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1

Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment  

PubMed Central

Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-01-01

2

Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

2011-01-01

3

Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

2014-01-01

4

Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.

Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-12-01

5

Cognitive control in childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Failure to resist chronic obsessive-compulsive symptoms may denote an altered state of cognitive control. We searched for the cerebral regions engaged in this dysfunction. Method. Differences in brain regional activity were examined by event-related functional magnetic regional imaging (fMRI) in a group of adolescents or young adults (n=12) with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relative to healthy subjects. Subjects performed

ARMELLE VIARD; MARTINE F. FLAMENT; ERIC ARTIGES; STANISLAS DEHAENE; LIONEL NACCACHE; DAVID COHEN; PHILIPPE MAZET; MARIE-CHRISTINE MOUREN; JEAN-LUC MARTINOT

2005-01-01

6

Cognitive Function in Childhood Epilepsy: Importance of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To determine how cognitive function is related to epilepsy classification and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy of genetic or unknown etiology. Methods The medical records of children aged 6-16 years with newly diagnosed epilepsy of genetic or unknown etiology were reviewed retrospectively. The Korean Education Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Comprehensive Attention Test were used to evaluate intelligence and attention/executive function, respectively. Results The data of a total of 149 children, 103 with focal seizures and 46 with generalized seizures, were reviewed. The prevalence of ADHD was 49.2% (59 out of 120 examined patients), and ADHD patients exhibited significantly worse auditory selective attention, flanker test results, and spatial working memory. Patients with generalized seizures exhibited significantly worse auditory selective and sustained attention than patients with focal seizures. In patients with generalized seizures, sustained attention, flanker test findings, and spatial working memory were found to be affected by ADHD, and auditory selective and sustained attention were significantly worse in patients with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes and ADHD than in their counterparts without ADHD. Conclusions Cognitive processes are affected by seizure type and comorbid ADHD. Proper characterization of these neuropsychiatric impairments may allow earlier intervention during the disease course. PMID:25628733

Kang, Sung-Han; Yum, Mi-Sun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Hyo-Won

2015-01-01

7

The catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) and cognitive function from childhood through adolescence  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene (COMT) can influence cognitive function, and this effect may depend on developmental stage. Using a large representative British birth cohort, we investigated the effect of COMT on cognitive function (verbal and non-verbal) at ages 8 and 15 years taking into account the possible modifying effect of pubertal stage. Five functional COMT polymorphisms, rs6269, rs4818, rs4680, rs737865 and rs165599 were analysed. Associations between COMT polymorphisms and cognition were tested using regression and latent variable structural equation modelling (SEM). Before correction for multiple testing, COMT rs737865 showed association with reading comprehension, verbal ability and global cognition at age 15 years in pubescent boys only. Although there was some evidence for age- and sex-specific effects of the COMT rs737865 none remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Further studies are necessary in order to make firmer conclusions. PMID:23178897

Gaysina, Darya; Xu, Man K.; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Croudace, Tim J.; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Jones, Peter B.

2013-01-01

8

Effects of Early Childhood Health and Family Planning Interventions on Adolescent Cognitive Functioning: Evidence from Matlab in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early childhood health and nutrition interventions have been shown to improve the health status of young children in developing countries. It is believed that improvements received early in life may lead to improved cognitive development, health, educational achievements, and labor market opportunities. Yet there is little evidence that the benefits of early childhood health interventions continue into adolescence and adulthood,

Tania Barham

9

ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DIARRHEA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS WITH IMPAIRED PHYSICAL FITNESS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOUR-SEVEN YEARS LATER IN A POOR URBAN COMMUNITY IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine potential, long-term deficits associated with early childhood diarrhea and parasitic infec- tions, we studied the physical fitness (by the Harvard Step Test) and cognitive function (by standardized tests noted below) of 26 children who had complete surveillance for diarrhea in their first 2 years of life and who had continued surveillance until 6-9 years of age in a

DAVID I. GUERRANT; SEAN R. MOORE; ALDO A. M. LIMA; PETER D. PATRICK; JOHN B. SCHORLING; RICHARD L. GUERRANT

1999-01-01

10

The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396

Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

11

Childhood, death, and cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

Gerald P. Koocher

1973-01-01

12

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

2008-01-01

13

Childhood Functional GI Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Merchandise Take Action Contact Us Donate Childhood Functional GI Disorders A functional disorder refers to a disorder ... regurgitation, heartburn, or food refusal. Examples of functional GI disorders in kids and teens include: Infant regurgitation ...

14

ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*  

E-print Network

and cognition in bipolar disorder of a gene-environment interaction implicating genes known to exert of Medicine of Geneva, University of Geneva, Switzerland. § corresponding author: Inserm U888 Pathologies and consequent cognitive disorder. The persistence of this association in late-life is examined. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

15

Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood  

PubMed Central

Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has been no investigation of the possible effect of variations in the weaning diet. Methods: We studied 241 children aged 4 years, whose diet had been assessed at age 6 and 12 months. We measured IQ with the Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence, visual attention, visuomotor precision, sentence repetition and verbal fluency with the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and visual form-constancy with the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills. Results: In sex-adjusted analyses, children whose diet in infancy was characterised by high consumption of fruit, vegetables and home-prepared foods (‘infant guidelines’ dietary pattern) had higher full-scale and verbal IQ and better memory performance at age 4 years. Further adjustment for maternal education, intelligence, social class, quality of the home environment and other potential confounding factors, attenuated these associations but the relations between higher ‘infant guidelines’ diet score and full-scale and verbal IQ remained significant. For a standard deviation increase in ‘infant guidelines’ diet score at 6 or 12 months full scale IQ rose by 0.18 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.31) of a standard deviation. For a standard deviation increase in ‘infant guidelines’ diet score at 6 months verbal IQ rose by 0.14 (0.01 to 0.27) of a standard deviation. There were no associations between dietary patterns in infancy and 4-year performance on the other tests. Conclusions: These findings suggest that dietary patterns in early life may have some effect on cognitive development. It is also possible that they reflect the influence of unmeasured confounding factors. PMID:19236526

Gale, Catharine R; Martyn, Christopher N; Marriott, Lynne D; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Siân M

2009-01-01

16

A Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in First-Episode Psychosis, Including a Discussion on Childhood Trauma, Stress, and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157

Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.

2014-01-01

17

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it

A Rasquin-Weber; P E Hyman; S Cucchiara; D R Fleisher; J S Hyams; P J Milla; A Staiano

1999-01-01

18

Childhood cognitive development as a skill.  

PubMed

Theories view childhood development as being either driven by structural maturation of the brain or being driven by skill-learning. It is hypothesized here that working memory (WM) development during childhood is partly driven by training effects in the environment, and that similar neural mechanisms underlie training-induced plasticity and childhood development. In particular, the functional connectivity of a fronto-parietal network is suggested to be associated with WM capacity. The striatum, dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) activity, and corticostriatal white-matter tracts, on the other hand, seem to be more important for plasticity and change of WM capacity during both training and development. In this view, the development of WM capacity during childhood partly involves the same mechanisms as skill-learning. PMID:25042686

Klingberg, Torkel

2014-11-01

19

Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

2008-01-01

20

Early childhood WIC participation, cognitive development and academic achievement.  

PubMed

For the 22% of American children who live below the federal poverty line, and the additional 23% who live below twice that level, nutritional policy is part of the safety net against hunger and its negative effects on children's development. The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) provides steadily available food from the food groups essential for physical and cognitive development. The effects of WIC on dietary quality among participating women and children are strong and positive. Furthermore, there is a strong influence of nutrition on cognitive development and socioeconomic inequality. Yet, research on the non-health effects of U.S. child nutritional policy is scarce, despite the ultimate goal of health policies directed at children-to enable productive functioning across multiple social institutions over the life course. Using two nationally representative, longitudinal surveys of children-the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and the Child Development Supplement (CDS) of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-I examine how prenatal and early childhood exposure to WIC is associated in the short-term with cognitive development, and in the longer-term with reading and math learning. Results show that early WIC participation is associated with both cognitive and academic benefits. These findings suggest that WIC meaningfully contributes to children's educational prospects. PMID:25555255

Jackson, Margot I

2015-02-01

21

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

22

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood.  

PubMed Central

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on almost all of the cognitive tasks. This pattern of widespread deficits resembles that found in children evaluated at the time of acute exposure to lead rather than the more circumscribed pattern typically seen in adults exposed to lead. Despite having completed as many years of schooling as controls, the subjects exposed to lead were lower in lifetime occupational status. Within the exposed group, performance on the neuropsychological battery and occupational status were related, consistent with the presumed impact of limitations in neuropsychological functioning on everyday life. The results suggest that many subjects exposed to lead suffered acute encephalopathy in childhood which resolved into a chronic subclinical encephalopathy with associated cognitive dysfunction still evident in adulthood. These findings lend support to efforts to limit exposure to lead in childhood. PMID:8343422

White, R F; Diamond, R; Proctor, S; Morey, C; Hu, H

1993-01-01

23

A Cognitive Approach to Stress Reduction for Early Childhood Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For early childhood educators a cognitive approach to stress therapy is a valuable supplement to other approaches. Early childhood educators, like others, may develop psychological vulnerabilities that contribute to stress and depression. An exaggerated need for approval or an unhealthy demand for perfectionism may contribute to their experience…

Smith, Doris O.

24

Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

25

Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood

Saracho, Olivia Natividad

26

Early Childhood Selected Bibliographies Series. Number 4, Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth in a series of six annotated bibliographies relevant to early childhood education. Its general subject is cognition, and i t includes seven subdivisions: intelligence, higher mental processes, cognitive style, experimental studies of learning, concept development, perception and recognition, and motivation. Each of the…

Illinois Univ., Urbana, National Lab. on Early Childhood Education.

27

Cognitive development in benign focal epilepsies of childhood.  

PubMed

Benign focal epilepsy of childhood (BFEC) is the most common form of epilepsy, in children from 3 to 12 years. Its prognosis is always favourable as far as the epilepsy is concerned. Nevertheless, recent clinical data suggest that children affected by BFEC are more likely to show learning difficulties and behavioural disturbances than their peers. We report here the preliminary findings of a prospective study of 22 children affected with BFEC. Electroclinical and neuropsychological changes observed during the first 18 months of the follow-up strengthen the conclusion of recent neuropsychological studies stressing the correlation between epilepsy and cognitive performances. The cognitive deficits affecting mainly non-verbal functions were significantly correlated with the frequency of seizures and spike-wave discharges and to the lateralization of the epileptic focus in the right hemisphere, whereas frontal functions like attention control, response organization and fine motor speed, were impaired in the presence of active BFEC independently of the lateralization of the epileptic focus. Our results indicate that maturing cognitive functions subserved by a cortical area distant from the epileptic focus are susceptible to interference with epilepsy. PMID:10575241

Metz-Lutz, M N; Kleitz, C; de Saint Martin, A; Massa, R; Hirsch, E; Marescaux, C

1999-11-01

28

Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in survival for patients who had childhood brain tumors has led to an increasing emphasis on the quality of life for these long-term survivors. Initial survival studies relied on global descriptions of functional abilities to assess cognitive deficits and reported that from 20% to 40% of long-term survivors had obvious partial disability and <10% were severely disabled. Formal neuropsychological

Tracy A. Glauser; Roger J. Packer

1991-01-01

29

The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

1999-01-01

30

Developing interventions for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574

Castellino, Sharon M; Ullrich, Nicole J; Whelen, Megan J; Lange, Beverly J

2014-08-01

31

The effect of childhood trauma on spatial cognition in adults: a possible role of sex.  

PubMed

Although animal evidence indicates that early life trauma results in pervasive hippocampal deficits underlying spatial and cognitive impairment, visuo-spatial data from adult humans with early childhood adversity are lacking. We administered 4 tests of visuo-spatial ability from the Cambridge Neuorpsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to adults with a history of childhood trauma (measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and a matched sample of healthy controls (trauma/control?=?27/28). We observed a significant effect of trauma history on spatial/pattern learning. These effects could not be accounted for by adverse adult experiences, and were sex-specific, with prior adversity improving performance in men but worsening performance in women, relative to controls. Limitations include the small sample size and reliance of our study design on a retrospective, self report measure. Our results suggest that early adversity can lead to specific and pervasive deficits in adult cognitive function. PMID:24553877

Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Thomas, Kevin G F; van der Honk, Jack; Stein, Dan J

2014-06-01

32

Can individual conditions during childhood mediate or moderate the long-term cognitive effects of poor economic environments at birth?  

PubMed

Recent analyses revealed that the business cycle at the time of birth influences cognitive functioning at older ages, and that those individuals born during economic boom periods on average display better cognitive functioning later in life. The current study examines the impact of childhood conditions on late-life cognitive functioning and investigates whether they mediate or moderate the effects of the business cycle at the time of birth. The underlying purpose is to find potential starting points for societal interventions that may counterbalance the negative long-term outcomes of adverse living conditions early in life. We use data from 7935 respondents at ages 60+ in eleven European countries from the first three waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The survey data was collected in 2004, 2006/07, and 2008/09. Country fixed-effects models are used to examine the impact of macro-economic deviations in the year of birth and the indicators of childhood circumstances on late-life cognitive functioning. This study shows that the effects of boom and recession periods at birth are not simply mediated or moderated by living conditions during childhood. Conditions at birth have biological long-run effects on late-life cognitive functioning. Individuals born during boom periods display signs of having better cognitive functioning later in life, whereas recessions negatively influence cognition. Furthermore, a series of childhood conditions in and of themselves influence late-life cognition. Good childhood cognition, high education as well as a high social status, favourable living arrangements, and good health have a positive impact. Policy interventions should aim at a better access to school or measures to improve the economic and social situations of disadvantaged households. PMID:25042942

Fritze, Thomas; Doblhammer, Gabriele; van den Berg, Gerard J

2014-10-01

33

Early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and cognition: are we missing the rest of the iceberg?  

PubMed

Risk factors which interfere with cognitive function are especially important during the first 2 years of life - a period referred to as early child development and a time during which rapid growth and essential development occur. Malnutrition, a condition whose effect on cognitive function is well known, has been shown to be part of a vicious cycle with diarrhoeal diseases, and the two pathologies together continue to be the leading cause of illness and death in young children in developing countries. This paper reviews the burden of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases globally and the emerging evidence of their relationship with global disparities in neurocognitive development. The strength of evidence which indicates that the severe childhood diarrhoeal burden may be implicated in cognitive impairment of children from low- and middle-income counties is discussed. Findings suggest that greater investment in multi-site, longitudinal enteric infection studies that assess long-term repercussions are warranted. Furthermore, economic analyses using the concept of human capital should play a key role in advancing our understanding of the breadth and complexities of the health, social and economic ramifications of early childhood diarrhoeal diseases and enteric infections. This broadened awareness can serve to help advocate for more effective interventions, particularly in developing economies. PMID:25146836

MacIntyre, Jessica; McTaggart, Jennifer; Guerrant, Richard L; Goldfarb, David M

2014-11-01

34

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

35

You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

von Stumm, Sophie

2012-01-01

36

HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

37

NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB): Composite Scores of Crystallized, Fluid, and Overall Cognition  

PubMed Central

The NIH Toolbox Cognitive Function Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206

Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.

2014-01-01

38

White matter maturation profiles through early childhood predict general cognitive ability.  

PubMed

Infancy and early childhood are periods of rapid brain development, during which brain structure and function mature alongside evolving cognitive ability. An important neurodevelopmental process during this postnatal period is the maturation of the myelinated white matter, which facilitates rapid communication across neural systems and networks. Though prior brain imaging studies in children (4 years of age and above), adolescents, and adults have consistently linked white matter development with cognitive maturation and intelligence, few studies have examined how these processes are related throughout early development (birth to 4 years of age). Here, we show that the profile of white matter myelination across the first 5 years of life is strongly and specifically related to cognitive ability. Using a longitudinal design, coupled with advanced magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that children with above-average ability show differential trajectories of myelin development compared to average and below average ability children, even when controlling for socioeconomic status, gestation, and birth weight. Specifically, higher ability children exhibit slower but more prolonged early development, resulting in overall increased myelin measures by ~3 years of age. These results provide new insight into the early neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive ability, and suggest an early period of prolonged maturation with associated protracted white matter plasticity may result in strengthened neural networks that can better support later development. Further, these results reinforce the necessity of a longitudinal perspective in investigating typical or suspected atypical cognitive maturation. PMID:25432771

Deoni, Sean C L; O'Muircheartaigh, Jonathan; Elison, Jed T; Walker, Lindsay; Doernberg, Ellen; Waskiewicz, Nicole; Dirks, Holly; Piryatinsky, Irene; Dean, Doug C; Jumbe, N L

2014-11-29

39

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

40

Childhood and adolescent obesity and long-term cognitive consequences during aging.  

PubMed

The prevalence of childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance has reached an epidemic level. Obesity's immediate clinical impacts have been extensively studied; however, current clinical evidence underscores the long-term implications. The current study explored the impacts of brief childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance on cognitive function in later life. To mimic childhood/adolescent obesity and insulin resistance, we exposed 9-week-old C57BL/6J mice to a high-fat diet for 15 weeks, after which the mice exhibited diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. We then put these mice back on a normal low-fat diet, after which the mice exhibited normal body weight and glucose tolerance. However, a spatial memory test in the forms of the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual fear conditioning at 85 weeks of age showed that these mice had severe deficits in learning and long-term memory consolidation. Mechanistic investigations identified increased expression of histone deacetylases 5, accompanied by reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, in the brains 61 weeks after the mice had been off the high-fat diet. Electrophysiology studies showed that hippocampal slices isolated from these mice are more susceptible to synaptic impairments compared with slices isolated from the control mice. We demonstrated that a 15-week occurrence of obesity and insulin resistance during childhood/adolescence induces irreversible epigenetic modifications in the brain that persist following restoration of normal metabolic homeostasis, leading to brain synaptic dysfunction during aging. Our study provides experimental evidence that limited early-life exposure to obesity and insulin resistance may have long-term deleterious consequences in the brain, contributing to the onset/progression of cognitive dysfunction during aging. J. Comp. Neurol. 523:757-768, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25380530

Wang, Jun; Freire, Daniel; Knable, Lindsay; Zhao, Wei; Gong, Bing; Mazzola, Paolo; Ho, Lap; Levine, Samara; Pasinetti, Giulio M

2015-04-01

41

Childhood Stress and Coping: A Review and Cognitive-Developmental Theory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews recent empirical and conceptual studies pertaining to stress in childhood and offers an integrative, cognitive-developmental theory for understanding childhood stress and coping. The theory builds upon Hunt's (1979) view of the epigenesis of intrinsic motivation and Block's (1982) formulation of assimilation and accommodation…

Hawkins, Raymond C., II

42

Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

43

Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early Childhood Onset Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early childhood onset MDD. Method Fifty-one children ages 7–11 years, prospectively studied since preschool age, completed resting state fMRI and were assigned to four groups: 1) C-MDD (N=13) personal history of early childhood onset MDD; 2) M-MDD (N=11) a maternal history of affective disorders; 3) CM-MDD (N=13) both maternal and early childhood onset MDD or 4) CON (N=14) without either a personal or maternal history. We used seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) analysis in an independent sample of adults to identify networks showing both positive (e.g., limbic regions) and negative (e.g., dorsal frontal/parietal regions) connectivity with the amygdala. These regions were then used in ROI based analyses of our child sample. Results We found a significant interaction between maternal affective disorder history and the child's MDD history for both positive and negative rsfcMRI networks. Specifically, when copared to CON, we found reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Negative Network” in children with C-MDD, M-MDD and CM-MDD. Children with either C-MDD or a maternal history of MDD (but not CM-MDD) displayed reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Positive Network”. Conclusions Our finding of an attenuated relationship between the amygdala, a region affected in MDD and involved in emotion processing, and cognitive control regions is consistent with a hypothesis of altered regulation of emotional processing in C-MDD suggesting developmental continuity of this alteration into early childhood. PMID:21961777

Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2011-01-01

44

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype moderates the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The interaction of genetic and environmental factors may affect the course and development of psychotic disorders. We examined whether the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia were moderated by the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism, a common genetic variant known to affect cognition and prefrontal dopamine levels. Participants were 429 schizophrenia/schizoaffective cases from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) test, and the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and additive interaction effects of genotype and childhood trauma in the domains of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect, on cognition and symptom profiles of clinical cases. Consistent with previous findings, COMT Val homozygotes performed worse on cognitive measures in the absence of childhood adversity. In addition, a significant interaction between COMT genotype and physical abuse was associated with better executive function in Val homozygotes, relative to those of the same genotype with no history of abuse. Finally, the severity of positive symptoms was greater in Met carriers who had experienced physical abuse, and the severity of negative symptoms in Met carriers was greater in the presence of emotional neglect. These results suggest that the possible epigenetic modulation of the expression of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and consequent effects on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia, with worse outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences in Met carriers. PMID:24252819

Green, Melissa J; Chia, T-Yunn; Cairns, Murray J; Wu, Jingqin; Tooney, Paul A; Scott, Rodney J; Carr, Vaughan J

2014-02-01

45

[Insulin resistance and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Risk of Alzheimer disease is increased in patients with diabetes. Insulin resistance is identified as a pathogenic mechanism of impaired cognitive dysfunction. Amyloid beta oligomers cause impaired insulin signaling at IRS-1 via mechanisms of TNFalpha and JNK activation. Attenuation of PI-3 kinase pathway is also involved in the hyper-phosphorylation of Tau. Impairment of orexin function is connected to the age related insulin resistance and shortening of life expectancy. Synapse deterioration and loss via these mechanisms underlying defective brain insulin signaling result in cognitive dysfunction. Stimulation of insulin signaling is a developing therapeutic approach in Alzheimer disease. Nasal insulin administration, thiazolidinedione, and GLP-1 receptor agonist possess neuronal protective effects in the treatment of mild cognitive dysfunction. Further identification of the pathogenic mechanism connecting between Alzheimer disease and insulin resistance contributes to development of novel therapeutics in Alzheimer disease. PMID:24796090

Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Wada, Tsutomu; Tsuneki, Hiroshi

2014-04-01

46

Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

2014-05-01

47

The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.  

PubMed

Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-08-01

48

The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-01-01

49

Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement  

PubMed Central

The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (?) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558

Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

2013-01-01

50

Personality Traits as a Function of Beliefs and Childhood Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins of personality traits and emotions have long been a subject of investigation and controversy. Beginning with Freud, an argument has been made from a wide variety of perspectives that early childhood relationships to parents are a primary factor in shaping personality. Within a cognitive paradigm, people's beliefs about themselves and…

Catlin, George

51

Sex differences in resilience to childhood maltreatment: effects of trauma history on hippocampal volume, general cognition and subclinical psychosis in healthy adults.  

PubMed

Recent data suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume in healthy adults. Because this association is also evident in adults with psychiatric illness, it has been suggested that reductions in hippocampal volume associated with childhood maltreatment may be a risk factor for psychiatric illness. Such an interpretation suggests that healthy adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more resilient to the effects of maltreatment. Current models of resilience suggest, however, that resiliency should be measured across multiple domains of functioning. The present study sought to investigate childhood maltreatment in relationship to hippocampal volumes in healthy adults and to address the question of whether the putative resiliency extends to other domains of functioning. Sixty-seven healthy Caucasian adults were assessed for a history of childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical abuse and received high resolution structural MR imaging scans. Participants with and without histories of abuse or neglect were compared on measures of total hippocampal volume, general cognitive ability and subclinical psychopathology. Our results suggest that childhood emotional abuse is associated with reduced hippocampus volume in males, but not in females. However, emotional abuse was associated with higher levels of subclinical psychopathology in both males and females. These data suggest that while females may be more resilient to the neurological effects of childhood maltreatment, they are not more resilient to the psychiatric symptoms associated with childhood maltreatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these different levels of resilience. PMID:23726669

Samplin, Erin; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Malhotra, Anil K; Szeszko, Philip R; Derosse, Pamela

2013-09-01

52

The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Temperament, Parenting, and Negative Life Events in Childhood as Contributors to Negative Cognitive Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental…

Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y.

2006-01-01

53

Pathways to Childhood Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Social, Cognitive, and Genetic Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood depressive conditions have been explored from multiple theoretical approaches but with few empirical attempts to address the interrelationships among these different domains and their combined effects. In the present study, the authors examined different pathways through which social, cognitive, and genetic risk factors may be expressed…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Gregory, Alice M.; McGuffin, Peter; Eley, Thalia C.

2007-01-01

54

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents with…

Barrett, Paula; Healy-Farrell, Lara; March, John S.

2004-01-01

55

The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

2009-01-01

56

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

57

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory among upper elementary African-American children.  

PubMed

Childhood obesity is a major public health problem in the African-American community. Commonly suggested public health strategies to reduce childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily moderately intense physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day, increasing fruit and vegetable intake to five or more cups per day, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in African-American upper elementary children. A 56-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 222 students. Glasses of water consumed were predicted by self-control for drinking water and self-efficacy for drinking water (R2 = 0.123). Fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.083). For designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity in the African-American community, social cognitive theory provides a useful framework. PMID:24928610

Elmore, Shakeyrah; Sharma, Manoj

58

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

59

Continuity in Social Cognition from Infancy to Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the development of social cognition has largely been divided into two areas: infant perception of intentional agents, and preschoolers' understanding of others' mental states and beliefs (theory of mind). Many researchers have suggested that there is continuity in social cognitive development such that the abilities observed in…

Yamaguchi, Mariko; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Wynn, Karen; vanMarle, Kristy

2009-01-01

60

Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

1993-01-01

61

Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function  

E-print Network

Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. 3 National Research and Development Centre of Welfare and Health

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

62

Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2014-01-01

63

Cognitive Styles: Implications for the Preparation of Early Childhood Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes research on the field dependence-independence (FDI) dimension of cognitive styles of teachers. Argues for the integration of FDI knowledge into teacher preparation programs and more attention to teachers' and students' cognitve styles. (DE)

Saracho, Olivia N.

1988-01-01

64

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout

Jornsten, Rebecka

65

Cognitive and Academic Functioning in Maltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examines cognitive functioning and academic achievement in maltreated children. The data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children receiving child welfare services due to alleged child maltreatment. Assessments of the cognitive and academic functioning of school-age…

Crozier, Joseph C.; Barth, Richard P.

2005-01-01

66

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078.) PMID:18974308

Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.

2009-01-01

67

Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology: Prospective Tests of Attachment, Cognitive Vulnerability, and Stress as Mediating Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A childhood history of maltreatment is a distal risk factor for depression, although less research has examined the proximal\\u000a mechanisms for this relation. To address this question, three theoretically derived mechanisms were tested as mediators: an\\u000a insecure attachment style, a negative cognitive style, and negative life events. These mediating processes were examined in\\u000a two prospective studies. In the first, young

Benjamin L. Hankin

2005-01-01

68

Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which early childhood programs produce long-term benefits in chil- dren's cognitive development, socialization, and school success is a matter of some controversy. This article reviews 36 studies of both model demonstration projects and large-scale public programs to examine the long-term effects of these programs on children from low-income families. The review carefully considers issues related to research

W. Steven Barnett

1995-01-01

69

Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition  

SciTech Connect

In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

1988-01-01

70

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

Richard W. Elwood

2001-01-01

71

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

72

Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks. PMID:23423702

Metzler, Megan J.; Saucier, Deborah M.; Metz, Gerlinde A.

2012-01-01

73

Cognitive function in hypertensive children.  

PubMed

Young hypertensive adults demonstrate decreased performance on neurocognitive testing compared with that of normotensive controls. There is emerging, preliminary evidence that children with hypertension also manifest cognitive differences when compared to normotensive controls. These preliminary studies consist mostly of database and single-center studies that focus primarily on differences in neurocognitive test performance and differences in cerebrovascular reactivity between hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Lessons from the literature on cognition in adult hypertensives and experience from the preliminary studies in children informed the design of a current, multicenter, ongoing study of cognition in children with primary hypertension. PMID:25432900

Lande, Marc B; Kupferman, Juan C

2015-01-01

74

Pretreatment cognitive deficits and treatment effects on attention in childhood absence epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the neurocognitive deficits associated with newly diagnosed untreated childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), develop a model describing the factorial structure of items measuring academic achievement and 3 neuropsychological constructs, and determine short-term differential neuropsychological effects on attention among ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Methods: Subjects with newly diagnosed CAE entering a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial had neuropsychological testing including assessments of general intellectual functioning, attention, memory, executive function, and achievement. Attention was reassessed at the week 16–20 visit. Results: At study entry, 36% of the cohort exhibited attention deficits despite otherwise intact neurocognitive functioning. Structural equation modeling of baseline neuropsychological data revealed a direct sequential effect among attention, memory, executive function, and academic achievement. At the week 16–20 visit, attention deficits persisted even if seizure freedom was attained. More subjects receiving valproic acid (49%) had attention deficits than subjects receiving ethosuximide (32%) or lamotrigine (24%) (p = 0.0006). Parental assessment did not reliably detect attention deficits before or after treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Children with CAE have a high rate of pretreatment attentional deficits that persist despite seizure freedom. Rates are disproportionately higher for valproic acid treatment compared with ethosuximide or lamotrigine. Parents do not recognize these attentional deficits. These deficits present a threat to academic achievement. Vigilant cognitive and behavioral assessment of these children is warranted. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that valproic acid is associated with more significant attentional dysfunction than ethosuximide or lamotrigine in children with newly diagnosed CAE. PMID:24089388

Masur, David; Shinnar, Shlomo; Cnaan, Avital; Shinnar, Ruth C.; Clark, Peggy; Wang, Jichuan; Weiss, Erica F.; Hirtz, Deborah G.

2013-01-01

75

Cognitive functioning and treatment outcome in alcoholics.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to determine whether cognitive functioning at intake into treatment was associated with completion of a 30-day day hospital alcoholism rehabilitation program and 1- and 6-month posttreatment functioning. None of our measures of sociodemographic characteristics, cognitive functioning, and life functioning was found to be significantly correlated with program completion. The measures of cognitive functioning included four cognitive factors--language ability, auditory verbal learning, logical memory, and complex cognitive functioning--as well as an objective measure of within-treatment learning. Canonical correlation analyses were performed to estimate associations among 14 independent variables and seven measures of both 1- and 6-month follow-up outcomes. The independent variables included the five cognitive measures described above, race and age, and seven baseline Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interviewer ratings of severity of alcohol, drug, family/social, legal, medical, employment, and psychological/psychiatric problem levels. The dependent variables at each follow-up evaluation point consisted of the difference between the baseline and follow-up ASI composite (factor) scores in the seven areas of functioning described above. The findings revealed the relative independence of improvement in alcohol problem level at both followup periods, as contrasted with the relative interdependence of the other areas of functioning. Greater baseline alcohol problems and poorer complex cognitive functioning were most consistently associated with improved alcohol-related outcome. Other cognitive measures ere not significantly associated with treatment outcome in the other areas of functioning described above.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2380694

Alterman, A I; Kushner, H; Holahan, J M

1990-08-01

76

Statins and cognitive function: an updated review.  

PubMed

Ischemic heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the USA. Statins have substantially contributed to the decline in mortality due to heart disease. Historically, statins are hypothesized to be neuroprotective and beneficial in dementia, but recent reports have suggested an association with transient cognitive decline. We have critically appraised the relationship between statins and cognitive function in this review. Most of the data are observational and reported a protective effect of statins on dementia and Alzheimer's disease in patients with normal cognition at baseline. Few studies, including two randomized control trials, were unable to find a statistically significant decrease in the risk or improvement in patients with established dementia or decline in cognitive function with statin use. As more randomized control trials are required to definitively settle this, cardiovascular benefits of statins must be weighed against the risks of cognitive decline on an individual basis. PMID:25618304

Chatterjee, Saurav; Krishnamoorthy, Parasuram; Ranjan, Pragya; Roy, Ahana; Chakraborty, Anasua; Sabharwal, Manpreet Singh; Ro, Richard; Agarwal, Vikram; Sardar, Partha; Danik, Jacqueline; Giri, Jay S; DeGoma, Emil M; Kumbhani, Dharam J

2015-02-01

77

Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

Leonid Perlovsky

2007-01-01

78

Cardiovascular disease and cognitive function in maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive impairment are common in dialysis patients. Given the proposed role of microvascular disease on cognitive function, particularly cognitive domains that incorporate executive functions, we hypothesized that prevalent systemic CVD would be associated with wor...

79

A longitudinal genetic analysis of low verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities in early childhood.  

PubMed

By middle childhood, the same genetic factors are largely responsible for individual differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities, suggesting a genetic basis for general cognitive ability ("g"). Our previous work on verbal and nonverbal abilities throughout the normal range of variation during infancy and early childhood suggests that genetic influences show domain-specific as well as domain-general effects, implying that the switch to nearly complete domain-general effects occurs later in development. Much less is known about the genetic structure of low cognitive performance, although our previous work has shown that a composite measure of low "g" is highly heritable at 2, 3 and 4 years of age. We report the first multivariate, longitudinal analyses of low verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities (defined as the lowest 10% of the distribution) at 2, 3 and 4 years of age using data from 9026 pairs of UK twins assessed by their parents as part of the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Domain-general genetic influences increased significantly from 2 to 3 to 4 years. Although the phenotypic polychoric correlation between low verbal and low nonverbal ability was similar at 2, 3 and 4 years (.36,.43,.35), the genetic contribution to the phenotypic correlation increased dramatically (.37,.47,.76), with a corresponding decrease in the comorbid influence of shared environment (.61,.44,.35). We conclude that for low ability, as well as for normal variation in ability, genetic "g" emerges during early childhood but is not fully developed until middle childhood. PMID:15169599

Price, Thomas S; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

2004-04-01

80

Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: From Etiology to Maladaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the extant literature on functional abdominal pain in childhood through the lens of the developmental psychopathology perspective and to systematize research results by means of a two-stage pathway model in which the emergence of functional abdominal pain and its potential transition into a somatoform adjustment disorder is outlined. Methods: Using electronic searches for published studies and previous

Ilva Elena Schulte; Franz Petermann; Meinolf Noeker

2010-01-01

81

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed Central

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

2004-01-01

82

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

83

Successful careers and cognitive style: a follow-up study of childhood family discontinuity.  

PubMed

It was predicted that those participants who experienced discontinuity (death, divorce, and separations) from their parent(s) in childhood and who had successful careers in adulthood would manifest more innovative than adaptive cognitive styles on the Kirton Adaption-Innovation Inventory. The original research showed 61% of the sample members (n = 41) experienced family discontinuity. Ninety percent (n = 37) of the previous participants responded and showed 59% family discontinuity. Fifty-four percent in the follow-up study chose an alternative career path (counterstriving), the same percentage as in the original sample. When both family discontinuity and counterstriving were present, statistically significant innovation scores occurred. Family discontinuity in childhood and a successful career in adulthood are likely to be associated with high striving-motivation and an innovative (paradigm-breaking) problem-solving style. PMID:1792271

Gordon, V Z

1991-12-01

84

Young people making sense of pain: Cognitive appraisal, function, and pain in 8–16 year old children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recurrent pain is a common childhood problem which for some becomes chronic and is associated with severely impaired functioning. Relationships of psychological variables with impaired functioning have rarely been investigated in samples of children reporting pain in non-clinical settings. The aim of this study was to examine the role of cognitive appraisal in the relationship between chronic pain and level

Anna Huguet; Christopher Eccleston; Jordi Miró; Jeremy Gauntlett-Gilbert

2009-01-01

85

5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence  

PubMed Central

Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

2012-01-01

86

Altered microstructure within social-cognitive brain networks during childhood in Williams syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion of ?26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a distinctive pattern of social cognition. Accordingly, neuroimaging studies show that WS is associated with structural alterations of key brain regions involved in social cognition during adulthood. However, very little is currently known regarding the neuroanatomical structure of social cognitive brain networks during childhood in WS. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the structural integrity of a specific set of white matter pathways (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF] and uncinate fasciculus [UF]) and associated brain regions [fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOG)] known to be involved in social cognition in children with WS and a typically developing (TD) control group. Children with WS exhibited higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity values and lower radial diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within the IFOF and UF, higher FA values within the FG, amygdala, and hippocampus and lower ADC values within the FG and MOG compared to controls. These findings provide evidence that the WS genetic deletion affects the development of key white matter pathways and brain regions important for social cognition. PMID:23709644

Haas, Brian W; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Sheau, Kristen E; Yamagata, Bun; Ullas, Shruti; Reiss, Allan L

2014-10-01

87

Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: A 7-year follow-up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13–24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment,

Emily Marie McHugh O’Leary; Paula Barrett; Krister W. Fjermestad

2009-01-01

88

Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict…

Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

89

Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive 'scars' that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA and cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Selby, Edward A; Beevers, Christopher G

2014-01-01

90

White Matter Integrity and Cognition in Childhood and Old Age: A Diffusion Tensor MRI Study  

E-print Network

-appearing frontal and occipital periventricular white matter and centrum semiovale (CS) were measured in multiple 5.625 Ã? 5.625 mm (6 Ã? 6 voxels) regions-of-interest. The observer was blind to the cognitive function

Clayden, Jonathan D.

91

Nutrition, brain function and cognitive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,

Harris R Lieberman

2003-01-01

92

Cognitive function in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we examined 35 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and 35 healthy volunteers. We used tests of cognitive performance (mini mental state examination, verbal and visual memory, visuospatial, frontal function, attention). In the JME group, we examined age, sex, family history, education level, age of seizure onset, seizure types, characteristics of EEG, duration of the therapy, drug

Fugen Sonmez; Dilek Atakli; Huseyin Sari; Turan Atay; Baki Arpaci

2004-01-01

93

Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

1989-01-01

94

Prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation as predictors of cognitive control in childhood  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their inter-relationships in predicting variations in the proficiency of executive attention, a core element of cognitive control and self-regulation. Participants were an ethnic-racially, socio-economically diverse sample of 249 children followed from birth in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We obtained histories of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs, and we assessed socio-economic status and learning stimulation during a home visit when the participants were infants. In childhood we utilized the Attention Networks Test to assess the proficiency of executive attention during two home visits, one year apart. Accounting for age, SES, prenatal alcohol exposure, and baseline performance, we found that prenatal cigarette exposure impaired the speed of executive attention. Infant learning stimulation mitigated these effects, and predicted better accuracy of executive attention as well, suggestive of both protective and health promoting effects. Effect sizes for these relations, whether examined independently or by their inter-relationships, were comparable if not greater in magnitude to the effects of age on speed and accuracy, highlighting the importance of these very early experiences in shaping the proficiency of self-regulation. Since executive attention is central to cognitive control and self-regulation, previously described relations between prenatal cigarette exposure, parenting practices, and some forms of childhood psychopathology, may be contingent on how early learning stimulation contributes to the proficiency of executive attention through direct and indirect effects. Furthermore, considering the prolonged developmental trajectory of executive attention, interventions to support provision of learning stimulation may mitigate poor outcomes for some at-risk children by promoting development of more proficient executive attention. PMID:21676107

Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

2010-01-01

95

Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. PMID:21376129

Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-11-01

96

Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

2007-01-01

97

Cognitive Errors, Anxiety Sensitivity, and Anxiety Control Beliefs: Their Unique and Specific Associations with Childhood Anxiety Symptoms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the interrelations among negative cognitive errors, anxiety sensitivity, and anxiety control beliefs and explored their unique and specific associations with anxiety symptoms in a community sample of youth. Existing research has suggested that these constructs are related to childhood anxiety disorder symptoms; however,…

Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Watts, Sarah E.; Taylor, Leslie K.; Cannon, Melinda F.

2007-01-01

98

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…

Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

2004-01-01

99

Association between somatic growth trajectory and cognitive functioning in young children with sickle cell disease.  

PubMed

Children with sickle cell disease are at risk of cognitive deficits and somatic growth delays beginning in early childhood. We examined growth velocity from age 2?years (height and body mass index progression over time) and cognitive functioning in 46 children with sickle cell disease 4 to 8 years of age. Height-for-age velocity was not associated with cognitive outcomes. Higher body mass index velocity was associated with higher scores on global cognitive and visual-motor abilities but not processing resources or academic achievement. Body mass index progression over time may be a clinically useful indicator of neurocognitive risk in sickle cell disease, as it may reflect multiple sickle cell disease-related risk factors. PMID:25488939

Puffer, Eve S; Schatz, Jeffrey C; Roberts, Carla W

2014-12-01

100

Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

2013-01-01

101

Cognitive Function in Peripheral Autonomic Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF) of peripheral origin and 2) to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on cognitive performances. Methods we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old) with pure AF (PAF) or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT) and during supine rest (supine) in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. Results patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. Conclusions these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion. PMID:24465471

Guaraldi, Pietro; Poda, Roberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Solieri, Laura; Sambati, Luisa; Gallassi, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro

2014-01-01

102

Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

2004-01-01

103

Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

1998-01-01

104

Can Intensive Early Childhood Intervention Programs Eliminate Income-Based Cognitive and Achievement Gaps?  

PubMed Central

How much of the income-based gaps in cognitive ability and academic achievement could be closed by a two-year, center-based early childhood education intervention? Data from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), which randomly assigned treatment to low-birth-weight children from both higher- and low-income families between ages one and three, shows much larger impacts among low-than higher-income children. Projecting IHDP impacts to the U.S. population’s IQ and achievement trajectories suggests that such a program offered to low-income children would essentially eliminate the income-based gap at age three and between a third and three-quarters of the age five and age eight gaps.

Duncan, Greg J.; Sojourner, Aaron J.

2014-01-01

105

MEASURING COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN MDD: EMERGING ASSESSMENT TOOLS.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

2014-11-24

106

The Relationship between Height and Cognitive Function among Community-dwelling Elderly: Hallym Aging Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Height is known as an index that reflects the environment of the fetal, childhood, and adolescent periods, which affect adult health. This study was conducted to elucidate whether height is associated with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elders in Korea. METHODS The study subjects were recruited among community dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 or over who participated in the 2004 Hallym Aging Study. They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Cognitive function measurement was performed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between height and cognitive function. RESULTS After adjusting for potential covariates such as age and education, the smallest group was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with the tallest group among elderly men (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-17.36), but not among elderly women (OR,1.65; 95% CI, 0.62-4.40). CONCLUSIONS The reason for this difference according to sex may be explained by the differential effects of education on cognitive function by sex. A larger population-based prospective cohort study is needed to examine the association between height and cognitive function according to sex. PMID:23682335

Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

107

Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships. PMID:23174335

Wright, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

108

Working Memory in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: Functional Neuroimaging Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the physical and psychological late effects of treatment of childhood cancer has led to the identification of significant long-term neurocognitive deficits experienced by some survivors, particularly in the areas of memory and executive functioning. Despite indications of deficits based on cognitive assessment, the identification of specific mechanisms of neurocognitive deficits using neuroimaging techniques has yet to be adequately considered. Procedure This study used functional neuroimaging techniques to examine working memory and executive functioning deficits of survivors of childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), as compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Results There was a trend for ALL survivors to perform more poorly on a working memory task in terms of overall accuracy. Additionally, survivors displayed significantly greater activation in areas underlying working memory (dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) and error monitoring (dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex). Conclusions These results support the theory of compensatory activation in necessary brain regions in order to complete tasks in pediatric ALL survivors, similar to that observed in multiple sclerosis patients. Concurrent examination of testing and brain imaging enables the connection of behavioral observations with underlying neurological characteristics of deficits in survivors and may help provide insight into mechanisms through which deficits appear. PMID:19953649

Robinson, Kristen E.; Livesay, Katherine L.; Campbell, Laura K.; Scaduto, Mary; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Whitlock, James A.; Compas, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

109

The impact of childhood abuse among women with assault-related PTSD receiving short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885

Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y

2014-10-01

110

Cognitive functioning of the prelingually deaf adults.  

PubMed

Deafness is a model of brain adaptation to sensory deprivation which entails psychomotor and cognitive domains. This study seeks to determine the level of emotional intelligence, assessed from the ability to discern emotions from facial expressions, visual and mental attention, and non-verbal fluency in the deaf people as compared with the hearing counterparts. Participants were 29 prelingually deaf, hearing loss of >70 dB, communicating only in sign language, and 30 hearing persons. The age range of all subjects was 40-50 years. Psychometric tools consisted of the Emotional Intelligence Scale-Faces, the d2 Test of Attention, and the Figural Fluency Test. Data elaboration took gender into account. The findings were that both deaf women and men defined significantly fewer emotions as known, compared with the hearing persons. However, the deaf men, but not women, were able to properly recognize a higher percentage of emotions associated with a definite face look, among the emotions they knew. There were no appreciable differences in attention indices between the deaf and hearing men, but deaf women's total performance on attention was worse. By contrast, deaf women, but not men, fared better in non-verbal fluency, compared with their hearing counterparts. We conclude that, on the whole, prelingual deafness does not impede cognitive functioning in adult age. The nature of detecting and executing of cognitive tasks, despite gender and task-specific variations, is preserved. Brain networks are able to compensate for the missing auditory input. PMID:25310953

Pokorski, Mieczys?aw; Klima?ska, Sandra

2015-01-01

111

Longitudinal Changes in Cognitive Functioning in Adult Day Care Participants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines longitudinal changes in cognitive functioning over the course of 2 years in participants of adult day care programs. Cognitive measures included the Brief Cognitive Rating Scale (BCRS) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Longitudinal data were available for five measurement points over 2 years for 82 participants (22 males and 60 females). Overall, results from this study

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield; Ann L. Gruber-Baldini; William J. Culpepper; Perla Werner

1996-01-01

112

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800

2011-01-01

113

The Effect of Obesity Degree on Childhood Pulmonary Function Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9–17 years old) referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85), 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % >85, <95), 34 subjects were obese (BMI % >95, <97), and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % >97). Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity 25–75 (FEV25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001) and FEV25–75 (p<0.001) in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects. PMID:25337419

Torun, Emel; Cakir, Erkan; Özgüç, Fatma; Özgen, ?lker Tolga

2014-01-01

114

Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

115

Functional Gene Group Analysis Indicates No Role for Heterotrimeric G Proteins in Cognitive Ability  

PubMed Central

Previous functional gene group analyses implicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heterotrimeric G protein coding genes as being associated with differences in human intelligence. Here, we sought to replicate this finding using five independent cohorts of older adults including current IQ and childhood IQ, and using both gene- and SNP-based analytic strategies. No significant associations were found between variation in heterotrimeric G protein genes and intelligence in any cohort at either of the two time points. These results indicate that, whereas G protein systems are important in cognition, common genetic variation in these genes is unlikely to be a substantial influence on human intelligence differences. PMID:24626473

Davies, Gail; Liewald, David Cherry McLachlan; Payton, Anthony; Craig, Leone C. A.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Horan, Mike; Ollier, William; Starr, John M.; Pendleton, Neil; Posthuma, Danielle; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.

2014-01-01

116

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844

2014-01-01

117

Cognitive control moderates early childhood temperament in predicting social behavior in seven year old children: An ERP study  

PubMed Central

Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament associated with heightened vigilance and fear of novelty in early childhood, and social reticence and increased risk for anxiety problems later in development. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children develop signs of anxiety. One mechanism that might contribute to the variability in developmental trajectories is the recruitment of cognitive-control resources. The current study measured N2 activation, an ERP (event-related potential) associated with cognitive control, and modeled source-space activation (LORETA; Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) at seven years of age while children performed a go/no-go task. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex and then exported for four regions of interest: ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal ACC), and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). BI was measured in early childhood (ages two and three years). Anxiety problems and social reticence were measured at seven years of age to ascertain stability of temperamental style. Results revealed that BI was associated with increased performance accuracy, longer reaction times, greater (more negative) N2 activation, and higher estimated dorsal ACC and DLPFC activation. Furthermore, early BI was only associated with social reticence at age 7 at higher (more negative) levels of N2 activation or higher estimated dorsal ACC or DLPFC activation. Results are discussed in the context of overcontrolled behavior contributing to social reticence and signs of anxiety in middle childhood. PMID:24754610

Lamm, Connie; Walker, Olga L.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Henderson, Heather A.; Pine, Daniel S.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A.

2015-01-01

118

Longitudinal study of symptoms and cognitive function in chronic schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is conflicting evidence of a relationship between changes in symptoms and cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. This study investigated longitudinal changes in psychopathology and cognitive functioning in chronic schizophrenia utilising three different dimensional models of symptomatology. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were examined on two occasions over a period of 6 months for symptom improvement, measured

Catherine Hughes; Veena Kumari; William Soni; Mrigendra Das; Brendon Binneman; Sonia Drozd; Shaun O'Neil; Vallakalil Mathew; Tonmoy Sharma

2003-01-01

119

Endogenous Glucocorticoids Are Essential for Maintaining Prefrontal Cortical Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones are important in the maintenance of many brain functions. Although their receptors are distributed abun- dantly throughout the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), it is not clear how glucocorticoid functions, particularly with regard to cognitive processing in the PFC. There is evidence of PFC cognitive deficits such as working memory impairment in several stress- related neuropsychiatric disorders,

Kazushige Mizoguchi; Atsushi Ishige; Shuichi Takeda; Masaki Aburada; Takeshi Tabira

2004-01-01

120

Childhood Trauma and Adult Interpersonal Functioning: A Study Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method (CCRT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to examine the long-term correlates of childhood trauma in regard to interpersonal functioning in adulthood. Method: One hundred and nineteen (N=119) subjects from the Austen Riggs Follow-along Study were included in the study. The Traumatic Antecedent Interview scoring method was used to assess 10 types of childhood

Drapeau, M.; Perry, J.C.

2004-01-01

121

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

122

Childhood Discipline, Perceptions of Parents, and Current Functioning in Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related…

Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff; Klein, Jenny; Oliveros, Arazais

2006-01-01

123

Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

2012-01-01

124

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results showed that 95% of the participants experienced clinically

Jane Shakespeare-Finch; Therese de Dassel

2009-01-01

125

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

126

Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

127

The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

128

Positive Childhood Experiences and Positive Adult Functioning: Prosocial Continuity and the Role of Adolescent Substance Use  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine positive childhood experiences as predictors of positive adult functioning, including civic involvement, productivity and responsibility, interpersonal connection, and physical exercise; and to examine adolescent substance use as a mediator of prosocial continuity. Methods Four hundred and twenty-nine rural participants were interviewed across 7 waves from age 11 to 22. Structural equation models examined the relationship between positive childhood experiences and adult functioning, with adolescent substance use added to each model as a possible mediating mechanism. Results Positive childhood experiences predicted significantly better adult functioning for each model, even after accounting for adolescent substance use. Positive childhood experiences also consistently predicted significantly less adolescent substance use. In turn, adolescent substance use predicted significantly less civic involvement and less productivity and responsibility, but was not associated with interpersonal connection or physical exercise when accounting for childhood experiences. Results were largely consistent across gender and levels of family income. Conclusions Findings show the enduring importance of positive childhood experiences in predicting positive functioning in early adulthood. Although adolescent substance use increased risk for poorer functioning in important domains of adult life, results suggest that positive experiences in late childhood continued to have a significant prosocial effect into young adulthood. The study also highlights the late elementary grades as a time when parents, teachers, and others can potentially have a large influence in proactively providing prosocial opportunities for children. PMID:21783051

Kosterman, Rick; Mason, W. Alex; Haggerty, Kevin P.; Hawkins, J. David; Spoth, Richard; Redmond, Cleve

2011-01-01

129

[Peculiarities of cognitive functions in patients with chronic back pain].  

PubMed

The authors have studied cognitive functions and influencing factors in 64 patients with chronic low back pain. All patients have been examined using neurologic, neuroorthopedic, pathopsychological and neuropsychological methods. Patients have been divided into 2 groups according to their age: group 1 (aged 30-50 years) and group 2 (aged 51-60 years). Healthy controls were matched to patients for age, sex and education. Significant differences in neuropsychological testing, i.e. mental flexibility, delayed memory, psychomotor speed, which referred to the subtle cognitive impairment with executive function disturbances, were found in both groups of patients with chronic low back pain as compared to pain-free adults. Sensory-discriminative (pain intensity) and affective-emotional (negative emotions, in particular, anxiety) characteristics had the effect on cognitive functions in younger patients without depressive symptoms. Affective-emotional (anxiety, psychological distress) and cognitive characteristics (i.e. catastrophising) contributed to the cognitive disturbances in older patients. PMID:20032949

Melkumova, K A; Podchufarova, E V; Iakhno, N N

2009-01-01

130

Research progress of cognitive function in schizophrenia in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area. PMID:24991166

LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida

2013-01-01

131

Non-pharmacological interventions on cognitive functions in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI).  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can be a stage of pre-dementia. There is no consensus about pharmacological treatment for this population, so it is important to structure non-pharmacological interventions for increasing their cognitive reserve. We intended to analyze the effects of non-pharmacological interventions in the cognitive functions in older people with MC, in form of a systemic review. Data sources were the Web of Science, Biological Abstracts, Medline, Pub Med, EBSCHost, Scirus and Google Scholar. All studies were longitudinal trials, with MCI sample, aged>60 years, community-dwelling, and having cognitive functions as dependent variable. Seven studies, from 91 previously selected ones, were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Six studies used cognitive intervention, improving memory and one study used physical activity as intervention, improving executive functions. The results show evidence that physical activity and cognitive exercise may improve memory and executive functions in older people with MCI. But yet, more controlled studies are needed to establish a protocol of recommendations regarding the systemization of exercise, necessary to produce benefits in the cognitive functioning in older people with MCI. PMID:21397960

Teixeira, Camila Vieira Ligo; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Corazza, Danilla Icassatti; Stella, Florindo; Costa, José Luiz Riani; Gobbi, Sebastião

2012-01-01

132

Connections between Vision, Hearing, and Cognitive Function in Old Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of studies that examined the relationship between vision, hearing, and cognitive function in normally aging adults. Indicates that most found at least modest significant relationships between sensory and cognitive measures based on diverse assessment and design methods. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

Wahl, Hans-Werner; Heyl, Vera

2003-01-01

133

Relationships between neuropathology and cognitive functioning in temporal lobectomy patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive functions were examined before operation and 4 weeks after operation with respect to pathology in 40 patients who underwent temporal lobectomy for epilepsy. Hippocampal sclerosis was associated with febrile convulsions, an earlier onset of regular seizures, poorer preoperative intelligence and with a tendency towards greater cognitive improvement across the operation than found in patients with tumour-like malformations or non-specific

T M McMillan; G E Powell; I Janota; C E Polkey

1987-01-01

134

High Risk of Cognitive and Functional Decline after Postoperative Delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of postoperative delirium with the outcomes of cognitive impairment, functional disability and death. Methods: Hip surgery patients aged 60 years or over (n = 200) underwent preoperative and daily postoperative assessment of their cognitive status during hospital stay. Outcome variables were determined at an average of 8 and 38

Horst Bickel; Reiner Gradinger; Eberhard Kochs; Hans Förstl

2008-01-01

135

Changes in Cognitive Functioning in Recovering Alcoholic Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information about the neuropsychological consequences of alcoholism has been mostly limited to the cognitive functioning of recently detoxified alcoholic men. To expand this research, the long-term recovery of cognitive abilities in alcoholic women was examined in two studies. In the first study, neuropsychological performances were compared for…

Fabian, Marjorie S.; Parsons, Oscar A.

136

Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

2009-01-01

137

Cognitive Functions in Carotid Artery Disease before Endarterectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restorative effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive functioning in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease presuppose the existence of cognitive deficits prior to the intervention. Thorough examination of this premise received only minor attention. The present study assessed symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe unilateral or bilateral stenosis of the carotid arteries one day before CEA. Healthy volunteers with similar

Ercolie R. Bossema; Nico Brand; Frans L. Moll; Rob G. A. Ackerstaff; Edward H. F. de Haan; Lorenz J. P. van Doornen

2006-01-01

138

The total burden of rare, non-synonymous exome genetic variants is not associated with childhood or late-life cognitive ability.  

PubMed

Human cognitive ability shows consistent, positive associations with fitness components across the life-course. Underlying genetic variation should therefore be depleted by selection, which is not observed. Genetic variation in general cognitive ability (intelligence) could be maintained by a mutation-selection balance, with rare variants contributing to its genetic architecture. This study examines the association between the total number of rare stop-gain/loss, splice and missense exonic variants and cognitive ability in childhood and old age in the same individuals. Exome array data were obtained in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined N = 1596). General cognitive ability was assessed at age 11 years and in late life (79 and 70 years, respectively) and was modelled against the total number of stop-gain/loss, splice, and missense exonic variants, with minor allele frequency less than or equal to 0.01, using linear regression adjusted for age and sex. In both cohorts and in both the childhood and late-life models, there were no significant associations between rare variant burden in the exome and cognitive ability that survived correction for multiple testing. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, we observed no evidence for an association between the total number of rare exonic variants and either childhood cognitive ability or late-life cognitive ability. PMID:24573858

Marioni, Riccardo E; Penke, Lars; Davies, Gail; Huffman, Jennifer E; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J

2014-04-22

139

Age-related functional reorganization, structural changes, and preserved cognition.  

PubMed

Although healthy aging is associated with general cognitive decline, there is considerable variability in the extent to which cognitive functions decline or are preserved. Preserved cognitive function in the context of age-related neuroanatomical and functional changes, has been attributed to compensatory mechanisms. However, the existing sparse evidence is largely focused on functions associated with the frontal cortex, leaving open the question of how wider age-related brain changes relate to compensation. We evaluated relationships between age-related neural and functional changes in the context of preserved cognitive function by combining measures of structure, function, and cognitive performance during spoken language comprehension using a paradigm that does not involve an explicit task. We used a graph theoretical approach to derive cognitive activation-related functional magnetic resonance imaging networks. Correlating network properties with age, neuroanatomical variations, and behavioral data, we found that decreased gray matter integrity was associated with decreased connectivity within key language regions but increased overall functional connectivity. However, this network reorganization was less efficient, suggesting that engagement of a more distributed network in aging might be triggered by reduced connectivity within specialized networks. PMID:23942392

Meunier, David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

2014-01-01

140

Dance and cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease   

E-print Network

Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is commonly accompanied by reduced health related quality of life (HRQoL) and cognitive decline which decreases participation in activities of daily living. Moreover, worsened motor ...

Michalska, Beata

2012-11-28

141

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

142

Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women  

PubMed Central

Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV. PMID:21958030

2011-01-01

143

The Specialization of Function: Cognitive and Neural Perspectives  

PubMed Central

A unifying theme that cuts across all research areas and techniques in the cognitive and brain sciences is whether there is specialization of function at levels of processing that are ‘abstracted away’ from sensory inputs and motor outputs. Any theory that articulates claims about specialization of function in the mind/brain confronts the following types of interrelated questions, each of which carries with it certain theoretical commitments. What methods are appropriate for decomposing complex cognitive and neural processes into their constituent parts? How do cognitive processes map onto neural processes, and at what resolution are they related? What types of conclusions can be drawn about the structure of mind from dissociations observed at the neural level, and vice versa? The contributions that form this Special Issue of Cognitive Neuropsychology represent recent reflections on these and other issues from leading researchers in different areas of the cognitive and brain sciences. PMID:22185234

Mahon, Bradford Z.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

2014-01-01

144

Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2014-09-01

145

Functional neuroimaging of cognition: state-of-the-art.  

PubMed

This paper presents a brief overview of functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive processes. A "publication profile" is identified for PET and fMRI studies of cognitive functions. It is shown that the number of publications has increased exponentially over the last ten years, and that a set of ten journals accounts for the vast majority of publications. It is argued that the field has moved from a state of explorative character to a state of high theoretical sophistication. With special reference to the contributions in this issue of Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, methodological, topical, regional, and clinical implications of cognitive neuroscientific studies are discussed. PMID:11501731

Nyberg, L

2001-07-01

146

Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

1998-01-01

147

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition. Included in the discussion are findings from studies that have assessed the acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine on several domains of cognition, including visuospatial perception, attention, inhibition, working memory, long-term memory, and learning. In addition, relevant neuroimaging data are reviewed in an effort to better understand neural mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related effects on cognitive functioning. In general, the data on acute effects show that methamphetamine improves cognitive performance in selected domains, that is, visuospatial perception, attention, and inhibition. Regarding long-term effects on cognitive performance and brain-imaging measures, statistically significant differences between methamphetamine users and control participants have been observed on a minority of measures. More importantly, however, the clinical significance of these findings may be limited because cognitive functioning overwhelmingly falls within the normal range when compared against normative data. In spite of these observations, there seems to be a propensity to interpret any cognitive and/or brain difference(s) as a clinically significant abnormality. The implications of this situation are multiple, with consequences for scientific research, substance-abuse treatment, and public policy. PMID:22089317

Hart, Carl L; Marvin, Caroline B; Silver, Rae; Smith, Edward E

2012-01-01

148

Functional brain imaging of cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Multiple factors are involved in the development of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Notably, several underlying factors, such as monoaminergic dysfunction, Lewy body pathology, Alzheimer disease-like pathology and cerebrovascular disease are implied in the PD pathophysiology of cognitive impairment. The mesocortical dopaminergic system is associated with executive functions which are frequently affected in PD and are influenced by local levodopa concentration, dopamine metabolism and baseline performance status. The ventral striatum and frontal cortex are associated with impulse control disorders reported in PD patients treated with dopamine replacement therapy. Cholinergic impairment in PD plays a cardinal role in the development of dementia. Acetylcholinesterase positron emission tomography demonstrates that posterior brain areas are related to cognitive decline in PD patients. Amyloid radiotracer illustrates that patients with PD with severe cognitive impairment were prone to accompanied cortical amyloid deposition. Metabolism/perfusion change associated with cognitive impairment in PD, so-called PD related cognitive pattern, is characterised by reduced frontoparietal activity and is an effective way to differentiate and monitor cognitive function of individual PD patients. Cognitive impairment in PD cannot be explained by a single mechanism and is entangled by multiple factors. Imaging studies can unravel each pathological domain, further shed light on the interrelation between different pathomechanisms, not only in PD but also in other dementia related disorders, and thereby integrate its interpretation to apply to therapeutics in individual patients. PMID:22807560

Hirano, Shigeki; Shinotoh, Hitoshi; Eidelberg, David

2012-10-01

149

Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation for childhood leukemia on subsequent cognitive and problem-solving skills  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has indicated that children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), treated with a CNS prophylaxis of 2,400 cGy radiation and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), demonstrate a decline in both global and specific aspects of their cognitive functioning. Recent changes in treatment protocols for ALL have resulted in a significant reduction in radiation to a dosage of 1,800 cGy, or the elimination of radiation altogether. Today, it is recognized that for low- and average-risk ALL patients the use of intrathecal methotrexate is equally effective for reducing the occurrence of CNS leukemic relapse. Current research has not yet fully determined the impact of this lowered dosage of radiation on later intellectual functioning in survivors of ALL. The present research compared the standardized-test performance of a group of children receiving 1,800 cGy radiation and IT-MTX (n = 15) to a group receiving IT-MTX only (n = 10) as a CNS prophylaxis. All subjects were treated with one leg of the Childrens Cancer Study Group protocols {number sign}161 or {number sign}162, and were evaluated at least 5 years post-diagnosis, while in remission from the disease process. Subjects ranged in age from seven to twelve at the time of participation. Tests administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), the Mental Processing subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and a variety of tasks which have been indicated to measure different aspects of children's cognitive strategy usage (including Tower of Hanoi and Matching Familiar Figures tasks). Analysis revealed significant performance-differences between these groups as reflected on the WISC-R (Verbal IQ) and on the K-ABC (Sequential Processing score), with the Radiated group performing more poorly than the Non-radiated group.

Hays, R.C.

1989-01-01

150

Social engagement and cognitive function in old age.  

PubMed

We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity and social support were related to better cognitive function, whereas social network size was not strongly related to global cognition. The results confirm that higher level of social engagement in old age is associated with better cognitive function but the association varies across domains of social engagement. PMID:19173101

Krueger, Kristin R; Wilson, Robert S; Kamenetsky, Julia M; Barnes, Lisa L; Bienias, Julia L; Bennett, David A

2009-01-01

151

SOCIAL ENGAGEMENT AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLD AGE  

PubMed Central

We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity and social support were related to better cognitive function, whereas social network size was not strongly related to global cognition. The results confirm that higher level of social engagement in old age is associated with better cognitive function but the association varies across domains of social engagement. PMID:19173101

Krueger, Kristin R.; Wilson, Robert S.; Kamenetsky, Julia M.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Bienias, Julia L.; Bennett, David A.

2009-01-01

152

Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD. PMID:21441386

Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2011-01-01

153

Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

1999-01-01

154

Retinal Vessel Caliber and Lifelong Neuropsychological Functioning: An Investigative Tool for Cognitive Epidemiology  

PubMed Central

Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508

Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie

2013-01-01

155

Childhood Overweight and the Relationship between Parent Behaviors, Parenting Style, and Family Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and how a family functions with respect to the development of childhood overweight. Parents can influence a child's weight through specific feeding and activity practices and perhaps more broadly through their parenting style and management of family functioning. These more global influences of parenting style and family functioning provide a

Kyung Rhee

2008-01-01

156

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

2011-01-01

157

Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

Levin, Edward D.

2013-01-01

158

[Cognitive functions and extracranial circulation in patients with hypertonic crisis].  

PubMed

We studied effects of enalaprilate and infedipine therapy on the cognitive functions and extracranial circulation in 60 patients with chronic AH complicated by acute encephalopathy. 10% of them had predemential disorders on day 1 of hospitalization and 90% mild cognitive problems. Half of the patients suffered reduced circulation in the common carotid artery. The contribution of impaired extracranial circulation to cognitive dysfunction in the acute period of hypertonic crisis was higher than that of high SAD and DAD. Antihypertensive therapy improved bloodflow in extracranial vessels, decreased their systolic and diastolic indices but failed to eliminate mild cognitive disorders in 65% of the patients. Visual-spatial orientation was restored more frequently than verbal auditory memory. Enalaprilate and infedipine had similar angio- and cerebroprotective effects but the latter had more pronounced favourable effect on verbal auditory memory than the former. The degree of recovery of cognitive function 2 weeks after hypertonic crisis depended not only on the form of cognitive disorder and therapeutic modality but also on the patient's age. Hemodynamic parameters and age 2 weeks after antihypertensive therapy are predictors of residual cognitive dysfunction soon (2 weeks) after recovery. PMID:23659070

Baev, V M; Kozlov, D B; Berezan, M Iu

2013-01-01

159

Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.  

PubMed

Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. PMID:24493840

van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

2014-12-01

160

Cognitive functions in carotid artery disease before endarterectomy.  

PubMed

Restorative effects of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) on cognitive functioning in patients with severe atherosclerotic disease presuppose the existence of cognitive deficits prior to the intervention. Thorough examination of this premise received only minor attention. The present study assessed symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with severe unilateral or bilateral stenosis of the carotid arteries one day before CEA. Healthy volunteers with similar demographic characteristics served as control subjects. Patients overall showed decreased functioning on tests of attention, verbal and visual memory, verbal fluency, and psychomotor speed and executive functioning, even after correction for the effects of mood. Simple motor skills and visuospatial functioning were not affected. Patients grouped according to presence and type of previous clinical symptoms and severity of contralateral stenosis only slightly differed from each other. The findings leave open the potential of improving cognitive function after CEA. PMID:16618625

Bossema, Ercolie R; Brand, Nico; Moll, Frans L; Ackerstaff, Rob G A; de Haan, Edward H F; van Doornen, Lorenz J P

2006-04-01

161

Characterizing Executive Functioning in Older Special Populations: From Cognitively Elite to Cognitively Impaired  

PubMed Central

The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LIS-REL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Strauss, Esther

2012-01-01

162

Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes  

PubMed Central

Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)) and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children), aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25157201

Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Robalo, Conceição; Simões, Mário Rodrigues

2014-01-01

163

Memory functioning in children with epilepsy: frontal lobe epilepsy, childhood absence epilepsy, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes.  

PubMed

Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS)) and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children), aged 6-15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25157201

Lopes, Ana Filipa; Monteiro, José Paulo; Fonseca, Maria José; Robalo, Conceição; Simões, Mário Rodrigues

2014-01-01

164

Correlation between visual acuity and cognitive functions  

PubMed Central

A possible association between visual acuity (VA) and dementia was investigated in 2716 subjects who were aged between 53 and 102 at first visit and had varying degrees of dementia. Better VA was found to be significantly correlated with a lower dementia level (person coefficient range 0.146–0.261 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001) as well as with a higher global cognitive score (person coefficient range ?0.254 to ?0.318 over 10 years of follow-up, all correlations are significant, p<0.0001), a grade encompassing 19 different cognitive tests. This correlation remained significant after adjustment for age, years of education, gender, use of ophthalmic drugs and years of follow-up. PMID:24169658

Elyashiv, Sivan M; Shabtai, Esther L; Belkin, Michael

2014-01-01

165

Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year. PMID:22703992

Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bart?omiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

2012-11-01

166

Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-01

167

Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

2002-01-01

168

Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

2010-01-01

169

Teachers' Understanding of Mathematical Cognition in Childhood: Towards a Shift in Pedagogical Content Knowledge?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…

Henning, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

170

Social-Cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptually related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as moderators of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in…

Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

2008-01-01

171

Computers for Cognitive Development in Early Childhood--The Teacher's Role in the Computer Learning Environment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to examine the effect of different kinds of adult mediation on the cognitive performance of young children who used computers. The study sample included 150 kindergarten children aged 5-6. The findings indicate that children who engaged in adult-mediated computer activity improved the level of their cognitive performance on…

Nir-Gal, Ofra; Klein, Pnina S.

2004-01-01

172

Early Bifrontal Brain Injury: Disturbances in Cognitive Function Development  

PubMed Central

We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitive functions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitive functions during development. PMID:21188227

Bonnier, Christine; Costet, Aurélie; Hmaimess, Ghassan; Catale, Corinne; Maillart, Christelle; Marique, Patricia

2010-01-01

173

Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self-help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self-help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self-help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain.Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self-help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty-one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as 'much'/'very much' improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self-help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care. PMID:22477922

Creswell, Cathy; Hentges, Francoise; Parkinson, Monika; Sheffield, Paul; Willetts, Lucy; Cooper, Peter

2010-03-01

174

Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase val/met polymorphism with cognitive function in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients.  

PubMed

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. The cognitive dysfunction caused by GTS could affect the growth and learning of children and adolescents. The mechanism of cognitive functions was associated with dopaminergic system, thus we access the associations between polymorphism of some dopaminergic system-related genes including Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) met/val, Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III 48 bp VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats), Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5, and cognitive functions in GTS patients. Genotyping analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Test for cognitive functions of GTS patients included modified wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), trail making test, visual reproduction test, stroop test and verbal fluency test. The patients with COMT met/met genotype showed less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with COMT val/val genotype (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, patients without allele val had better delayed memory in visual reproduction test, less errors in the stroop test and less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with allele val (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in cognitive functions among patients with different genotypes or alleles of polymorphisms of DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR, IL-1 Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5 (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of COMT met/val was correlated with cognitive functions in GTS patients. This study provided basis for the analysis of molecular genetic pathology of cognitive dysfunctions in GTS. PMID:25367405

Ji, Weidong; Li, Ning; Ju, Kang; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Chuang; Xu, Ping; Chen, Silu; Cao, Aiai; Chen, Xue; Guo, Lanting

2014-11-01

175

Does Age Moderate the Effect of IQ on the Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities during Childhood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from the national standardization of the French version of the WISC-III were analyzed to determine when during childhood the IQ-related process of differentiation appears and how the strength of the relationships among subtests evolves with age in low- and high-IQ groups. Indeed, some recent studies suggest that age might moderate the effect…

Facon, Bruno

2006-01-01

176

Cognitive Function is Related to Anxiety and Adaptive  

E-print Network

/interacts with increased stress/anxiety to further modulate/challenge development stress/anxiety increase inattentionCognitive Function is Related to Anxiety and Adaptive Function in Children with 22q11.2DS Tony J younger children 9Monday, July 23, 12 Do These Problems Cause Stress? Some quotes from an adult posting

Nguyen, Danh

177

Cognitive-Pharmacologic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Tourette Syndrome  

E-print Network

Cognitive-Pharmacologic Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Tourette Syndrome: A Pilot Study and vocalizations (tics) in Tourette syndrome (TS); however, dopamine-responsive abnormal function in specific brain dopamine antagonists and agonists alleviate tics. Key Words: Tourette syndrome, physiopathology, dopamine

178

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview  

E-print Network

The Cognitive Neuroscience Toolkit for the Neuroeconomist: A Functional Overview Joseph W. Kable to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether

Kable, Joe

179

ZINC FORTIFICATION AND COGNITIVE AND PSYCHOSOCIAL FUNCTION IN YOUNG ADOLESCENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have related zinc nutrition to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children. Therefore, we investigated the effects of zinc fortification on these functions in young adolescents. Seventh graders (65 gi...

180

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.; Economou, Peter; Cruz, Daniel; Abraham-Cook, Shannon; Huntington, Jodi S.; Maris, Marika; Makhija, Nita; Welsh, Toni; Maley, Larissa

2014-01-01

181

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.

2013-01-01

182

Tai Ji Quan and global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot study.  

PubMed

This study evaluated whether Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB) could improve global cognitive function in older adults with cognitive impairment. Using a nonrandomized control group pretest-posttest design, participants aged ?65 years who scored between 20 and 25 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were allocated into either a 14-week TJQMBB program (n=22) or a control group (n=24). The primary outcome was MMSE as a measure of global cognitive function with secondary outcomes of 50-ft speed walk, Timed Up&Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale. At 14 weeks, Tai Ji Quan participants showed significant improvement on MMSE (mean=2.26, p<0.001) compared to controls (mean=0.63, p=0.08). Similarly, Tai Ji Quan participants performed significantly better compared to the controls in both physical performance and balance efficacy measures (p<0.05). Improvement in cognition as measured by MMSE was related to improved physical performance and balance efficacy. These results provide preliminary evidence of the utility of the TJQMBB program to promote cognitive function in older adults in addition to physical benefits. PMID:24398166

Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter; Liu, Yu; Chou, Li-Shan

2014-01-01

183

Effects of topiramate on cognitive function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.?METHODS—This was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals. Complaints of cognitive decline precipitated referral for reassessment in five cases in the topiramate treated group. The groups were matched for age and intellectual level at the time of the first assessment. Patients were assessed using the WAIS-R, tests of verbal and non-verbal memory, language, and perceptual processing. A subgroup of patients underwent a brief reassessment after the withdrawal or substantial reduction of topiramate.?RESULTS—Repeat assessments in those taking topiramate were associated with a significant deterioration in many domains, which were not seen in the comparison group. The greatest changes were for verbal IQ, verbal fluency, and verbal learning (p<0.001). Improvements in verbal fluency (p<0.05), verbal learning (p<0.01), and digit span (p<0.001) were recorded in those patients who had topiramate withdrawn or reduced.?CONCLUSIONS—In our patient group topiramate had a negative impact on cognition which was consistent with subjective complaints of patients. Tests requiring verbal processing seemed especially sensitive to the drug. A decline in verbal intellect (VIQ), a measure which has been considered by some to be insensitive to antiepileptic drug effects, was particularly striking. Caution is warranted in the interpretation of the findings due to methodological limitations of the study design. Further investigation of mediating factors such as serum concentrations, comedication, and other potential risk factors, however, is needed to enable appropriate targeting of treatment with this effective antiepileptic agent.?? PMID:11032616

Thompson, P; Baxendale, S; Duncan, J; Sander, J

2000-01-01

184

Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): A promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to

Lisa B. Thorell; Lilianne Eninger; Karin C. Brocki; Gunilla Bohlin

2010-01-01

185

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Lung function in adults following in utero and childhood exposure to arsenic water causes non-malignant lung disease, but nearly all data concern exposed adults. The desert city and long-term lung function. We present these preliminary findings because of the magnitude of the effects

California at Berkeley, University of

186

A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

2009-01-01

187

Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty?health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty. PMID:24145409

Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W.; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S. Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S.; Swain, James E.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

2013-01-01

188

Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

189

Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

2014-01-01

190

Improvement of cognitive function after carotid endarterectomy--a new strategy for the evaluation of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Significant carotid stenosis is known to cause ischemic stroke and cognitive impairment. However, it remains controversial whether carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can improve cognitive function in patients with carotid stenosis. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) to compare cognitive function between before and after CEA. Patients were prospectively registered to evaluate cognitive function from October 2011 to December 2012 after we determined them to have significant carotid stenosis. Patients were examined by 3-dimensional computed tomographic angiography or digital subtraction angiography. Although symptomatic cases were included, their modified Rankin Scale was grade 0 or 1 before CEA. All CEA procedures were performed by the same neurosurgical team. Cognitive function was evaluated by MoCA and MMSE performed before and after surgery. Data were analyzed statistically using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Thirty-six patients were included in this study. The MoCA score after surgery, whereas the MMSE score was not. After surgery, the MoCA score improved in patients who were 73 years or younger, who underwent CEA in the left side of their carotid lesion, who had severe carotid stenosis of more than 80%, who had bilateral lesion, who did not have abnormal lesion on diffusion-weighted imaging after surgery, or who had cerebral blood flow of pre-CEA over 34.5 mL. In conclusion, MoCA was feasible in patients soon after undergoing CEA. Using MoCA not MMSE, CEA may improve cognitive function in patients with significant carotid stenosis. PMID:24462461

Watanabe, Junko; Ogata, Toshiyasu; Hamada, Omi; Nonaka, Masani; Abe, Hiroshi; Higashi, Toshio; Shiota, Etsuji; Inoue, Tooru

2014-07-01

191

Effect of age and cognition on childhood speech in noise perception abilities.  

PubMed

This research on children's speech in noise and cognitive abilities aimed to determine the age-related trends in speech in noise perception abilities and the relationship between speech in noise perception and cognitive abilities. Monosyllabic distinguishable (consonant-vowel-consonant) words was the most recognisable word category, followed by monosyllabic confusable words (consonant-vowel-consonant), disyllabic non-words (/aCa/) and monosyllabic syllables (/Ca/), demonstrating that phoneme distinctiveness and a reduction in word confusability contribute to their recognition. Older children outperformed younger children on all speech in noise tasks, indicating that there are age-related trends in speech in noise abilities. Children with higher cognitive abilities did not outperform children with lower cognitive abilities on speech in noise tasks, indicating that the ability to hear speech in noise may be an intrinsic feature of the auditory system that matures with age. PMID:17033160

Talarico, Maria; Abdilla, Geraldine; Aliferis, Martha; Balazic, Irena; Giaprakis, Irene; Stefanakis, Toni; Foenander, Kate; Grayden, David B; Paolini, Antonio G

2007-01-01

192

Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies.  

PubMed

Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25(+/-) adolescent mice (SNAP-25(+/+)) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25(+/-) hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25629685

Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

2015-01-01

193

Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies  

PubMed Central

Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25+/? adolescent mice (SNAP-25+/+) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25+/? hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25629685

Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

2015-01-01

194

CAT\\/CLAMS: its use in detecting early childhood cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Adaptive Test\\/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT\\/CLAMS), a neurodevelopmental tool for the cognitive assessment of infants and toddlers, correlates well with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. In 1993 the Bayley Scales were revised and the second edition published (BSID-II). This study was designed to determine how well the CAT\\/CLAMS correlates with the BSID-II and its utility

David A. Kube; William M. Wilson; Mario C. Petersen; Frederick B. Palmer

2000-01-01

195

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

2010-01-01

196

Impact of common KIBRA allele on human cognitive functions.  

PubMed

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction with the modifiers 'lifestyle' and 'cardiovascular risk factors'. Five-hundred forty-five elderly volunteers (mean age 64 years, ±7 years, 56% women) accomplished a comprehensive cognitive testing. Principal component analysis was used to reveal the internal structure of the data, rendering four composite scores: verbal memory, word fluency, executive function/psychomotor speed, and working memory. Lifestyle was assessed with a detailed questionnaire, age-associated risk factors by clinical interview and examination. There was no main effect of the rs17070145 genotype on any cognitive composite scores. However, we found worse performance in executive functions for T-allele carriers in the presence of arterial hypertension (?=-0.365, p=0.0077 and 0.031 after Bonferroni correction). This association was further modified by gender, showing the strongest association in hypertensive females (?=-0.500, p=0.0072 and 0.029 after Bonferroni correction). The effect of KIBRA on cognitive function seems to be complex and modified by gender and arterial hypertension. PMID:21346737

Wersching, H; Guske, K; Hasenkamp, S; Hagedorn, C; Schiwek, S; Jansen, S; Witte, V; Wellmann, J; Lohmann, H; Duning, K; Kremerskothen, J; Knecht, S; Brand, E; Floel, A

2011-05-01

197

Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

2008-01-01

198

Brief report: cognitive functioning in children with Tourette's syndrome with and without comorbid ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine whether patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) with and without comorbid atten- tion deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) differ in cognitive functioning and whether a higher level of cognitive functioning is associated with severity of TS symptoms and psychosocial functioning. Methods: Cognitive functioning, symptom severity, and psychosocial functioning were examined in 40 pa- tients (33 boys, 7 girls;

Nico Brand; Rinie Geenen; Milo Oudenhoven; Bastiaan Lindenborn; Annette van der Ree; Peggy Cohen-Kettenis

2002-01-01

199

Early Detection of Markers for Synaesthesia in Childhood Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We show that the neurological condition of synaesthesia--which causes fundamental differences in perception and cognition throughout a lifetime--is significantly represented within the childhood population, and that it manifests behavioural markers as young as age 6 years. Synaesthesia gives rise to a merging of cognitive and/or sensory functions

Simner, Julia; Harrold, Jenny; Creed, Harriet; Monro, Louise; Foulkes, Louise

2009-01-01

200

Perceived quality of maternal care in childhood and structure and function of mothers’ brain  

PubMed Central

Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of maternal care in childhood is associated with brain structure and functional responses to salient infant stimuli among human mothers in the first postpartum month. Mothers who reported higher maternal care in childhood showed larger grey matter volumes in the superior and middle frontal gyri, orbital gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus. In response to infant cries, these mothers exhibited higher activations in the middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and fusiform gyrus, whereas mothers reporting lower maternal care showed increased hippocampal activations. These findings suggest that maternal care in childhood may be associated with anatomy and functions in brain regions implicated in appropriate responsivity to infant stimuli in human mothers. PMID:20590729

Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

2014-01-01

201

A Comparative Analysis of the Function of Coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care in France and Italy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed local early childhood coordinators in France and Italy regarding their status, training, and tasks in order to compare the function of coordinating municipal early childhood education and care services in these two countries. Found impressive similarities in services, policies, and the function of coordination. Also found that service…

Baudelot, Olga; Rayna, Sylvie; Mayer, Susanna; Musatti, Tullia

2003-01-01

202

Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms. PMID:24926308

Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

2014-01-01

203

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

204

Memory, executive cognitive function, and readiness to change drinking behavior.  

PubMed

The transtheoretical model of Prochaska and DiClemente [Psychother. Theory Res. Prac. 19 (1982) 276] postulates that cognitive skills are critical for drinking behavior change. Memory and executive cognitive function likely influence the execution of skills that are implicated for both motivating and sustaining drinking behavior change. Participants who met criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence (N=117) were administered a battery of standardized memory and executive cognitive function tests that included the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Ruff Figural Fluency Test (RFFT), and Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST). Lower verbal and higher delayed recall memory score at baseline significantly predicted precontemplation, higher verbal memory scores predicted contemplation, and better attention-concentration at baseline significantly predicted reduced drinking at 3-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline alcohol consumption. The study findings indicate that explicit memory processes may have utility for predicting readiness to change drinking behavior. PMID:15621401

Blume, Arthur W; Schmaling, Karen B; Marlatt, G Alan

2005-02-01

205

Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

2014-02-01

206

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

E-print Network

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task

207

Cognitive Function in Individuals with Atypical Pubertal Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 55 growth-disturbed children, aged 8-17, was conducted to assess how rate of physical maturation and pubertal development influences cognitive and neuropsychological functioning. The sample included 27 boys with short stature and delayed pubertal development (SSB), 15 girls with delayed puberty (DPG), and 13 girls with precocious…

Rovet, Joanne F.; And Others

208

Functional Neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

209

Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans. PMID:19806081

Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

2011-01-01

210

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia  

E-print Network

Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40

211

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

212

Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-01-01

213

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

214

Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

2012-01-01

215

Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…

Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

216

Alone Is a Crowd: Social Motivations, Social Withdrawal, and Socioemotional Functioning in Later Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…

Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

2013-01-01

217

Relation of childhood socioeconomic status and family environment to adult metabolic functioning in the CARDIA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Low SES and a conflict-ridden, neglectful, or harsh family environment in childhood have been linked to a high rate of physical health disorders in adulthood. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate a model of the pathways that may help to explain these links and to relate them to metabolic functioning (MF) in the Coronary Artery Risk

Barbara J. Lehman; Shelley E. Taylor; Catarina I. Kiefe; Teresa E. Seeman

2005-01-01

218

Cognitive function at 2443 ?mol/l creatinine  

PubMed Central

Background One hallmark of uremia is the impairment of neuro-cognitive function. Anecdotal clinical description from the early days of chronic dialysis therapy impressively illustrates the improvement of those functions by chronic hemodialysis treatment. Fortunately, today, uremia is only rarely observed in industrialized countries as many patients seek medical/nephrological attention prior to the occurrence of deadly complications of uremia. Case presentation We report a rare case of severe uremia and describe the day to day improvement in neuro-cognitive function by dialysis using state of the arte test battery – starting at a serum creatinine of 2443 ?mol/l. Conclusions Especially executive functions, which are assumed to be localized in the frontal cerebral regions, are impaired in severe uremia and improve remarkably with the correction of severe uremia, i.e. initiation of dialysis. PMID:22894168

2012-01-01

219

Systematic Review of Cognitive Development across Childhood in Down Syndrome: Implications for Treatment Interventions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: There is conjecture regarding the profile of cognitive development over time in children with Down syndrome (DS). Characterising this profile would be valuable for the planning and assessment of intervention studies. Method: A systematic search of the literature from 1990 to the present was conducted to identify longitudinal data on…

Patterson, T.; Rapsey, C. M.; Glue, P.

2013-01-01

220

Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

2011-01-01

221

Cognitive?Behavioral Group Treatments in Childhood Anxiety Disorders: The Role of Parental Involvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examined (1) the effect of a cognitive-behavioral group intervention on anxiety, depression, and coping strategies in school-age children (aged 7–12 years) with Axis I anxiety disorders; and (2) the effect of parental involvement on treatment outcomes.

SANDRA L. MENDLOWITZ; KATHARINA MANASSIS; SUSAN BRADLEY; DONNA SCAPILLATO; SOLVEIGA MIEZITIS; BRIAN E SHAW

1999-01-01

222

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

223

Longitudinal Models of Developmental Dynamics Between Reading and Cognition from Childhood to Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the…

Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Holahan, John M.; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E.

2007-01-01

224

Long-Term Enhancement of Brain Function and Cognition Using Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity [1–3]. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic [4, 5], was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity. PMID:23684971

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-01-01

225

Prefrontal cortical blood flow and cognitive function in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed Central

To examine the relationship between cortical physiology and dementia in Huntington's disease, rCBF during three different behavioural conditions, one of which emphasised prefrontal cognition, was determined by xenon-133 inhalation in 14 patients with Huntington's disease and in matched controls. Cortical rCBF was not reduced in Huntington's disease patients even while they manifested overt prefrontal-type cognitive deficits. Caudate atrophy on CT and rCBF were significantly correlated, but only during the prefrontal behaviour where the correlation was positive. These results suggest a qualification of the subcortical dementia concept as applied to Huntington's disease and implicate an interaction between pathology that is subcortical and cognitive function that is cortical. Images PMID:2965218

Weinberger, D R; Berman, K F; Iadarola, M; Driesen, N; Zec, R F

1988-01-01

226

From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function  

PubMed Central

In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

2013-01-01

227

Social cognition and functional capacity in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social cognition is a functionally relevant predictor of capacity in schizophrenia (SZ), though research concerning its value for bipolar disorder (BD) is limited. The current investigation examined the relationship between two social cognitive factors and functional capacity in bipolar disorder. This study included 48 individuals with bipolar disorder (24 with psychotic features) and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Multiple regression controlling for estimated IQ scores was used to assess the predictive value of social cognitive factors on the UCSD Performance-Based Functional Skills Assessment (UPSA). Results found that for the bipolar with psychosis and schizophrenia groups, the social/emotion processing factor predicted the UPSA. The theory of mind factor only predicted the UPSA for the schizophrenia group.. Findings support the clinical utility of evaluating emotion processing in individuals with a history of psychosis. For BD, theory of mind may be better explained by a generalized cognitive deficit. In contrast, social/emotion processing may be linked to distinct neurobiological processes associated with psychosis. PMID:25200189

Thaler, Nicholas S; Sutton, Griffin P; Allen, Daniel N

2014-12-15

228

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-12-01

229

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

230

Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.  

PubMed

Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors. PMID:25459988

Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

2014-12-01

231

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly  

E-print Network

J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety, and Personality  

E-print Network

Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to Cognitive Function, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitive function, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self

233

Fatigue, vitality, sleep and neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for fatigue, sleep problems, and neurocognitive impairment, though the association between these outcomes has not been previously examined. Methods Outcomes were evaluated in 1426 survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study using a validated Neurocognitive Questionnaire. Relative risks for neurocognitive impairment were calculated using demographic and treatment factors, and survivors’ report on the FACIT-Fatigue, the Short Form-36 Vitality Scale (SF-36-V), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results Neurocognitive impairment was identified in over 20% of survivors, using sibling-based norms for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression models revealed that fatigue (RR=1.34, 1.13–1.59), daytime sleepiness (RR=1.68, 1.55–1.83), poor sleep quality (RR=1.23, 1.01–1.49) and decreased vitality (RR=1.75, 95% CI 1.33–2.30) were all associated with impaired task efficiency. Likewise, fatigue (RR=1.77, 1.23–2.55), sleepiness (RR=1.38, 1.14–1.67) and decreased vitality (RR=3.08, 1.98–4.79) were predictive of emotional regulation problems. Diminished organization was associated with increased sleepiness (RR=1.80, 1.31–2.48) and decreased vitality (RR=1.90, 1.37–2.63). Impaired memory was associated with poor sleep quality (RR=1.45, 1.19–1.76), increased sleepiness (RR=2.05, 1.63–2.58), and decreased vitality (RR=2.01, 1.42–2.86). The impact of fatigue, sleepiness, sleep quality and vitality on neurocognitive outcomes was independent of the effects of cranial radiation therapy, steroids and antimetabolite chemotherapy, sex, and current age. Conclusions Neurocognitive function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer appears particularly vulnerable to the effects of fatigue and sleep disruption. These findings suggest sleep hygiene should be emphasized among survivors, as it may provide an additional mechanism for intervention to improve neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:21484777

Clanton, Nancy R.; Klosky, James L.; Li, Chenghong; Jain, Neelam; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Mulrooney, Daniel; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

2010-01-01

234

Early antecedents of childhood impulsivity: The role of parent-child interaction, cognitive competence, and temperament  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective longitudinal investigation examined early mother-child interaction as a predictor of children's later self-control capabilities. Multimethod assessments of mother-child relationships, primarily focused on observed relationship qualities in the home, were conducted during the first 2 years and related to children's later impulse control capabilities. Child cognitive competence and temperament assessed during the 2nd year were also related to later

Sheryl L. Olson; John E. Bates; Kathryn Bayles

1990-01-01

235

Social cognitive problem solving and childhood adjustment: Qualitative and topological analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-cognitive problem solving (SCPS) has been proposed and often accepted as relating positively to social and emotional adjustment, yet empirical support has been inconsistent. This study assessed the SCPS skills of 150 middle-class 6- to 11-year-old children through the use of qualitative, quantitative, and topological measures. Six quality dimensions were employed: Effectiveness, Inappropriateness, Aggressiveness, Passivity, Affective Understanding, and Interpersonal Content.

Gary L. Fischler; Philip C. Kendall

1988-01-01

236

Behavioral Assessment of Emotion Discrimination, Emotion Regulation, and Cognitive Control in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood  

PubMed Central

Emotion discrimination, emotion regulation, and cognitive control are three related, yet separable processes that emerge over the course of development. The current study tested 100 children, adolescents, and adults on an Emotional Go/Nogo task, illustrating the ability of this paradigm to identify the unique developmental patterns for each of these three processes in the context of both positive (happy) and negative emotions (fear, sad, and anger), across three different age groups. Consistent with previous literature, our findings show that emotion discrimination and regulatory abilities (both cognitive control and emotion regulation) improve steadily for each age group, with each age group showing unique patterns of performance. The findings suggest that emotion regulation is constructed from basic cognition control and emotion discrimination skills. The patterns of behavior from the Emotional Go/Nogo task provide normative benchmark data across a wide range of emotions that can be used for future behavioral and neuroimaging studies that examine the developmental construction of emotion regulatory processes. PMID:21716604

Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Casey, B. J.

2011-01-01

237

TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= ?0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

2013-01-01

238

Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition–emotion linkage  

PubMed Central

Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500

Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.

2014-01-01

239

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction: Involvement of neuroinflammation and neuronal functioning.  

PubMed

Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) has been hypothesized to be mediated by surgery-induced inflammatory processes, which may influence neuronal functioning either directly or through modulation of intraneuronal pathways, such as the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mediated pathway. To study the time course of post-surgical (neuro)inflammation, changes in the BDNF-pathway and POCD, we subjected 3months old male Wistar rats to abdominal surgery and implanted a jugular vein catheter for timed blood sampling. Cognition, affective behavior and markers for (neuro)inflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis were assessed at 1, 2 and 3weeks following surgery. Rats displayed changes in exploratory activity shortly after surgery, associated with postoperatively elevated IL-6 plasma levels. Spatial learning and memory were temporarily impaired in the first 2weeks following surgery, whereas non-spatial cognitive functions seemed unaffected. Analysis of brain tissue revealed increased neuroinflammation (IL-1B and microgliosis) 7days following surgery, decreased BDNF levels on postoperative day 14 and 21, and decreased neurogenesis until at least 21days following surgery. These findings indicate that in young adult rats only spatial learning and memory is affected by surgery, suggesting hippocampal dependent cognition is especially vulnerable to surgery-induced impairment. The observed differences in time course following surgery and relation to plasma IL-6 suggest cognitive dysfunction and mood changes comprise distinct features of postoperative behavioral impairment. The postoperative changes in neuroinflammation, BDNF and neurogenesis may represent aspects of the underlying mechanism for POCD. Future research should be aimed to elucidate how these players interact. PMID:24517920

Hovens, Iris B; Schoemaker, Regien G; van der Zee, Eddy A; Absalom, Anthony R; Heineman, Erik; van Leeuwen, Barbara L

2014-05-01

240

Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

May, Joanne C.

2005-01-01

241

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview  

PubMed Central

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272

Kable, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

242

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Posttreatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive

Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh

2009-01-01

243

Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

2006-01-01

244

Cognitive Performance and BMI in Childhood: Shared Genetic Influences Between Reaction Time But Not Response Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Objective The aim of this work is to understand whether shared genetic influences can explain the association between obesity and cognitive performance, including slower and more variable reaction times (RTs) and worse response inhibition. Methods RT on a four-choice RT task and the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the go/no-go task for 1,312 twins ages 7-10 years were measured. BMI was measured at 9-12 years. Biometric twin models were run to give an estimate of the genetic correlation (rG) between body mass index (BMI) and three cognitive measures: mean RT (MRT), RT variability (RTV; the standard deviation of RTs), and commission errors (a measure of response inhibition). Results Genetic correlations indicated that 20%-30% of the genes underlying BMI were shared with both RT measures. However, only small phenotypic correlations between MRT and RTV with later BMI (rPh = ~0.1) were observed. Commission errors were unassociated with later BMI (rPh = ?0.03, ns). Conclusions Our results are the first to demonstrate significant shared genetic effects between RT performance and BMI. Our findings add biological support to the notion that obesity is associated with slower and more variable RTs. However, our results also emphasize the small nature of the association, which may explain previous negative findings. PMID:25376398

Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.; Carnell, Susan; Pena, Oscar; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O’Connor, Teresia M.; Asherson, Philip; Kuntsi, Jonna

2015-01-01

245

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy improves cognitive functioning after brain injury  

PubMed Central

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has been widely applied and recognized in the treatment of brain injury; however, the correlation between the protective effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and changes of metabolites in the brain remains unclear. To investigate the effect and potential mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cognitive functioning in rats, we established traumatic brain injury models using Feeney's free falling method. We treated rat models with hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 0.2 MPa for 60 minutes per day. The Morris water maze test for spatial navigation showed that the average escape latency was significantly prolonged and cognitive function decreased in rats with brain injury. After treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy for 1 and 2 weeks, the rats’ spatial learning and memory abilities were improved. Hydrogen proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis showed that the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased at 1 week, and the N-acetylaspartate/choline ratio was significantly increased at 2 weeks after hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Nissl staining and immunohistochemical staining showed that the number of nerve cells and Nissl bodies in the hippocampal CA3 region was significantly increased, and glial fibrillary acidic protein positive cells were decreased after a 2-week hyperbaric oxygen therapy treatment. Our findings indicate that hyperbaric oxygen therapy significantly improves cognitive functioning in rats with traumatic brain injury, and the potential mechanism is mediated by metabolic changes and nerve cell restoration in the hippocampal CA3 region. PMID:25206655

Liu, Su; Shen, Guangyu; Deng, Shukun; Wang, Xiubin; Wu, Qinfeng; Guo, Aisong

2013-01-01

246

Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100

2014-01-01

247

Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

1993-01-01

248

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

249

Large-Scale Application of a Telephone-Based Test of Cognitive Functioning in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The study of cognitive functioning in large epidemiological settings is hampered by a lack of instruments for the remote assessment of cognitive performance, especially when targeting variability across the full range of adult functioning. The present study examined the practicability of such investigations using a recently developed telephone interview (Cognitive Telephone Screening Instrument, COGTEL). Methods: A subcohort of an

Lutz P. Breitling; Melanie Wolf; Heiko Müller; Elke Raum; Matthias Kliegel; Hermann Brenner

2010-01-01

250

The relationship between childhood inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems and perceived family social functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inattentive-hyperactive children present numerous behavior problems including restlessness, inattention, impulsivity, failure to follow directions, and poor task completion. These difficulties have a disruptive effect on all their major social environments. This study investigated the relationships between childhood inattentive-hyperactive behavior problems and family psychosocial functioning. Specifically, it was hypothesized that this behavior problem pattern, found in children diagnosed as having attention-deficit

Doris Elaine Dunaway

1995-01-01

251

[Changes in cognitive function in patients with diabetes mellitus].  

PubMed

Patients with diabetes are approximately 1.5 times more likely to experience cognitive decline than individuals without diabetes mellitus. Most of the data suggest that patients with diabetes have reduced performance in numerous domains of cognitive function. In patients with type 1 diabetes, specific and global deficits involving speed of psychomotor efficiency, information processing, mental flexibility, attention, and visual perception seem to be present, while in patients with type 2 diabetes an increase in memory deficits, a reduction in psychomotor speed, and reduced frontal lobe (executive) functions have been found. The complex pathophysiology of changes in the central nervous system in diabetes has not yet been fully elucidated. It is important to consider the patient's age at the onset of diabetes, the glycemic control status, and the presence of diabetic complications. Neurological consequences of diabetes appear parallel to those observed in the aging brain. Neuroimaging studies highlight several structural cerebral changes, cortical and subcortical atrophy, beside increased leukoaraiosis that occurs in association with diabetes. There is supporting evidence from many hypotheses to explain the pathophysiology of cognitive decline associated with diabetes. The main hypotheses pointing to the potential, implied mechanisms involve hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, microvascular disease, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinism, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, and amyloid-? deposition. PMID:22348847

Szémán, Barbara; Nagy, Géza; Varga, Tímea; Veres-Székely, Anna; Sasvári, Mária; Fitala, Dávid; Szollosi, Adrienn; Katonai, Rózsa; Kotyuk, Eszter; Somogyi, Anikó

2012-03-01

252

Prediction of Childhood Pulmonary Function Using Ulna Length  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pulmonary function is important in neuromuscular weakness. In chil- dren, height determines normal values. Height measurement is unre- liable when neuromuscular weakness or spinal deformity is present. The aim of this study was to accurately predict pulmonary function from a limb segment measurement that is precise and reproducible. Normal males (n 1,144) and females (n 1,199), 5.3 to 19.6 years

Leanne M. Gauld; Johanna Kappers; John B. Carlin; Colin F. Robertson

2003-01-01

253

Functional neuroimaging of Social and Nonsocial Cognitive Control in Autism  

PubMed Central

This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

2013-01-01

254

Cognitive Function During Nicotine Withdrawal: Implications for Nicotine Dependence Treatment  

PubMed Central

Nicotine withdrawal is associated with deficits in neurocognitive function including sustained attention, working memory, and response inhibition. Several convergent lines of evidence suggest that these deficits may represent a core dependence phenotype and a target for treatment development efforts. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying withdrawal-related cognitive deficits may lead to improve nicotine dependence treatment. We begin with an overview of the neurocognitive effects of withdrawal in rodent and human models, followed by discussion of the neurobehavioral mechanisms that are thought to underlie these effects. We then review individual differences in withdrawal-related neurocognitive effects including genetics, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this research for developing improved therapies, both pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatments, that target cognitive symptoms of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:23639437

Ashare, Rebecca L.; Falcone, Mary; Lerman, Caryn

2013-01-01

255

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

256

Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

2003-01-01

257

The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

Licht, Carmilla M. M.; van Turenhout, Lise C.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L. J.; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Drent, Madeleine L.

2014-01-01

258

The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

Licht, Carmilla M M; van Turenhout, Lise C; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L J; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W R; Drent, Madeleine L

2014-01-01

259

Heritability of cognitive functions in families of successful cognitive aging probands from the Central Valley of Costa Rica.  

PubMed

We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age). We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4 ± 3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4 ± 5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h² = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h² = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h² = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h² = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h² = 0.42), fluency (h² = 0.39), abstraction (h² = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h² = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA. PMID:21908911

Greenwood, Tiffany A; Beeri, Michal S; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventós, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrión-Baralt, José R; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M

2011-01-01

260

Violence in Development: The Functions of Aggression in Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a naturalistic observational study concerned with the functions of aggression in children and how they change with age. Background on aggression is provided through a discussion of the problems of definition and ontogenesis, which have led to a general shortage of relevant developmental data. This study involved 102 children,…

Hartup, Willard W.

261

Sweet Taste Receptor Signaling Network: Possible Implication for Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special “sweet” molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

Welcome, Menizibeya O.; Mastorakis, Nikos E.; Pereverzev, Vladimir A.

2015-01-01

262

Sweet taste receptor signaling network: possible implication for cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Sweet taste receptors are transmembrane protein network specialized in the transmission of information from special "sweet" molecules into the intracellular domain. These receptors can sense the taste of a range of molecules and transmit the information downstream to several acceptors, modulate cell specific functions and metabolism, and mediate cell-to-cell coupling through paracrine mechanism. Recent reports indicate that sweet taste receptors are widely distributed in the body and serves specific function relative to their localization. Due to their pleiotropic signaling properties and multisubstrate ligand affinity, sweet taste receptors are able to cooperatively bind multiple substances and mediate signaling by other receptors. Based on increasing evidence about the role of these receptors in the initiation and control of absorption and metabolism, and the pivotal role of metabolic (glucose) regulation in the central nervous system functioning, we propose a possible implication of sweet taste receptor signaling in modulating cognitive functioning. PMID:25653876

Welcome, Menizibeya O; Mastorakis, Nikos E; Pereverzev, Vladimir A

2015-01-01

263

Flunarizine and migraine in childhood. An evaluation of endocrine function.  

PubMed

Flunarizine was tested for prophylactic efficacy and for side effects in 10- to 13-year-old patients with severe migraine (greater than 2 attacks per month). The 13 preadolescents received a single 5-mg dose at night for 2 months. The attack frequency decreased significantly, and the effect was maintained over time. The endocrine status, investigated before and after treatment, showed no significant interference with pituitary, beta-pancreatic, or gonadal function. PMID:3427627

Guidetti, V; Moscato, D; Ottaviano, S; Fiorentino, D; Fornara, R

1987-12-01

264

Relationships between macular pigment optical density and cognitive function in unimpaired and mildly cognitively impaired older adults.  

PubMed

Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitive function when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218

Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R

2014-07-01

265

Microinfarcts, brain atrophy, and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the association of microinfarcts (MBI) to ante-mortem global cognitive function (CF), and to investigate whether brain weight (BW), Alzheimer’s lesions (neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) or neuritic plaques (NP) mediate the association. Methods Subjects are 437 well-characterized male decedents from the Honolulu Asia Aging Autopsy Study. Brain pathology was ascertained with standardized methods, CF was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)and data were analyzed using formal mediation analyses, adjusted for age at death, time between last CF measure and death, education, and head size. Based on ante-mortem diagnoses, demented and non-demented subjects were examined together and separately. Results In those with no dementia, MBI were strongly associated with the last ante-mortem CF score; this was significantly mediated by BW, and not NFT or NP. In contrast, among those with an ante-mortem diagnosis of dementia, NFT had the strongest associations with BW and with CF, and MIB were modestly associated with CF. Interpretation This suggests microinfarct pathology is a significant and independent factor contributing to brain atrophy and cognitive impairment, particularly before dementia is clinically evident. The role of vascular damage as initiator, stimulator, or additive contributor to neurodegeneration may differ depending on when in the trajectory towards dementia the lesions develop. PMID:22162060

Launer, Lenore J; Hughes, Timothy M; White, Lon R

2011-01-01

266

Participation in cognitively-stimulating activities is associated with brain structure and cognitive function in preclinical Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that frequent participation in cognitively-stimulating activities, specifically those related to playing games and puzzles, is beneficial to brain health and cognition among middle-aged adults at increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Three hundred twenty-nine cognitively normal, middle-aged adults (age range, 43.2-73.8 years) enrolled in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participated in this study. They reported their current engagement in cognitive activities using a modified version of the Cognitive Activity Scale (CAS), underwent a structural MRI scan, and completed a comprehensive cognitive battery. FreeSurfer was used to derive gray matter (GM) volumes from AD-related regions of interest (ROIs), and composite measures of episodic memory and executive function were obtained from the cognitive tests. Covariate-adjusted least squares analyses were used to examine the association between the Games item on the CAS (CAS-Games) and both GM volumes and cognitive composites. Higher scores on CAS-Games were associated with greater GM volumes in several ROIs including the hippocampus, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, and middle frontal gyrus. Similarly, CAS-Games scores were positively associated with scores on the Immediate Memory, Verbal Learning & Memory, and Speed & Flexibility domains. These findings were not modified by known risk factors for AD. In addition, the Total score on the CAS was not as sensitive as CAS-Games to the examined brain and cognitive measures. For some individuals, participation in cognitive activities pertinent to game playing may help prevent AD by preserving brain structures and cognitive functions vulnerable to AD pathophysiology. PMID:25358750

Schultz, Stephanie A; Larson, Jordan; Oh, Jennifer; Koscik, Rebecca; Dowling, Maritza N; Gallagher, Catherine L; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Rowley, Howard A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Asthana, Sanjay; Hermann, Bruce P; Johnson, Sterling C; Sager, Mark; LaRue, Asenath; Okonkwo, Ozioma C

2014-10-31

267

Comparison of gait and cognitive function among the elderly with Alzheimer’s Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Healthy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to compare gait pattern and cognitive function among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s Disease\\u000a (AD), elderly people with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Healthy Controls (HC). Twenty three elderly patients participated:\\u000a 10 AD (77.2±6.84 yrs), 7 MC I(72.9±6.28 yrs), and 6 HC (71.6±5.78 yrs). Gait and Cognitive function were collected using an\\u000a accelerometer attached to

Jin-Seung Choi; Ho-Sang Oh; Dong-Won Kang; Kyung-Ryul Mun; Mi-Hyun Choi; Su-Jeong Lee; Jae-Woong Yang; Soon-Cheol Chung; Suk-Woo Mun; Gye-Rae Tack

2011-01-01

268

Cardiovascular Health through Young Adulthood and Cognitive Functioning in Midlife  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle-age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels. Methods This analysis of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, a multicenter community-based study with 25 years of follow-up, included 2,932 participants aged 18 to 30 years at baseline (Year 0) who attended follow-up exams at Years 7 and 25. Cardiovascular health metrics were measured at each examination. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), modified Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) were completed at Year 25. Results A greater number of ideal cardiovascular metrics in young adulthood and middle-age was independently associated with better cognitive function in midlife (p-trend<0.01, for all). Specifically, each additional ideal metric was associated with 1.32 more symbols on the DSST (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.71), a 0.77-point lower interference score on the Stroop Test (?1.03 to ?0.45), and 0.12 more words on the RAVLT (0.04 to 0.20). Participants who had ?5 ideal metrics at a greater number of the 3 examinations over the 25-year period exhibited better performance on each cognitive test in middle-age (p-trend<0.01, for all). Interpretation Ideal cardiovascular health in young adulthood and its maintenance to middle-age is associated with better psychomotor speed, executive function, and verbal memory in midlife. PMID:23443990

Reis, Jared P.; Loria, Catherine M.; Launer, Lenore J.; Sidney, Stephen; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Zhu, Na; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.; He, Ka; Yaffe, Kristine

2012-01-01

269

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

270

Pulmonary function outcomes in bronchopulmonary dysplasia through childhood and into adulthood: implications for primary care.  

PubMed

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) results from prematurity and surfactant deficiency with contributing factors from barotrauma, volutrauma, and oxygen toxicity from supportive mechanical ventilation care and infection. These factors result in chronic inflammation with recurring cycles of lung damage and repair that impair alveolarisation and vascularisation in developing infant lungs. With advancement in the understanding of its pathophysiology and resulting therapy, BPD has evolved into a different disorder which has been coined the 'new' BPD. As these patients age, primary care physicians need to understand the impact on pulmonary function. This discussion reviews the pulmonary function outcomes resulting from BPD through later childhood and young adulthood. PMID:21336467

Hayes, Don; Meadows, J Thomas; Murphy, Brian S; Feola, David J; Shook, Lori A; Ballard, Hubert O

2011-06-01

271

Motor system evolution and the emergence of high cognitive functions.  

PubMed

In human and nonhuman primates, the cortical motor system comprises a collection of brain areas primarily related to motor control. Existing evidence suggests that no other mammalian group has the number, extension, and complexity of motor-related areas observed in the frontal lobe of primates. Such diversity is probably related to the wide behavioral flexibility that primates display. Indeed, recent comparative anatomical, psychophysical, and neurophysiological studies suggest that the evolution of the motor cortical areas closely correlates with the emergence of high cognitive abilities. Advances in understanding the cortical motor system have shown that these areas are also related to functions previously linked to higher-order associative areas. In addition, experimental observations have shown that the classical distinction between perceptual and motor functions is not strictly followed across cortical areas. In this paper, we review evidence suggesting that evolution of the motor system had a role in the shaping of different cognitive functions in primates. We argue that the increase in the complexity of the motor system has contributed to the emergence of new abilities observed in human and nonhuman primates, including the recognition and imitation of the actions of others, speech perception and production, and the execution and appreciation of the rhythmic structure of music. PMID:25224031

Mendoza, Germán; Merchant, Hugo

2014-11-01

272

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

273

The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention  

PubMed Central

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control. PMID:23487583

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Knecht, Anya M.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2013-01-01

274

Computational modeling\\/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling\\/experimental psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This position paper explores the possible contributions to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First, the functional modeling characteristic of experimental psychology is discussed. Second, the computational modeling required for cognitive robotics is described, and possible experiments with them are illustrated. Next, we argue that cognitive developmental robots, robots that “live” through

Sidney D'Mello; Stan Franklin

2011-01-01

275

On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural Architectures  

E-print Network

and the abstract intelligence theory of the natural intelligence will enable the development of cognitive computers range of applications of the cognitive computers have been developing in ICIC and my laboratory such as1 On Abstract Intelligence and Brain Informatics: Mapping the Cognitive Functions onto the Neural

Wang, Yingxu

276

Intraoperative cerebral high intensity transient signals and postoperative cognitive function: a systematic review  

PubMed Central

Summary Microemboli during surgery have been hypothesized to cause postoperative cognitive changes. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the available literature related to intraoperative microemboli, measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and postoperative cognitive function. The literature remains largely undecided on the role of microemboli and cognitive impairment after surgery, because most studies underpowered to show a relationship. PMID:18723157

Martin, Kristin K; Wigginton, Jeremy B.; Babikian, Viken L; Pochay, Val E.; Crittenden, Michael D.; Rudolph, James L.

2009-01-01

277

Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three city Study.  

E-print Network

Ryan. 1 Characteristics of hormone therapy, cognitive function and dementia: the prospective Three: 94 References: 40 Tables: 5 Figures: 0 Neurology Search Terms: All Cognitive Disorders/Dementia [25: To examine the association between hormone therapy (HT) and cognitive performance or dementia, focusing

278

Cortisol response to a cognitive stress challenge in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preclinical studies show that animals with a history of chronic stress exposure have increased hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity following reexposure to stress. Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been found to have normal or decreased function of the HPA axis, however no studies have looked at the HPA response to stress in PTSD. The purpose of this study was

J. D. Bremner; M. Vythilingam; E. Vermetten; J. Adil; S. Khan; A. Nazeer; N. Afzal; T. McGlashan; B. Elzinga; G. M. Anderson; G. Heninger; S. M. Southwick; D. S. Charney

2003-01-01

279

Relation of birth weight and childhood respiratory infection to adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To examine whether birth weight, infant weight, and childhood respiratory infection are associated with adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. DESIGN--Follow up study of men born during 1911-30 whose birth weights, weights at 1 year, and childhood illnesses were recorded at the time by health visitors. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5718 men born in the county during 1911-30

D J Barker; K M Godfrey; C Fall; C Osmond; P D Winter; S O Shaheen

1991-01-01

280

Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly. PMID:25035618

Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

2014-01-01

281

Stability of executive function and predictions to adaptive behavior from middle childhood to pre-adolescence  

PubMed Central

The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680

Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

2014-01-01

282

Cognitive Function as Measured by Trail Making Test in Patients With COPD.  

PubMed

People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exhibit cognitive impairment in several subdomains, but little is known about factors associated with cognitive function and its relationship to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with COPD. A data set from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial was used for this study. Data were obtained through questionnaires and clinical testing. Cognitive function in people with COPD was measured with the Trail Making Test. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Participants with COPD had slightly impaired processing speed and executive function. Test results revealed that age, gender, education, and income were significantly associated with cognitive function. Test scores also showed that cognitive function was significantly associated with HRQOL in people with COPD. This finding suggests that cognitive function should be screened in people with COPD. PMID:24733234

Park, Soo Kyung; Larson, Janet L

2015-02-01

283

Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia  

E-print Network

's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

284

Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

?ojko, Dorota

2014-01-01

285

Sex dependence of cognitive functions in bipolar disorder.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5 yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

Suwalska, Aleksandra; ?ojko, Dorota

2014-01-01

286

Cognitive function and psychological well-being: findings from a population-based cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: depression is associated with poor cognitive function, though little is known about the relationship between psychological well-being and cognitive function. Objective: to investigate whether psychological well-being is associated with levels of cognitive function. Design: nationally representative population-based cohort study. Setting and participants: 11,234 non-institutionalised adults aged 50 years and over of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002.

DAVID J. LLEWELLYN; I AIN A. LANG; K ENNETH M. LANGA; F ELICIA A. HUPPERT

2008-01-01

287

[Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

2014-03-01

288

Application of the Allen Cognitive Level Test in assessing cognitive level functioning of emotionally disturbed boys.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to ascertain the applicability of the Allen Cognitive Level Test (ACL) (Allen, 1982, 1985), developed for use with adult psychiatric patients, to emotionally disturbed children aged 8 to 15 years. The subjects' performance on the ACL was compared with their performance on two other instruments that measure features of cognition: the Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) (Beery & Buktenica, 1982) and the Perceptual Memory Task (McCarron, 1984). Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to study the relationships of the ACL, the Perceptual Memory Task full-scale and subscale scores, and the VMI raw and age-equivalent scores. The Perceptual Memory Task scores showed little or no correlation with the ACL scores. Correlations of the ACL with the VMI scores revealed moderate but significant coefficients. A relationship between age and ACL score was found. Preliminary data would indicate that the ability of emotionally disturbed children to function in the school environment depends on their mastery of task demands and that occupational therapy intervention cannot be based solely on age or level of intelligence. PMID:1605296

Shapiro, M E

1992-06-01

289

Chronobiology, cognitive function and depressive symptoms in surgical patients.  

PubMed

Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitive function and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550

Hansen, Melissa Voigt

2014-09-01

290

An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach  

E-print Network

and Psychology. Scientists are becoming seriously concerned about cognitive processes in non-human animals of intelligence in animals is the search for cognitive processes in the animal mind. Such an approach was initiated by the publication of the landmark volume, Cognitive Processes in Animal Behavior (Hulse, Fowler

Cook, Robert

291

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

292

Early aging in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma: long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes.  

PubMed

Treatment for medulloblastoma during childhood impairs neurocognitive function in survivors. While those diagnosed at younger ages are most vulnerable, little is known about the long-term neurocognitive, functional, and physical outcomes in survivors as they approach middle age. In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed 20 adults who were treated with surgery and radiotherapy for medulloblastoma during childhood (median age at assessment, 21.9 years [range, 18-47 years]; median time since diagnosis, 15.5 years [range, 6.5-42.2 years]). Nine patients also underwent chemotherapy. Cross-sectional analyses of current neurocognitive, functional, and physical status were conducted. Data from prior neuropsychological assessments were available for 18 subjects; longitudinal analyses were used to model individual change over time for those subjects. The group was well below average across multiple neurocognitive domains, and 90% had required accommodations at school for learning disorders. Longer time since diagnosis, but not age at diagnosis, was associated with continued decline in working memory, a common sign of aging. Younger age at diagnosis was associated with lower intelligence quotient and academic achievement scores, even many years after treatment had been completed. The most common health complications in survivors were hearing impairment, second cancers, diabetes, hypertension, and endocrine deficiencies. Adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma exhibit signs of early aging regardless of how young they were at diagnosis. As survival rates for brain tumors continue to improve, these neurocognitive and physical sequelae may become evident in survivors diagnosed at different ages across the lifespan. It will become increasingly important to identify factors that contribute to risk and resilience in this growing population. PMID:21367970

Edelstein, Kim; Spiegler, Brenda J; Fung, Sharon; Panzarella, Tony; Mabbott, Donald J; Jewitt, Natalie; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Mason, Warren P; Bouffet, Eric; Tabori, Uri; Laperriere, Normand; Hodgson, David C

2011-05-01

293

Hostility and Change in Cognitive Function Over Time in Older Blacks and Whites  

PubMed Central

Objective To test whether the level of hostility predicted the rate of cognitive decline in a community of older Blacks and Whites and whether the association varied as a function of race. Methods Over 4800 persons from a defined community in Chicago completed up to three structured interviews at approximately 3 year intervals over a period of up to 8.8 years (mean = 4.4 years). At the baseline interview, hostility was assessed with 8-items from the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale. Cognitive function was assessed at each interview with four cognitive function tests from which a composite measure of cognition was formed. Mixed effects models were used to assess change in cognition and its relation to hostility, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. Results The average score on the hostility scale at baseline was 3.0 (SD = 2.1). Higher levels of hostility were associated with lower cognitive scores (estimate = ?0.028, SE = 0.004, p < .001). Cognition declined at a rate of 0.051 U per year on average, but hostility was not related to the rate of decline. Results were unchanged after controlling for depressive symptoms, chronic health, neuroticism, and social and cognitive activity patterns, or when persons with cognitive impairment at baseline were excluded. The association was similar in Blacks and Whites. Conclusion The results suggest that hostility is associated with level of cognitive function in older persons but not related to cognitive decline. PMID:19483119

Barnes, Lisa L.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes; Bienias, Julia L.; Wilson, Robert S.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Evans, Denis A.

2009-01-01

294

The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

2007-01-01

295

Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation  

E-print Network

This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed information to determine...

Newman, Timothy Ray

2008-04-30

296

Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2014-02-01

297

Ultradian rhythms in performance on tests of specialized cognitive function.  

PubMed

Performance on cognitive tasks cycled at ultradian frequencies for 24 males over a test period of eight hours. The verbal task of written word production cycled at 80 minutes; the spatial task of locating points in space cycled at 96 minutes. Multiple cycles were seen for a perceptual speed task that factor loads on both the verbal and spatial task. Replication of the results for the first 12 and second 12 subjects demonstrated their robustness. The verbal and spatial tasks were chosen to reflect specialized functions of the left and right cerebral hemispheres, respectively. Accordingly, the results are interpreted as evidence that specialized task performances are associated with independent neurochemical systems. In addition, blood samples were taken at task performance to assess cyclicity of hormone levels. Luteinizing hormone had a period of 120 minutes, testosterone and cortisol were inconsistent and none seemed to be related to the cognitive tasks. However when subjects were divided according to a winter or summer testing schedule, the spatial periodicity was absent for the summer group and the verbal periodicity was absent for the winter peak. PMID:8869428

Gordon, H W; Stoffer, D S; Lee, P A

1995-12-01

298

Assessing cognitive function and capacity in older adults with cancer.  

PubMed

The number of older individuals with cancer is increasing exponentially, mandating that oncologists contemplate more comprehensive and multidisciplinary approaches to treatment of this cohort. Recruitment of assessment instruments validated in older patients can be invaluable for guiding treatment and decision-making by both patients and providers, and can arguably contribute to improving outcomes and health-related quality of life. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment is one such validated instrument that can be used by oncologists to assess patient readiness and appropriateness for prescribed cancer therapy. As a multidisciplinary diagnostic and treatment process, it comprises functional status, cognitive status, social support, and advance care preferences, and is an ideal instrument for evaluating complex older individuals. It is well established that many older individuals with cancer travel with multiple comorbid illnesses, including cognitive impairment, and when presented with a cancer diagnosis struggle to choose from multiple treatment options. In addition to the complete medical history, the ability of patients to decide on a course of therapy in concert with their oncologist is critically important. Alternatively, many oncologists are conflicted as to whether true informed consent for treatment can be obtained from many older patients. Having a roadmap to decision-making capacity is therefore an inescapable imperative in geriatric oncology, because careful attention must be directed at identifying older patients with cancer who might benefit from these assessments and the individualized treatment plans that emerge. PMID:24453297

McKoy, June M; Burhenn, Peggy S; Browner, Ilene S; Loeser, Kari L; Tulas, Katrina M; Oden, Megan R; Rupper, Randall W

2014-01-01

299

The Effect of Solifenacin on Cognitive Function following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of solifenacin (an anticholinergic) on cognitive function after stroke. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 stroke cases who were prescribed solifenacin for more than 2 months. A control group was generated matching the patients both for sex and age. The interval changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score after solifenacin administration were compared to those of the control group. Results The baseline MMSE score of the control group was 15.9 ± 9.2 and that of the solifenacin group was 14.3 ± 7.8. After using solifenacin for an average of 76.9 days, there was a change in the MMSE score of 1.9 ± 5.2. During similar periods, there was a change in the MMSE score of 2.9 ± 3.7 in the control group (not using solifenacin). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the CDR-SB score between the two groups. Conclusion Solifenacin treatment did not affect the short-term cognitive performance in stroke patients. This information might be useful when prescribing anticholinergics to stroke patients. PMID:23687509

Park, Jin-Woo

2013-01-01

300

What's mom got to do with it? Contributions of maternal executive function and caregiving to the development of executive function across early childhood.  

PubMed

Executive functions (EFs; e.g. working memory, inhibitory control) are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and associated with optimal cognitive and socio-emotional development. This study provides the first concurrent analysis of the relative contributions of maternal EF and caregiving to child EF. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate interaction (10, 24, 36 months) and EF tasks (child: 24, 36, and 48 months). Regression analyses revealed that by 36 months of age, maternal EF and negative caregiving behaviors accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond maternal education and child verbal ability. These findings were confirmed when using an early child EF composite-our most reliable measure of EF - and a similar pattern was found when controlling for stability in child EF. Furthermore, there was evidence that maternal EF had significant indirect effects on changes in child EF through maternal caregiving. At 24 months, EF was associated with maternal EF, but not negative caregiving behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that links between negative caregiving and child EF are increasingly manifested during early childhood. Although maternal EF and negative caregiving are related, they provide unique information about the development of child EF. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPKXFbbrkps. PMID:24410963

Cuevas, Kimberly; Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Watson, Amanda J; Morasch, Katherine C; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-03-01

301

Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: Study of incremental validity and mediational effects.  

PubMed

While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

2015-02-28

302

Parent-rated emotional-behavioral and executive functioning in childhood epilepsy.  

PubMed

The present study examined clinical and demographic risk factors associated with parent-rated emotional-behavioral and executive functioning in children and adolescents with epilepsy. The medical records of 152 children and adolescents with epilepsy referred for neuropsychological evaluation were reviewed. Results indicated that the sample displayed significantly elevated symptoms across the emotional-behavioral and executive domains assessed. Executive functioning and behavioral symptoms had the highest rates of clinically elevated scores, with lowest rates of elevated scores in internalizing and externalizing emotional problems. Only 34% of those participants with clinically significant emotional-behavioral or executive functioning difficulties had a history of psychological or counseling services, highlighting the underserved mental health needs of this population. In regard to clinical factors, the majority of seizure-related variables were not associated with emotional-behavioral or executive functioning. However, the frequency of seizures (i.e., seizure status) was associated with behavioral regulation aspects of executive functioning, and the age at evaluation was associated with externalizing problems and behavioral symptoms. Family psychiatric history (with the exception of ADHD) was associated with all domains of executive and emotional-behavioral functioning. In summary, emotional-behavioral and executive functioning difficulties frequently co-occur with seizures in childhood epilepsy, with both seizure-related and demographic factors contributing to the presentation of such neurobehavioral comorbidities. The present findings provide treatment providers of childhood epilepsy with important information to assist in better identifying children and adolescents who may be at risk for neurobehavioral comorbidities and may benefit from intervention. PMID:25499157

Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

2015-01-01

303

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

2008-01-01

304

Impact on cognitive function-are all statins the same?  

PubMed

Dementia is a major public health concern, affecting an estimated 7% of the population over 65 and 30% over 80 years of age. There is mounting evidence in the literature from meta-analyses of high-quality prospective cohort studies that statins may have a positive impact in reducing the incidence of dementia. Little is known, however, on whether certain types of statins are more impactful than others. This narrative review specifically explores the various properties of different statin types and whether these differences lead to a clinically significant differential impact on cognitive function. We critically evaluate the literature, emphasizing interesting and important new findings, and overall aim to bring the reader up-to-date on evidence-based recommendations. PMID:25398642

Shah, Nishant P; Swiger, Kristopher J; Martin, Seth S

2015-01-01

305

Improving influence of insulin on cognitive functions in humans.  

PubMed

Insulin receptors have been identified in limbic brain structures, but their functional relevance is still unclear. In order to characterize some of their effects, we evaluated auditory evoked brain potentials (AEP) in a vigilance task, behavioral measures of memory (recall of words) and selective attention (Stroop test) during infusion of insulin. The hormone was infused at two different rates (1.5 mU/kg x min, "low insulin", and 15 mU/kg x min, "high insulin"), inducing respectively serum levels of 543 +/- 34 and 24,029 +/- 1,595 pmol/l. This experimental design allowed to compare cognitive parameters under two conditions presenting markedly different insulin levels, but with minimal incidence on blood glucose concentrations since these were kept constant by glucose infusion. A "no insulin treatment" group was not included in order to avoid leaving patients infused with glucose without insulin treatment. Measures were taken during a baseline phase preceding insulin infusion and every 90 min during the 360 min of insulin infusion. Compared with "low insulin", "high insulin" induced a slow negative potential shift in the AEP over the frontal cortex (average amplitude, high insulin: 0.27 +/- 0.48 microV; low insulin: 1.87 +/- 0.48 microV, p < 0.005), which was paralleled by enhanced memory performance (words recalled, high insulin: 22.04 +/- 0.93; low insulin: 19.29 +/- 0.92, p < 0.05). Also, during "high insulin" subjects displayed enhanced performance on the Stroop test (p < 0.05) and expressed less difficulty in thinking than during "low insulin" (p < 0.03). Results indicate an improving effect of insulin on cognitive function, and may provide a frame for further investigations of neurobehavioral effects of insulin in patients with lowered or enhanced brain insulin, i.e., patients with Alzheimer's disease or diabetes mellitus. PMID:11598383

Kern, W; Peters, A; Fruehwald-Schultes, B; Deininger, E; Born, J; Fehm, H L

2001-10-01

306

The functional significance of delta oscillations in cognitive processing  

PubMed Central

Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301

Harmony, Thalía

2013-01-01

307

Alone is a crowd: social motivations, social withdrawal, and socioemotional functioning in later childhood.  

PubMed

The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12 years. Measures included assessments of social motivations (i.e., self-reported shyness and preference for solitude) and social withdrawal (observations of solitary behaviors in the schoolyard and self-reports of solitary activities outside of school), as well as self- and parent-reported peer difficulties and internalizing problems. Among the results, both shyness and preference for solitude were associated with socially withdrawn behaviors, which in turn predicted peer difficulties. However, only shyness (but not preference for solitude) also displayed a direct path to peer difficulties. As well, results from person-oriented analyses indicated that different subtypes of socially withdrawn children displayed decidedly different profiles with regard to indices of internalizing problems. For example, whereas unsociable children did not differ from their nonwithdrawn peers on indices of internalizing problems, socially avoidant (i.e., high in both shyness and unsociability) children reported the most pervasive socioemotional difficulties. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of different forms of social withdrawal for socioemotional functioning in later childhood. PMID:22686178

Coplan, Robert J; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

2013-05-01

308

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women’s Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study. PMID:23676264

Samieri, Cécilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

309

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

310

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

311

Association between Physical and Cognitive Function in Healthy Elderly: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance measures of physical function (gait speed, chair stands, standing balance) and cognitive function [Teng-modified Mini-Mental Status Exam (3MS) and digit symbol substitution test (DSST)] were assessed at baseline in 3,075 participants in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Each physical function measure was examined for the strength and magnitude of association with cognitive function. All physical function measures

Caterina Rosano; Eleanor M. Simonsick; Tamara B. Harris; Steven B. Kritchevsky; Jennifer Brach; Marjolein Visser; Kristine Yaffe; Anne B. Newman

2005-01-01

312

Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures  

PubMed Central

Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

313

Exercise and Cognitive Function: Can Working Out Train the Brain, Too?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies exploring the relationship between physical activity, fitness, and cognitive function vary across the lifespan in terms of both their number and the apparent strength of the associations. Studies of children are relatively few in number but generally show a positive association between physical activity and cognitive function. Studies of younger adults are even more scarce; findings are equivocal and

Robert F. Zoeller

2010-01-01

314

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

315

Curvilinear relation between cognitive functioning and distance of child from parent of the same sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that the child's cognitive functioning is related curvilinearly to the distance of the child from the parent of the same sex. Such cognitive functioning is best exemplified by field independence and problem-solving skills. The hypotheses presented follow the basic hypothesis: (1) Males are better problem solvers and more field independent than females. (2) Boys with distant fathers tend to

David B. Lynn

1969-01-01

316

Gait and risk of falls associated with frontal cognitive functions at different stages of Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline in frontal cognitive functions contributes to alterations of gait and increases the risk of falls in patients with dementia, a category which included Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective of the present study was to compare the gait parameters and the risk of falls among patients at different stages of AD, and to relate these variables with cognitive functions.

Flávia Gomes de Melo Coelho; Florindo Stella; Larissa Pires de Andrade; Fabio Augusto Barbieri; Ruth Ferreira Santos-Galduróz; Sebastião Gobbi; José Luiz Riani Costa; Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

2012-01-01

317

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

318

Smoking, drinking, and other life style factors and cognitive function in men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the cognitive function in a large, ongoing cohort study of older men, and to identify associations with social and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of cognitive function was conducted within the Caerphilly Prospective Study of Heart Disease and stroke. SETTING: The Caerphilly Study was originally set up in 1979-83 when the men were 45-59

P. C. Elwood; J. E. Gallacher; C. A. Hopkinson; J. Pickering; P. Rabbitt; B. Stollery; C. Brayne; F. A. Huppert; A. Bayer

1999-01-01

319

Cognition, Behavior, and Respiratory Function in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objective. To examine the relationship between respiratory functioning and neuropsychological performance, mood, and frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors in ALS patients. Methods. Forty-four patients with probable or definite ALS (El Escorial criteria) completed comprehensive pulmonary and neuropsychological assessments as part of their baseline neurological evaluation. Based on their full vital respiratory capacity, 24 and 20 patients were classified as having impaired or intact respiration, respectively. Results. Comparable demographic characteristics, neuropsychological performance, and self-reported mood symptoms were found between ALS patients with intact versus impaired respiration. However, more respiratory-impaired patients were reported by their caregivers as having clinically significant impairments in frontal-lobe-mediated behaviors. Nevertheless, declines in behavior were evidenced from pre- to post-ALS symptom onset for both respiratory groups, and exploratory analyses revealed greater executive functioning deficits in patients with bulbar versus limb onset as well as respiratory-impaired patients not receiving pulmonary interventions versus those utilizing such interventions at the time of testing. Conclusions. Results suggest that the respiratory insufficiency of ALS patients may potentially produce irreversible deficits in executive functioning; yet once treated, impairments in more basic cognitive abilities may be less evident. PMID:22852095

Strutt, Adriana M.; Palcic, Jennette; Wager, John G.; Titus, Courtney; MacAdam, Claire; Brown, Jeffrey; Scott, Bonnie M.; Harati, Yadollah; Schulz, Paul E.; York, Michele K.

2012-01-01

320

Arterial stiffness and cognitive function in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Cognitive decline and dementia are a major cause of disability and mortality among older adults. Cross-sectional evidence from observational studies suggests that greater arterial stiffness is associated with worse cognitive performance. These associations have been observed on measures of global cognition and across multiple domains of cognition. Epidemiologic evidence on the association between arterial stiffness and rate of cognitive decline has been less definitive, and very few studies have investigated the risk of developing dementia. This review summarizes the current research on arterial stiffness and cognition, issues around measurement and the effect that potential intervention might have on the course of cognitive aging. The evidence on pharmacological and non-pharmacological (exercise, nutrition, etc) interventions in older adults with arterial stiffness is promising. Yet there are no studies or trials that directly evaluate how interventions of arterial stiffness reduce or prevent cognitive impairment and risk of developing dementia. More research is needed to elucidate the causal link between arterial stiffness and cognitive decline and dementia, and to identify whether potential interventions to prevent or reduce arterial stiffness may benefit cognitive health of the elderly. PMID:25351110

Hazzouri, Adina Zeki Al; Yaffe, Kristine

2015-01-01

321

A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766

Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

2014-01-01

322

Mental Health Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Language Brokering  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Serving as a language translator (broker) for family members during childhood can affect cognitive and emotional functions in both beneficial and detrimental ways. Child language brokers translate in a variety of contexts including conversations between their parents and financial, legal and medical professionals. Pressure to be involved in these…

Rainey, Vanessa R.; Flores, Valerie; Morrison, Robert G.; David, E. J. R.; Silton, Rebecca L.

2014-01-01

323

Functional relationship between cognitive representations of movement directions and visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2012-12-01

324

Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.  

PubMed

This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

2013-01-01

325

A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.  

PubMed

Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

2015-02-01

326

Learning an atlas of a cognitive process in its functional geometry  

E-print Network

In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...

Langs, Georg

327

Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function  

PubMed Central

Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual.

Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

2015-01-01

328

Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models  

PubMed Central

Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325

Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

329

The Impact of Sleep Quality on Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson’s Disease  

PubMed Central

In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested included attention and executive function, memory and psychomotor function. In both groups, poor sleep was associated with worse performance on tests of attention/executive function but not memory or psychomotor function. In the PD group, attention/executive function was predicted by sleep efficiency, whereas memory and psychomotor function were not predicted by sleep quality. Psychomotor and memory function were predicted by motor symptom severity. This study is the first to demonstrate that sleep quality in PD is significantly correlated with cognition and that it differentially impacts attention and executive function, thereby furthering our understanding of the link between sleep and cognition. PMID:22152279

Stavitsky, Karina; Neargarder, Sandy; Bogdanova, Yelena; McNamara, Patrick; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

2013-01-01

330

Cognition and functional outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083

Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

2007-08-01

331

Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…

O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha

2010-01-01

332

Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

2009-01-01

333

Dysphagia after head trauma: the effect of cognitive-communicative impairments on functional outcomes.  

PubMed

This article discusses the impact of cognitive-communicative and behavior problems on oral intake. Data on the swallowing outcomes of a group of patients in an acute rehabilitation facility are presented. These data illustrate the relationships among severity of dysphagia, admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores, admission and discharge cognitive FIM scores and length of stay. Two case studies that describe the effect of cognitive-communicative disorders on dysphagia are provided. PMID:10653944

Halper, A S; Cherney, L R; Cichowski, K; Zhang, M

1999-10-01

334

Carotid stenosis and the cognitive function Laszlo K. Sztriha a,  

E-print Network

disease are related to a cognitive impairment. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, and dyslipidemia are also associated with an increased risk of carotid artery disease. Some studies have suggested that patients display a normal cognition despite severe carotid artery disease, highlighting the important role

Nemeth, Dezso

335

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

336

Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Guides to Individualized Evidence-Based Treatment Series  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This clinically wise and pragmatic book presents a systematic approach for treating any form of childhood anxiety using proven exposure-based techniques. What makes this rigorously tested modular treatment unique is that it is explicitly designed with flexibility and individualization in mind. Developed in a real-world, highly diverse community…

Chorpita, Bruce F.

2006-01-01

337

A Modularized Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Water Phobia in an Adolescent with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a modularized treatment of a specific fear of water for a 14-year-old youth with childhood onset schizophrenia using a multiple-baseline across behaviors design. Treatment included gradual exposure to a hierarchy of feared water-related situations with rewards for successful approximations ranging…

Nakamura, Brad J.; Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Chorpita, Bruce F.

2006-01-01

338

Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a differential effect with darifenacin  

PubMed Central

Background: Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin. Methods: Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed. Results: Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics. Conclusions: There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18699842

Kay, G G; Ebinger, U

2008-01-01

339

Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

2011-01-01

340

The mix matters: Complex personal networks relate to higher cognitive functioning in old age.  

PubMed

Stronger engagement of older adults in social activities and greater embeddedness in networks is often argued to buffer cognitive decline and lower risks of dementia. One of the explanations is that interaction with other people trains the brain, thereby enhancing cognitive functioning. However, research on the relationship between personal networks and cognitive functioning is not yet conclusive. While previous studies have focused on the size of personal networks as a proxy of cognitive stimulation, little attention has been paid to the complexity of the personal network. Adults embedded in a broad range of network relationships (i.e., various relationship types) are likely to be exposed to a wider range of stimuli than adults embedded in a homogeneous network including similar relationship types. We expect that higher numbers of personal relationship types rather than a higher number of similar contacts relate to higher levels of cognitive functioning and slower cognitive decline. Data are from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) and include 2959 Dutch participants aged 54 to 85 at baseline in 1992 and six follow-ups covering a time span of twenty years. Cognitive functioning is assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and for network complexity we use the Social Network Index. We test our expectations using fixed-effects regression models. The results reveal that a reduction in network complexity is associated with a reduction in cognitive functioning, which is neither explained by size of the network nor by presence of specific relationship types. However, enhanced complexity has only a marginal buffering effect on decline in cognitive functioning. We conclude that network characteristics and cognitive functioning are intertwined and that their association is mostly cross-sectional in nature. PMID:24840784

Ellwardt, Lea; Van Tilburg, Theo G; Aartsen, Marja J

2015-01-01

341

Brain Injury in Very Preterm Children and Neurosensory and Cognitive Disabilities during Childhood: The EPIPAGE Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT) children and their relations to gestational age (GA) and brain lesions. Design, Setting, and Participants EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks’ gestation (WG) in 9 French regions in 1997–1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies) in three GA groups (24–26, 27–28, and 29–32WG) and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe). Results VPT had high rates of motor (14%) and cognitive (31%) deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI), deficiency rates reached 71% at 24–26WG, 88% at 27–28WG, and 80% at 29–32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. Conclusions In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis of a common origin of these difficulties. PMID:23658763

Marret, Stéphane; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Hascoët, Jean-Michel; Arnaud, Catherine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Truffert, Patrick; Larroque, Béatrice; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; for the EPIPAGE Study Group

2013-01-01

342

Behaviour Difficulties and Cognitive Function in Children Born Very Prematurely  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children born very prematurely are at risk of low average IQ and behaviour difficulties throughout childhood and adolescence. Associations among preterm birth, IQ and behaviour have been reported; however, the nature of the relationship among these outcomes is not fully understood. Some studies have proposed that the consequences of preterm birth,…

Bayless, Sarah; Pit-ten Cate, Ineke M.; Stevenson, Jim

2008-01-01

343

In utero and early childhood exposure to arsenic decreases lung function in children.  

PubMed

The lung is a target organ for adverse health outcomes following exposure to As. Several studies have reported a high prevalence of respiratory symptoms and diseases in subjects highly exposed to As through drinking water; however, most studies to date has been performed in exposed adults, with little information on respiratory effects in children. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between urinary levels of As and its metabolites with lung function in children exposed in utero and in early childhood to high As levels through drinking water. A total of 358 healthy children were included in our study. Individual exposure was assessed based on urinary concentration of inorganic As. Lung function was assessed by spirometry. Participants were exposed since pregnancy until early childhood to an average water As concentration of 152.13?µg?l(-1) . The mean urinary As level registered in the studied subjects was 141.2?µg?l(-1) and only 16.7% had a urinary concentration below the national concern level. Forced vital capacity was significantly decreased in the studied population and it was negatively associated with the percentage of inorganic As. More than 57% of the subjects had a restrictive spirometric pattern. The urinary As level was higher in those children with restrictive lung patterns when compared with the levels registered in subjects with normal spirometric patterns. Exposure to As through drinking water during in utero and early life was associated with a decrease in forced vital capacity and with a restrictive spirometric pattern in the children evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25131850

Recio-Vega, Rogelio; Gonzalez-Cortes, Tania; Olivas-Calderon, Edgar; Lantz, R Clark; Gandolfi, A Jay; Alba, Cesar Gonzalez-De

2015-04-01

344

Mental exercising through simple socializing: social interaction promotes general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Social interaction is a central feature of people's life and engages a variety of cognitive resources. Thus, social interaction should facilitate general cognitive functioning. Previous studies suggest such a link, but they used special populations (e.g., elderly with cognitive impairment), measured social interaction indirectly (e.g., via marital status), and only assessed effects of extended interaction in correlational designs. Here the relation between mental functioning and direct indicators of social interaction was examined in a younger and healthier population. Study 1 using survey methodology found a positive relationship between social interaction, assessed via amount of actual social contact, and cognitive functioning in people from three age groups including younger adults. Study 2 using an experimental design found that a small amount of social interaction (10 min) can facilitate cognitive performance. The findings are discussed in the context of the benefits social relationships have for so many aspects of people's lives. PMID:18212333

Ybarra, Oscar; Burnstein, Eugene; Winkielman, Piotr; Keller, Matthew C; Manis, Melvin; Chan, Emily; Rodriguez, Joel

2008-02-01

345

Is Executive Cognitive Function Associated with Youth Gambling?  

PubMed Central

Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10–12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10–15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342

Brodsky, Nancy L.; Brown, Caitlin A.; McKenna, Kathleen A.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam

2011-01-01

346

Interpretation and expectation in childhood anxiety disorders: age effects and social specificity.  

PubMed

Theory and treatment for childhood anxiety disorders typically implicates children's negative cognitions, yet little is known about the characteristics of thinking styles of clinically anxious children. In particular, it is unclear whether differences in thinking styles between children with anxiety disorders and non-anxious children vary as a function of child age, whether particular cognitive distortions are associated with childhood anxiety disorders at different child ages, and whether cognitive content is disorder-specific. The current study addressed these questions among 120 7-12 year old children (53% female) who met diagnostic criteria for social anxiety disorder, other anxiety disorder, or who were not currently anxious. Contrary to expectations, threat interpretation was not inflated amongst anxious compared to non-anxious children at any age, although older (10-12 year old) anxious children did differ from non-anxious children on measures of perceived coping. The notion of cognitive-content specificity was not supported across the age-range. The findings challenge current treatment models of childhood anxiety, and suggest that a focus on changing anxious children's cognitions is not warranted in mid-childhood, and in late childhood cognitive approaches may be better focussed on promoting children's perceptions of control rather than challenging threat interpretations. PMID:24293002

Creswell, Cathy; Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter

2014-01-01

347

Differentiation of Cognitive Abilities as a Function of Neuroticism Level: A Measurement Equivalence/Invariance Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the differentiation of cognitive abilities as a function of neuroticism. Specifically, we examine Eysenck and White's [Eysenck, H. J., and White, P. O. (1964). Personality and the measurement of intelligence. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 24, 197-201.] hypothesis that cognitive abilities are less differentiated…

Bonaccio, Silvia; Reeve, Charlie L.

2006-01-01

348

Cognitive functions in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Literature review and assessment guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Treatment-related neurotoxicity has been recognized as a significant problem in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as effective treatment has increased survival rates. There is, however, a paucity of research on cognitive functions in this population. Design: In a review of the literature, a total of 17 articles that described cognitive outcome in adult PCNSL patients were

D. D. Correa; L. Maron; H. Harder; M. Klein; C. L. Armstrong; P. Calabrese; J. E. C. Bromberg; L. E. Abrey; T. T. Batchelor; D. Schiff

2007-01-01

349

CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE  

E-print Network

Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

350

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Catherine Fart, Ccilia Samieri, Pascale Barberger-Gateau  

E-print Network

- 1 - TITLE PAGE Title Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults Authors Catherine running head Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline and Dementia Word count: 2690 (text) inserm-00418647: The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

351

The Relationship between Sleep and Epilepsy: The Effect on Cognitive Functioning in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The purpose of this review was to examine the possible pathophysiological links between epilepsy, cognition, sleep macro- and microstructure, and sleep disorders to highlight the contributions and interactions of sleep and epilepsy on cognitive functioning in children with epilepsy. Method: PubMed was used as the medical database source. No…

Parisi, Pasquale; Bruni, Oliviero; Pia Villa, Maria; Verrotti, Alberto; Miano, Silvia; Luchetti, Anna; Curatolo, Paolo

2010-01-01

352

Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?cognitive domains showed between-group differences. On the questionnaires, patients reported substantially more complaints about their own cognitive abilities than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

2012-10-01

353

Does Implicit Learning in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease depend on the Level of Cognitive Functioning?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We investigated the influence of the level of cognitive functioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…

Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric

2009-01-01

354

Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

2002-01-01

355

Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

2000-01-01

356

Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

2013-01-01

357

Cognitive Domains and Trajectories of Functional Independence in Nondemented Elderly Persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Cognitive impairment in general is known to predict functional disability, but it is not clear whether performance on specific cognitive domains predicts future disability trends among nondemented elderly persons. Methods. In a representative elderly community-based cohort over up to 10 years of follow-up, we examined predictors of longitudinal trajectories in ability to perform Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL)

Hiroko H. Dodge; Yangchun Du; Judith A. Saxton; Mary Ganguli

2006-01-01

358

The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson's Disease  

E-print Network

Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PDPrimaryLeftAnteriorInternalCapsule W W W W W W W W W W W W · Parkinson's disease · Healthy Control -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 RAVLTThe Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and Cognitive Functioning in Parkinson

Lichtarge, Olivier

359

Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

360

Cognitive Functioning in Clinically Stable Patients with Bipolar Disorder I and II  

PubMed Central

Objectives Bipolar disorder is accompanied by cognitive impairments, which persists during euthymic phases. The purpose of the present study was to identify those neuropsychological tests that most reliably tell euthymic bipolar patients and controls apart, and to clarify the extent to which these cognitive impairments are clinically significant as judged from neuropsychological norms. Methods Patients with bipolar disorder (type I: n = 64; type II: n = 44) and controls (n = 86) were examined with a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery yielding 47 measures of executive functioning, speed, memory, and verbal skills. Multivariate analysis was used to build a model of cognitive performance with the ability to expose underlying trends in data and to reveal cognitive differences between patients and controls. Results Patients with bipolar disorder and controls were partially separated by one predictive component of cognitive performance. Additionally, the relative relevance of each cognitive measure for such separation was decided. Cognitive tests measuring set shifting, inhibition, fluency, and searching (e.g., Trail Making Test, Color-Word) had strongest discriminating ability and most reliably detected cognitive impairments in the patient group. Conclusions Both bipolar disorder type I and type II were associated with cognitive impairment that for a sizeable minority is significant in a clinical neuropsychological sense. We demonstrate a combination of neuropsychological tests that reliably detect cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder. PMID:25614986

Sparding, Timea; Silander, Katja; Pålsson, Erik; Östlind, Josefin; Sellgren, Carl; Ekman, Carl Johan; Joas, Erik; Hansen, Stefan; Landén, Mikael

2015-01-01

361

Life-time estrogen exposure and cognitive functioning in later life Running Title: Estrogen exposure and cognitive function  

E-print Network

women have the highest prevalence of both dementia and more specifically Alzheimer's disease (AD) (Gao-related cognitive decline and delay the onset of dementia, this has not been found consistently. Few studies have cognitive performance in later life. Results: Age at first menses was negatively associated with performance

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

362

Is lower cognitive function in one spouse associated with depressive symptoms in the other spouse?  

PubMed

This study examines whether lower cognitive function in one spouse is associated with depressive symptoms in the other spouse. The subjects were 528 community-dwelling spouse pairs aged 65+ who participated in the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), an ongoing longitudinal, bi-racial, population-based study of risk factors for incident Alzheimer's disease and other age-related chronic conditions. CHAP participants were assessed at 3-year intervals over a period of nearly ten years. The results show a cross-sectional association of wives' lower cognitive function at baseline with depressive symptoms in husbands; however, husbands' cognitive function was not associated with wives' depressive symptoms. There was no longitudinal association of cognitive function at baseline with increased depressive symptoms over time. Furthermore, change in cognitive function over time had no effect on depressive symptoms in either spouse. The relationship between cognitive function and depressive symptoms in spouse pairs is complex. Our findings suggest that husbands may be particularly psychologically vulnerable to the negative effects of their wives' cognitive impairment. This vulnerability may have a range of long-term health and caregiving implications. PMID:17050091

Skarupski, Kimberly A; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes; McCann, Judith J; Bienias, Julia L; Wilson, Robert S; Evans, Denis A

2006-11-01

363

Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and\\u000a children’s conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or\\u000a included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority children are not well\\u000a understood. In this longitudinal study,

Ellen H. O’Donnell; Melissa Moreau; Esteban V. Cardemil; Alisha Pollastri

2010-01-01

364

Parental Factors That Detract From the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as parent-training techniques and family cognitive-behavioral therapy offer some promise, though the combined outcomes of

Jerry V. Walker III

2012-01-01

365

Meta-Analysis of the Association Between Cognitive Abilities and Everyday Functioning in Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Objectives Neurocognitive deficits are common in bipolar disorder and contribute to functional disability. However, the degree to which general and specific cognitive deficits affect everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the magnitude of the effect of specific neurocognitive abilities on everyday functioning in bipolar disorder. Methods We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of studies that reported associations between performance on objective neuropsychological tasks and everyday functioning among individuals with bipolar disorder. From an initial pool of 486 papers, 22 studies met inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 1344 participants. Correlation coefficients were calculated for 11 cognitive domains and four measurement modalities for functioning. We also examined effect moderators, such as sample age, clinical state, and study design. Results The mean Pearson correlation between neurocognitive ability and functioning was 0.27, and was significant for all cognitive domains and varied little by cognitive domain. Correlations varied by methods of everyday functioning assessment, being lower for clinician and self-report than performance-based tasks and real-world milestones such as employment. None of the moderator analyses were significant. Conclusions Overall, the strength of association between cognitive ability and everyday functioning in bipolar disorder is strikingly similar to that seen in schizophrenia, with little evidence for differences across cognitive domains. The strength of association differed more so according to functional measurement approach. PMID:22548895

Depp, Colin A.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Harmell, Alexandrea L.; Savla, Gauri N.; Bowie, Christopher R.; Harvey, Philip D.; Patterson, Thomas L.

2012-01-01

366

Patterns of Family Management of Childhood Chronic Conditions and Their Relationship to Child and Family Functioning  

PubMed Central

Understanding patterns of family response to childhood chronic conditions based on a configuration of multiple variables or qualitative themes provides a comprehensive understanding of health-related challenges and their influence on family and child functioning. In this paper, we used the six scales comprising the Family Management Measure (FaMM) in a cluster analysis to describe a typology of family management and data from other measures of child and family functioning to validate and explain those clusters. The sample of 575 parents from 414 families of children who had diverse chronic conditions endorsed four patterns of response (Family Focused, Somewhat Family Focused, Somewhat Condition Focused, Condition Focused). We also considered the extent to which couples had shared or discrepant views of family management. Most (57%) families were in either the Family Focused or Somewhat Family Focused pattern. Single mothers were significantly less likely to be in the two patterns reflecting greater ease in family management and significantly more likely to be in the two patterns reflecting more difficulty. Patterns of family management were related significantly to family and child functioning, with families in the Family Focused and Somewhat Family Focused patterns demonstrating significantly better family and child functioning than families in the other two patterns. PMID:23602651

Knafl, Kathleen A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Knafl, George J.; Gallo, Agatha M.; Grey, Margaret; Dixon, Jane

2015-01-01

367

Impairment of cognitive functioning during Sunitinib or Sorafenib treatment in cancer patients: a cross sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitive functioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitive function of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitive functioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373

2014-01-01

368

Association between cognition and function in patients with Parkinson disease with and without dementia.  

PubMed

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often have cognitive deficits from the time of diagnosis. Except in patients with dementia, the impact of cognitive symptoms on daily function is not well documented. This study had two objectives: (1) to determine the functional significance of cognitive deficits in nondemented patients with PD and (2) to assess the sensitivity of two measures of global cognitive abilities to identify individuals with impaired ADL function. One hundred eleven subjects with PD and a range of cognitive abilities were included. Of these, 20 were diagnosed with PDD. All subjects were assessed with the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale to two (DRS-2) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). ADL function was reported by an informant using the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-ADL). The ability of the DRS-2 and MMSE to capture the impact of cognitive impairment on ADL function was assessed in the entire cohort and in subsets of nondemented individuals. After adjustment for covariates, cognition as measured by the DRS-2 was strongly related to ADL function in the entire cohort (partial correlation coefficient = 0.55, P < 0.001). The association remained strong when only nondemented subjects were included (r = 0.42, P < 0.001). The DRS-2 was significantly more accurate than the MMSE, particularly for detecting milder degrees of ADL impairment (ROC area = 0.87 vs. 0.75, P = 0.0008). Cognition is associated with impairment in ADL function, even in nondemented patients with PD. However, sensitive cognitive assessment measures may be needed to identify these functionally relevant impairments. PMID:20310053

Rosenthal, Emily; Brennan, Laura; Xie, Sharon; Hurtig, Howard; Milber, Joshua; Weintraub, Daniel; Karlawish, Jason; Siderowf, Andrew

2010-07-15

369

An epigenetic blockade of cognitive functions in the neurodegenerating brain  

E-print Network

Cognitive decline is a debilitating feature of most neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer’s disease [superscript 1]. The causes leading to such impairment are only poorly understood ...

Rei, Damien

370

The functional role of cognitive frameworks on visuomotor adaptation performance.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effects of cognitive representations of movement directions on sensorimotor adaptation performance. Adaptation performance was measured via a pointing experiment in which participants were provided with visual feedback that was distorted along the midsagittal plane (i.e., left-right reversal). Performance was analyzed relative to participants' individual adaptation gains and 3 groups were subsequently defined (i.e., skilled, average, and poor adapters). The group separation was kept for the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions, which was used to analyze participants' cognitive representation of movement directions. The results showed that skilled adapters, in contrast to poor adapters, possess a global representation of movement directions aligned to the cardinal axes. The cognitive representation structure hence supports the sensorimotor adaptation performance. PMID:25205332

Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas

2014-01-01

371

Race Differences in Intellectual Control Beliefs and Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Study Context: The current study examined the relationship between intellectual control and cognition and related the results to everyday problem solving in a mixed ethnicity sample of 35% African American and 65% Caucasian elders.Methods: Participants completed the Personality in Intellectual Aging Contexts Inventory (PIC; Lachman et al., 1982, Journal of Research in Personality, 16, 485–501), Everyday Cognition Battery (ECB; Allaire

Sarah W. Kennedy; Jason C. Allaire; Alyssa A. Gamaldo; Keith E. Whitfield

2012-01-01

372

Impact of Common KIBRA Allele on Human Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene–gene or gene–environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction

H Wersching; K Guske; S Hasenkamp; C Hagedorn; S Schiwek; S Jansen; V Witte; J Wellmann; H Lohmann; K Duning; J Kremerskothen; S Knecht; E Brand; A Floel

2011-01-01

373

Higher HDL Cholesterol Is Associated with Better Cognitive Function: the Maine-Syracuse Study.  

PubMed

Few studies have examined associations between different subcategories of cholesterol and cognitive function. We examined relationships between total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride levels and cognitive performance in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study, a community-based study of cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on data from 540 participants, aged 60 to 98 years, free of dementia and stroke. TC, HDL, LDL, and triglyceride levels were obtained. Cognitive function was assessed using a thorough neuropsychological test battery, including domains of cognitive function indexed by multiple cognitive tests. The cognitive outcomes studied were as follows: Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Verbal and Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, a Global Composite score, and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Significant positive associations were observed between HDL-cholesterol and the Global Composite score, Working Memory, and the MMSE after adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors. Participants with desirable levels of HDL (?60 mg/dL) had the highest scores on all cognitive outcomes. There were no significant associations observed between TC, LDL, or triglyceride concentrations and cognition. In older individuals, HDL-cholesterol was related to a composite of Working Memory tests and for general measures of cognitive ability when adjusted for cardiovascular variables. We speculate that persons over 60 are survivors and thus less likely to show cognitive deficit in relation to TC, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine relations between specific cognitive abilities and the different subcategories of cholesterol. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-10). PMID:25382185

Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Davey, Adam; Sullivan, Kevin J; Robbins, Michael A

2014-11-01

374

Adverse childhood experiences and their impact on frequency, severity, and the individual function of nonsuicidal self-injury in youth.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate a specific relationship between nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) and a variety of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) over and above childhood abuse and their impact on frequency, severity, and functions of NSSI. A sample of 125 inpatients (aged 13 to 26) was consecutively recruited within a psychiatric university hospital. Frequency, methods and functions of NSSI were assessed by the Functional Assessment of Self-Mutilation (FASM), ACEs were assessed by the Childhood Experiences of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q). The 12 month prevalence of NSSI in this representative, clinical sample was 60.0%. Engagement in NSSI was significantly related to ACEs with highest associations for maternal antipathy and neglect. Whilst ACEs were not associated with frequency or severity of NSSI, some ACEs were significantly related to the automatic functions of NSSI (e.g., affect regulation, anti-dissociative function or self-punishment) as well as to a peer identification function. NSSI represents a frequent phenomenon among young clinical populations and seems to be specifically related to ACEs with maternal antipathy or neglect commonly featured over and above experiences of abuse. Since ACEs also influence the functions of NSSI such factors need to be examined as part of clinical care planning. PMID:23159195

Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Mattern, Margarete; Plener, Paul L; Bifulco, Antonia; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

2013-04-30

375

Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?  

PubMed Central

Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

2014-01-01

376

Zingiber officinale Improves Cognitive Function of the Middle-Aged Healthy Women  

PubMed Central

The development of cognitive enhancers from plants possessing antioxidants has gained much attention due to the role of oxidative stress-induced cognitive impairment. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of ginger extract, or Zingiber officinale, on the cognitive function of middle-aged, healthy women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or standardized plant extract at doses of 400 and 800?mg once daily for 2 months. They were evaluated for working memory and cognitive function using computerized battery tests and the auditory oddball paradigm of event-related potentials at three different time periods: before receiving the intervention, one month, and two months. We found that the ginger-treated groups had significantly decreased P300 latencies, increased N100 and P300 amplitudes, and exhibited enhanced working memory. Therefore, ginger is a potential cognitive enhancer for middle-aged women. PMID:22235230

Saenghong, Naritsara; Wattanathorn, Jintanaporn; Muchimapura, Supaporn; Tongun, Terdthai; Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Banchonglikitkul, Chuleratana; Kajsongkram, Tanwarat

2012-01-01

377

The Impact of Sustained Engagement on Cognitive Function in Older Adults: The Synapse Project  

PubMed Central

In the research reported here, we tested the hypothesis that sustained engagement in learning new skills that activated working memory, episodic memory, and reasoning over a period of 3 months would enhance cognitive function in older adults. In three conditions with high cognitive demands, participants learned to quilt, learned digital photography, or engaged in both activities for an average of 16.51 hr a week for 3 months. Results at posttest indicated that episodic memory was enhanced in these productive-engagement conditions relative to receptive-engagement conditions, in which participants either engaged in nonintellectual activities with a social group or performed low-demand cognitive tasks with no social contact. The findings suggest that sustained engagement in cognitively demanding, novel activities enhances memory function in older adulthood, but, somewhat surprisingly, we found limited cognitive benefits of sustained engagement in social activities. PMID:24214244

Park, Denise C.; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Drew, Linda; Haber, Sara; Hebrank, Andrew; Bischof, Gérard N.; Aamodt, Whitley

2014-01-01

378

Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men) with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years); Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25) or an education control group (n = 25). Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04), logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03), and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02)). The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI. PMID:23113898

2012-01-01

379

A Longitudinal Perspective on the Association between Cognition and Temperamental Shyness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Moderate, yet relatively consistent, associations between cognitive performance and shyness have been reported throughout the child and adult literatures. The current study assessed longitudinal associations between cognition (i.e., executive functioning) and parent-report temperamental shyness from infancy to early childhood and used temporal…

Wolfe, Christy D.; Zhang, Jing; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Bell, Martha Ann

2014-01-01

380

Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic exposure to stress hormones, whether it occurs during the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood or aging, has an impact on brain structures involved in cognition and mental health. However, the specific effects on the brain, behaviour and cognition emerge as a function of the timing and the duration of the exposure, and some also depend on the interaction

Bruce S. McEwen; Megan R. Gunnar; Christine Heim; Sonia J. Lupien

2009-01-01

381

Early Post-Stroke Cognition in Stroke Rehabilitation Patients Predicts Functional Outcome at 13 Months  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify prognostic factors associated with functional outcome at 13 months in a sample of stroke rehabilitation patients. Specifically, we hypothesized that cognitive functioning early after stroke would predict long-term functional outcome independently of other factors. Methods: 163 stroke rehabilitation patients underwent a structured neuropsychological examination 2–3 weeks after hospital admittance, and their functional status was subsequently evaluated 13

Jørgen Wagle; Lasse Farner; Kjell Flekkøy; Torgeir Bruun Wyller; Leiv Sandvik; Brynjar Fure; Brynhild Stensrød; Knut Engedal

2011-01-01

382

Hippocampal function in the rat: cognitive mapping or vicarious trial and error?  

PubMed

The most prominent hypothesis of hippocampal function likens the hippocampus to a "cognitive map," a term used by a famous learning theorist, E. C. Tolman, to explain maze learning. The usual application of this concept of cognitive map, as it applies to the hippocampus, is to what is called spatial learning, mainly in the radial-arm maze of Olton and the Morris water maze. In a recent Hippocampus Forum, evidence for the cognitive map hypothesis was reviewed in a lead article by Nadel, followed by a series of commentaries by leading investigators of hippocampal function. This speculative commentary offers an alternative not represented in the forum--that the function of the hippocampus in spatial learning is not as a cognitive map, but that it subserves another function proposed by Tolman in his work on simple discrimination learning, vicarious trial and error, based on incipient, conflicting dispositions to approach and avoid. PMID:8353608

Amsel, A

1993-07-01

383

Recovery of motor and cognitive function after cerebellar lesions in a songbird – role of estrogens  

PubMed Central

In addition to its key role in complex motor function, the cerebellum is increasingly recognized to have a role in cognition. Songbirds are particularly good models for the investigation of motor and cognitive processes but little is known about the role of the songbird cerebellum in these processes. To explore cerebellar function in a songbird, we lesioned the cerebellum of adult female zebra finches and examined the effects on a spatial working memory task and on motor function during this task. There is evidence for steroid synthesis in the songbird brain and neurosteroids may have an impact on some forms of neural plasticity in adult songbirds. We therefore hypothesized that neurosteroids would affect motor and cognitive function after a cerebellar injury. We found that cerebellar lesions produced deficits in motor and cognitive aspects of a spatial task. In line with our prediction, birds in which estrogen synthesis was blocked had impaired performance in our spatial task compared with those that had estrogen synthesis blocked but estrogen replaced. There was no clear effect of estrogen replacement on motor function. We also found that lesions induced expression of the estrogen synthetic enzyme aromatase in reactive astrocytes and Bergmann glia around a cerebellar lesion. These data suggest that the cerebellum of songbirds mediates both motor and cognitive function and that estrogens may improve the recovery of cognitive aspects of cerebellar function after injury. PMID:19302157

Spence, Rory D.; Zhen, Yin; White, Stephanie; Schlinger, Barney A.; Day, Lainy B.

2010-01-01

384

A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

2012-01-01

385

Applying Distributed Cognition Theory to the Redesign of the "Copy and Paste" Function in Order to Promote Appropriate Learning Outcomes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the application of distributed cognition theory to educational contexts by examining a common learning interaction, the "Copy and Paste" function. After a discussion of distributed cognition and the role of mediating artefacts in real world cognitions, the "Copy and Paste" function is redesigned to embed an effective…

Morgan, Michael; Brickell, Gwyn; Harper, Barry

2008-01-01

386

The Association of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Measures With Cognitive Function in a Biracial Population Sample  

PubMed Central

Background White matter hyperintensity volume (WMHV), cerebral infarcts, and total brain volume (TBV) are associated with cognitive function, but few studies have examined these associations in the general population or whether they differ by race. Objective To examine the association of WMHV, cerebral infarcts, and TBV with global cognition and cognition in 5 separate domains in a biracial population sample. Setting A biracial community population of Chicago, Illinois. Design Cross-sectional population study. Participants The study population comprised 575 participants from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP). Main Outcome Measures Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of WMHV, TBV, and cerebral infarcts and detailed neuropsychological testing assessments of global cognition and 5 cognitive domains. Results Overall and among those without dementia, cognition was inversely associated with WMHV and number of infarcts but was positively associated with TBV. When all 3 measures were simultaneously added to the model, the association of global cognition with WMHV and TBV remained significant and unchanged but was no longer significant with infarcts. Among subjects without dementia, all 3 MRI measures were associated with performance in multiple cognitive domains, specifically perceptual speed. However, among subjects with dementia, only TBV was associated with cognition and performance in multiple cognitive systems. Race did not significantly modify any of these associations. Conclusions In this biracial general population sample, the associations of MRI measures with cognition differed according to clinical status of subjects (stronger among subjects without dementia) and were not modified by race. These associations did not affect all cognitive domains equally but were more consistent with impairments in perceptual speed. PMID:20385915

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Bienias, Julia L.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Evans, Denis A.; DeCarli, Charles

2010-01-01

387

Neurocognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia and during the Early Phases of Psychosis: Targeting Cognitive Remediation Interventions  

PubMed Central

Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitive functioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689

Korsakova, Natalya; Agius, Mark

2013-01-01

388

The effect of serotonin 1A receptor polymorphism on the cognitive function of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.  

PubMed

Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitive function. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitive function to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitive function among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751

Yen, Ju-Yu; Tu, Hung-Pin; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung

2014-12-01

389

Early Reproductive Experiences in Females Make Differences in Cognitive Function Later in Life  

PubMed Central

Women experience dramatic changes in hormones, mood and cognition through different periods of their reproductive lives, particularly during pregnancy and giving birth. While limited human studies of early pregnancy and motherhood showed alteration of cognitive function in later life, research conducted on rodents showed a persistent improvement of learning and memory performance in females with history of giving birth (primiparous or multiparous) compared to virgin controls (nulliparous). In this mini review, we will focus on the effect of early motherhood on cognitive function later in life, which would provide insight on how reproductive experiences influence women’s health during ageing. PMID:23271317

Li, Rena; Cui, Jie; Jothishankar, Balaji; Shen, Juliet; He, Ping; Shen, Yong

2012-01-01

390

Cognitive impairment and functional outcome after stroke associated with small vessel disease  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Although stroke associated with small vessel disease (SSVD) can induce both motor and cognitive impairment, the latter has received less attention. We aimed to evaluate the frequency of the varying severity levels of cognitive impairment, the determinants of severe cognitive impairment, and the association of cognitive impairment with functional outcome after SSVD. Methods: Consecutive patients admitted to hospital because of SSVD were assessed at 3 months after stroke. We performed a semi-structured clinical interview to screen for cognitive symptoms. Severity of cognitive symptoms was graded according to the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale (CDR). Performance on psychometric tests (Mini-Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (cognition subscale), Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (initiation/perseverence subscale; MDRS I/P)) of patients of different CDR gradings was compared with that of 42 healthy controls. Basic demographic data, vascular risk factors, stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale; NIHSS), pre-stroke cognitive decline (Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; IQCODE), functional outcome (Barthel index; BI), Instrumental Activities Of Daily Living; IADL), and neuroimaging features (site of recent small infarcts, number of silent small infarcts, white matter changes) were also compared among the groups. Regression analyses were performed to find predictors of severe cognitive impairment and poor functional outcome. Results: Among the 75 included patients, 39 (52%) complained of cognitive symptoms. The number of patients in each CDR grading was as follows: 39 (52%) had a CDR of 0, 26 (34.7%) had a CDR of 0.5, 10 (13.3%) had a CDR of ?1. Pre-stroke IQCODE and previous stroke predicted CDR?1. The NIHSS was associated with more impaired BI. The NIHSS and MDRS I/P contributed most to impaired IADL. Conclusions: Half of the patients with SSVD complained of varying severity of cognitive problems 3 months after stroke. Pre-stroke cognitive decline and previous stroke predict severe cognitive impairment post stroke. Stroke severity and executive dysfunction contribute most to a poor functional outcome. PMID:15026497

Mok, V; Wong, A; Lam, W; Fan, Y; Tang, W; Kwok, T; Hui, A; Wong, K

2004-01-01

391

The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function — a systematic review of randomised controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence.\\u000a This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function.\\u000a Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised\\u000a controlled trials with objective outcome measures of

Peter H. Canter; Edzard Ernst

2003-01-01

392

Saitohin and APOE Polymorphisms Influence Cognition and Function in Persons with Advanced Alzheimer Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by variability in the onset and progression of cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic correlates of symptom variability in persons with moderate-to-advanced AD. Methods: Repeated measures of cognition, function and behavior were collected from institutionalized persons with AD over 12 months. Candidate genes were assayed. Results:

Debra L. Schutte; David Reed; Susan DeCrane; Anne L. Ersig

2011-01-01

393

The Role of Cognitive Functioning in Medication Adherence of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence. PMID:18647794

Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

2009-01-01

394

Volumetric correlates of cognitive functioning in nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

A challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD) is to identify biomarkers of early cognitive change because functioning in some domains may be more prognostic of dementia. Few studies have investigated whether structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. The aim of this study was to identify neuroanatomical correlates of executive functioning, memory, and visual cognition in PD without dementia. 3T MRI was conducted in 51 PD patients and 39 control participants. Brain volumes were measured in structures comprising the frontostriatal cognitive-control system, the medial temporal memory system, the ventral object-based system, and the dorsal spatial-based system. Measures of executive functioning (Stroop Test; Letter Fluency), memory (California Verbal Learning Test), visuospatial cognition (Judgment of Line Orientation), and visuoconstruction (Pentagon Copy) were correlated with volumes comprising each system. Poorer executive functioning largely correlated with decreased frontostriatal volumes. Poorer memory correlated with decreased volumes in all medial temporal regions, but also with frontostriatal volumes. Poorer visuospatial cognition correlated with decreased volumes in the object-based system, whereas poorer visuoconstruction correlated with decreased frontal and object-based system volumes. These relationships were nonsignificant in the control group. This is the first study to demonstrate that subtle changes in multiple cognitive domains in PD without dementia correlate with regional volumes in specific systems implicated in the development of cognitive impairment. The findings suggest that structural MRI holds promise as a marker of early changes in different brain systems, some of which may predict future cognitive deterioration. PMID:24038502

Filoteo, J Vincent; Reed, Jason D; Litvan, Irene; Harrington, Deborah L

2014-03-01

395

Reading Performance of Young Adults With ADHD Diagnosed in Childhood: Relations With Executive Functioning.  

PubMed

Objective: To study reading performance of young adults with ADHD and its relation with executive functioning. Method: Thirty young adults with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD and 30 with normal development (ND) were compared on reading accuracy, fluency, and comprehension. Furthermore, ADHD with reading disabilities (ADHD+RD) and ADHD without reading disabilities (ADHD-RD) subgroups were compared using self-report and informant-report versions of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). Results: Adults with ADHD obtained significantly worse results than the ND adults on reading speed, responses to literal questions, and a cloze test. Although the comparison of the ADHD+RD and ADHD-RD groups did not show significant differences on the BRIEF-A subscales, the ADHD+RD group surpassed the critical percentile (85) on more subscales, with working memory and metacognition especially affected. Conclusion: The findings point out that reading should be assessed in individuals with ADHD as part of their evaluation to design effective early interventions. (J. of Att. Dis. XXXX; XX(X) XX-XX). PMID:24149941

Miranda, Ana; Mercader, Jessica; Fernández, M Inmaculada; Colomer, Carla

2013-10-22

396

Causes and Consequences of Cognitive Functioning Across the Life Course  

PubMed Central

Research on variation in cognitive abilities has focused largely on their genetic or experiential sources and on their economic consequences. This article takes a broader look at the consequences of cognitive ability—IQ—across the life course. Contrary to received wisdom, the effects of IQ on economic success are almost entirely mediated by educational attainment. Among persons with equal levels of schooling, IQ has little influence on job performance, occupational standing, earnings, or wealth. But there are other, sometimes surprising consequences of IQ throughout adult life. The long-term correlates of adolescent cognition include drinking behavior, survey participation, Internet use, and the timing of menopause. These are surveyed primarily using findings from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. PMID:22383855

Hauser, Robert M.

2012-01-01

397

The Effects of Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy Techniques for Enhancing the Cognitive\\/ Intellectual Functioning of Seventh and Eighth Grade Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both computer-assisted classroom education and computer-assisted cogni- tive rehabilitation are established in learning and rehabilitation methods. The use of rehabilitation techniques for the development of foundational cogni- tive skills in the general population of school children has gone untested. This experiment demonstrates the utility of computer-assisted cognitive skills training for improving the intellectual functioning of 12 to 14 year-old chil-

Odie L. Bracy; Andrea L. Oakes; Rebecca S. Cooper; Dan Watkins; M. S. Mary Watkins; Indiana Yorktown; Daniel E. Brown; Christine Jewell

398

Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later. PMID:22091535

Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

2011-01-01

399

Software defined radio based multi-carrier multi-function waveform for cognitive radio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we demonstrate an adaptive multicarrier multi-function waveform generator for cognitive radio via software defined radio. Using a USRP (universal software radio peripheral) software defined radio boards and GNU radio software, we implement a multi-carrier waveform generator which can generate multi-function waveforms such as OFDM, NC-OFDM, MC-CDMA, NC-MC-CDMA, CI/MC-CDMA, NCCI/ MC-CDMA, TDCS for cognitive radio. Additionally, we demonstrate a portable overlay cognitive radio using this multicarrier multi-function waveform generator. This cognitive radio is capable of detecting primary users in real time and adaptively adjusting its transmission parameters to avoid interference to primary users. More importantly, this cognitive radio can take advantage of multiple spectrum holes by employing non-contiguous multi-carrier transmission technologies. Additionally, we demonstrate that when the primary user transmission changes, the cognitive radio dynamically adjusts its transmission accordingly. We also demonstrate seamless real time video transmission between two cognitive radio nodes, while avoiding interference from primary users and interference to primary users operating in the same spectrum.

Zhou, Ruolin; Li, Xue; Chakravarthy, Vasu; Wu, Zhiqiang

2010-04-01

400

An Evaluation of Cognitive Processing Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for sexual abuse survivors (CPT-SA) with that of the minimal attention (MA) given to a wait-listed control group. Seventy-one women were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups. Participants were assessed at pretreatment and 3 times during posttreatment: immediately after…

Chard, Kathleen M.

2005-01-01

401

Parental Factors that Detract from the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as…

Walker, Jerry V., III

2012-01-01

402

Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

2006-01-01

403

Perceived Stress and Change in Cognitive Function Among Adults Aged 65 and Older  

PubMed Central

Objective Exposure to acute and chronic stress can affect learning and memory but most evidence comes from animal studies or clinical observations. Almost no population-based studies have investigated the relation of stress to cognition or changes in cognition over time. We examined whether higher levels of perceived stress were associated with accelerated decline in cognitive function in older blacks and whites from a community-based population sample. Methods Participants included 6,207 black and white adults (65.7% black, 63.3% women) from the Chicago Health and Aging project. Two to five in-home assessments were completed over an average of 6.8 years of follow up, and included sociodemographics, health behaviors, psychosocial measures, cognitive function tests, and health history. Perceived stress was measured by a 6-item scale, and a composite measure of four tests of cognition was used to determine cognitive function at each assessment. Results Mixed effects regression models showed that increasing levels of perceived stress were related to lower initial cognitive scores (B=-0.0379, SE=0.0025, p<.001) and a faster rate of cognitive decline (stress × time interaction: B=-0.0015, SE=0.0004, p<.001). Results were similar after adjusting for demographic variables, smoking, systolic blood pressure, body mass index, chronic medical conditions, and psychosocial factors and did not vary by race, sex, age or education. Conclusion Increasing levels of stress are independently associated with accelerated declines in cognitive function in black and white adults aged 65 and above. PMID:24367123

Aggarwal, Neelum T.; Wilson, Robert S.; Beck, Todd L.; Rajan, Kumar B.; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F.; Evans, Denis A.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

2014-01-01

404

Mild depressive symptoms do not influence cognitive functioning in patients with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated both with cognitive decrements and depressive symptoms. Since depression in itself has been associated with cognitive decrements we aimed to investigate the influence of depressive symptoms on the relation between T2DM and cognitive functioning. Data were derived from three independent studies on cognitive functioning in patients with T2DM (n=366) and controls without diabetes (n=204), two with longitudinal and one with only cross-sectional assessments. Depressive symptoms were measured with self-report inventories (CES-D or BDI-II). The composite z-score of the domains memory, information-processing speed, and attention and executive function was the primary cognitive outcome measure. Mixed linear regression analyses were used in a stepped approach to compare cognitive functioning between (1) patients with T2DM and controls (cross-sectionally and longitudinally), (2) participants with and without depressive symptoms, separately for patients and controls, and (3) patients and controls after adjustment for depressive symptoms. In addition the mediating effect of depressive symptoms was assessed with a bootstrapping technique. Depressive symptoms were present in 11% of the patients with T2DM and in 7% of controls (p=0.15). Cognitive performance in patients with T2DM was worse than in controls (overall difference composite z-score -0.13). However, T2DM was not associated with accelerated cognitive decline over three years of follow-up relative to controls. Controls with depressive symptoms performed worse than those without depressive symptoms, although not statistically significant. Performance in patients with T2DM with and without depressive symptoms was similar. Adjustment for depressive symptoms and estimation of the mediating effect showed that the difference between patients and controls was not mediated by depressive symptoms. In conclusion, the modest cognitive decrements that are associated with T2DM are not due to the presence of mild depressive symptoms. PMID:22818834

Koekkoek, Paula S; Rutten, Guy E H M; Ruis, Carla; Reijmer, Yael D; van den Berg, Esther; Gorter, Kees J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Nijpels, Giel; Kappelle, L Jaap; Biessels, Geert Jan

2013-03-01

405

Impact of bilateral subthalamic stimulation on motor/cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

It is still unclear whether deep brain stimulation targeted to the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) affects cognitive function in Parkinson's disease (PD). This prospective study was aimed to systemically evaluate the impact of bilateral STN-DBS on motor and cognitive functions in patients with PD. This study included totally 11 Japanese patients with medically intolerant PD. Neurological and cognitive status was precisely evaluated before and 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS, using unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), levodopa equivalent doses, mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Japanese adult reading test (JART), repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS), and Wechsler adult intelligence scale-revised (WAIS-R). Preoperative RBANS and WAIS-R identified cognitive dysfunction that could not be detected by MMSE and JART. Before surgery, PD patients had significantly impaired immediate memory and attention. Motor function significantly improved 1 year after bilateral STN-DBS. Bilateral STN-DBS did not affect any score on cognitive examinations. However, postoperative improvements of total score on RBANS and performance intelligence quotient (PIQ) scores on WAIS-R were closely related to those of UPDRS part III off (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01; R(2) = 0.39, P < 0.05, respectively). These findings strongly suggest that bilateral STN-DBS may significantly improve cognitive function in a certain subgroup of patients whose therapeutic effects on motor function are prominent. PMID:24872253

Asahi, Takashi; Nakamichi, Naomi; Takaiwa, Akiko; Kashiwazaki, Daina; Koh, Masaki; Dougu, Nobuhiro; Takashima, Shutaro; Tanaka, Kortaro; Kuroda, Satoshi

2014-01-01

406

Screening of Cognitive Function and Hearing Impairment in Older Adults: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Background. Previous research has found that hearing loss is associated with poorer cognitive function. The question is that when a hearing impairment is being compensated for by appropriately fitted monaural hearing aids, special precautions are still needed when screening cognitive function in older adults. Objective. This research examined cognitive function in elderly hearing aid users who used monaural hearing aids and whether the presence of a hearing impairment should be accounted for when screening cognitive function in these individuals. Methods. Auditory thresholds, sentence reception thresholds, and self-reported outcomes with hearing aids were measured in 34 older hearing aid users to ensure hearing aids were appropriately fitted. Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) results obtained in these participants were then compared to normative data obtained in a general older population exhibiting similar demographic characteristics. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to examine the effects of demographic and auditory variables on MMSE scores. Conclusions. Results showed that, even with appropriately fitted hearing aids, cognitive decline was significant. Besides the factors commonly measured in the literature, we believed that auditory deprivation was not being fully compensated for by hearing aids. Most importantly, screening of cognitive function should take into account the effects of hearing impairment, even when hearing devices have been appropriately fitted. PMID:25140321

Wong, Lena Lar Nar; Yu, Joannie Ka Yin; Chan, Shaina Shing; Tong, Michael Chi Fai

2014-01-01

407

Office management of elderly hypertensive patients. Focusing on cognition and function.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To review office management of elderly hypertensive patients and to focus on cognition and function both as ways to stratify who gets treated and as end points for treatment. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Relevant papers were identified through a MEDLINE search from January 1994 to March 2000, using the MeSH terms hypertension, aged, aged 80 and over, cognition, activities of daily living, therapeutics, hypotension orthostatic, and dementia. Many well conducted randomized controlled trials were found and are included. MAIN MESSAGE: Treatment of combined and systolic hypertension up to age 80 is clearly worthwhile; beyond age 85, other factors (chiefly cognitive and functional impairment) mitigate most routine recommendations. Successful treatment is individualized, taking into account comorbid conditions and their effect on cognition and function. Age is useful for thinking about groups, not individuals: as people age, risk of cognitive and functional impairment increases, but even very elderly people (> 85 years) with no impairment should be treated as younger patients are. Elderly people with signs of having a "brain at risk" should be managed with special vigilance. CONCLUSION: Good evidence supports treating elderly people, who are otherwise well and are cognitively and functionally intact, when their blood pressure is > 160 mm Hg systolic or > 105 mm Hg diastolic. There is insufficient evidence for carrying out routine recommendations for frail elderly people. Treatment of comorbid illnesses dictates choice of therapeutic agent. PMID:11785283

Rockwood, K.; Freter, S. H.

2001-01-01

408

The Dynamic Relationship Between Physical Function and Cognition in Longitudinal Aging Cohorts  

PubMed Central

On average, older people remember less and walk more slowly than do younger persons. Some researchers argue that this is due in part to a common biologic process underlying age-related declines in both physical and cognitive functioning. Only recently have longitudinal data become available for analyzing this claim. We conducted a systematic review of English-language research published between 2000 and 2011 to evaluate the relations between rates of change in physical and cognitive functioning in older cohorts. Physical functioning was assessed using objective measures: walking speed, grip strength, chair rise time, flamingo stand time, and summary measures of physical functioning. Cognition was measured using mental state examinations, fluid cognition, and diagnosis of impairment. Results depended on measurement type: Change in grip strength was more strongly correlated with mental state, while change in walking speed was more strongly correlated with change in fluid cognition. Examining physical and cognitive functioning can help clinicians and researchers to better identify individuals and groups that are aging differently and at different rates. In future research, investigators should consider the importance of identifying different patterns and rates of decline, examine relations between more diverse types of measures, and analyze the order in which age-related declines occur. PMID:23349427

Clouston, Sean A. P.; Brewster, Paul; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Rubin, Marcie S.; Hofer, Scott M.

2013-01-01

409

Reboxetine versus paroxetine versus placebo: effects on cognitive functioning in depressed patients.  

PubMed

Impaired cognitive functioning is often associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Moreover, a number of agents used to treat MDD are known to have negative effects on cognitive functioning. We report an assessment of the effects of the selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine, and placebo on a variety of measures of cognitive functioning in patients with MDD. Cognitive functioning in 74 adult patients (aged 18-65 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of MDD (DSM-IV) was assessed as part of two identical, randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-treatment-controlled, fixed/flexible dose comparisons of 8 weeks of treatment with reboxetine (8-10 mg/day), paroxetine (20-40 mg/day) and placebo. Cognitive function was assessed at baseline, day 14 and day 56 using a selection of tasks from the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system, including Simple Reaction Time, Digit Vigilance, Choice Reaction Time, Numeric Working Memory, Word Recognition and Critical Flicker Frequency. The results in the 74 patients (reboxetine n = 25, paroxetine n = 23, placebo n = 26) showed that reboxetine significantly improved the ability to sustain attention at day 56 compared with baseline (P = 0.023). In addition, patients who received reboxetine experienced significant improvements in their speed of cognitive functioning when tested at day 56 compared to baseline (P = 0.024). No significant changes or trends in this direction were seen among patients who received either placebo or paroxetine. The results of the present study provide objective data to support the possibility that reboxetine favourably affects cognitive processes in depressed patients. PMID:12490769

Ferguson, James M; Wesnes, Keith A; Schwartz, Gerri E

2003-01-01

410

Cognitive Training for Improving Executive Function in Chemotherapy-Treated Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with thinking and problem solving are very common among breast cancer survivors. We tested a computerized cognitive training program for 41 breast cancer survivors. The training program was associated with significant improvements in thinking and problem-solving skills. Our findings demonstrate potential for our online, home-based cognitive training program to improve cognitive difficulties among breast cancer survivors. Background A majority of breast cancer (BC) survivors, particularly those treated with chemotherapy, experience long-term cognitive deficits that significantly reduce quality of life. Among the cognitive domains most commonly affected include executive functions (EF), such as working memory, cognitive flexibility, multitasking, planning, and attention. Previous studies in other populations have shown that cognitive training, a behavioral method for treating cognitive deficits, can result in significant improvements in a number of cognitive skills, including EF. Materials and Methods In this study, we conducted a randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a novel, online EF training program in long-term BC survivors. A total of 41 BC survivors (21 active, 20 wait list) completed the 48 session training program over 12 weeks. The participants were, on average, 6 years after therapy. Results Cognitive training led to significant improvements in cognitive flexibility, verbal fluency and processing speed, with marginally significant downstream improvements in verbal memory as assessed via standardized measures. Self-ratings of EF skills, including planning, organizing, and task monitoring, also were improved in the active group compared with the wait list group. Conclusions Our findings suggest that EF skills may be improved even in long-term survivors by using a computerized, home-based intervention program. These improvements may potentially include subjective EF skills, which suggest a transfer of the training program to real-world behaviors. PMID:23647804

Kesler, Shelli; Hosseini, S. M. Hadi; Heckler, Charles; Janelsins, Michelle; Palesh, Oxana; Mustian, Karen; Morrow, Gary

2013-01-01

411

Ten-Year Effects of the ACTIVE Cognitive Training Trial on Cognition and Everyday Functioning in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years. Design, Setting, and Participants Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial with 3 intervention groups and a no-contact control group. A volunteer sample of 2832 persons (mean baseline age, 73.6 years; 26% African American) living independently in 6 US cities. Interventions Ten-session training for memory, reasoning, or speed-of-processing.; 4-session booster training at 11 and at 35 months after training. Measurements Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function. Results Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) (memory: effect size, 0.48 [99% CI, 0.12-0.84]; reasoning: effect size, 0.38 [99% CI, 0.02-0.74]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.36 [99% CI, 0.01-0.72]). At mean age of 82 years, about 60% of trained participants compared to 50% of controls (p<.05) were at or above their baseline level of self-reported IADL function at 10 years. The reasoning and speed-of-processing interventions maintained their effects on their targeted cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size, 0.23 [99% CI, 0.09-0.38]; speed-of-processing: effect size, 0.66 [99% CI, 0.43-0.88]). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size, 0.21 [99% CI, 0.01-0.41]) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size, 0.62 [99% CI, 0.31-0.93]). Conclusions Each ACTIVE cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years. PMID:24417410

Rebok, George W.; Ball, Karlene; Guey, Lin T.; Jones, Richard N.; Kim, Hae-Young; King, Jonathan W.; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.

2013-01-01

412

Meta-analytic evidence for a superordinate cognitive control network subserving diverse executive functions  

PubMed Central

Classic cognitive theory conceptualizes executive functions as involving multiple specific domains, including initiation, inhibition, working memory, flexibility, planning, and vigilance. Lesion and neuroimaging experiments over the past two decades have suggested that both common and unique processes contribute to executive functions during higher cognition. It has been suggested that a superordinate fronto–cingulo–parietal network supporting cognitive control may also underlie a range of distinct executive functions. To test this hypothesis in the largest sample to date, we used quantitative meta-analytic methods to analyze 193 functional neuroimaging studies of 2,832 healthy individuals, ages 18–60, in which performance on executive function measures was contrasted with an active control condition. A common pattern of activation was observed in the prefrontal, dorsal anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices across executive function domains, supporting the idea that executive functions are supported by a superordinate cognitive control network. However, domain-specific analyses showed some variation in the recruitment of anterior prefrontal cortex, anterior and midcingulate regions, and unique subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. These results are consistent with the existence of a superordinate cognitive control network in the brain, involving dorsolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and parietal cortices, that supports a broad range of executive functions. PMID:22282036

Laird, Angela R.; Ray, Kimberly L.; Dean, Y. Monica; Glahn, David C.; Carter, Cameron S.

2013-01-01

413

COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

TWO EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION AND HIS ABILITY TO CONSERVE NUMBER AND PICTURES. OTHER MEASURES OF COGNITION ALSO WERE USED. TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION WAS MEASURED BY THE CHILD'S DECISION TO RECEIVE A PACK OF CANDY AND A TOY ON THE DAY OF TESTING OR TO…

ZIMILES, HERBERT

414

Neurobiology of Disease Cognitive Deterioration and Functional Compensation in  

E-print Network

's University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6, Canada Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized words: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; antisaccade; cognitive control; fMRI; prefrontal cortex; task set Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative dis- ease affecting motor neurons

Munoz, Douglas Perry

415

Cognitive function and quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly half of all patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) will develop cognitive dysfunction. Studies highlighted from no/weak impact to a strong impact of cognitive impairment on quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive dysfunction on self-reported QoL in MS patients while considering key confounding factors. Methods Design: cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: MS patients of any disease subtype. Data collection: sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status, education level, and occupational activity) and clinical data (MS subtype, disease duration); MS disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale, EDSS); depression (Beck Depression Inventory); fatigue (Modified Fatigue Impact Scale); QoL (SF36 and MusiQoL); and neuropsychological performance (Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests, BRB-N). Statistical analysis: multiple linear regressions (forward-stepwise selection). Results One hundred and twenty-four patients were enrolled. Performance on BRB-N subtests varied widely (6% to 70% abnormal). The BRB-N classified 37-78% of the patients as cognitively impaired, depending on the definition of cognitive impairment. No links were found between the MusiQoL index and cognitive subtests, whereas marital status, EDSS, and depression were found to be independent predictive factors. Conclusions The present study demonstrated the weak and scarce association between cognitive impairment and QoL, when the key confounding factors were considered. These results need to be confirmed with larger samples and more accurate tests of cognitive function. PMID:21288343

2011-01-01

416

Enhancement of cognitive and neural functions through complex reasoning training: evidence from normal and clinical populations  

PubMed Central

Public awareness of cognitive health is fairly recent compared to physical health. Growing evidence suggests that cognitive training offers promise in augmenting cognitive brain performance in normal and clinical populations. Targeting higher-order cognitive functions, such as reasoning in particular, may promote generalized cognitive changes necessary for supporting the complexities of daily life. This data-driven perspective highlights cognitive and brain changes measured in randomized clinical trials that trained gist reasoning strategies in populations ranging from teenagers to healthy older adults, individuals with brain injury to those at-risk for Alzheimer's disease. The evidence presented across studies support the potential for Gist reasoning training to strengthen cognitive performance in trained and untrained domains and to engage more efficient communication across widespread neural networks that support higher-order cognition. The meaningful benefits of Gist training provide compelling motivation to examine optimal dose for sustained benefits as well as to explore additive benefits of meditation, physical exercise, and/or improved sleep in future studies. PMID:24808834

Chapman, Sandra B.; Mudar, Raksha A.

2014-01-01

417

Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list delayed recall, word list recognition, and the total CERAD-K score. Our data suggest that the implementation of dance exercise programs may be an effective means of prevention and treatment of cognitive disorders. PMID:24149557

Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

2011-01-01

418

Adverse childhood experiences, psychosocial well-being and cognitive development among orphans and abandoned children in five low income countries  

PubMed Central

Background Development policymakers and child-care service providers are committed to improving the educational opportunities of the 153 million orphans worldwide. Nevertheless, the relationship between orphanhood and education outcomes is not well understood. Varying factors associated with differential educational attainment leave policymakers uncertain where to intervene. This study examines the relationship between psychosocial well-being and cognitive development in a cohort of orphans and abandoned children (OAC) relative to non-OAC in five low and middle income countries (LMICs) to understand better what factors are associated with success in learning for these children. Methods Positive Outcomes for Orphans (POFO) is a longitudinal study, following a cohort of single and double OAC in institutional and community-based settings in five LMICs in Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa: Cambodia, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, and Tanzania. Employing two-stage random sampling survey methodology to identify representative samples of OAC in six sites, the POFO study aimed to better understand factors associated with child well-being. Using cross-sectional and child-level fixed effects regression analyses on 1,480 community based OAC and a comparison sample of non-OAC, this manuscript examines associations between emotional difficulties, cognitive development, and a variety of possible co-factors, including potentially traumatic events. Results The most salient finding is that increases in emotional difficulties are associated with lags in cognitive development for two separate measures of learning within and across multiple study sites. Exposure to potentially traumatic events, male gender, and lower socio-economic status are associated with more reported emotional difficultiesin some sites. Being female and having an illiterate caregiver is associated with lower performance on cognitive development tests in some sites, while greater wealth is associated with higher performance. There is no significant association between orphan status per se and cognitive development, though the negative and significant association between higher emotional difficulties and lags in cognitive development hold across all orphan subgroups. Conclusions These findings suggest that interventions targeting psychosocial support for vulnerable children, especially vis a vis traumatic experiences, may ease strains inhibiting a child’s learning. Family based interventions to stabilize socioeconomic conditions may help overcome psychosocial challenges that otherwise would present as barriers to the child’s learning. PMID:24606949

2014-01-01

419

Urinary function in elderly people with and without leukoaraiosis: relation to cognitive and gait function  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To investigate urinary function in the elderly with and without white matter lesion (leukoaraiosis) in relation to cognitive and gait function.?METHODS—Sixty three subjects were examined, with mean age 73 (range 62 to 86 years). Subjects with brainstem stroke or with large hemispheric lesions were excluded. Spin echo 1.5 T MRI images were graded from 0 to 4 for severity of white matter lesions. Urinary function was assessed by detailed questionnaire and urodynamic studies were performed in 33 of the subjects, including measurement of postmicturition residuals, water cystometry, and sphincter EMG. A mini mental state examination (MMSE) and examination of gait was also performed and compared with urinary function.?RESULTS—Urodynamic studies showed subjects with grade 1-4 white matter lesions to have detrusor hyperreflexia more commonly (82%) than those with grade 0 white matter lesions (9%) (p<0.05), indicating that leukoaraiosis was a factor associated with geriatric urinary dysfunction. Postmicturition residuals, low compliance, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, and uninhibited sphincter relaxation were also more common in grade 1-4 than in grade 0 white matter lesions, though the difference was not significant. In grade 1 white matter lesions urinary dysfunction (urge urinary incontinence) was more common than cognitive (MMSE<19) (p<0.05) and gait disorders (slowness, short step/festination, and loss of postural reflex) (p<0.05), which increased together with the grade of white matter lesions (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—Urinary dysfunction is common and probably the early sign in elderly people with leukoaraiosis on MRI.?? PMID:10519875

Sakakibara, R.; Hattori, T.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamanishi, T.

1999-01-01

420

Cognitive function in relation with bone mass and nutrition: cross-sectional association in postmenopausal women.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that bone loss and cognitive decline are co-occurring conditions, possibly due to their relationship with estrogen. Cognitive decline has been associated with various nutritional deficiencies as well. The purpose of this study was to determine if cognitive function is related to bone mineral density of various skeletal sites as well as to various dietary components. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 97 healthy, Caucasian, postmenopausal women (59.4-85.0 years) enrolled in a larger longitudinal study, investigating the effects of sodium on bone mass. The subjects were divided into two groups based on cognition scores. Group 1 represented lower and Group 2 higher scores on cognitive function. Bone mineral density from the whole body, lumbar spine, femur and forearm were measured with the Lunar DPX-MD instrument. Anthropometry was measured by standard methods. Cognition was assessed using the Mini Mental State Examination. Cumulative (over 2 years) dietary intake from 3-day records was analyzed by Food Processor(R) (ESHA Research, Salem, OR) and cumulative physical activity was assessed using Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey for older adults. RESULTS: Subjects' cognition scores ranged from 22-30 (normal, 27-30), indicating all subjects had either mild or no cognitive impairment. Multiple Analysis of Covariance adjusted for age, height, weight, physical activity, alcohol, calcium, sodium and energy intake, showed a statistically significant association between cognition and bone mineral density of all measurable sites (eta2 = 0.21, P < 0.01). However, after Analysis of Covariance follow-up tests and Bonferroni correction, the differences for individual bone sites diminished, though Group 2 had higher adjusted means for all sites except for the femoral neck, Ward's triangle and trochanter. There was a positive significant association between cognition score and carbohydrate and potassium intake (eta2 = 0.07, P = 0.050). Group 2 did have a significantly higher potassium intake (P = 0.023). In multiple regression, saturated fat had a significant negative relationship with cognitive function. CONCLUSIONS: It appears mild degree of cognitive impairment may be a marker for lower bone mineral density as well as for a diet lower in carbohydrate and potassium intake, and higher in saturated fat. Consequently, older women with cognitive impairment may benefit of being screened for potential bone loss and poor nutrition. PMID:15163349

Brownbill, Rhonda A; Ilich, Jasminka Z

2004-05-26