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire covering habitual diet in the year preceding enrolment. The endpoints were cognitive function measured in

  8. Identifying similarities in cognitive subtest functional requirements: An empirical approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig L. Frisby; Jason R. Parkin

    2007-01-01

    In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational\\/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually administered scales of cognitive ability (WISC-IV, WPPSI-III, SB-V, WJ-III, CAS, and UNIT) were typed on index cards. Forty-eight

  9. The cerebellum and cognition: evidence from functional imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Stoodley, Catherine J

    2012-06-01

    Evidence for a role of the human cerebellum in cognitive functions comes from anatomical, clinical and neuroimaging data. Functional neuroimaging reveals cerebellar activation during a variety of cognitive tasks, including language, visual-spatial, executive, and working memory processes. It is important to note that overt movement is not a prerequisite for cerebellar activation: the cerebellum is engaged during conditions which either control for motor output or do not involve motor responses. Resting-state functional connectivity data reveal that, in addition to networks underlying motor control, the cerebellum is part of "cognitive" networks with prefrontal and parietal association cortices. Consistent with these findings, regional differences in activation patterns within the cerebellum are evident depending on the task demands, suggesting that the cerebellum can be broadly divided into functional regions based on the patterns of anatomical connectivity between different regions of the cerebellum and sensorimotor and association areas of the cerebral cortex. However, the distinct contribution of the cerebellum to cognitive tasks is not clear. Here, the functional neuroimaging evidence for cerebellar involvement in cognitive functions is reviewed and related to hypotheses as to why the cerebellum is active during such tasks. Identifying the precise role of the cerebellum in cognition-as well as the mechanism by which the cerebellum modulates performance during a wide range of tasks-remains a challenge for future investigations. PMID:21373864

  10. The total burden of rare, non-synonymous exome genetic variants is not associated with childhood or late-life cognitive ability

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E.; Penke, Lars; Davies, Gail; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J.

    2014-01-01

    Human cognitive ability shows consistent, positive associations with fitness components across the life-course. Underlying genetic variation should therefore be depleted by selection, which is not observed. Genetic variation in general cognitive ability (intelligence) could be maintained by a mutation–selection balance, with rare variants contributing to its genetic architecture. This study examines the association between the total number of rare stop-gain/loss, splice and missense exonic variants and cognitive ability in childhood and old age in the same individuals. Exome array data were obtained in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined N = 1596). General cognitive ability was assessed at age 11 years and in late life (79 and 70 years, respectively) and was modelled against the total number of stop-gain/loss, splice, and missense exonic variants, with minor allele frequency less than or equal to 0.01, using linear regression adjusted for age and sex. In both cohorts and in both the childhood and late-life models, there were no significant associations between rare variant burden in the exome and cognitive ability that survived correction for multiple testing. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, we observed no evidence for an association between the total number of rare exonic variants and either childhood cognitive ability or late-life cognitive ability. PMID:24573858

  11. Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV. PMID:21958030

  12. Weight change and cognitive function: findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris A; Ockene, Judith K; Phillips, Lawrence S; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M

    2011-08-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and WC collected up to 5 years before WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (P ? 0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in WC. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existing literature. PMID:21394095

  13. Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature. PMID:21394095

  14. AR, apoE, and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Raber, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction. PMID:18395206

  15. Cognitive Function as an Emerging Treatment Target for Marijuana Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and memory functions. These impairments are not completely reversible upon cessation of marijuana use and moreover may interfere with the treatment of marijuana addiction. Therefore, targeting cognitive impairment associated with chronic marijuana use may be a promising novel strategy for the treatment of marijuana addiction. Preclinical studies suggest that medications enhancing the cholinergic transmission may attenuate cannabis-induced cognitive impairments, but these cognitive enhancing medications have not been examined in controlled human studies. Preliminary evidence from individuals addicted to other drugs suggests that computerized cognitive rehabilitation may also have utility to improve cognitive function in marijuana users. Future clinical studies optimally designed to measure cognitive function as well as drug use behavior would be needed to test the efficacy of these treatments for marijuana addiction. PMID:20384422

  16. Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function. PMID:22735597

  17. Functional Brain Imaging of Nicotinic Effects on Higher Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Paul A.; Potter, Alexandra S.; Dumas, Julie A.; Thiel, Christiane M.

    2011-01-01

    Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity. This review will critically summarize available nicotinic functional brain imaging studies focusing on the specific cognitive domains of attention, memory, behavioral control, and emotional processing. Generally speaking, nicotine appears to increase task-related activity in non-smokers and deprived smokers, but not active smokers. By contrast, nicotine or nicotinic stimulation decreases the activity of structures associated with the default mode network. These particular patterns of activation and/or deactivation may be useful for early drug development and may be an efficient and cost-effective method of screening potential nicotinic agents. Further studies will have to be done to clarify whether such activity changes correlate with cognitive or affective outcomes that are clinically relevant. The use of functional brain imaging will be a key tool for probing pathologic changes related to brain illness and for nicotinic drug development. PMID:21684262

  18. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8-11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

  19. Dissociable effects of game elements on motivation and cognition in a task-switching training in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions. PMID:25431564

  20. Deficits in Physical Function Among Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Megan C.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Steinberger, Julia; Lee, Jill; Baker, K. Scott; Ness, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at risk for physical disability. The aim of this investigation was to characterize and compare physical performance among CCSs and a group of siblings age < 18 years and determine if diagnosis, treatment, and physical activity levels were associated with lower performance scores. Methods CCSs ? 5 years from diagnosis and a sibling comparison group were recruited and evaluated for strength, mobility, and fitness. Physical performance measures were compared in regression models between survivors and siblings by diagnosis and among survivors by treatment exposures and physical activity levels. Results CCSs (n = 183; mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 13.5 ± 2.5 years; 53% male) scored lower than siblings (n = 147; mean age ± SD, 13.4 ± 2.4 years; 50% male) on lower-extremity strength testing, the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and the 6-minute walk (6MW) test, despite reporting similar levels and types of habitual physical activity. The lowest scores were prevalent among survivors of CNS tumors and bone and soft tissue sarcomas on strength testing (score ± SD: CNS tumors, 76.5 ± 4.7; sarcoma 67.1 ± 7.2 v siblings, 87.3 ± 2.4 Newton-meters quadricep strength at 90° per second; P = .04 and .01, respectively) and among CNS tumor survivors on the TUG (score ± SD: 5.1 ± 0.1 v siblings, 4.4 ± 0.1 seconds; P < .001) and 6MW tests (score ± SD: 533.3 ± 15.6 v siblings, 594.1 ± 8.3 m; P < .001). Conclusion CCSs may have underlying physiologic deficits that interfere with function that cannot be completely overcome by participation in regular physical activity. These survivors may need referral for specialized exercise interventions in addition to usual counseling to remain physically active. PMID:23796992

  1. The Efficacy of Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy with Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Yun Hui

    Recent research has revealed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions with sexual abuse survivors. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) interventions require trauma survivors to confront their painful memories directly. This allows for assessment of cognitive distortions that need to be challenged and reframed. The extent and amount of…

  2. Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study

    PubMed Central

    Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD. PMID:21441386

  3. Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

  4. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  5. Effects of hydrocortisone administration on cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Porter, Richard J; Barnett, Nicola A; Idey, Ariane; McGuckin, Elizabeth A; O'Brien, John T

    2002-03-01

    Previous studies have found adverse effects of both acute and chronic elevations of corticosteroids on cognitive function in humans and that cortisol levels may predict cognitive decline in elderly subjects. However, no previous studies have directly investigated the effects of hydrocortisone on cognitive functioning in the healthy elderly. Sixteen healthy elderly subjects took part in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over trial. Hydrocortisone 20 mg or placebo was administered twice, 12 h and 1 h before cognitive testing. On each occasion, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed which included tests of attention, working memory, declarative memory and executive function. Salivary cortisol levels at the time of testing were elevated approximately 10-fold following hydrocortisone compared with placebo. No significant effects were found on memory or a range of other cognitive functions. The lack of effect of this regime of hydrocortisone is in contrast to studies in younger subjects. The elderly may be less sensitive to cognitive effects of short-term increases in cortisol levels, possibly due to an age-related downregulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:11949774

  6. Brief cognitive assessment and prediction of functional outcome in stroke.

    PubMed

    Larson, Eric B; Kirschner, Kristi; Bode, Rita K; Heinemann, Allen W; Clorfene, Jeremy; Goodman, Rebecca

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the ability to predict outcome with a brief measure of cognitive ability, we tested consecutive admissions who received inpatient rehabilitation for stroke with the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Symptoms (RBANS). Six months later, 34 discharged patients were contacted by telephone and were interviewed using a battery of functional outcome and quality of life measures. Multiple regression analysis showed that inpatient RBANS indexes predicted cognitive disability 6 months later. The present findings support the use of cognitive evaluations of patients with acute stroke to assist with prediction of outcome to be used in treatment planning. PMID:14523696

  7. Retinal vessel caliber and lifelong neuropsychological functioning: retinal imaging as an investigative tool for cognitive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E; Wong, Tien Y; Meier, Madeline H; Houts, Renate M; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol Y; Ikram, M Kamran; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

    2013-07-01

    Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new, noninvasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independently of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain and extended to informants' reports of cohort members' cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The findings indicate that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before the onset of dementing diseases and suggest that digital retinal imaging may be a useful investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

  8. Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function

    PubMed Central

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; Carter, Cameron S.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2014-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dys-function in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia. PMID:24037621

  9. Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation for childhood leukemia on subsequent cognitive and problem-solving skills

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), treated with a CNS prophylaxis of 2,400 cGy radiation and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), demonstrate a decline in both global and specific aspects of their cognitive functioning. Recent changes in treatment protocols for ALL have resulted in a significant reduction in radiation to a dosage of 1,800 cGy, or the elimination of radiation altogether. Today, it is recognized that for low- and average-risk ALL patients the use of intrathecal methotrexate is equally effective for reducing the occurrence of CNS leukemic relapse. Current research has not yet fully determined the impact of this lowered dosage of radiation on later intellectual functioning in survivors of ALL. The present research compared the standardized-test performance of a group of children receiving 1,800 cGy radiation and IT-MTX (n = 15) to a group receiving IT-MTX only (n = 10) as a CNS prophylaxis. All subjects were treated with one leg of the Childrens Cancer Study Group protocols {number sign}161 or {number sign}162, and were evaluated at least 5 years post-diagnosis, while in remission from the disease process. Subjects ranged in age from seven to twelve at the time of participation. Tests administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), the Mental Processing subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and a variety of tasks which have been indicated to measure different aspects of children's cognitive strategy usage (including Tower of Hanoi and Matching Familiar Figures tasks). Analysis revealed significant performance-differences between these groups as reflected on the WISC-R (Verbal IQ) and on the K-ABC (Sequential Processing score), with the Radiated group performing more poorly than the Non-radiated group.

  10. Does cognitive function improve with quetiapine in comparison to haloperidol?

    PubMed

    Velligan, Dawn I; Newcomer, John; Pultz, Joseph; Csernansky, John; Hoff, Anne L; Mahurin, Roderick; Miller, Alexander L

    2002-01-15

    Recent evidence suggests that schizophrenia patients taking atypical antipsychotic medications may perform better on some tests of cognitive function than those treated with older antipsychotics. The current study compared the effects of quetiapine and haloperidol on measures of executive function, memory and attention. Subjects were 58 stable outpatients with schizophrenia (DSM III-R) who received a battery of cognitive tests as part of a randomized, double-blind, multi-site clinical efficacy study conducted by AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. Cognitive assessments were conducted prior to randomization when patients were receiving < or =30 mg haloperidol or equivalent (mean: 9.2mg/day haloperidol equivalents), and again after 24 weeks of fixed-dose treatment with either quetiapine 600 or 300 mg/day or haloperidol 12 mg/day. Analyses of covariance with planned comparisons were used to compare scores on cognitive measures at the end of 24 weeks by treatment group with baseline cognitive function scores used as covariates. Patients receiving quetiapine 600 mg/day improved to a greater extent than patients receiving haloperidol on overall cognitive function (p<0.02). Specific differences were found for executive function (Verbal Fluency Test, p<0.04), attention (Stroop Color Word Test, p<.03) and verbal memory (Paragraph Recall Test, p<0.02). Treatment group differences were not solely due to benztropine use, medication side effects, or changes in symptomatology. Treatment with quetiapine at higher doses (600 mg/day) relative to haloperidol appears to have a positive impact on important domains of cognitive performance that have been found to predict role function and community outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:11738537

  11. Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

    2009-01-01

    Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

  12. Cognitive stimulation of executive functions in mild cognitive impairment: specific efficacy and impact in memory.

    PubMed

    Moro, V; Condoleo, M T; Valbusa, V; Broggio, E; Moretto, G; Gambina, G

    2015-03-01

    Executive functions play an important role in the maintenance of autonomy in day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, there is little research into specific cognitive training for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). We present the results of a program which aims to teach specific strategies and metacognitive abilities in order for patients to be able to carry out attentional and executive tasks. Two groups (A and B) were compared in a cross-over design. After the first evaluation, Group A (but not B) participated in a six month cognitive stimulation program. After a second assessment, only Group B received treatment and then a final evaluation was carried out on both groups. The results show that: i) both groups improved their performance as an effect of training; ii) improvements generalized to memory and general cognitive tasks; iii) in the interval without training, Group B's performance worsened and iv) Group A partially maintained their results over time. PMID:24963080

  13. Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel Marsh; Tiago V. Maia; Bradley S. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory con- trol processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant develop- ment of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psycho- pathologies. Method: The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging

  14. Aerodynamic Indices of Velopharyngeal Function in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Linda R.; Giddens, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal…

  15. DISTINCT FUNCTIONS OF SOCIAL SUPPORT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION AMONG OLDER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Regina C.; Hosey, Megan; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Whitfield, Keith E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Study Context Social support has been shown to buffer cognitive decline in older adults; however, few studies have examined the association of distinct functions of perceived social support and cognitive function. The current study examined the relations between distinct functions of social support and numerous cognitive domains in older adults. Methods Data were derived from a cross-sectional, correlational study of cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive function, and neuroimaging. The participants were 175 older adults with a mean age of 66.32. A number of neuropsychological tests and the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List were administered. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine cross-sectional relations of social support to cognitive function after controlling for age, gender, education, depressive symptomatology, systolic blood pressure, body-mass index, total cholesterol, and fasting glucose. Results No significant positive relations were found between distinct functions of social support and cognitive function in any domain; however, inverse relations emerged such that greater social support across several functions was associated with poorer nonverbal memory and response inhibition. Conclusion Results suggest that the receipt of social support may be a burden for some older adults. Within the current study, fluid cognitive abilities reflected this phenomenon. The mechanism through which social support is associated with poorer cognitive function in some domains deserves further exploration. PMID:24467699

  16. Serial changes of prefrontal lobe growth in the patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes presenting with cognitive impairments\\/behavioral problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Kanemura; Sonoko Hata; Kakuro Aoyagi; Kanji Sugita; Masao Aihara

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have reported a higher incidence of learning and behavioral difficulties in association with frontal lobe dysfunctions in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS). We studied serial changes in frontal and prefrontal lobe volumes using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in BCECTS with or without cognitive impairments and behavioral problems and evaluated correlations between prefrontal lobe growth

  17. The Relationship Between Cognitive Abilities and Social Abilities in Childhood: A Research on Flexibility in Thinking and Co-operation with Peers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Bonino; Elena Cattelino

    1999-01-01

    This research is the first part of a project on the relationship between cognitive and social abilities in childhood, with special attention on the analysis of the relationship between ‘exibility in thinking and co-operative versus competitive solutions of social conflicts with peers. Flexibility is defined as the ability to suppress a response in order to ”nd a new one. The

  18. Mild Cognitive Impairment Is Associated With Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanda Dolcos; Stuart W. S. MacDonald; Anna Braslavsky; Richard Camicioli; Roger A. Dixon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method: In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal

  19. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  20. The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

  1. The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview

    E-print Network

    Kable, Joe

    The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview Joseph W. Kable to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether

  2. Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

    2007-01-01

    In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

  3. ZINC FORTIFICATION AND COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have related zinc nutrition to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc fortification on these functions in young adolescents. Seventh graders (65 gi...

  4. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase val/met polymorphism with cognitive function in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Ning; Ju, Kang; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Chuang; Xu, Ping; Chen, Silu; Cao, Aiai; Chen, Xue; Guo, Lanting

    2015-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. The cognitive dysfunction caused by GTS could affect the growth and learning of children and adolescents. The mechanism of cognitive functions was associated with dopaminergic system, thus we access the associations between polymorphism of some dopaminergic system-related genes including Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) met/val, Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III 48 bp VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats), Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5, and cognitive functions in GTS patients. Genotyping analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Test for cognitive functions of GTS patients included modified wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), trail making test, visual reproduction test, stroop test and verbal fluency test. The patients with COMT met/met genotype showed less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with COMT val/val genotype (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, patients without allele val had better delayed memory in visual reproduction test, less errors in the stroop test and less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with allele val (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in cognitive functions among patients with different genotypes or alleles of polymorphisms of DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR, IL-1 Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5 (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of COMT met/val was correlated with cognitive functions in GTS patients. This study provided basis for the analysis of molecular genetic pathology of cognitive dysfunctions in GTS. PMID:25367405

  5. Pulse Wave Velocity and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara EK; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System (Alam Medical, Vincennes, France). Cognitive function was measured by six tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 years, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, HDL cholesterol, hypertension, CVD history, smoking ,drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV > 12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: ?0.31, se: 0.11, p=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: ?1.10, se: 0.43, p=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: ?0.10, se: 0.05, p=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-B (coefficient: 6.30, se: 3.41, p=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  6. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  7. Job demand and control in mid-life and physical and mental functioning in early old age: do childhood factors explain these associations in a British birth cohort?

    PubMed Central

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Adverse work-related exposures have been linked with decreased physical and mental functioning in later life, however, whether childhood factors explain the associations between work exposures and functioning is unknown. Our aim was to investigate if job demand and control in mid-life were related to self-reported physical and mental functioning in early old age and whether childhood factors explained these associations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants and outcome measures Data come from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a cohort with follow-up since birth in 1946. 1485 occupationally active study members had data available on job demand and control in mid-life and on physical and mental functioning assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire at 60–64?years. Results Those with higher job control in mid-life had better physical functioning than those who reported lower job control (? 0.51, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.01, p=0.04 adjusted for adult confounders). Those with higher job demand in mid-life had poorer mental functioning (? ?0.82, 95% CI ?1.14 to ?0.51, p<0.001). Associations between job control and mental functioning were similar but less pronounced. Adjustment for childhood factors (father's and mother's educational attainment, parents’ interest in school at age 7 and cognitive ability at age 8) partially explained the association between job control and physical functioning, but did not explain the association between job demand and mental functioning. Conclusions Job demand and control in mid-life are differentially associated with mental and physical functioning in early old age and some of these associations may be partially explained by childhood factors. PMID:25319998

  8. Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2013-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

  9. Computers for Cognitive Development in Early Childhood--The Teacher's Role in the Computer Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nir-Gal, Ofra; Klein, Pnina S.

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of different kinds of adult mediation on the cognitive performance of young children who used computers. The study sample included 150 kindergarten children aged 5-6. The findings indicate that children who engaged in adult-mediated computer activity improved the level of their cognitive performance on…

  10. Computers for Cognitive Development in Early Childhood-The Teacher's Role in the Computer Learning Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofra Nir-Gal; Pnina S. Klein

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of different kinds of adult mediation on the cognitive performance of young children who used computers. The study sample included 150 kindergarten children aged 5-6. The findings indicate that children who engaged in adult-mediated computer activity improved the level of their cognitive performance on measures of abstract thinking, planning ability, vocabulary, and

  11. Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

  12. Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

  13. Teachers' Understanding of Mathematical Cognition in Childhood: Towards a Shift in Pedagogical Content Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…

  14. Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; ?ermáková, Radka; Cimermanová, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

    2013-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory. PMID:23717272

  15. Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

    2008-01-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

  17. Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25+/? adolescent mice (SNAP-25+/+) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25+/? hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25629685

  18. Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25(+/-) adolescent mice (SNAP-25(+/+)) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25(+/-) hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25629685

  19. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function

  20. A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

  1. Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): A promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa B. Thorell; Lilianne Eninger; Karin C. Brocki; Gunilla Bohlin

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects

  3. Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self?help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self?help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self?help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain. Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self?help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty?one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as ‘much’/‘very much’ improved on the Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI–I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self?help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care. PMID:22477922

  4. Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W.; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S. Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S.; Swain, James E.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

    2013-01-01

    Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty?health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty. PMID:24145409

  5. [Neonatal exposure to anesthesia and adverse cognitive outcome in childhood. Insight from epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Cans, C

    2013-09-01

    Adverse effects of general anesthesia have been observed repeatedly, mainly in animal model studies and in rodents. Already in 2005, the Food and Drug Administration recommended proceeding to similar studies in human infants, highlighting that there were several methodological issues to solve before being able to appreciate the risk of anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Most studies conducted in humans were observational studies, showing a very mild adverse effect on cognitive functions, an effect that disappeared when properly adjusted analysis was performed (with various modalities for analysis and protocols for these adjusted results). Due to numerous biases in these observational studies - bias related to selection of the population and the control subjects and their comparability as well as outcome measure assessment, it has become extremely important to conduct prospective studies. Two international studies are currently under way, but their results will not be available for a few years. How animal model results can be relevant to human babies remains controversial. Until today, and according to the current state of the art, no changes in practices are indicated, and it is important for infants and their families to avoid sensationalist messages. PMID:23880252

  6. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association. PMID:19225117

  7. Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

  8. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  9. Prenatal maternal depression symptoms and nutrition, and child cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Edward D.; Kirkham, Natasha; Ng, Jane; Jensen, Sarah K. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is currently known about how maternal depression symptoms and unhealthy nutrition during pregnancy may developmentally interrelate to negatively affect child cognitive function. Aims To test whether prenatal maternal depression symptoms predict poor prenatal nutrition, and whether this in turn prospectively associates with reduced postnatal child cognitive function. Method In 6979 mother-offspring pairs participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) in the UK, maternal depression symptoms were assessed five times between 18 weeks gestation and 33 months old. Maternal reports of the nutritional environment were assessed at 32 weeks gestation and 47 months old, and child cognitive function was assessed at age 8 years. Results During gestation, higher depressive symptoms were related to lower levels of healthy nutrition and higher levels of unhealthy nutrition, each of which in turn was prospectively associated with reduced cognitive function. These results were robust to postnatal depression symptoms and nutrition, as well as a range of potential prenatal and postnatal confounds (i.e. poverty, teenage mother, low maternal education, parity, birth complications, substance use, criminal lifestyle, partner cruelty towards mother). Conclusions Prenatal interventions aimed at the well-being of children of parents with depression should consider targeting the nutritional environment. PMID:24115347

  10. Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

  11. Prospective Assessment of Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Cognitive Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzana Alves de Moraes; Moyses Szklo; David Knopman

    Studies of humans have not confirmed the suggestion from animal studies that estrogen replacement therapy may have an inverse relation with cognitive function decline. Because many of these studies have been marred by design or methodological problems, such as a small sample size, failure to control for confounding variables, or the use of a cross-sectional design, the present study was

  12. Cognitive function in association with sex hormones in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kocoska-Maras, Ljiljana; Rådestad, Angelique Flöter; Carlström, Kjell; Bäckström, Torbjörn; von Schoultz, Bo; Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitive function, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitive function are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitive function and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitive function in women. PMID:22967437

  13. Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2011-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans. PMID:19806081

  14. Hippocampal volume and cognitive function in anorexia nervosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances Connan; Fay Murphy; Steve E. J. Connor; Phil Rich; Tara Murphy; Nuria Bara-Carill; Sabine Landau; Sanya Krljes; Virginia Ng; Steve Williams; Robin G. Morris; Iain C. Campbell; Janet Treasure

    2006-01-01

    We hypothesised that hippocampal volume would be reduced in underweight anorexia nervosa (AN) and associated with impaired hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. Hippocampal and whole brain volumes were measured in 16 women with AN and 16 matched healthy women using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a manual tracing method. Participants also completed the Doors and People Test of hippocampus-dependent memory and an

  15. Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia

    E-print Network

    Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

  16. Cognitive Functioning and Work Success in Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Carol; Hogh, Henriette; Seiss, Ellen; Everatt, John

    2011-01-01

    Dyslexic adults completed questionnaires designed to investigate relationships between cognitive functioning, especially executive aspects, and work success. The study was designed to determine whether quantitative support could be provided for the model of adult dyslexic success derived from the work of Gerber and his colleagues (Gerber,…

  17. Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

  18. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment…

  19. Sleep and Cognitive Functioning in Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality have been associated with impaired cognitive functioning in typically developing children and in children with a wide array of disabilities and medical conditions. Among children with disabilities, those with intellectual disability, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism…

  20. Reviewing on physical exercise and the cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hanna K. M. Antunes; Ruth F. Santos; Ricardo Cassilhas; Ronaldo V. T. Santos; Orlando F. A. Bueno; Marco Túlio de Mello

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical training are known as promoters of sev- eral alterations, and among them, cardiorespiratory benefits, in- crease in the mineral bone density and decrease in the risk for chronic-degenerative diseases. Recently, another aspect has be- come notorious: an improvement in the cognitive function. Al- though it is very controversial, several studies have shown that physical exercises improve and

  1. An automated system for assessing cognitive function in any environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2005-05-01

    The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.

  2. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  3. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JENNIFER B. FREEMAN; ABBE M. GARCIA; LISA COYNE; CHELSEA ALE; AMY PRZEWORSKI; MICHAEL HIMLE; SCOTT COMPTON; HENRIETTA L. LEONARD

    2008-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the relative efficacy of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus family-based relaxation treatment (RT) for young children ages 5 to 8 years with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

  4. Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Consequences of Inadequate Sleep in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Dean W.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis During the past few decades, studies using multiple research designs have examined whether sleep during childhood and adolescence is related to cognition, behavior, and other aspects of daytime functioning. This paper summarizes recent correlational, case-control, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, highlighting how the strengths and limitations of each research design are complementary, thereby allowing one to more confidently draw conclusions when viewing the research literature as a whole. Viewed in this manner, published findings suggest that inadequate sleep quality and/or quantity can cause sleepiness, inattention and, very likely, other cognitive and behavioral deficits that significantly impact children and adolescents in important functional settings (e.g., school). This paper then integrates findings from longitudinal studies within a developmental psychopathology model. In this model, inadequate sleep is viewed as a noxious exposure that can, over time, fundamentally alter a child or adolescent's development, resulting in poorer long-term outcomes. Important research questions remain, but the available evidence supports the integration of sleep screening and interventions into routine clinical care and also supports advocacy for public policy changes to improve the sleep of children and adolescents. PMID:21600347

  5. Perceived quality of maternal care in childhood and structure and function of mothers’ brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of maternal care in childhood is associated with brain structure and functional responses to salient infant stimuli among human mothers in the first postpartum month. Mothers who reported higher maternal care in childhood showed larger grey matter volumes in the superior and middle frontal gyri, orbital gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. In response to infant cries, these mothers exhibited higher activations in the middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, whereas mothers reporting lower maternal care showed increased hippocampal activations. These findings suggest that maternal care in childhood may be associated with anatomy and functions in brain regions implicated in appropriate responsivity to infant stimuli in human mothers. PMID:20590729

  6. The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

    2001-01-01

    In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

  7. Functional disconnection and social cognition in schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Prerona

    2011-11-25

    Introduction Social and emotional functions play a key role in schizophrenia. Both positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and persecutory delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, and flattened ...

  8. Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin AG; Leite, Joao Costa; De Vito, Giuseppe; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Pesce, Caterina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains. Methods A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1) multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2) progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1), following a 4-week control period (T2), and finally at postintervention (T3) for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility) and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements). Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators. Results Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not mediate functional mobility changes. Conclusion These results confirm that physical training benefits executive function and suggest that different training types might lead to such benefits through different pathways. Both types of training also promoted functional mobility in older adulthood; however, neither inhibitory capacity, nor muscular strength gains seemed to explain functional mobility outcomes. PMID:23341738

  9. Oxcarbazepine monotherapy in benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: A clinical and cognitive evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Tzitiridou; Theodora Panou; Georgia Ramantani; Athanasios Kambas; Kleomenis Spyroglou; Christos Panteliadis

    2005-01-01

    We report on 70 patients (aged 5.2–11.6 years) newly diagnosed with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) who were assigned to oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy. All of them underwent clinical and electroencephalographic examination at baseline and at 3- to 6-month intervals during the study. Psychometric assessment was performed at baseline and after 18 months of treatment with the WISC-III, Illinois

  10. Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

    2014-12-15

    Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. PMID:25200189

  11. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  12. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  13. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  14. J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

  15. Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety, and Personality

    E-print Network

    Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self

  16. Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

  17. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  18. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early-Childhood-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early-childhood-onset MDD. Method: A total of 51 children 7 through 11 years of age who had…

  19. Elevated Childhood Serotonergic Function Protects against Adolescent Aggression in Disruptive Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Marks, David J.; Sharma, Vanshdeep; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This longitudinal study examined whether responsiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in childhood predicts adolescent aggression. Method: Boys (N = 33) with disruptive behavior disorders who received assessments of central 5-HT function via the prolactin response to fenfluramine between 1990 and 1994 when they were 7 to 11…

  20. Recall of Childhood Neglect and Physical Abuse as Differential Predictors of Current Psychological Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, Lisa; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Histories of child neglect or child physical abuse were correlated with psychological functioning in 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. Childhood neglect was more predictive of psychological problems and anxious attachment styles than was physical abuse. Results suggest neglect and physical abuse are potentially separate moderators of…

  1. Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…

  2. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  3. Gonadal function after bone marrow transplantation for acute leukemia during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyriakie Sarafoglou; Farid Boulad; Alfred Gillio; Charles Sklar

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), using high-dose chemotherapy and hyperfractionated total body irradiation, on gonadal function in survivors of acute leukemia treated during childhood. Study design: We conducted a retrospective study of 33 subjects (17 boys) who underwent a BMT for acute leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia, n = 20; acute myelogenous leukemia, n = 13)

  4. Alone Is a Crowd: Social Motivations, Social Withdrawal, and Socioemotional Functioning in Later Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…

  5. Drug Use and Psychosocial Functioning of a Community-Derived Sample of Adolescents with Childhood ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Realmuto; Ken C. Winters; Gerald J. August; Susanne Lee; Tamara Fahnhorst; Andria Botzet

    2009-01-01

    We describe the late adolescent psychosocial outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with ADHD who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. A range of outcomes were compared between ADHD (n = 119) and normal control (n = 93) groups, as well as ADHD subgroups that varied as a function of the course of externalizing predominantly ODD problems (persisters,

  6. Men Who Were Sexually Abused in Childhood: Coping Strategies and Comparisons in Psychological Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Patrick J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Coping strategies of men who were sexually abused in childhood were examined to ascertain their relationship to clinical diagnoses. Time elapsed since the abuse occurred was examined for its relationship to psychological functioning. Clinical psychopathology of this primary sample of sexually abused men was compared to a community…

  7. Recollection of childhood abdominal pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    CHITKARA, DENESH K.; TALLEY, NICHOLAS J.; SCHLECK, CATHY; ZINSMEISTER, ALAN R.; SHAH, NILAY D.; LOCKE, G. RICHARD

    2009-01-01

    Objective It is hypothesized that adults who can recall abdominal pain as children are at risk of experiencing a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), but this is not specific to any particular FGID. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recollecting abdominal pain as a child and experiencing a FGID. Material and methods A valid self-reported questionnaire of GI symptoms was mailed to a random population-based sample in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), somatization, and other factors were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for having a FGID in individuals recalling bouts of stomach or abdominal pain in childhood (before age 15). Results Overall, 2298 (55%) of a total of 4194 eligible adult subjects returned a completed questionnaire. Of the respondents, 213 (9%) recalled experiencing abdominal pain as children. Adults who recalled experiencing abdominal pain in childhood had greater odds for reporting symptoms of a FGID (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4–2.7). Recalling abdominal pain in childhood was significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.6) but not gastroesophageal reflux, dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, somatic symptoms, marital status, and education. Conclusions Recollection of childhood abdominal pain is specifically associated with IBS in adults. This suggests that a proportion of adults with IBS may have onset of symptoms of abdominal pain during childhood. PMID:19016078

  8. Selenium Level and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Hall, Kathleen S.; Liang, Chaoke; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ji, Rongdi; Murrell, Jill R.; Cao, Jingxiang; Shen, Jianzhao; Ma, Feng; Matesan, Janetta; Ying, Bo; Cheng, Yibin; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2009-01-01

    Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitive function or Alzheimer’s disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People’s Republic of China was conducted from December 2003 to May 2005 by use of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) Word List Learning Test, the Indiana University Story Recall Test, the Animal Fluency Test, and the Indiana University Token Test. Over 70% of the study participants have lived in the same village since birth. Nail samples were collected and analyzed for selenium contents. Analysis-of-covariance models were used to estimate the association between quintile selenium levels measured in nail samples and cognitive test scores, with adjustment for other covariates. Lower selenium levels measured in nail samples were significantly associated with lower cognitive scores (p < 0.0087 for all tests) except the Animal Fluency Test (p = 0.4378). A dose-response effect of selenium quintiles was also seen for those significant associations. Results in this geographically stable cohort support the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with lower cognitive function. PMID:17272290

  9. Beneficial effect of renal transplantation on cognitive brain function.

    PubMed

    Kramer, L; Madl, C; Stockenhuber, F; Yeganehfar, W; Eisenhuber, E; Derfler, K; Lenz, K; Schneider, B; Grimm, G

    1996-03-01

    Cognitive brain dysfunction is a common complication of end-stage renal disease. To investigate the cerebral effect of renal transplantation, we studied P300 event-related potentials--an objective marker of cognitive brain function--trailmaking test and Mini-mental state in 15 chronic hemodialysis patients and 45 matched healthy subjects. Before transplantation, patients showed prolonged P300 latency (364 vs. 337 ms, P < 0.01), smaller amplitude (15.2 vs. 19.1 microV) and scored lower (P < 0.05) in trailmaking test and Mini-mental state as compared to healthy subjects. Following renal transplantation (14 months), P300 latency decreased (337 ms, P < 0.01 vs. before) and amplitude increased (17.4 microV, P < 0.05 vs. before), indicating improved cognitive brain function. The trailmaking test and Mini-mental state tended to improve. Following transplantation, P300 findings, trailmaking test and Mini-mental state were not different from healthy subjects. Additional studies following erythropoietin treatment in 6 of the 15 hemodialysis patients revealed decreased (improved) P300 latency (351 vs. 379 ms before, P < 0.05) with further decrease following transplantation (341 ms, P = 0.06). Our findings indicate that cognitive brain dysfunction in hemodialysis patients may be fully reversed by successful renal transplantation. PMID:8648927

  10. Longitudinal associations between infections and atopic disorders across childhood and dysregulated adrenocortical functioning in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Ruttle, Paula L; Serbin, Lisa A; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

    2014-07-01

    The present study sought to determine if exposure to common childhood medical problems (i.e., infections and atopic disorders [e.g., allergies, asthma]) may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Longitudinal data from 96 youth were used to examine this possibility. Medical records were drawn from government databases indicating the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities for infections and atopic disorders from infancy to early adolescence. During early adolescence, participants provided salivary cortisol samples from awakening until bedtime over 2 consecutive days. Individuals with a history of increased number visits for infections across childhood displayed elevated levels of cortisol at awakening whereas individuals with childhood histories of visits for atopic disorders displayed blunted diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings build on previous research documenting associations between infections and atopic disorders and cortisol by identifying longitudinal linkages from early health problems to later HPA axis functioning. PMID:24037638

  11. How does cognitive reserve impact on the relationships between mood, rumination, and cognitive function in later life?

    PubMed

    Opdebeeck, Carol; Nelis, Sharon M; Quinn, Catherine; Clare, Linda

    2014-09-29

    Objectives: Higher levels of cognitive reserve (CR) are associated with better cognitive function in later life. In contrast, depressive symptoms, anxiety, and rumination are associated with diminished cognitive function. There has been limited research to date examining the influence of CR on the relationship between mood and cognitive function, and results are inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the role CR plays in the relationships between mood, rumination, and cognitive function in later life. Method: Two hundred and thirty-six healthy people aged 60+ completed measures of CR, depression, anxiety, rumination, recall, and verbal fluency. Participants were dichotomised at the median into those with lower and higher levels of CR. Results: CR, mood, and rumination together accounted for between 13% and 15.6% of the variance in scores on the cognitive tasks in the sample as a whole. Mood and rumination explained a significant amount of variance in cognitive test scores in those with lower levels of CR, but not in those with higher levels of CR. Conclusion: The way in which mood and rumination are related to cognitive function differs depending on the individual's level of CR. These results support the view that it is important to continue to build on CR as people move into later life in order to maintain cognitive health. PMID:25262628

  12. Sleep as a support for social competence, peer relations, and cognitive functioning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Brian E; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Shin, Nana; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-03-01

    Evidence that sleep influences social and cognitive adaptation for school-age children and adolescents is accumulating rapidly, but less research focuses on the role of sleep for adaptive functioning during early childhood. We addressed these questions using actigraphy to assess sleep duration, sleep quality, and variability in sleep schedules in relation to a range of social/emotional and cognitive measures, including receptive vocabulary, emotion understanding, peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, and temperament. Children in a convenience sample (N = 62, 40 boys, mean age = 4.15 yrs, 67% European American) wore actigraphs for 4-7 days, with sleep and wake states determined using Sadeh's scoring algorithm. Older children spent less time in bed at night and ethnic minority children (mostly African Americans) slept less at night and had lower sleep efficiency than did European American ethnic status children. Bivariate relations (controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity) between sleep variables and child adaptation scores showed that sleep duration was positively associated with peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, receptive vocabulary, and understanding of the causes of emotions. Fewer variables were associated with nighttime sleep quality and variability and these tended to be related to outcome variables suggestive of behavioral and emotional regulation. Results suggest that sleep parameters are broadly implicated in the adjustment of preschool age children. PMID:24527839

  13. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  14. Cognitive?Behavioral Group Treatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANDRA L. MENDLOWITZ; KATHARINA MANASSIS; SUSAN BRADLEY; DONNA SCAPILLATO; SOLVEIGA MIEZITIS; BRIAN E SHAW

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study examined (1) the effect of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention on anxiety, depression, and coping strategies in school-age children (aged 7–12 years) with Axis I anxiety disorders; and (2) the effect of parental involvement on treatment outcomes.

  15. Longitudinal Models of Developmental Dynamics Between Reading and Cognition from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Holahan, John M.; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the…

  16. Ostracism in childhood and adolescence: Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral effects of social exclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Wölfer; Herbert Scheithauer

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on theories of development, motivation, and personality we examined children's and adolescents’ emotional and cognitive perception of, and explained their behavioral reactions to, ostracism in two experimental studies. In Study one, 93 fourth- and eighth-graders (49 girls) were either socially included or excluded within a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball). Results demonstrated that ostracism causes negative emotions and a selective

  17. Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

    2005-01-01

    We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

  18. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Cognitive School Readiness and Later Academic Achievement in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemelin, Jean-Pascal; Boivin, Michel; Forget-Dubois, Nadine; Dionne, Ginette; Seguin, Jean R.; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 840 60-month-old twins, this study investigated the genetic and environmental contributions to (a) individual differences in four components of cognitive school readiness, (b) the general ability underlying these four components, and (c) the predictive association between school readiness and school achievement. Results…

  19. Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

  20. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  1. Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage

    PubMed Central

    Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500

  2. Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition-emotion linkage.

    PubMed

    Ferrier, David E; Bassett, Hideko H; Denham, Susanne A

    2014-01-01

    Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children's social-emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children's EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35-60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF's positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500

  3. Cognition and brain function in schizotypy: a selective review.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Ulrich; Mohr, Christine; Gooding, Diane C; Cohen, Alex S; Rapp, Alexander; Haenschel, Corinna; Park, Sohee

    2015-03-01

    Schizotypy refers to a set of personality traits thought to reflect the subclinical expression of the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Here, we review the cognitive and brain functional profile associated with high questionnaire scores in schizotypy. We discuss empirical evidence from the domains of perception, attention, memory, imagery and representation, language, and motor control. Perceptual deficits occur early and across various modalities. While the neural mechanisms underlying visual impairments may be linked to magnocellular dysfunction, further effects may be seen downstream in higher cognitive functions. Cognitive deficits are observed in inhibitory control, selective and sustained attention, incidental learning, and memory. In concordance with the cognitive nature of many of the aberrations of schizotypy, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with enhanced vividness and better performance on tasks of mental rotation. Language deficits seem most pronounced in higher-level processes. Finally, higher levels of schizotypy are associated with reduced performance on oculomotor tasks, resembling the impairments seen in schizophrenia. Some of these deficits are accompanied by reduced brain activation, akin to the pattern of hypoactivations in schizophrenia spectrum individuals. We conclude that schizotypy is a construct with apparent phenomenological overlap with schizophrenia and stable interindividual differences that covary with performance on a wide range of perceptual, cognitive, and motor tasks known to be impaired in schizophrenia. The importance of these findings lies not only in providing a fine-grained neurocognitive characterization of a personality constellation known to be associated with real-life impairments, but also in generating hypotheses concerning the aetiology of schizophrenia. PMID:25810056

  4. The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview

    PubMed Central

    Kable, Joseph W.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

  5. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ducci; M-A Enoch; C Hodgkinson; K Xu; M Catena; R W Robin; D Goldman

    2008-01-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether

  6. A Comparative Analysis of the Function of Coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care in France and Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olga Baudelot; Sylvie Rayna; Susanna Mayer; Tullia Musatti

    2003-01-01

    In several European countries professionals are in charge of the coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care provision at local community level. For the past 20 years the number of this personnel has grown considerably in Italy and in France. This study provides a comparative analysis of the function of coordinating Early Childhood Education and Care services in these two

  7. Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

  8. Cognitive function and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lojander, J; Kajaste, S; Maasilta, P; Partinen, M

    1999-03-01

    Among patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), impairment of cognitive function, i.e. deficits in memory, attention, and visuconstructive abilities are common. We applied different forms of treatment for patients with newly diagnosed OSAS in a randomized study with a one-year follow-up. Patients with BMI > 40 kg/m2 were excluded. After the initial diagnostic work-up, male patients were considered to be candidates for either nasal continuous airway pressure (nCPAP) (27 patients) or surgical treatment (uvulopalatopharyngoplasty with or without mandibular osteotomy) (23 patients). Within the groups, the patients were then randomized to active treatment (nCPAP/surgery) or to conservative management. Cognitive function and severity of OSAS were assessed prior to treatment and 3 and 12 months later. At 12 months, all patients on nCPAP had a normal ODI4 index (< 10), and were significantly less somnolent than their controls; 3/11 of the surgically treated patients had a normal ODI4 index. Daytime somnolence was significantly less severe in the surgically treated patients than in their controls. Cognitive function did not correlate importantly with daytime sleepiness or severity of OSAS; the best Pearson pairwise correlation coefficient was between ODI4 and the Bourdon-Wiersma (r = 0.36). Success in treatment of OSAS did not affect neuropsychological outcome. We concluded that the standard cognitive test battery is insufficiently sensitive to identify positive changes in patients with OSAS, especially among those with a high level of overall mental functioning. PMID:10188139

  9. Cognitive and functional status in the extreme longevity.

    PubMed

    Motta, M; Ferlito, L; Magnolfi, S U; Petruzzi, E; Pinzani, P; Malentacchi, F; Petruzzi, I; Bennati, E; Malaguarnera, M

    2008-01-01

    Usually, the effects of cognitive decline are not noted before the age of 70 years, which involve the intellectual capacities, the attention, the processes of elaboration and the memory. The studies on the cognitive disturbances of the elderly are numerous, and document the progressive increase of cerebral deterioration with advancing age. However, only a few studies refer to the significance of the cognitive disturbances in the clinical conditions and autonomy of the long living subjects. For this reason, we studied the cerebral deterioration of an adequate number of centenarians in correlation with their clinical conditions and autonomy. Our centenarian sample derived from the Italian multi-center study on centenarians (IMUSCE), which was an epidemiological study which identified 1173 centenarians (202 males, 971 females) in the age range of 100-109 years. From this sample, we analyzed 346 subjects as far as the cognitive functions and the degree of autonomy by using the psychometric tests of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) for the functional evaluations. In addition, we evaluated the clinical conditions of the subjects dividing them in three groups: Group A (those in good clinical conditions), Group B (those in discrete clinical conditions), and Group C (those in deteriorated clinical conditions). These analyses revealed that 187 (54.1%) of the 346 examined centenarians have shown an MMSE score in the normal range (score ratio from 1.0 to 0.63). The cognitive disorders are present in the centenarians in a clearly higher frequency (13.1%), than found in the common elderly (5.1%). The severe cognitive disorders do not allow a total autonomy or even a slight dependency. Only six subjects (1.7%) of the total sample were totally independent. These subjects had no cognitive disorders, and were in good clinical conditions. The results show that having an MMSE score in the normal range, and being in good clinical conditions are necessary but not sufficient prerequisites for a total autonomy in the IADL scores. PMID:17583363

  10. [The cerebellum: from motor coordination to cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Habas, C

    2001-12-01

    Clinical data in man, as well as experimental results in animals, classically involve the cerebellum in the coordination of ballistic movements and in their accompanying postural adjustment. The cerebellum intervenes in the coding of the order and duration of contraction of the different protagonist muscular groups contributing to the same movement. In normal life, this is an automatic, non conscious procedure. Recent studies seem to indicate that the human neocerebellum (lateral hemispheres and dentate nuclei) plays a role in the regulation of some neocortical cognitive functions. This new functional aspect of cerebellar activity has been inferred from the results obtained by three quite different domains: neuroanatomical data showing the existence of, sometimes reciprocal, pathways between the neocerebellum and associative and limbic areas in primates, neuropsychological data assessing the presence, in some cerebellar patients, of purely cognitive impairments, and data from functional imagery pointing out cerebellar activation in healthy subjects during non motor tasks. II would ensue that, thanks to new cortical targets. The cerebellum could regulate sensorial, procedural, linguistic and emotional activities, so that a cerebellar lesion could be followed by a cognitive and affective syndrome, depending on the importance and on the location of the lesion. PMID:11924445

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

    2013-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

  12. Differential associations between childhood trauma subtypes and adolescent HPA-axis functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Geiss, Elisa G.; Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Studies examining the association between childhood trauma exposure and neuroendocrine functioning have returned inconsistent findings. To date, few studies have accounted for the role exposure to different types of childhood trauma may have on different neuroendocrine adaptations, and no study has examined this association using multiple indices of hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning. The purpose of this study was to characterize the unique associations between exposure to physical abuse, emotional abuse, and non-intentional trauma, and multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning. Methods A community sample of 138 youth (aged 9—16) completed the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Task (SE-CPT) while their parents completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). All youth then collected 4 diurnal salivary cortisol samples at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Results High reported exposure to non-intentional trauma was associated with intact diurnal regulation but elevated cortisol at bedtime, physical abuse was associated with faster reactivity to acute stress, and emotional abuse was associated with delayed recovery of cortisol following acute stress. Taken together, there was a heterogeneous relationship among different indices of HPA-axis functioning and trauma subtype. Discussion Different types of childhood trauma exposure are related to distinct anomalies in HPA-axis functioning. This study underscores the importance of research incorporating multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning to inform our understanding of the underlying neuroendocrine dysregulation that may later lead to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25704913

  13. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828

  14. Early antecedents of childhood impulsivity: The role of parent-child interaction, cognitive competence, and temperament

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheryl L. Olson; John E. Bates; Kathryn Bayles

    1990-01-01

    This prospective longitudinal investigation examined early mother-child interaction as a predictor of children's later self-control capabilities. Multimethod assessments of mother-child relationships, primarily focused on observed relationship qualities in the home, were conducted during the first 2 years and related to children's later impulse control capabilities. Child cognitive competence and temperament assessed during the 2nd year were also related to later

  15. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  16. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  17. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

  18. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  19. Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

  20. Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. PMID:23596103

  1. Does Vitamin C Deficiency Affect Cognitive Development and Function?

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370

  2. Functional neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

  3. Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

  4. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  5. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  6. Long-term effects of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy in treatment of childhood leukemia: a MEG study of power spectrum and correlated cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prophylaxis to prevent relapses in the central nervous system after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) used to consist of both intrathecal chemotherapy (CT) and cranial irradiation (CRT). CRT was mostly abolished in the eighties because of its neurotoxicity, and replaced with more intensive intrathecal CT. In this study, a group of survivors treated with CRT before 1983 and another group treated without CRT thereafter are investigated 20–25 years later, giving a much stronger perspective on long-term quality of life than previous studies. The outcomes will help to better understand these groups’ current needs and will aid in anticipating late effects of prophylactic CRT that is currently applied for other diseases. This study evaluates oscillatory neuronal activity in these long-term survivors. Power spectrum deviations are hypothesized to correlate with cognitive dysfunction. Methods Resting state eyes-closed magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 14 ALL survivors treated with CT?+?CRT, 18 treated with CT alone and 35 controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the ?, ?, ?1, ?2, ? and ? frequency bands. The Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program was used to assess cognition in the executive functions domain. MEG data and ANT scores were correlated. Results In the CT?+?CRT group, relative ? power was slightly increased (p?=?0.069) and ?2 power was significantly decreased (p?=?0.006). The CT?+?CRT group performed worse on various cognitive tests. A deficiency in visuomotor accuracy, especially of the right hand, could be clearly associated with the deviating regional ? and ?2 powers (0.471?

  7. Cognitive Functioning, Retirement Status, and Age: Results from the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons Study

    PubMed Central

    Drag, Lauren L; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Langenecker, Scott A; Greenfield, Lazar J

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of cognitive functioning is an important step in understanding how to better evaluate both clinical and cognitive competence in practicing surgeons. As part of the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons study, we examined the objective cognitive functioning of senior surgeons in relation to retirement status and age. Study Design Computerized cognitive tasks measuring visual sustained attention, reaction time, and visual learning and memory were administered to both practicing and retired surgeons at annual meetings of the American College of Surgeons. Data from 168 senior surgeons aged 60 and older were compared with data from 126 younger surgeons aged 45 to 59, with performance below 1.5 standard deviations or more indicating a significant difference between the groups. Results Sixty-one percent of practicing senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all cognitive tasks. Seventy-eight percent of practicing senior surgeons aged 60 to 64 performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks compared with 38% of practicing senior surgeons aged 70 and older. Forty-five percent of retired senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks. No senior surgeon performed below the younger surgeons on all 3 tasks. Conclusions The majority of practicing senior surgeons performed at or near the level of their younger peers on all cognitive tasks, as did almost half of the retired senior surgeons. This suggests that older age does not inevitably preclude cognitive proficiency. The variability in cognitive performance across age groups and retirement status suggests the need for formal measures of objective cognitive functioning to help surgeons detect changes in cognitive performance and aid in their decisions to retire. PMID:20800185

  8. Sweet taste receptor signaling network: possible implication for cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Welcome, Menizibeya O; Mastorakis, Nikos E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special "sweet" molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

  9. Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2

    PubMed Central

    Klivényi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning. PMID:23015802

  10. Detecting residual cognitive function in disorders of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M R; Pickard, J D

    2011-01-01

    Clinical audits have suggested up to 40% of patients with disorders of consciousness may be misdiagnosed, in part, due to the highly subjective process of determining, from a patient's behaviour, whether they retain awareness of self or environment. To address this problem, objective neuroimaging methods, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have been explored. Using these techniques, paradigms, which do not require the patient to move or speak, can be used to determine a patient's level of residual cognitive function. Indeed, visual discrimination, speech comprehension and even the ability to respond to command have been demonstrated in some patients who are assumed to be vegetative on the basis of standard behavioural assessments. Functional neuroimaging is now increasingly considered to be a very useful and necessary addition to the clinical assessment process, where there is concern about the accuracy of the diagnosis and the possibility that residual cognitive function has remained undetected. In this essay, the latest neuroimaging findings are reviewed, the limitations and caveats pertaining to interpretation are outlined and the necessary developments, before neuroimaging becomes a standard component of the clinical assessment are discussed. PMID:21197605

  11. Attachment, self-worth, and peer-group functioning in middle childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cathryn Booth-Laforce; Wonjung Oh; Angel Hayoung Kim; Kenneth H. Rubin; Linda Rose-Krasnor; Kim Burgess

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated links between peer-group functioning and indicators of attachment security in relation to both mother and father in middle childhood, among 73 10-year-olds (37 girls). Children's perceptions of security with both parents, coping styles with mother, and self-worth were assessed. Classmates, teachers, and mothers evaluated the participants' peer-related behavioral characteristics. Children's perceptions of security to both parents were related

  12. Childhood Abuse and Its Association with Mid-Aged Women's Sexual Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; JANET R. GUTHRIE; SIMONE ALFORD

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the

  13. The Effect of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Psychosexual Functioning During Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott D. Easton; Carol Coohey; Patrick O’leary; Ying Zhang; Lei Hua

    2011-01-01

    The study examined whether and how characteristics of childhood sexual abuse and disclosure influenced three dimensions of\\u000a psychosexual functioning—emotional, behavioral and evaluative—during adulthood. The sample included 165 adults who were sexually\\u000a abused as children. The General Estimating Equation was used to test the relationship among the predictors, moderators and\\u000a five binary outcomes: fear of sex and guilt during sex (emotional

  14. Long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy on attention functioning in survivors of childhood leukemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathryn A. Lockwood; Terece S. Bell; Robert W. Colegrove

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively examine the long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT) on attention functioning. Methods: Fifty-six survivors of childhood leukemia who had been randomly assigned to a treatment regi- men of chemotherapy with or without 1,800 cGy CRT were administered a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Significant differences were found between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups on three of four

  15. The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Licht, Carmilla M. M.; van Turenhout, Lise C.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L. J.; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Drent, Madeleine L.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/FK506-binding protein 5 genotype by childhood trauma interactions do not impact on hippocampal volume and cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Hernaus, Dennis; van Winkel, Ruud; Gronenschild, Ed; Habets, Petra; Kenis, Gunter; Marcelis, Machteld; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Collip, Dina

    2014-01-01

    In the development of psychotic symptoms, environmental and genetic factors may both play a role. The reported association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms could therefore be moderated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the stress response, such as FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Recent studies investigating childhood trauma by SNP interactions have inconsistently found the hippocampus to be a potential target underlying these interactions. Therefore, more detailed modelling of these effects, using appropriate covariates, is required. We examined whether BDNF/FKBP5 and childhood trauma interactions affected two proxies of hippocampal integrity: (i) hippocampal volume and (ii) cognitive performance on a block design (BD) and delayed auditory verbal task (AVLT). We also investigated whether the putative interaction was different for patients with a psychotic disorder (n?=?89) compared to their non-psychotic siblings (n?=?95), in order to elicit possible group-specific protective/vulnerability effects. SNPs were rs9296158, rs4713916, rs992105, rs3800373 (FKBP5) and rs6265 (BDNF). In the combined sample, no BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were apparent for either outcome, and BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were not different for patients and siblings. The omission of drug use and alcohol consumption sometimes yielded false positives, greatly affected explained error and influenced p-values. The consistent absence of any significant BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions on assessments of hippocampal integrity suggests that the effect of these interactions on psychotic symptoms is not mediated by hippocampal integrity. The importance of appropriate statistical designs and inclusion of relevant covariates should be carefully considered. PMID:24658422

  17. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children With Functional Abdominal Pain and Their Parents Decreases Pain and Other Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Walker, Lynn S.; Romano, Joan M.; Christie, Dennis L.; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M.; Feld, Andrew D.; Ballard, Sheri A.; Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J.; Whitehead, William E.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Unexplained abdominal pain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominal pain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. METHODS Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions—a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. RESULTS Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.01). Also, parents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS An intervention aimed at reducing protective parental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition. PMID:20216531

  18. Neurologic, Functional and Cognitive Stroke Outcomes in Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Sánchez, Brisa N; Baek, Jonggyu; Skolarus, Lesli E; Smith, Melinda A; Garcia, Nelda; Brown, Devin L; Morgenstern, Lewis B

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Our objective was to compare neurologic, functional, and cognitive stroke outcomes in Mexican Americans (MAs) and non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) using data from a population-based study. Methods: Ischemic strokes (2008-2012) were identified from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi (BASIC) Project. Data were collected from patient or proxy interviews (conducted at baseline and 90 days post-stroke) and medical records. Ethnic differences in neurologic (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), range 0-44, higher scores worse), functional (activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) score, range 1-4, higher scores worse), and cognitive (Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MSE), range 0-100, lower scores worse) outcomes were assessed with Tobit or linear regression adjusted for demographics and clinical factors. Results: 513, 510, and 415 subjects had complete data for neurologic, functional and cognitive outcomes and covariates, respectively. Median age was 66 (IQR: 57-78); 64% were MA. In MAs, median NIHSS, ADL/IADL and 3MSE score were 3 (IQR: 1-6), 2.5 (IQR: 1.6-3.5) and 88 (IQR: 76-94), respectively. MAs scored 48% worse (95% CI: 23%-78%) on NIHSS, 0.36 points worse (95% CI: 0.16-0.57) on ADL/IADL score, and 3.39 points worse (95% CI: 0.35-6.43) on 3MSE than NHWs after multivariable adjustment. Conclusions: MAs scored worse than NHWs on all outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors; differences were only partially explained by ethnic differences in survival. These findings in combination with the increased stroke risk in MAs suggest that the public health burden of stroke in this growing population is substantial. PMID:24627112

  19. Everyday functioning in relation to cognitive functioning and neuroimaging in community-dwelling Hispanic and Non-Hispanic older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SARAH TOMASZEWSKI FARIAS; DAN MUNGAS; BRUCE REED; MARY N. HAAN; WILLIAM J. JAGUST

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how a specific informant-based measure of everyday functioning, the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten, 1988) relates to cognition and structural neuroimaging in a large multicultural, multilingual sample of Caucasians and Hispanics. Cognitive variables included selected subtests from the Spanish and English Neuropsychological Assessment Scales (SENAS;

  20. Cognitive function in the locked-in syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steve Majerus; Serge Goldman; Philippe Van Eeckhout; Stephane Gay; Frederic Pellas; Valerie Bartsch; Philippe Peigneux; Gustave Moonen

    2008-01-01

    Objective\\u000a   The lockedin syndrome (LIS) originates from a ventro-pontine lesion resulting in a complete quadraplegia and anarthria. Classically,\\u000a communication remains possible by means of spared vertical eye movements and\\/or blinking. To allow assessing cognitive functions\\u000a in LIS patients, we propose here a neuropsychological testing based on eye-coded communication.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods\\u000a   Ten chronic LIS survivors were assessed 1 to 6 years after

  1. The Impact of Cognitive Function on Medication Management: Three Studies

    PubMed Central

    Stilley, Carol S.; Bender, Catherine M.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan; Ryan, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medication non-adherence has been a persistent problem over the past 3 decades; forgetting and being distracted from regular routines are the barriers most frequently cited by patients. Prior research on cognitive function and medication adherence has yielded mixed results. This report compares findings of 3 studies. DESIGN: All were longitudinal; two were randomized controlled intervention trials, one was descriptive. Samples of adult patients taking once daily lipid-lowering medication, diabetic patients with co-morbid conditions on complex regimens, and early-stage breast cancer patients on hormonal therapy completed similar batteries of standardized, valid neuropsychological tests at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to medication regimens, over time, was tracked with electronic event monitors. RESULTS: Medication non-adherence was prevalent in all studies. Deficits in attention/mental flexibility and/or working memory predicted non-adherence in all studies; impaired executive function was related to poor adherence in 1 study. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that better mental efficiency may be the key to better medication adherence with any regimen and that targeted cognitive functions, which can be easily and quickly assessed, may identify patients at risk of poor adherence regardless of diagnosis or regimen. PMID:20063935

  2. Trajectories of age-related cognitive decline and potential associated factors of cognitive function in senior citizens of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, He; Lv, Chenlong; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Kewei; Chen, Chuansheng; Gai, Guozhong; Hu, Liangping; Wang, Yongyan; Zhang, Zhanjun

    2014-01-01

    With a longer life expectancy and an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, investigations on trajectories of cognitive aging have become exciting and promising. This study aimed to estimate the patterns of age-related cognitive decline and the potential associated factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling residents of Beijing, China. In this study, 1248 older adults aged 52-88 years [including 175 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects] completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. The personal information, including demographic information, medical history, eating habits, lifestyle regularity and leisure activities, was also collected. All cognitive function exhibited an agerelated decline in normal volunteers. Piece-wise linear fitting results suggested that performance on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test remained stable until 58 years of age and continued to decline thereafter. The decline in processing speed and executive function began during the early 50's. Scores on visual-spatial and language tests declined after 66 years of age. The decline stage of the general mental status ranged from 63 to 70 years of age. However, the MCI group did not exhibit an obvious age-related decline in most cognitive tests. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that education, gender, leisure activities, diabetes and eating habits were associated with cognitive abilities. These results indicated various trajectories of age-related decline across multiple cognitive domains. We also found different patterns of agerelated cognitive decline between MCI and normal elderly. These findings could help improve the guidance of cognitive intervention program and have implications for public policy issues. PMID:25212920

  3. Functional Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: A Brief, Individual Treatment for Functional Impairments Resulting From Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne Cather

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a novel cognitive-behavioural approach to treating psychotic symptoms—functional cognitive-behavioural therapy (FCBT)—which was developed with the primary aim of remediating social functioning deficits in patients with residual psychotic symptoms. In FCBT, symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are delivered in the context of working on functional goals: a premise of FCBT is that the therapeutic alliance and patient motivation

  4. Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (?450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or behavioural outcomes. Conclusions Both birth weight and postnatal growth were associated with IQ but not behavioural outcomes for Chinese term children aged 4–7 years, but the effect sizes were small. No relation between either birth weight or postnatal growth and cognition or behavioural outcomes was observed among preterm children aged 4–7 years. PMID:23243117

  5. A Cognitive Approach To The Psychoeducational Development Of Low-Functioning Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lani Wallens Kaskel

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether or not specific cognitive skills can be taught in a school setting to low-functioning adolescents. It also compared the transfer effects of different cognitive training programs to the areas of mathematics learning and abstract thinking and reasoning abilities.The 2 independent variables of interest were: nonverbal vs. verbal cognitive skill training and comprehensive unitary

  6. The effect of pain on cognitive function: A review of clinical and preclinical research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Orla Moriarty; Brian E. McGuire; David P. Finn

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is commonly associated with the pain experience. This impairment represents a major obstacle to daily activities and rehabilitation, especially in the chronic pain population. Here we review clinical and preclinical studies that have investigated pain-related alterations in cognition. These include impaired attentional, executive and general cognitive functioning. We describe the anatomical, neurochemical and molecular substrates common to both

  7. Longitudinal Influences of Partner Depression on Cognitive Functioning in Latino Spousal Pairs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ladson Hinton; Yolanda Hagar; Nancy West; Hector M. González; Dan Mungas; Laurel Beckett; Mary N. Haan

    2009-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: While social factors may influence the trajectories of cognitive aging, the influence of spousal characteristics (i.e. health or mental health) on cognitive decline has received little attention. This study examined the influence of baseline depressive symptoms in one spouse on cognitive functioning in the other. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study of 279 Latino spousal pairs (558 people) taken

  8. Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular

    E-print Network

    Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular depression (LLD). To understand the influence of LLD on cognition, it is important to determine if deficits in a number of cognitive domains are relatively independent, or mediated by depression- related deficits

  9. The Relationship between Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nesrine Awad; Michèle Gagnon; Claude Messier

    2004-01-01

    The present review integrates findings of published studies that have evaluated the cognitive function of treated and untreated type 2 diabetic patients and provides a detailed overview of the neuropsychological assessments conducted. Cognitive deficits are observed in older people with glucose intolerance or untreated diabetes but these deficits appear to be attenuated by treatments that improve glycemic control. Cognitive decrements

  10. On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural Architectures

    E-print Network

    Wang, Yingxu

    and the abstract intelligence theory of the natural intelligence will enable the development of cognitive computers range of applications of the cognitive computers have been developing in ICIC and my laboratory such as1 On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural

  11. Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three city Study.

    E-print Network

    Ryan. 1 Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three: 94 References: 40 Tables: 5 Figures: 0 Neurology Search Terms: All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia [25: To examine the association between hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive performance or dementia, focusing

  12. The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Knecht, Anya M.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2013-01-01

    This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control. PMID:23487583

  13. Racial identity, social context, and race-related social cognition in African Americans during middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A

    2008-11-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320

  14. Clinical and functional outcome of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder 33 years later.

    PubMed

    Klein, Rachel G; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Olazagasti, María A Ramos; Roizen, Erica; Hutchison, Jesse A; Lashua, Erin C; Castellanos, F Xavier

    2012-12-01

    CONTEXT Prospective studies of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. OBJECTIVE To examine whether children diagnosed as having ADHD at a mean age of 8 years (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, and marital outcomes and higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance use disorders (SUDs), adult-onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations than non-ADHD comparison participants at a mean age of 41 years. DESIGN Prospective, 33-year follow-up study, with masked clinical assessments. SETTING Research clinic. PARTICIPANTS A total of 135 white men with ADHD in childhood, free of conduct disorder, and 136 men without childhood ADHD (65.2% and 76.4% of original cohort, respectively). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Occupational, economic, and educational attainment; marital history; occupational and social functioning; ongoing and lifetime psychiatric disorders; psychiatric hospitalizations; and incarcerations. RESULTS Probands had significantly worse educational, occupational, economic, and social outcomes; more divorces; and higher rates of ongoing ADHD (22.2% vs 5.1%, P < .001), ASPD (16.3% vs 0%, P < .001), and SUDs (14.1% vs 5.1%, P = .01) but not more mood or anxiety disorders (P = .36 and .33) than did comparison participants. Ongoing ADHD was weakly related to ongoing SUDs (? = 0.19, P = .04), as well as ASPD with SUDs (? = 0.20, P = .04). During their lifetime, probands had significantly more ASPD and SUDs but not mood or anxiety disorders and more psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations than comparison participants. Relative to comparisons, psychiatric disorders with onsets at 21 years or older were not significantly elevated in probands. Probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders had worse social, but not occupational, functioning. CONCLUSIONS The multiple disadvantages predicted by childhood ADHD well into adulthood began in adolescence, without increased onsets of new disorders after 20 years of age. Findings highlight the importance of extended monitoring and treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:23070149

  15. Cognitive function as measured by trail making test in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L

    2015-02-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit cognitive impairment in several subdomains, but little is known about factors associated with cognitive function and its relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with COPD. A data set from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial was used for this study. Data were obtained through questionnaires and clinical testing. Cognitive function in people with COPD was measured with the Trail Making Test. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants with COPD had slightly impaired processing speed and executive function. Test results revealed that age, gender, education, and income were significantly associated with cognitive function. Test scores also showed that cognitive function was significantly associated with HRQOL in people with COPD. This finding suggests that cognitive function should be screened in people with COPD. PMID:24733234

  16. SELECTIVITY OF EXECUTIVE FUNCTION DEFICITS IN MILD COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jason; Aretouli, Eleni; Neijstrom, Eleanor; Samek, Jaclyn; Manning, Kevin; Albert, Marilyn S.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Impairment in executive cognition (EC) is now recognized as relatively common among older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and may be predictive of the development of dementia. However, both MCI and executive functioning are broad and heterogeneous constructs. The present study sought to determine whether impairments in specific domains of EC are associated with specific subtypes of MCI. 124 MCI patients were divided into four subgroups (amnestic versus nonamnestic, and single- versus multiple-domain) based on their performance of widely-used neuropsychological screening tests. These patients and 68 normal elderly were administered 18 clinical and experimental tests of executive function. Principal components analysis suggested two highly reliable EC components, planning/problem-solving and working memory, and a less reliable third component, judgment. Planning/problem-solving and working memory, but not judgment, were impaired among the MCI patients. This was true even among those with Apure amnestic@ MCI, the least impaired group overall. Multiple-domain MCI patients had more severe impairments in planning/problem-solving and working memory than single-domain patients, leading to the supposition that they, not pure amnestic MCIs, are at highest risk of imminent dementia. PMID:19702414

  17. Addiction and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained abstinence. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to the effects of drugs of abuse; prenatal, childhood, and adolescent exposures produce long-lasting changes in cognition. Patients with mental illness are at high risk for substance abuse, and the adverse impact on cognition may be particularly deleterious in combination with cognitive problems related to their mental disorders. PMID:22002448

  18. Executive–cognitive functioning in the development of antisocial personality disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael C. Stevens; Richard F. Kaplan; Victor M. Hesselbrock

    2003-01-01

    The present study examined the association of cognitive–executive abilities to two risk factors for alcoholism, i.e., antisocial behaviors and a family history (FH+) of alcohol dependence. A sample of 91 right-handed, non-substance-dependent, young male adults recruited from the community were classified into three groups: (1) a control group of n=32 men with no history of DSM-III-R childhood conduct disorder (CD)

  19. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

  20. Characteristics of functional joint reminiscence in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kulkofsky, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the impact of reminiscing goals on the style and content of joint mother-child reminiscence. In the study 53 mothers and their 4-year-old children were asked to discuss past events for the purposes of bonding and teaching lessons. Mothers' reminiscing style and level of autonomy support, child memory elaborations, and the evaluative, social, and didactic content of mothers' statements were coded. Mothers displayed higher levels of autonomy support, used more evaluative and social content, and focused more on specific events in conversations for bonding purposes. Conversations for the purpose of teaching lessons tended to include a greater focus on the child relative to others and a greater number of didactic statements. Further, mothers' level of autonomy support was associated with children's contributions in bonding conversations but not lesson conversations. Results are discussed in light of the functional nature of joint reminiscence. PMID:21154014

  1. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  2. Cognitive function and psychological well-being: findings from a population-based cohort

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. LLEWELLYN; I AIN A. LANG; K ENNETH M. LANGA; F ELICIA A. HUPPERT

    2008-01-01

    Background: depression is associated with poor cognitive function, though little is known about the relationship between psychological well-being and cognitive function. Objective: to investigate whether psychological well-being is associated with levels of cognitive function. Design: nationally representative population-based cohort study. Setting and participants: 11,234 non-institutionalised adults aged 50 years and over of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002.

  3. Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Melissa Voigt

    2014-09-01

    Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550

  4. Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament. PMID:22506538

  5. Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules in childhood and adolescence

    SciTech Connect

    Croom, R.D. III; Thomas, C.G. Jr.; Reddick, R.L.; Tawil, M.T.

    1987-12-01

    Autonomously functioning thyroid nodules (AFTNs) in children and adolescents (under age 18) are unusual but are not as rare as earlier reports suggested. These lesions have a significantly different biologic potential than similar lesions in older patients. In the younger age group there is a more rapid progression toward toxicity and a higher incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Our experience with 12 patients is combined with those previously reported for identification of a total of 61 children and adolescents with AFTNs, of whom 53 have undergone operation. Hyperthyroidism was present in 15 patients (24.6%), and in six patients (11.3%) the AFTN was due to a well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Surgical treatment is advisable for all children and adolescents with AFTNs because of the risks of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma. Surgical excision (lobectomy is preferred) results in rapid restoration of a euthyroid state for the toxic AFTN and allows histopathologic diagnosis. Therapy with radioiodine is not advisable for treatment of AFTNs in this age group. Thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression should be used for all patients with a diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.

  6. Memory . Author manuscript Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event-and time-based

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    # , Laetitia Bon 1 , Fausto Viader 1 3 , Francis Eustache 1 , B atrice Desgrangesé 1 * Neuropsychologie and over ; Aging ; psychology ; Cognition ; Executive Function ; Female ; Humans ; Inhibition (Psychology

  7. Factors influencing self-assessment of cognition and functioning in schizophrenia: Implications for treatment studies.

    PubMed

    Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Sabbag, Samir; Gould, Felicia; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Patterson, Thomas L; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-02-01

    Awareness of illness is a major factor in schizophrenia and extends into unawareness of cognitive and functional deficits. This unawareness of functional limitations has been shown to be influenced by several different predictive factors, including greater impairment and less severe depression. As treatment efforts are aimed at reducing cognitive deficits, discovery of the most efficient assessment strategies for detection of cognitive and functional changes is critical. In this study, we collected systematic assessments from high contact clinicians focusing on their impressions of the cognitive deficits and everyday functioning in a sample of 169 community dwelling patients with schizophrenia. The patients provided self-report on those same rating scales, as well as self-reporting their depression and performing an assessment of cognitive performance and functional skills. There was essentially no correlation between patients? self-reports of their cognitive performance and functional skills and either clinician ratings of these skills or the results of the performance-based assessments. In contrast, clinician reports of cognitive impairments and everyday functioning were correlated with objective performance data. Depression on the part of patients was associated with ratings of functioning that were both more impaired and more congruent with clinician impressions, while overall patients reported less impairment than clinicians. These results underscore the limitations of self-reported cognitive functioning even with structured rating scales. Concurrently, clinicians provided ratings of cognitive performance that were related to scores on objective tests, even though they were unaware of the results of those assessments. PMID:25104226

  8. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

  9. Childhood maltreatment and social functioning in adults with sub-clinical psychosis.

    PubMed

    Boyda, David; McFeeters, Danielle

    2015-03-30

    Studies now acknowledge a robust association between childhood maltreatment and psychosis development in adulthood. Research shows that maltreatment not only influences the child?s psychological wellbeing but also inhibits domains of social development. These social impairments have been found to predate the onset of psychosis and may crucially represent an intervening factor which triggers the decline towards psychosis. To examine social functioning as a potential mediating pathway between early maltreatment and sub-clinical psychosis. The study utilised data from the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=7403). Psychotic-like experiences were assessed using the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) along with measures designed to capture childhood maltreatment and social impairment. Results revealed that maltreatment was associated with both social functioning deficits as well as psychotic symptomology. Furthermore, social functioning was found to mediate the relationship between maltreatment and psychosis. The results align with literature linking maltreatment to both social functioning deficits and psychosis. Crucially, the study bridges these research areas by presenting functional decline as possible risk indicator and intervening factor between maltreatment and psychosis. Intervention strategies should therefore seek to capitalise on treatments which boost social aptitude as a means of averting further decline towards psychopathology. PMID:25669137

  10. Reflective function as a mediator between childhood adversity, personality disorder and symptom distress.

    PubMed

    Chiesa, Marco; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-02-01

    A growing body of literature has indicated the central role of childhood adversity for the development in later life of personality disorder (PD) and psychiatric distress. In this investigation, we examine the role of reflective function (RF) as a mediator between childhood adversity, subsequent development of PD and psychiatric morbidity. We tested the hypothesis that adversity leads to decreased RF, which in turn is associated with PD, and both increase the likelihood of psychiatric distress. The study sample consisted of 234 individuals, drawn from a clinical PD group (n?=?112) and one demographically matched non-psychiatric group (n?=?122) using a shared battery of measures, which included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Symptom Checklist-90-R and the Adult Attachment Interview, which was used to assess RF levels. The results indicated that childhood adversity predicted low level of RF, which in turn was associated with PD onset later in life. A combination of different early adverse experiences had a significantly greater impact on lowering RF scores than experiencing either neglect or abuse alone. Mediation analyses confirmed that RF was a significant mediator between adversity and PD diagnoses and between adversity and psychiatric distress. PMID:24532555

  11. Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Barker; K M Godfrey; C Fall; C Osmond; P D Winter; S O Shaheen

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether birth weight, infant weight, and childhood respiratory infection are associated with adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. DESIGN--Follow up study of men born during 1911-30 whose birth weights, weights at 1 year, and childhood illnesses were recorded at the time by health visitors. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5718 men born in the county during 1911-30

  12. Hostility and Change in Cognitive Function Over Time in Older Blacks and Whites

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Lisa L.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Bienias, Julia L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Evans, Denis A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test whether the level of hostility predicted the rate of cognitive decline in a community of older Blacks and Whites and whether the association varied as a function of race. Methods Over 4800 persons from a defined community in Chicago completed up to three structured interviews at approximately 3 year intervals over a period of up to 8.8 years (mean = 4.4 years). At the baseline interview, hostility was assessed with 8-items from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Cognitive function was assessed at each interview with four cognitive function tests from which a composite measure of cognition was formed. Mixed effects models were used to assess change in cognition and its relation to hostility, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. Results The average score on the hostility scale at baseline was 3.0 (SD = 2.1). Higher levels of hostility were associated with lower cognitive scores (estimate = ?0.028, SE = 0.004, p < .001). Cognition declined at a rate of 0.051 U per year on average, but hostility was not related to the rate of decline. Results were unchanged after controlling for depressive symptoms, chronic health, neuroticism, and social and cognitive activity patterns, or when persons with cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The association was similar in Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The results suggest that hostility is associated with level of cognitive function in older persons but not related to cognitive decline. PMID:19483119

  13. Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

  14. Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2014-09-01

    Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433

  15. Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Newman, Timothy Ray

    2008-04-30

    This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...

  16. Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-02-01

    Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

  17. Obovatol improves cognitive functions in animal models for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Young; Lee, Jae Woong; Peng, Jin; Lee, Young Jung; Han, Jin-Yi; Lee, Yeon Hee; Choi, Im Seop; Han, Sang Bae; Jung, Jae Kyung; Lee, Woong Soo; Lee, Seung-Ho; Kwon, Byoung-Mog; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

    2012-03-01

    Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is obscure, but neuroinflammation and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) are implicated in pathogenesis of AD. We have shown anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic properties of obovatol, a biphenolic compound isolated from Magnolia obovata. In this study, we examined the effect of obovatol on cognitive deficits in two separate AD models: (i) mice that received intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of A?(1-42) (2.0 ?g/mouse) and (ii) Tg2576 mice-expressing mutant human amyloid precursor protein (K670N, M671L). Injection of A?(1-42) into lateral ventricle caused memory impairments in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tasks, being associated with neuroinflammation. A?(1-42) -induced abnormality was significantly attenuated by administration of obovatol. When we analyzed with Tg2576 mice, long-term treatment of obovatol (1 mg/kg/day for 3 months) significantly improved cognitive function. In parallel with the improvement, treatment suppressed astroglial activation, BACE1 expression and NF-?B activity in the transgenic mice. Furthermore, obovatol potently inhibited fibrillation of A?in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, as determined by Thioflavin T fluorescence and electron microscopic analysis. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that obovatol prevented memory impairments in experimental AD models, which could be attributable to amelioration of neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis by inhibition of NF-?B signaling pathway and anti-fibrillogenic activity of obovatol. PMID:22212065

  18. Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

    2014-01-01

    The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

  19. Is cognitive functioning 1 year poststroke related to quality of life domain?

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Clara L M; Post, Marcel W M; Schiemanck, Sven K; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Vrancken, Peter H; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have shown divergent results. In this study, we investigated the relationships between cognitive functioning and various QoL domains at 1 year poststroke. This was a cross-sectional study, examining 92 patients at 1 year poststroke. Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery covering language, attention and psychomotor function, memory, visuoperception, and neglect. QoL domains were functional independence (Barthel Index), social participation (Frenchay Activities Index), depressive mood (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), and life satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Questionnaire). Bivariate and multivariate relationships between cognitive and QoL variables were analyzed, the latter both with and without controlling for demographic variables and motor impairment. The prevalence of cognitive impairments varied between 19.3% (neglect) and 72% (attention and psychomotor function). Correlations between cognitive functioning and QoL were strongest for social participation (0.41-0.60, P < .01) and functional independence (0.13-0.58, P < .05). The percentages of variance explained by the total cognition score were 19% for functional independence, 40% for participation, 8% for life satisfaction, and 5% for depression. Controlling for demographic factors and motor impairments resulted in negligible percentages of variance additionally explained by cognitive functioning. The percentages of explained variance were somewhat lower in the analyses with the separate cognitive domains and not significant for depression. Poor cognitive functioning was associated with reduced functional independence, social participation, depressive mood, and life satisfaction 1 year post; however, motor impairment was a stronger determinant of long-term QoL than cognitive functioning. PMID:20813551

  20. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

  1. Childhood maltreatment is associated with a sex-dependent functional reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network.

    PubMed

    Elton, Amanda; Tripathi, Shanti P; Mletzko, Tanja; Young, Jonathan; Cisler, Josh M; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D

    2014-04-01

    Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. PMID:23616424

  2. Monitoring and optimising cognitive function in cancer patients: Present knowledge and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Schagen, S.B.; Klein, M.; Reijneveld, J.C.; Brain, E.; Deprez, S.; Joly, F.; Scherwath, A.; Schrauwen, W.; Wefel, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potentially detrimental effects of cancer and related treatments on cognitive functioning are emerging as a key focus of cancer survivorship research. Many patients with central nervous system (CNS) or non-CNS tumours develop cognitive problems during the course of their disease that can result in diminished functional independence. We review the state of knowledge on the cognitive functioning of patients with primary and secondary brain tumours at diagnosis, during and after therapy, and discuss current initiatives to diminish cognitive decline in these patients. Similarly, attention is paid to the cognitive sequelae of cancer and cancer therapies in patients without CNS disease. Disease and treatment effects on cognition are discussed, as well as current insights into the neural substrates and the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in these patients. In addition, rehabilitation strategies for patients with non-CNS disease confronted with cognitive dysfunction are described. Special attention is given to knowledge gaps in the area of cancer and cognition, in CNS and non-CNS diseases. Finally, we point to the important role for cooperative groups to include cognitive endpoints in clinical trials in order to accelerate our understanding and treatment of cognitive dysfunction related to cancer and cancer therapies.

  3. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

  4. Is Cognitive Functioning 1 Year Poststroke Related to Quality of Life Domain?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara L. M. Verhoeven; Marcel W. M. Post; Sven K. Schiemanck; Martine J. E. van Zandvoort; Peter H. Vrancken; Caroline M. van Heugten

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies on the association between poststroke cognitive impairment and quality of life (QoL) have shown divergent results. In this study, we investigated the relationships between cognitive functioning and various QoL domains at 1 year poststroke. This was a cross-sectional study, examining 92 patients at 1 year poststroke. Cognitive functioning was measured with a neuropsychological test battery covering language, attention

  5. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats?

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38–51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  6. The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing

    PubMed Central

    Harmony, Thalía

    2013-01-01

    Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301

  7. What’s Mom Got to Do with It? Contributions of Maternal Executive Function and Caregiving to the Development of Executive Function Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Watson, Amanda J.; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control) are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and associated with optimal cognitive and socio-emotional development. This study provides the first concurrent analysis of the relative contributions of maternal EF and caregiving to child EF. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate interaction (10, 24, 36 months) and EF tasks (child: 24, 36, and 48 months). Regression analyses revealed that by 36 months of age, maternal EF and negative caregiving behaviors accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond maternal education and child verbal ability. These findings were confirmed when using an early child EF composite-our most reliable measure of EF—and a similar pattern was found when controlling for stability in child EF. Furthermore, there was evidence that maternal EF had significant indirect effects on changes in child EF through maternal caregiving. At 24 months, EF was associated with maternal EF, but not negative caregiving behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that links between negative caregiving and child EF are increasingly manifested during early childhood. Although maternal EF and negative caregiving are related, they provide unique information about the development of child EF. PMID:24410963

  8. Brain Function in Young Patients Receiving Methotrexate for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-08-20

    B-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Cognitive/Functional Effects; Long-term Effects Secondary to Cancer Therapy in Children; Neurotoxicity; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; T-cell Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  9. Use of cognitive behavior therapy for functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    PubMed

    Berga, Sarah L; Loucks, Tammy L

    2006-12-01

    Behaviors that chronically activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and/or suppress the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroidal (HPT) axis disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in women and men. Individuals with functional hypothalamic hypogonadism typically engage in a combination of behaviors that concomitantly heighten psychogenic stress and increase energy demand. Although it is not widely recognized clinically, functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism are more than an isolated disruption of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) drive and reproductive compromise. Indeed, women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea display a constellation of neuroendocrine aberrations that reflect allostatic adjustments to chronic stress. Given these considerations, we have suggested that complete neuroendocrine recovery would involve more than reproductive recovery. Hormone replacement strategies have limited benefit because they do not ameliorate allostatic endocrine adjustments, particularly the activation of the adrenal and the suppression of the thyroidal axes. Indeed, the rationale for the use of sex steroid replacement is based on the erroneous assumption that functional forms of hypothalamic hypogonadism represent only or primarily an alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Potential health consequences of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea, often termed stress-induced anovulation, may include an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, depression, other psychiatric conditions, and dementia. Although fertility can be restored with exogenous administration of gonadotropins or pulsatile GnRH, fertility management alone will not permit recovery of the adrenal and thyroidal axes. Initiating pregnancy with exogenous means without reversing the hormonal milieu induced by chronic stress may increase the likelihood of poor obstetrical, fetal, or neonatal outcomes. In contrast, behavioral and psychological interventions that address problematic behaviors and attitudes, such as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), have the potential to permit resumption of full ovarian function along with recovery of the adrenal, thyroidal, and other neuroendocrine aberrations. Full endocrine recovery potentially offers better individual, maternal, and child health. PMID:17308138

  10. Comparison of Cognitive Functions Between Male and Female Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guragain, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are gender differences in cognitive abilities. The major enigma is whether males or females perform better in various cognitive tasks. The reports were found to be contradictory. Studies have shown that oestrogen and testosterone accentuate cognitive functions. But the effects of progesterone on cognitive functions are still contradictory. Objective: To assess and compare the cognitive functions between male and female students. Methods: This study was conducted on healthy male (n=21) and female (n=21) volunteers who were aged between 19-37 years. Cognitive functions which were assessed in males (one time) and females (two times: during preovulatory and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle) were attentional: visual reaction time (VRT) and Go/No-Go VRT; perceptual: fast counting (FC), executive: Erisken Flanker Test (EFT) and Stroop Test (ST), and working memory. Data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Cognitive functions in female preovulatory phase were comparable to male cognitive functions. In addition, the female postovulatory phase cognitive functions were also similar to those of males in all the tasks, except those seen in VRT and ST. Male performed better than females in VRT (M: 331.66 ms, IQR: 286.99-375.33 vs. M: 367.8 ms, IQR: 340.66-435.66; p=0.05). However, in ST, females showed higher accuracies in reading colour interferences than males (M: 100%, IQR: 95.12-100 vs. M: 95.24%, IQR: 86.36-100; p=0.04). In addition, males showed trend of a poorer performance than females in Go/No-Go VRT, ST colour reading normal time and interference time and in working-memory time. Conclusion: Male cognitive functions were comparable to female preovulatory phase cognitive functions. However, females, during postovulatory phase of their cycle, may have advantages in executive tasks (Stroop test) and disadvantages in attentional tasks (VRT), as compared to males. PMID:25120970

  11. Brain and Cognitive Evolution: Forms of Modularity and Functions of Mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Geary; Kelly J. Huffman

    2002-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological research is reviewed as related to controversy over the extent to which neocortical organization and associated cognitive functions are genetically constrained or emerge through patterns of developmental experience. An evolutionary framework that accommodates genetic constraint and experiential modification of brain organization and cognitive function is then proposed. The authors argue that 4 forms of modularity and 3

  12. Psychological and cognitive functioning in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease: A meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Petra A. Karsdorp; Walter Everaerd; Merel Kindt; Barbara J. M. Mulder

    2007-01-01

    Objective Findings in the literature are inconsistent on the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the psychological and cognitive functioning of children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to systematically review this empirical body of literature. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to review studies on behavior problems and cognitive functioning in CHD. Results Only older children

  13. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  14. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  15. Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

  16. Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiia Ngandu; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Hilkka Soininen; Bengt Winblad; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Aulikki Nissinen; Miia Kivipelto

    2007-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341

  17. Framingham Stroke Risk Profile and poor cognitive function: a population-based study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J Llewellyn; Iain A Lang; Jing Xie; Felicia A Huppert; David Melzer; Kenneth M Langa

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between stroke risk and cognitive function has not previously been examined in a large community living sample other than the Framingham cohort. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between 10-year risk for incident stroke and cognitive function in a large population-based sample. METHODS: Participants were 7377 adults aged 50 years and over of

  18. Church Attendance Mediates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Mexican Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Ivonne M. Berges; Mukaila A. Raji; Harold G. Koenig; Yong-Fang Kuo; Kyriakos S. Markides

    2008-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to examine how the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive function is modified by church attendance. Methods. We used a sample of 2759 older Mexican Americans. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline, 2, 5, 7, and 11 years of follow-up. Church attendance was dichotomized as frequent

  19. Review of Normative Data For Common Screening Measures Used to Evaluate Cognitive Functioning in Elderly Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robyn M. Busch; Jessica Smerz Chapin

    2008-01-01

    When conducting neuropsychological evaluations of the elderly, it is important to compare patients' test scores to appropriate normative data to maximize diagnostic and descriptive accuracy. Many sets of normative data are now available for screening measures that assess cognitive functioning in the elderly. This article systematically reviewed available norms for 6 widely used screening measures of cognitive functioning in elderly

  20. Exercise and Cognitive Function: Can Working Out Train the Brain, Too?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Zoeller

    2010-01-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and cognitive function vary across the lifespan in terms of both their number and the apparent strength of the associations. Studies of children are relatively few in number but generally show a positive association between physical activity and cognitive function. Studies of younger adults are even more scarce; findings are equivocal and

  1. Cognitive and functional assessments of stroke patients: An analysis of their relation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlasta E. Hajek; Sylvain Gagnon; James E. Ruderman

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To improve the assessment of stroke patients for the purpose of designing rehabilitation treatments and predicting rehabilitation outcomes. Specific objectives included the evaluation of the power of functional scales to properly assess both physical and cognitive disabilities, and the evaluation of the relations between functional, neurological, physical, and cognitive assessments. The hypothesis was that the relations between different assessment

  2. Vitamin D is associated with cognitive function in elders receiving home health services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D status has recently been associated with neurological disorders, but little research has evaluated vitamin D and cognitive function. We conducted a cross-sectional investigation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and cognitive function in 377 black and 703 non-black (Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian...

  3. Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia on Brain Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Krone, Franziska; Hoffmann, Andre; Holfeld, Elisabeth; Vorwerk, Peter; Kramm, Christof; Gruhn, Bernd; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernaiz-Driever, Pablo; Mandal, Rakesh; Suttorp, Meinolf; Hummel, Thomas; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Smolka, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using multidisciplinary treatment modalities the majority of children with cancer can be cured but we are increasingly faced with therapy-related toxicities. We studied brain morphology and neurocognitive functions in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute, low and standard risk lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which was successfully treated with chemotherapy. We expected that intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy administered in childhood will affect grey matter structures, including hippocampus and olfactory bulbs, areas where postnatal neurogenesis is ongoing. Methods We examined 27 ALL-survivors and 27 age-matched healthy controls, ages 15–22 years. ALL-survivors developed disease prior to their 11th birthday without central nervous system involvement, were treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy and received no radiation. Volumes of grey, white matter and olfactory bulbs were measured on T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images manually, using FIRST (FMRIB’s integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Memory, executive functions, attention, intelligence and olfaction were assessed. Results Mean volumes of left hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in the ALL group. VBM analysis revealed significantly smaller volumes of the left calcarine gyrus, both lingual gyri and the left precuneus. DTI data analysis provided no evidence for white matter pathology. Lower scores in hippocampus-dependent memory were measured in ALL-subjects, while lower figural memory correlated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Interpretation Findings demonstrate that childhood ALL, treated with chemotherapy, is associated with smaller grey matter volumes of neocortical and subcortical grey matter and lower hippocampal memory performance in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:24265700

  4. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  5. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  6. Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

  7. The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

  8. Cognitive aging, childhood intelligence, and the use of food supplements: possible involvement of n3 fatty acids1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J Whalley; Helen C Fox; Klaus W Wahle; John M Starr; Ian J Dear

    Background: Food supplement use is widely promoted, but little is known about the cognitive effects of food supplements. Objective: We examined the effects of food supplement use on cognitive aging. Design: This was an observational study of subjects born in 1936 whose mental ability was tested in 1947 and who were followed up in 2000-2001, at which time cognition, diet,

  9. Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplício; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment. PMID:23625064

  10. Longitudinal links between childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning: developmental cascades.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning were examined in a sample of 695 children assessed in Grade 3 (academic only) and Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8. Results revealed several complex patterns of associations in which poorer functioning in one domain influenced poorer outcomes in other areas. For example, a symptom driven pathway was consistently found with internalizing problems predicting future peer victimization. Support for an academic incompetence model was also found-- lower GPA in Grade 5, 6, and 7 was associated with more externalizing issues in the following year, and poor writing performance in Grade 3 predicted lower grades in Grade 5, which in turn predicted more externalizing problems in Grade 6. Results highlight the need to examine bidirectional influences and multifarious transactions that exist between peer victimization, mental health, and academic functioning over time. PMID:23907699

  11. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):?0.33,?0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  12. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed. PMID:25426466

  13. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women.

    PubMed

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants' frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed. PMID:25426466

  14. The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitive function depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitive function in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240

  15. Beyond PTSD: Emotion Regulation and Interpersonal Problems as Predictors of Functional Impairment in Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloitre, Marylene; Miranda, Regina; Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Han, Hyemee

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contribution of problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal functioning compared to PTSD symptoms in predicting functional impairment among women with childhood abuse histories. One hundred sixty-four treatment-seeking women completed measures of emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, PTSD…

  16. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  17. Learning an atlas of a cognitive process in its functional geometry

    E-print Network

    Langs, Georg

    In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...

  18. Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Psychosocial Functioning of Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strean, Herbert S.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research on effects of childhood sexual abuse in adulthood. Describes individualizing assessment of adults who have been abused and aspects of treatment illustrated by case studies. Concludes social workers need to expand definition of childhood sexual abuse. (ABL)

  19. Effects of Cognitive, Motor, and Karate Training on Cognitive Functioning and Emotional Well-Being of Elderly People

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Petra; Dahmen-Zimmer, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitive functioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93?years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number–symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311

  20. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  1. Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  2. BDNF and synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, and dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lu, B; Nagappan, G; Lu, Y

    2014-01-01

    Among all neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stands out for its high level of expression in the brain and its potent effects on synapses. It is now widely accepted that the main function of BDNF in the adult brain is to regulate synapses, with structural and functional effects ranging from short-term to long-lasting, on excitatory or inhibitory synapses, in many brain regions. The diverse effects of BDNF on brain synapses stem from its complex downstream signaling cascades, as well as the diametrically opposing effects of the pro- and mature form through distinct receptors, TrkB and p75(NTR). Many aspects of BDNF cell biology are regulated by neuronal activity. The synergistic interactions between neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity by BDNF make it an ideal and essential regulator of cellular processes that underlie cognition and other complex behaviors. Indeed, numerous studies firmly established that BDNF plays a critical role in hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-term enhancement of synaptic efficacy thought to underlie learning and memory. Converging evidence now strongly suggest that deficits in BDNF signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of several major diseases and disorders such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and depression. Thus, manipulating BDNF pathways represents a viable treatment approach to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24668475

  3. The Role of Family Environment and Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse in the Shaping of Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Women.

    PubMed

    Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-10-23

    Studies suggest that sexual self-schemas are an important cognitive mechanism in the sexual development of women with a history of childhood abuse. This literature is only beginning to explore how multiple forms of abuse (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual), rather than sexual abuse alone, can influence the development of adult sexuality. Moreover, the extant literature has not carefully considered important factors other than the severity of the abuse that may relate to sexual self-schemas, including family environment and quality of romantic relationships. Findings from this cross-sectional study conducted on 417 heterosexual women (ages 18-25 years) suggest that family dynamics and different types of childhood abuse contribute both directly and indirectly to adult sexual function and satisfaction and that part of those effects were mediated by other factors such as sexual self-schemas and romantic relationship quality. These results, including an exploration of the direct and indirect effects, were discussed in terms of the pervasive effects of abuse on people's lives and the potential treatment targets that can be addressed when trying to reduce sexual problems in women with a history of abuse. PMID:25339521

  4. Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Papo, David

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

  5. The impact of cognitive functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in older adults with diabetes: the second longitudinal study on aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa C McGuire; Earl S Ford; Umed A Ajani

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For older adults without diabetes, cognitive functioning has been implicated as a predictor of death and functional disability for older adults and those with mild to severe cognitive impairment. However, little is known about the relationship between cognition functioning on mortality and the development of functional disability in late life for persons with diabetes. We examined the relative contribution

  6. Lifestyle Engagement Affects Cognitive Status Differences and Trajectories on Executive Functions in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  7. Fusion and Fission of Cognitive Functions in the Human Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Gina F; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-09-01

    How is higher cognitive function organized in the human parietal cortex? A century of neuropsychology and 30 years of functional neuroimaging has implicated the parietal lobe in many different verbal and nonverbal cognitive domains. There is little clarity, however, on how these functions are organized, that is, where do these functions coalesce (implying a shared, underpinning neurocomputation) and where do they divide (indicating different underlying neural functions). Until now, there has been no multi-domain synthesis in order to reveal where there is fusion or fission of functions in the parietal cortex. This aim was achieved through a large-scale activation likelihood estimation (ALE) analysis of 386 studies (3952 activation peaks) covering 8 cognitive domains. A tripartite, domain-general neuroanatomical division and 5 principles of cognitive organization were established, and these are discussed with respect to a unified theory of parietal functional organization. PMID:25205661

  8. Effects of Tai Chi on cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults: a review.

    PubMed

    Miller, Sally M; Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    As the population of the United States ages, activities to maintain or improve cognitive function will become increasingly important to preserve functional ability, independence and health-related quality of life. This article is a review of recent research on Tai Chi and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults. Of the 12 studies reviewed, 10 reported improvement in measures of executive function, language, learning, and/or memory. Several design features make comparisons across studies challenging. As a moderate-intensity, low-impact form of exercise, Tai Chi is appropriate for older adults and seems to offer positive cognitive benefits. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:24252560

  9. Poor Sleep Is Associated With Impaired Cognitive Function in Older Women: The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Blackwell; Kristine Yaffe; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Jennifer L. Schneider; Jane A. Cauley; Teresa A. Hillier; Howard A. Fink; Katie L. Stone

    2006-01-01

    Background. The association between objectively measured sleep and cognition among community-dwelling elderly persons remains understudied. This observational, cross-sectional analysis examined this association. Methods. Results are from 2932 women (mean age 83.5 years) in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures between 2002 and 2004. Cognitive function was measured by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Trail Making B Test (Trails B). Cognitive impairment

  10. Design of cognitive engine for cognitive radio based on the rough sets and radial basis function neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanchao; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Congbin; Lan, Zhongli

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system which can dynamically adjust the parameters to improve system performance depending on the environmental change and quality of service. The core technology for CR is the design of cognitive engine, which introduces reasoning and learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence, to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning capability. Considering the dynamical wireless environment and demands, this paper proposes a design of cognitive engine based on the rough sets (RS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN). The method uses experienced knowledge and environment information processed by RS module to train the RBF_NN, and then the learning model is used to reconfigure communication parameters to allocate resources rationally and improve system performance. After training learning model, the performance is evaluated according to two benchmark functions. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the proposed cognitive engine can effectively achieve the goal of learning and reconfiguration in cognitive radio.

  11. Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

  12. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  13. Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl L Hart; Caroline B Marvin; Rae Silver; Edward E Smith

    2012-01-01

    The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition.

  14. The NIH Stroke Scale Can Establish Cognitive Function after Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toby B. Cumming; Christian Blomstrand; Julie Bernhardt; Thomas Linden

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is an important but underrecognised consequence of stroke. We investigated whether a subset of items from the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) could yield valid information on cognitive status in a group of stroke patients. Methods: 149 stroke patients from the Göteborg 70+ Stroke Study were investigated after 18 months. We extracted 4 items corresponding to the NIHSS

  15. Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots.

    PubMed

    Lindseth, Paul D; Lindseth, Glenda N; Petros, Thomas V; Jensen, Warren C; Caspers, Julie

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fluid intake and possible dehydration on cognitive flight performance of pilots. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, mixed study design was used to examine differences in working memory, spatial orientation, and cognitive flight performance of 40 randomly selected healthy pilots after having high and low fluid intakes. Serial weights were also analyzed to determine differences in cognitive flight performance of the dehydrated (1-3% weight loss) and hydrated study participants. Results showed flight performance and spatial cognition test scores were significantly (p < 0.05) poorer for pilots who had low fluid intakes and experienced dehydration in comparison to the hydrated pilots. These findings indicate fluid intake differences resulting in dehydration may have safety implications because peak cognitive performance among pilots is critical for flight safety. PMID:23820354

  16. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up.

    PubMed

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178

  17. Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

  18. Components of late-life exercise and cognitive function: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Da-Chen; Fox, Kenneth R; Chen, Li-Jung; Ku, Po-Wen

    2015-05-01

    The preventive effect of late-life physical exercise on cognitive deterioration has been reported in many cohort studies. However, the effect of exercise, independent of other cognitively demanding and social activities, is equivocal and little is known about the relative contributions of frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise. This study aimed to examine the relationships of exercise and its underlying components with cognitive function and rate of cognitive change over an 8-year period in a nationally representative sample of older Taiwanese. Data from the 1999, 2003, and 2007 phases of the nationwide longitudinal survey were used. Data from a fixed cohort of 1,268 participants aged 70 years or older in 1999 with 8 years of follow-up were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise were collected. A generalized estimating equation with multivariate adjustment for sociodemographic variables, cognitive and social leisure activities, lifestyle behaviors, and health status was calculated. Participants who were physically active during leisure time had better subsequent cognitive function (incident rate ratios [IRR]?=?0.63; 95 % CI, 0.54-0.75) and a slower rate of cognitive decline (p?=?0.01). Among the components of exercise, only duration emerged as a predictor of cognitive function (p?=?0.01). Older adults engaging in exercise for at least 30 min or more per session are likely to reduce the risk of subsequent cognitive decline. This research supports the case for physical exercise programs for older adults in order to help prevent loss of cognitive function. PMID:25297968

  19. Distinct Functional Networks Associated with Improvement of Affective Symptoms and Cognitive Function During Citalopram Treatment in Geriatric Depression

    PubMed Central

    Diaconescu, Andreea Oliviana; Kramer, Elisse; Hermann, Carol; Ma, Yilong; Dhawan, Vijay; Chaly, Thomas; Eidelberg, David; McIntosh, Anthony Randal; Smith, Gwenn S.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in the affective and cognitive symptom response to antidepressant treatment has been observed in geriatric depression. The underlying neural circuitry is poorly understood. The current study evaluated the cerebral glucose metabolic effects of citalopram treatment and applied multivariate, functional connectivity analyses to identify brain networks associated with improvements in affective symptoms and cognitive function. Sixteen geriatric depressed patients underwent resting Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies of cerebral glucose metabolism and assessment of affective symptoms and cognitive function before and after eight weeks of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment (citalopram). Voxel-wise analyses of the normalized glucose metabolic data showed decreased cerebral metabolism during citalopram treatment in the anterior cingulate gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, precuneus, amygdala, and parahippocampal gyrus. Increased metabolism was observed in the putamen, occipital cortex and cerebellum. Functional connectivity analyses revealed two networks which were uniquely associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function during treatment. A subcortical-limbic-frontal network was associated with improvement in affect (depression and anxiety), while a medial temporal-parietal-frontal network was associated with improvement in cognition (immediate verbal learning/memory and verbal fluency). The regions that comprise the cognitive network overlap with the regions that are affected in Alzheimer’s dementia. Thus, alterations in specific brain networks associated with improvement of affective symptoms and cognitive function are observed during citalopram treatment in geriatric depression. PMID:20886575

  20. Childhood trauma and current psychological functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Janice R; Goldin, Philippe R; Werner, Kelly; Heimberg, Richard G; Gross, James J

    2011-05-01

    Etiological models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) suggest that early childhood trauma contributes to the development of this disorder. However, surprisingly little is known about the link between different forms of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. This study (1) compared levels of childhood trauma in adults with generalized SAD versus healthy controls (HCs), and (2) examined the relationship between specific types of childhood trauma and adult clinical symptoms in SAD. Participants were 102 individuals with generalized SAD and 30 HCs who completed measures of childhood trauma, social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Compared to HCs, individuals with SAD reported greater childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Within the SAD group, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, but not sexual abuse, physical abuse, or physical neglect, were associated with the severity of social anxiety, trait anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. PMID:21183310

  1. Alcohol consumption, drinking patterns, and cognitive function in older Eastern European adults

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Marcus; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Shishkin, Sergey; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Marmot, M.G.; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Bobak, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations of frequency, quantity, binge, and problem drinking with cognitive function in older Eastern European adults. Methods: The investigation included 14,575 participants, aged 47 to 78 years at cognitive assessment in 2006–2008 from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and 6 Czech towns participating in the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) prospective cohort study. Average response rates were 59% at baseline (2002–2005) and 63% in 2006–2008. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline and in 2006–2008. Cognitive tests included immediate and delayed word recall, semantic fluency (animal naming), and letter cancellation. Associations between alcohol indices and cognitive scores were analyzed cross-sectionally (all measures from 2006 to 2008) and prospectively (alcohol and covariates from 2002 to 2005 and cognition from 2006 to 2008). Results: In cross-sectional analyses, nondrinkers had lower cognitive scores and female moderate drinkers had better cognitive performance than light drinkers. Heavy, binge, and problem drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Few associations were replicated in prospective analyses. Participants who stopped drinking during follow-up had worse cognition than stable drinkers; in men, regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) ranged from ?0.26 (?0.36, ?0.16) for immediate recall to ?0.14 (?0.24, ?0.04) for fluency. Conclusion: Regular and episodic heavy drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Worse cognition in participants who stopped drinking during follow-up suggests that inclusion of less healthy ex-drinkers may partly explain poorer cognition in nondrinkers. PMID:25503981

  2. Assessment of cognitive functioning in men who batter.

    PubMed

    Teichner, G; Golden, C J; Van Hasselt, V B; Peterson, A

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation examined neuropsychological functioning in 50 male batterers court-ordered into treatment and 23 nonpatient controls. Subjects were administered a neuropsychological screening battery consisting of the Screening Test for the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, the Stroop Color and Word Test, two memory subtests from the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-III (Figural Memory and Delayed Figural Memory), and two subtests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (Trails A & B). Subjects were categorized as having neuropsychological dysfunction if their scores exceeded the statistical cut offs on two or more subtests. Results indicated that 24 (48%) of the male batterers exhibited cognitive dysfunction, as compared to only 1 (4.3%) of the nonpatient controls. Inspection of individual neuropsychological measures indicated poorer performance across all subtests for impaired male batterers as compared to both nonimpaired batterers and normal controls. In contrast, no significant differences on any of these measures emerged between nonimpaired male batterers and normal controls. Implications for the appropriate screening and treatment of male batterers are discussed. PMID:11912679

  3. Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

  4. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC?0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC?0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  5. Cognitive extension: the parity argument, functionalism, and the mark of the cognitive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Walter

    2010-01-01

    During the past decade, the so-called “hypothesis of cognitive extension,” according to which the material vehicles of some\\u000a cognitive processes are spatially distributed over the brain and the extracranial parts of the body and the world, has received\\u000a lots of attention, both favourable and unfavourable. The debate has largely focussed on three related issues: (1) the role\\u000a of parity considerations,

  6. Investigating higher-order cognitive functions in temporal lobe epilepsy: cognitive estimation.

    PubMed

    Parente, Annalisa; Manfredi, Valentina; Villani, Flavio; Franceschetti, Silvana; Giovagnoli, Anna Rita

    2013-11-01

    Cognitive estimation, an ability to attribute measurements to concrete things, is relevant to adaptive behavior. This study evaluated cognitive estimation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with the goal of verifying its relationship to temporal lobe damage and age of seizure onset. One hundred and eight patients with drug-resistant TLE and 51 healthy controls were evaluated using the Cognitive Estimation Task (CET), which requires simple and complex estimations providing the Total and Bizarreness scores. Different tests assessed reasoning, attention, executive, visuospatial, and lexical-semantic abilities. Patients with right TLE had earlier age of seizure onset than patients with left TLE and lower education than controls. Compared with controls, both patient groups obtained worse CET Total and Bizarreness scores, but only patients with right TLE were significantly impaired. Patients with seizure onset before age 12 showed worse scores than patients with later seizure onset irrespective of the side of TLE. The CET Total and Bizarreness scores were predicted by age of seizure onset and semantic fluency; the Bizarreness score also related to education, chronological age, and visual attention. Results highlight the complexity of the cognitive pattern associated with TLE. Cognitive estimation deficit primarily reflects early age of seizure onset and semantic difficulties. An involvement of visual mental operations mediated by the right hemisphere may accentuate the deficit, while cognitive reserve may play a protective role. PMID:24012509

  7. CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

  8. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  9. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  10. The Cumulative Effect of Neglect and Failure to Thrive on Cognitive Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackner, Laura M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 177 low-income children (ages 3-30 months) investigated the relationship among neglect, failure to thrive (FTT), and cognitive functioning. The cognitive performance of children who had been neglected and were FTT was significantly below that of children who had only one of the variables and typical children. (Author/CR)

  11. Cognitive Function and Oral Health Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bei Wu; Brenda L. Plassman; Richard J. Crout; Jersey Liang

    Background. Both oral health problems and cognitive impairment are relatively common among older adults. Poorer oral health appears to contribute to a decline in quality of life and to be related to various medical conditions. Little is known about the relationship of cognitive function to oral health among community-dwelling older adults. Methods. The sample included 1984 dentate community-dwelling older adults

  12. There are substantial declines in behavioral measures of cognitive function with age, including decreased func-

    E-print Network

    both behavioral and neu- roscience perspectives on cognitive aging, and then connect the findings for future research. here is considerable folk wisdom about cogni- tive aging in our culture. One familiarThere are substantial declines in behavioral measures of cognitive function with age, including

  13. Social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and their relationship to clinical and functional status.

    PubMed

    Fiszdon, Joanna M; Fanning, Jennifer R; Johannesen, Jason K; Bell, Morris D

    2013-01-30

    While research on social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia is quickly growing, relatively little is still known about the severity and correlates of these impairments. The few studies that have examined this issue suggest that social cognitive impairments may be positively related to psychiatric symptoms and negatively related to functioning. In the current analyses of 119 stable outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, we sought to further characterize the nature of social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Specifically, we examined (1) social cognitive impairments on four different social cognitive tasks including measures of emotional processing and Theory of Mind and (2) the demographic, symptom and functional correlates of these impairments. For three of the four social cognitive tasks examined, the majority of participants performed 1 or more S.D. worse than healthy controls, with variability in the degree of impairment across tasks. Contrary to expectation, correlations between social cognitive performance on each of the four tasks and clinical and functional features were few and weak, and for the most part did not replicate the previously reported relationship of social cognition to severity of symptoms or current functional status. PMID:23017655

  14. Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

  15. The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease

    E-print Network

    Lichtarge, Olivier

    Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PDPrimaryLeftAnteriorInternalCapsule W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 RAVLTThe Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson

  16. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  17. Cognitive apprenticeship in a CAL-environment for functionally illiterate adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. F. M. Bruijn

    1995-01-01

    When cognitive apprenticeship principles are compared with adult learning theories and in particular with learning theories concerning functionally illiterate adults, they have several aspects in common. In order to check these resemblances in practice and to explore at the same time the way in which the cognitive apprenticeship methods can be operationalized in a computer aided learning environment for adult

  18. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  19. Influence of Peripheral and Motivational Cues on Rigid-Flexible Functioning: Perceptual, Behavioral, and Cognitive Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cretenet, Joel; Dru, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitive functioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…

  20. The Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure on Hispanic Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Sanchez Lizardi; Mary Kay O'Rourke; Richard J. Morris

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effects of Organophosphate (OP) pesticides exposure on the cognitive and behavioral functioning of Hispanic children living in an agricultural community. Methods Forty-eight children were administered a battery of cognitive measures, and their parents and teachers completed behavior rating scales. Children provided a urine sample for analysis of OP pesticides metabolites. Results All children had a

  1. Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

  2. The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

  3. The relationship between alcoholic cerebellar degeneration and cognitive and emotional functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. Fitzpatrick; M. Jackson; S. F. Crowe

    2008-01-01

    Although it is now widely acknowledged that the cerebellum contributes to the modulation of higher-order cognitive and emotional functions, this relationship has not been extensively explored in perhaps the largest group of individuals with cerebellar damage, chronic alcoholics. Localised damage to the cerebellum has been associated with a specific constellation of deficits and has been termed the ‘cerebellar cognitive affective

  4. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

  5. Cross-sectional evaluation of cognitive functioning in children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivo Marx; Thomas Hübner; Sabine C. Herpertz; Christoph Berger; Erik Reuter; Tilo Kircher; Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann; Kerstin Konrad

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often persists into adulthood, albeit with changes in clinical symptoms throughout\\u000a the life span. Although effect sizes of neuropsychological deficits in ADHD are well established, developmental approaches\\u000a have rarely been explored and little is yet known about age-dependent changes in cognitive dysfunction from childhood to adulthood.\\u000a In this cross-sectional study, 20 male children (8–12 years), 20 adolescents (13–16 years),

  6. Optimal Blood Pressure for Cognitive Function: Findings from an Elderly African-American Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Callahan, Christopher M.; Hendrie, Hugh C.

    2013-01-01

    Background/ Objectives The relationship between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function in the elderly is poorly understood. Inconsistent results have been reported from existing studies. We report the results from a prospective cohort study on the association between BP and cognitive function in elderly African Americans. Design Prospective cohort study conducted from 1997 to 2009. Setting Community-based study in Indianapolis. Participants 3145 African Americans aged 65 years or older. Measurements At each assessment, participants’ cognitive function was measured by the Community Screening Interview for Dementia score. Other measurements included BP, height, weight, education level, antihypertensive medication use, alcohol use, smoking and histories of chronic medical conditions. Results 5995 longitudinal assessments contributed by 2721 participants with complete independent variables were analyzed using a semiparametric mixed effects model. Systolic BP around 135 mmHg and diastolic BP around 80 mmHg were associated with optimal cognitive function after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.019). Weight loss with body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 was significantly related to poorer cognitive performance (P < 0.001). Older age at first assessment, lower education level, smoking, histories of depression, stroke and diabetes mellitus were related to worse cognitive function, while taking antihypertensive medication and drinking alcohol were associated with higher cognitive scores. Conclusion Both high and low BP levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance. A joint optimal region of systolic and diastolic BP for cognitive function has been identified, which may provide useful clinical information on optimal BP control in cognitive health and lead to improved quality of life for the elderly. PMID:23647314

  7. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

  8. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  9. From Early Childhood to Adolescence: Linking Family Functioning and School Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vanessa K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses observational assessment of 66 two-parent families working and playing together when their eldest child is in kindergarten and again in 9th grade to identify distinct patterns of family functioning derived from structural family systems theory. Whereas concurrent assessment of the relationship between family type and adolescents' school behavior were not significant, significant prospective longitudinal relationships between family type assessed in early childhood and 9th grade school behavior were indicated. Kindergarteners whose families were primarily characterized by a strong mother-child alliance were less academically competent, more aggressive/inattentive, and more anxious/depressed/withdrawn at school nine years later when they were in 9th grade, than their peers in more cohesive or father-child allied families. PMID:21258653

  10. An epigenetic blockade of cognitive functions in the neurodegenerating brain

    E-print Network

    Rei, Damien

    Cognitive decline is a debilitating feature of most neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s disease [superscript 1]. The causes leading to such impairment are only poorly understood ...

  11. In utero and early childhood exposure to arsenic decreases lung function in children.

    PubMed

    Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Olivas-Calderon, Edgar; Lantz, R Clark; Gandolfi, A Jay; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De

    2015-04-01

    The lung is a target organ for adverse health outcomes following exposure to As. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in subjects highly exposed to As through drinking water; however, most studies to date has been performed in exposed adults, with little information on respiratory effects in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between urinary levels of As and its metabolites with lung function in children exposed in utero and in early childhood to high As levels through drinking water. A total of 358 healthy children were included in our study. Individual exposure was assessed based on urinary concentration of inorganic As. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Participants were exposed since pregnancy until early childhood to an average water As concentration of 152.13?µg?l(-1) . The mean urinary As level registered in the studied subjects was 141.2?µg?l(-1) and only 16.7% had a urinary concentration below the national concern level. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased in the studied population and it was negatively associated with the percentage of inorganic As. More than 57% of the subjects had a restrictive spirometric pattern. The urinary As level was higher in those children with restrictive lung patterns when compared with the levels registered in subjects with normal spirometric patterns. Exposure to As through drinking water during in utero and early life was associated with a decrease in forced vital capacity and with a restrictive spirometric pattern in the children evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25131850

  12. Combined Cognitive-Psychological-Physical Intervention Induces Reorganization of Intrinsic Functional Brain Architecture in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age.

  13. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  14. A Modularized Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Water Phobia in an Adolescent with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Brad J.; Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a modularized treatment of a specific fear of water for a 14-year-old youth with childhood onset schizophrenia using a multiple-baseline across behaviors design. Treatment included gradual exposure to a hierarchy of feared water-related situations with rewards for successful approximations ranging…

  15. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Guides to Individualized Evidence-Based Treatment Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    This clinically wise and pragmatic book presents a systematic approach for treating any form of childhood anxiety using proven exposure-based techniques. What makes this rigorously tested modular treatment unique is that it is explicitly designed with flexibility and individualization in mind. Developed in a real-world, highly diverse community…

  16. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  17. Cognitive performance in a subclinical obsessive-compulsive sample 1: cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  18. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: Relation to functional outcome of stroke patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel Zwecker; Shalom Levenkrohn; Yudit Fleisig; Gabi Zeilig; Avi Ohry; Abraham Adunsky

    2002-01-01

    Zwecker M, Levenkrohn S, Fleisig Y, Zeilig G, Ohry A, Adunsky A. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:342-5. Objectives: To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in

  19. The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project

    PubMed Central

    Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

    2014-01-01

    In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

  20. Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

    2012-01-01

    The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

  1. Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy, Their Cognitive Functioning, and Social Participation: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Bottcher

    2010-01-01

    White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in

  2. Can Neuromotor Functioning Predict Stanford-Binet IQ Scores and Piagetian Cognitive Task Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomes, Ruth; Heilbuth, Lynne

    Studies comparing neuromotor and mental functioning of normal and disabled populations have shown that lower cognitive functioning is significantly related to lower motor functioning for retarded or disabled children but not for normal children. In an effort to further examine the relationship between these two functions, a study was conducted of…

  3. Early Post-Stroke Cognition in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients Predicts Functional Outcome at 13 Months

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13

  4. Patterns of Family Management of Childhood Chronic Conditions and Their Relationship to Child and Family Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Knafl, Kathleen A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Knafl, George J.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns of family response to childhood chronic conditions based on a configuration of multiple variables or qualitative themes provides a comprehensive understanding of health-related challenges and their influence on family and child functioning. In this paper, we used the six scales comprising the Family Management Measure (FaMM) in a cluster analysis to describe a typology of family management and data from other measures of child and family functioning to validate and explain those clusters. The sample of 575 parents from 414 families of children who had diverse chronic conditions endorsed four patterns of response (Family Focused, Somewhat Family Focused, Somewhat Condition Focused, Condition Focused). We also considered the extent to which couples had shared or discrepant views of family management. Most (57%) families were in either the Family Focused or Somewhat Family Focused pattern. Single mothers were significantly less likely to be in the two patterns reflecting greater ease in family management and significantly more likely to be in the two patterns reflecting more difficulty. Patterns of family management were related significantly to family and child functioning, with families in the Family Focused and Somewhat Family Focused patterns demonstrating significantly better family and child functioning than families in the other two patterns. PMID:23602651

  5. Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?

    PubMed Central

    Greer, Tracy L.; Sunderajan, Prabha; Grannemann, Bruce D.; Kurian, Benji T.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439. PMID:24563781

  6. Association between binge eating disorder and changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-Month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time. PMID:25201638

  7. Social cognition in psychosis: multidimensional structure, clinical correlates, and relationship with functional outcome.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P; Kern, Robert S; Green, Michael F

    2011-02-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

  8. Effects of vitamins E and C combined with ?-carotene on cognitive function in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    LI, YONGHUA; LIU, SHUMEI; MAN, YIGANG; LI, NING; ZHOU, YU

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vitamins E (VE) and C (VC), combined with ?-carotene (?-C), on cognitive function in the elderly. A total of 276 elderly subjects completed the prospective study following treatment with VE, VC and different doses of ?-C or with VE only. Cognitive function was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS) tests. The plasma levels of amyloid-? (A?) and estradiol (E2) were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Results from the MMSE and HDS assessments indicated that the treatment strategy of VE and VC combined with ?-C significantly improved cognitive function in the elderly subjects, particularly with higher doses of ?-C. Furthermore, RIA suggested that treatment with these vitamins could markedly reduce plasma A? levels and elevate plasma E2 levels. The present findings suggest that treatment with VE, VC and ?-C results in promising improvements in cognitive function in the elderly. PMID:25780457

  9. ZINC AND OTHER MINERAL NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BEHAVIOR IN MILITARY PERSONNEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review examines the possible role of zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper and phosphorus in sustaining cognitive function and behavior of military personnel operating under multiple metabolic, physical, psychological and environmental stressors. There are no studies relating zinc intake or status ...

  10. Blood DHEAS concentrations correlate with cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Knoll, Gabriella; Isakov, Victoria; Goodman, Craig; Finkelstein, Yiftah

    2005-11-01

    There is evidence that neurosteroids such as DHEA and its sulfated form DHEAS can modulate cognitive function. We hypothesize that DHEA/S concentrations may be linked to cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. The aim of this pilot study was to test this hypothesis by examining the relationship between blood levels of DHEAS and cognitive function. The performance of 26 stable medicated chronic schizophrenia patients in a range of neuropsychological domains including verbal memory (Wechsler Memory Scale), executive function (AIM), memory of faces (PFMT), memory for objects (VOLT) and identification of facial emotional expressions (PEAT) was assessed. Single morning blood samples were assayed for levels of DHEAS and cortisol. Significant associations were found between DHEAS levels and DHEAS/Cortisol ratio and verbal memory, executive function and memory for faces. The relationship was independent of the age related reduction in DHEAS levels. These preliminary results suggest that DHEAS may be associated with cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:16157159

  11. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  12. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:23252641

  13. CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    CRCC Technical Report #67 Scale-Degree Function: Cognition Research and Its Application to Aural-Skills Pedagogy [CRCC Technical Report 1#67, revised Tuesday, November 3, 1992) Scale-Degree Function: Cognition in "creative microdomains". Developing an analogous model of music cognition suggests viewing "scale

  14. Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke at vocational age

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke 31 E-Mail : Marc.Hommel@ujf-grenoble.fr Cover title: cognition and social functioning after stroke and depression and the Mini Mental State Evaluation, suggesting that cognitive deficits contribute to post-stroke

  15. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  16. Salivary cortisol mediates effects of poverty and parenting on executive functions in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha; Greenberg, Mark T; Kivlighan, Katie T; Fortunato, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income population-based longitudinal sample of 1,292 children followed from birth, higher level of salivary cortisol assessed at ages 7, 15, and 24 months was uniquely associated with lower executive function ability and to a lesser extent IQ at age 3 years. Measures of positive and negative aspects of parenting and household risk were also uniquely related to both executive functions and IQ. The effect of positive parenting on executive functions was partially mediated through cortisol. Typical or resting level of cortisol was increased in African American relative to White participants. In combination with positive and negative parenting and household risk, cortisol mediated effects of income-to-need, maternal education, and African American ethnicity on child cognitive ability. PMID:22026915

  17. Salivary Cortisol Mediates Effects of Poverty and Parenting on Executive Functions in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Clancy; Granger, Douglas A.; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Cox, Martha; Greenberg, Mark T.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Fortunato, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income population-based longitudinal sample of 1,292 children followed from birth, higher level of salivary cortisol assessed at ages 7, 15, and 24 months was uniquely associated with lower executive function ability and to a lesser extent IQ at age 3 years. Measures of positive and negative aspects of parenting and household risk were also uniquely related to both executive functions and IQ. The effect of positive parenting on executive functions was partially mediated through cortisol. Typical or resting level of cortisol was increased in African American relative to White participants. In combination with positive and negative parenting and household risk, cortisol mediated effects of income-to-need, maternal education, and African American ethnicity on child cognitive ability. PMID:22026915

  18. The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung

    2014-12-01

    Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751

  19. Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Korsakova, Natalya; Agius, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689

  20. Short-Term Longitudinal Study of Central Auditory Function in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Idrizbegovic, Esma; Hederstierna, Christina; Dahlquist, Martin; Rosenhall, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Central auditory function can be studied to monitor the progression of mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Our aim was to address this issue in a prospective longitudinal setting. Methods Tests of central hearing function were performed on 70 subjects with either Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment, and in controls with subjective memory complaints but normal cognition. The time span until follow-up was 1.5 years. Results The dichotic digit free recall test showed a significant decline in the AD group compared with the controls (left ear). Conclusion The short time span was long enough to disclose a central auditory processing decline in AD. PMID:24516414