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1

Childhood trauma and cognitive function in first-episode affective and non-affective psychosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA history of childhood trauma is reportedly more prevalent in people suffering from psychosis than in the general population. Childhood trauma has also been linked to cognitive abnormalities in adulthood, and cognitive abnormalities, in turn, are one of the key clinical features of psychosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether there was a relationship between childhood trauma and cognitive function in

Monica Aas; Paola Dazzan; Helen L. Fisher; Craig Morgan; Kevin Morgan; Abraham Reichenberg; Jolanta Zanelli; Paul Fearon; Peter B. Jones; Robin M. Murray; Carmine M. Pariante

2011-01-01

2

Childhood Cognitive Functioning in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitive functioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitive functioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,

Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley

2000-01-01

3

Association of childhood trauma with cognitive function in healthy adults: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitive function. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitive function in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive function in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitive function and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitive function. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology.

2010-01-01

4

Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years.

CHERRYL LEE RUBENSTEIN; JAMES W. VARNI; ERNEST R. KATZ

1990-01-01

5

Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.

Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-12-01

6

Cognitive control in childhood-onset obsessive–compulsive disorder: a functional MRI study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Failure to resist chronic obsessive-compulsive symptoms may denote an altered state of cognitive control. We searched for the cerebral regions engaged in this dysfunction. Method. Differences in brain regional activity were examined by event-related functional magnetic regional imaging (fMRI) in a group of adolescents or young adults (n=12) with childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relative to healthy subjects. Subjects performed

ARMELLE VIARD; MARTINE F. FLAMENT; ERIC ARTIGES; STANISLAS DEHAENE; LIONEL NACCACHE; DAVID COHEN; PHILIPPE MAZET; MARIE-CHRISTINE MOUREN; JEAN-LUC MARTINOT

2005-01-01

7

Maternal hypothyroxinemia and effects on cognitive functioning in childhood: how and why?  

PubMed

Exposure to maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy, which is characterized by low free T4 but normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, can negatively affect the foetus. This review provides an overview of present findings concerning the association between maternal hypothyroxinemia during pregnancy and childhood cognitive functioning. Possible causes of maternal hypothyroxinemia and potential mechanisms underlying this association are also discussed. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that maternal hypothyroxinemia in the first half of pregnancy but not later in pregnancy impairs cognitive development in infancy and childhood. Animal models confirm that the first half of pregnancy may constitute a sensitive period in which maternal hypothyroxinemia alters neurogenesis and causes neuronal migration errors in the developing foetal brain. However, observational studies in humans cannot demonstrate causality of the association between hypothyroxinemia and neurodevelopment. In the only completed randomized trial of antenatal thyroid screening and subsequent levothyroxine treatment of mild maternal subclinical thyroid dysfunction, including hypothyroxinemia, the interventions did not affect offspring intelligence quotient (IQ). More randomized trials are needed investigating whether screening for hypothyroxinemia and its treatment earlier in the first trimester of pregnancy can improve child cognitive functioning or prevent neurodevelopmental changes. Long-term observational studies should identify molecular, neuroanatomical and neurophysiological factors involved in the association between maternal hypothyroxinemia and offspring cognitive functioning. Information on such mechanisms can be used for the development of innovative prevention and intervention studies that address maternal hypothyroxinemia and its potential consequences. PMID:23600900

Henrichs, Jens; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Peeters, Robin P; Tiemeier, Henning

2013-05-21

8

Mental Ability in Childhood and Cognitive Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Identifying the determinants of cognitive aging is a research priority; however, few studies are able to examine the influence of pre-morbid cognitive ability on later changes in cognitive function. Objective: To examine the association between childhood cognitive ability and cognitive change from age 79 to 83 in the presence of other demographic and lifestyle indicators. Methods: The participants took

Alan J. Gow; Wendy Johnson; Alison Pattie; Martha C. Whiteman; John Starr; Ian J. Deary

2008-01-01

9

Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People  

PubMed Central

Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences.

Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.

2012-01-01

10

Functional neuronal network activity differs with cognitive dysfunction in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) and often include neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can measure brain activation during tasks that invoke domains of cognitive function impaired by cSLE. This study investigates specific changes in brain function attributable to NCD in cSLE that have potential to serve as imaging biomarkers. Methods Formal neuropsychological testing was done to measure cognitive ability and to identify NCD. Participants performed fMRI tasks probing three cognitive domains impacted by cSLE: visuoconstructional ability (VCA), working memory, and attention. Imaging data, collected on 3-Tesla scanners, included a high-resolution T1-weighted anatomic reference image followed by a T2*-weighted whole-brain echo planar image series for each fMRI task. Brain activation using blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast was compared between cSLE patients with NCD (NCD-group, n = 7) vs. without NCD (noNCD-group, n = 14) using voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses. The relationship of brain activation during fMRI tasks and performance in formal neuropsychological testing was assessed. Results Greater brain activation was observed in the noNCD-group vs. NCD-group during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks. Conversely, compared to the noNCD-group, the NCD-group showed more brain activation during the attention fMRI task. In region of interest analysis, brain activity during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks was positively associated with the participants' neuropsychological test performance. In contrast, brain activation during the attention fMRI task was negatively correlated with neuropsychological test performance. While the NCD group performed worse than the noNCD group during VCA and working memory tasks, the attention task was performed equally well by both groups. Conclusions NCD in patients with cSLE is characterized by differential activation of functional neuronal networks during fMRI tasks probing working memory, VCA, and attention. Results suggest a compensatory mechanism allows maintenance of attentional performance under NCD. This mechanism appears to break down for the VCA and working memory challenges presented in this study. The observation that neuronal network activation is related to the formal neuropsychological testing performance makes fMRI a candidate imaging biomarker for cSLE-associated NCD.

2013-01-01

11

Congenital heart disease and cardiac surgery in childhood: effects on cognitive function and academic ability  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate changes in cognitive and academic functioning following cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease.?DESIGN—A prospective cross sectional study in which patients were assessed immediately before treatment and 12 months later.?PATIENTS—Three groups of children aged 3.5-17 years: a group with congenital heart disease awaiting surgery, another awaiting bone marrow transplantation, and a healthy comparison group.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Intelligence quotient and measures of academic attainment, evaluated with the British Ability Scales.?RESULTS—Preoperatively, children with cyanotic lesions showed deficits in comparison with those with acyanotic lesions. Postoperatively, children with cyanotic lesions showed a deterioration in performance and achieved significantly lower scores than those with acyanotic lesions. While there were significant differences between the congenital heart disease and bone marrow transplantation groups preoperatively, these were no longer apparent at follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—In contrast to previously published findings, the present results suggest that cardiac surgery does not result in early postoperative improvements in cognitive function for children with congenital heart disease. The nature of the cardiac lesion continues to affect cognitive and academic performance, even after surgery.???Keywords: congenital heart disease; cardiac surgery; cognitive ability

Wray, J; Sensky, T

2001-01-01

12

Congenital heart disease and cardiac surgery in childhood: effects on cognitive function and academic ability  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo evaluate changes in cognitive and academic functioning following cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease.DESIGNA prospective cross sectional study in which patients were assessed immediately before treatment and 12 months later.PATIENTSThree groups of children aged 3.5–17 years: a group with congenital heart disease awaiting surgery, another awaiting bone marrow transplantation, and a healthy comparison group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURESIntelligence quotient

J Wray; T Sensky

2001-01-01

13

The Effects of Early Neglect on Cognitive, Language, and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention.

Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.

2013-01-01

14

ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DIARRHEA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS WITH IMPAIRED PHYSICAL FITNESS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOUR-SEVEN YEARS LATER IN A POOR URBAN COMMUNITY IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine potential, long-term deficits associated with early childhood diarrhea and parasitic infec- tions, we studied the physical fitness (by the Harvard Step Test) and cognitive function (by standardized tests noted below) of 26 children who had complete surveillance for diarrhea in their first 2 years of life and who had continued surveillance until 6-9 years of age in a

DAVID I. GUERRANT; SEAN R. MOORE; ALDO A. M. LIMA; PETER D. PATRICK; JOHN B. SCHORLING; RICHARD L. GUERRANT

1999-01-01

15

Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has been no investigation of the possible effect of variations in the weaning diet. Methods:

Catharine R. Gale; Christopher N. Martyn; Lynne D Marriott; Jennifer Limond; Sarah Crozier; Hazel M. Inskip; Keith M. Godfrey; Catherine M. Law; Cyrus Cooper; Sian M Robinson

2008-01-01

16

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

2008-01-01

17

Dietary Patterns in Infancy and Cognitive and Neuropsychological Function in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there…

Gale, Catharine R.; Martyn, Christopher N.; Marriott, Lynne D.; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M.

2009-01-01

18

Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation\\u000a with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive\\u000a function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China\\u000a where the older population lived through significant hardship during

Michelle Heys; Chaoqiang Jiang; C. Mary Schooling; WeiSen Zhang; Kar Keung Cheng; Tai Hing Lam; Gabriel M. Leung

2010-01-01

19

A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

Michael Ferrari

2009-01-01

20

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II

Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

1999-01-01

21

Height and cognitive function at older ages: is height a useful summary measure of early childhood experiences?  

PubMed

Previous research using US data suggests that height, as a marker for early investments in health, is associated with better cognitive functioning in later life, but this association disappears once education is controlled for. Using an English cohort of men and women older than 50?years, we find that the association between height and cognitive outcomes remains significant after controlling for education suggesting that height affects cognitive functioning not simply via higher educational attainment. Furthermore, the significant association between height and cognitive function remains even after controls for early life indicators have been included. PMID:22231981

Guven, Cahit; Lee, Wang Sheng

2012-01-10

22

Dietary patterns in infancy and cognitive and neuropsychological function in childhood  

PubMed Central

Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has been no investigation of the possible effect of variations in the weaning diet. Methods: We studied 241 children aged 4 years, whose diet had been assessed at age 6 and 12 months. We measured IQ with the Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence, visual attention, visuomotor precision, sentence repetition and verbal fluency with the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY), and visual form-constancy with the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills. Results: In sex-adjusted analyses, children whose diet in infancy was characterised by high consumption of fruit, vegetables and home-prepared foods (‘infant guidelines’ dietary pattern) had higher full-scale and verbal IQ and better memory performance at age 4 years. Further adjustment for maternal education, intelligence, social class, quality of the home environment and other potential confounding factors, attenuated these associations but the relations between higher ‘infant guidelines’ diet score and full-scale and verbal IQ remained significant. For a standard deviation increase in ‘infant guidelines’ diet score at 6 or 12 months full scale IQ rose by 0.18 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.31) of a standard deviation. For a standard deviation increase in ‘infant guidelines’ diet score at 6 months verbal IQ rose by 0.14 (0.01 to 0.27) of a standard deviation. There were no associations between dietary patterns in infancy and 4-year performance on the other tests. Conclusions: These findings suggest that dietary patterns in early life may have some effect on cognitive development. It is also possible that they reflect the influence of unmeasured confounding factors.

Gale, Catharine R; Martyn, Christopher N; Marriott, Lynne D; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M; Godfrey, Keith M; Law, Catherine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M

2009-01-01

23

Executive Functioning in Childhood Epilepsy: Parent-Report and Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is considerable interest in the assessment of executive function (EF) in pediatric clinical populations but only a few well-standardized measures exist. We examined EF in 53 children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (31 males, 22 females) and 50 control children (23 males, 27 females) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of…

Parrish, Joy; Geary, Elizabeth; Jones, Jana; Seth, Raj; Hermann, Bruce; Seidenberg, Michael

2007-01-01

24

Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. Design: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Setting: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. Results: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class at time of birth had higher mortality rates compared with those whose fathers were high/middle class: hazard ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.67) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.83) respectively. Birth weight and childhood cognitive function were both related to father's social class and inversely associated with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HRworking class1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HRunkown class1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also significantly higher among men with fathers from the lower social classes. Conclusion: The inverse association between father's social class at time of birth and early adult mortality remains, however somewhat attenuated, after adjustment for birth weight and cognitive function.

Osler, M; Andersen, A; Due, P; Lund, R; Damsgaard, M; Holstein, B

2003-01-01

25

Association between cognitive activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics.  

PubMed

There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914

Marquine, María J; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S; Bennett, David A; Barnes, Lisa L

2012-06-08

26

Association between Cognitive Activity and Cognitive Function in Older Hispanics  

PubMed Central

There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitive function in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitive function in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitive function. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitive function was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitive function may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics.

Marquine, Maria J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.

2012-01-01

27

Infant feeding practice and childhood cognitive performance in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhood cognitive function. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six

Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall

2010-01-01

28

Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive style is a psychological construct used in research concentrating on functional components of cognitive processes, particularly how they affect an individual's mental, personality and social behaviors. These functional components are manifested in an individual's perceptual and intellectual experiences in a highly consistent and pervasive manner. A dimension of cognitive style is field-dependence-independence, which denotes the individuals' spatial orientation. Individuals

Olivia N. Saracho

1988-01-01

29

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

30

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

31

Relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for a wide range of adult psychiatric disorders, and has significant and sustained negative effects on adult behavioural and social functioning. Elevated rates of childhood adversity have been reported for people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to assess rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversity among adults with schizophrenia and to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. Data were available for 408 schizophrenia participants and 267 healthy control participants recruited through the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). History of childhood adversity was obtained using the Childhood Adversity Questionnaire (CAQ). A five-factor solution was identified from the CAQ. Schizophrenia participants reported experiencing more childhood adversities than controls. In both groups, those reporting childhood adversity were more likely to be female and older. Among participants with schizophrenia, positive symptom severity and fewer years of education were associated with childhood adversity. Lower IQ scores and personality traits were associated with reporting a greater number of childhood adversities and with adversity sub-types of abusive, neglectful and dysfunctional parenting. The rate of childhood adversity reported in this sample was high which suggests greater exposure to adverse childhood events among participants with schizophrenia in comparison with healthy controls. We identified unique groups amongst CAQ items that provided a salient framework from which to investigate the connection between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features. PMID:22329951

McCabe, Kathryn L; Maloney, Elizabeth A; Stain, Helen J; Loughland, Carmel M; Carr, Vaughan J

2012-02-11

32

Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

33

Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

34

Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

2008-01-01

35

Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

2008-01-01

36

Education, Other Socioeconomic Indicators, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation of educational attainment, husband's education, household income, and childhood socioeconomic status to cognitive function and decline among community-dwelling women aged 70- 79 years. Information on exposures was self-reported, except for income (which was derived from census tract data). Between 1995 and 2000, six cognitive tests were administered to 19,319 Nurses' Health Study participants. Second assessments

Sunmin Lee; Ichiro Kawachi; Lisa F. Berkman; Francine Grodstein

37

Cognitive Processes Supporting Episodic Memory Formation in Childhood: The Role of Source Memory, Binding, and Executive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Episodic memories contain various forms of contextual detail (e.g., perceptual, emotional, cognitive details) that need to become integrated. Each of these contextual features can be used to attribute a memory episode to its source, or origin of information. Memory for source information is one critical component in the formation of episodic…

Raj, Vinaya; Bell, Martha Ann

2010-01-01

38

Cognitive Distortions Among Women Reporting Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventy-nine female adults reporting a history of childhood sexual (CSA) abuse were assessed to determine the relationship between severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and cognitive distortions as part of a larger study involving cognitive processing therapy for sexual abuse. The association between two cognitive measures, the Personal Beliefs and Reactions Scale (PBRS) and World Assumptions Scale (WAS), was

GINA P. OWENS; KATHLEEN M. CHARD

2001-01-01

39

Genetic analyses of the stability of executive functioning during childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive functioning is an umbrella term for several related cognitive functions like selective- and sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition. Little is known about the stability of executive functioning during childhood. In this study the longitudinal stability of executive functioning was examined in young twins. The twin design enables to investigate genetic and environmental contributions to (the stability of) executive

Tinca J. C. Polderman; Danielle Posthuma; Leo M. J. De Sonneville; John F. Stins; Frank C. Verhulst; Dorret I. Boomsma

2007-01-01

40

Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger

Zhenmei Zhang; Danan Gu; Mark D. Hayward

2010-01-01

41

A Cognitive Approach to Stress Reduction for Early Childhood Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|For early childhood educators a cognitive approach to stress therapy is a valuable supplement to other approaches. Early childhood educators, like others, may develop psychological vulnerabilities that contribute to stress and depression. An exaggerated need for approval or an unhealthy demand for perfectionism may contribute to their experience…

Smith, Doris O.

42

Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

43

Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.|

Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

44

Cognitive and Executive Function 12 Years after Childhood Bacterial Meningitis: Effect of Acute Neurologic Complications and Age of Onset  

Microsoft Academic Search

each of these domains. However, development was shown to keep pace with that exhibited by healthy controls, suggesting no deterioration in function with time since illness. While prediagnosis symptom duration and acute neurologic complications were not predictors of 12-year outcome, meningitis before 12 months of age was significantly related to poorer performance on tasks requiring language and executive skills. Conclusions

Vicki Anderson; Peter Anderson; Terry Nolan

2004-01-01

45

[Cognition, social cognition and functioning in schizophrenia].  

PubMed

The major reviews of the literature support the idea that a significant proportion of patients with schizophrenia present cognitive deficits in several domains, more marked in the domains of verbal memory, vigilance and attention, memory, intellectual quotient, language and executive functioning. Such deficits appear to be one of the main determinants of these patients' functional outcome. More recently, social cognition deficits have been described. Social cognition may be understood as a separate and independent dimension of neurocognition or non-social cognition and may constitute a mediator between the neurocognition and functioning. However, there has been controversy concerning the real meaning of deficits observed due to the diversity of analysis methodologies employed and the fact that the available neuropsychological tests and batteries have not been specifically designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, the Working Group on Schizophrenia (GTE) describes and highlights the existing clinical and scientific evidence, performs a critical review of cognitive functioning, social cognition and its impact on functional outcome, in patients with schizophrenia. The authors review definitions of (neuro)cognition, social cognition and functioning, analyze the existing methods for its assessment, describe the treatments available in this context and summarize the evidence of dysfunctions in these three concepts, taking into account their interconnection. Overall, the GTE considered the need for a standardized battery of tests to measure neurocognition, social cognition and functioning, consensually accepting the use of MATRICS as the standard tool for assessing neurocognition in schizophrenia. It was also recognized that verbal memory and vigilance deficits may be the best predictors of functional outcome in schizophrenia. In addition, the GTE has established social cognition as a priority area in the study of schizophrenia, however, the limitations in terminology and assessment methodologies do not allow a consensus in this area. The GTE considers that further longitudinal studies with larger samples are needed, so that a more adequate therapeutic armamentarium becomes available for patients with schizophrenia. PMID:21627882

Vaz-Serra, Adriano; Palha, António; Figueira, Maria Luísa; Bessa-Peixoto, Alberto; Brissos, Sofia; Casquinha, Paula; Damas-Reis, Filipe; Ferreira, Luís; Gago, Joaquim; Jara, José; Relvas, João; Marques-Teixeira, João

2010-12-28

46

Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Cognitive Flexibility in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction.

Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.

2012-01-01

47

Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents.  

PubMed

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12-17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with nonperseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with nonperseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637

Spann, Marisa N; Mayes, Linda C; Kalmar, Jessica H; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P

2011-09-26

48

Does childhood intelligence predict variation in cognitive change in later life?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lower childhood cognitive ability may be a risk factor for greater cognitive decline in late life and progression to dementia. To assess variation in age-related cognitive change, it is helpful to have valid measures of cognitive ability from early life. Here, we examine the relation between childhood intelligence and cognitive change in later life in two samples, one born in

Victoria J. Bourne; Helen C. Fox; Ian J. Deary; Lawrence J. Whalley

2007-01-01

49

Childhood rituals and executive functions.  

PubMed

Repetitive and ritualistic behaviours (RRBs) are a feature of both typical and atypical development. While the cognitive correlates of these behaviours have been investigated in some neurodevelopmental conditions these links remain largely unexplored in typical development. The current study examined the relationship between RRBs and executive functions (EF) in a sample of typically developing children aged between 37 and 107 months. Results showed that cognitive flexibility, and not response inhibition or generativity, was most strongly associated with the frequency of RRBs in this sample. In younger children (<67.5 months) cognitive flexibility was significantly associated with 'Repetitive Behaviours' but in older children (>67.5 months) cognitive flexibility was associated with both 'Just Right' and 'Repetitive Behaviour', suggesting that the association between EF and RRBs may become stronger with age in typically developing children. PMID:19998532

Tregay, Jenifer; Gilmour, Jane; Charman, Tony

2009-06-01

50

Childhood IQ, smoking, and cognitive change from age 11 to 64 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether smoking is a risk factor for relative cognitive decline from age 11 to 64 years. The potentially confounding effects of childhood IQ, occupational status, level of education, presence of heart disease, hypertension, and lung function were examined. Subjects were nondemented and living independently. They were all born in 1936, had been participants in the same Scottish national

Lawrence J. Whalley; Helen C. Fox; Ian J. Deary; John M. Starr

2005-01-01

51

Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in survival for patients who had childhood brain tumors has led to an increasing emphasis on the quality of life for these long-term survivors. Initial survival studies relied on global descriptions of functional abilities to assess cognitive deficits and reported that from 20% to 40% of long-term survivors had obvious partial disability and <10% were severely disabled. Formal neuropsychological

Tracy A. Glauser; Roger J. Packer

1991-01-01

52

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have

Yoon-Bok Lee; Hyong Joo Lee; Heon Soo Sohn

2005-01-01

53

Prediction of Cognitive Performance from Infancy to Early Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two longitudinal studies are described, in both of which it was found that measures of looking behaviour in early infancy predicted later problem solving and verbal and general intelligence. These results are a further demonstration that cognitive development from infancy to later childhood displays some degree of continuity. It is argued that these and other findings do not give clear

Alan Slater; Rachel Cooper; David Rose; Victoria Morison

1989-01-01

54

The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cog- nitive Impairment to outcome in schizophrenia , espe- cially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with

Herbert Y. Melfcjer; Susan R. McQurk

2010-01-01

55

Cognitive function in tension-type headache.  

PubMed

The association between tension-type headache and cognitive ability was assessed among 971 members of a longitudinal birth cohort study. Primary headache status was determined at age 32 years according to 2004 International Headache Society criteria, frequent childhood headaches were identified from parent report from ages 7 to 13 years, and data relating to cognitive and academic performance from ages 3 to 32 years were analyzed. Adult study members with tension-type headache did not score worse on any of the cognitive measures relative to headache-free controls or headache-free tinnitus sufferers. Instead, a consistent relation was found between childhood headache (regardless of headache diagnosis in adulthood) and lower scores on most cognitive measures from age 3 years through adolescence (verbal and performance IQ, receptive language, and reading scores). The data indicate that cognitive performance deficits in childhood headache sufferers can probably be attributed to factors stemming from utero or early childhood. PMID:18173981

Waldie, Karen E; Welch, David

2007-12-01

56

Nutrition and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The work of the Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, on the influence of early diet on the development of preterm infants is reviewed. Then further consideration is given to the implication of the findings. Malnutrition during a sensitive period may result in disease in adult life, and studies strongly suggest the development of the brain and retina can be affected. This may be due to the lack of essential fatty acids, and will particularly involve premature babies born at a time when cell membrane development is especially vulnerable. These findings must sometimes be viewed with caution, as genetic and environmental influences can be paramount. There are many reasons to favour breast feeding, rather than giving formula feeds, including improved cognition and visual function. For example breast milk contains docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, essential for normal brain development, and often absent or in short supply in formula feeds. Although the advantages in developmental status may be due, in part anyhow, to factors such as the mother's ability and education, and to the child being given greater opportunities, the evident importance of the composition of human breast milk cannot be denied. Formula feeds do contain a higher nutrient value than breast milk, which can result in improved height and weight of infants fed in this way: if it is necessary to use them the challenge for future research is to improve their composition. Although this may be of more importance for premature babies, term babies can also be affected; this has both medical and social implications. PMID:9134186

Gordon, N

1997-04-01

57

Cognitive reserve preserves cognitive function in obese individuals.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity is an established risk factor for cognitive impairment. Theories of cognitive reserve suggest that premorbid factors, such as intellectual ability, may attenuate the expression of cognitive impairment due to age or disease. The current study examined whether cognitive reserve, defined as estimated premorbid intellectual ability, moderates the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in obese adults. Participants without major medical or psychological conditions completed a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests. Hierarchical regression models found a significant interaction between BMI and cognitive reserve for attention/executive function and memory, suggesting that cognitive reserve attenuates the expression of obesity-related cognitive impairment. PMID:23339557

Galioto, Rachel M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Stanek, Kelly M; Gunstad, John

2013-01-23

58

Cognitive deficit or cognitive distortion in childhood depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies were conducted to evaluate cognitive disturbance and depression in children. In Study I, 47 sixth-grade children, including 17 who received a DSM-III diagnosis of depression, and their parents were independently interviewed with the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children, and they completed the Parent-Child Depression Inventory. Children completed the Children's Depression Inventory, the Matching Familiar

Philip C. Kendall; Kevin D. Stark; Therese Adam

1990-01-01

59

Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an

Marisa N. Spann; Linda C. Mayes; Jessica H. Kalmar; Joanne Guiney; Fay Y. Womer; Brian Pittman; Carolyn M. Mazure; Rajita Sinha; Hilary P. Blumberg

2011-01-01

60

Childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive flexibility in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an

Marisa N. Spann; Linda C. Mayes; Jessica H. Kalmar; Joanne Guiney; Fay Y. Womer; Brian Pittman; Carolyn M. Mazure; Rajita Sinha; Hilary P. Blumberg

2012-01-01

61

Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later.  

PubMed

Aerobically fit children outperform less fit peers on cognitive control challenges that involve inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether, compared with less fit children, more fit 9- and 10-year-old pre-adolescents exhibit superior performance on a modified compatible and incompatible flanker task of cognitive control at the initial time of fitness testing and approximately one year later. We found that more fit children demonstrated increased flanker accuracy at both test sessions, coupled with a superior ability to flexibly allocate strategies during task conditions that required different amounts of cognitive control, relative to less fit children. More fit children also gained a speed benefit at follow-up testing. Structural MRI data were also collected to investigate the relationship between basal ganglia volume and task performance. Bilateral putamen volumes of the dorsal striatum and globus pallidus volumes predicted flanker performance at initial and follow-up testing one year later. The present findings suggest that childhood aerobic fitness and basal ganglia volumes relate to cognitive control at the time of fitness testing and may play a role in cognitive performance in the future. We hope that this research will encourage public health and educational changes that will promote a physically active lifestyle in children. PMID:22260155

Chaddock, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Pontifex, Matthew B; Johnson, Christopher R; Raine, Lauren B; Kramer, Arthur F

2012-01-19

62

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function.  

PubMed

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have been shown to have positive effects on the cognitive function in females; however, studies on their effects on spatial memory have not provided consistent results in males. Although data from humans, cultures, and animal models are currently insufficient for elucidating the metabolism of soy isoflavone actions on cognitive function and the nervous system, we suggest two putative pathways; (1) an estrogen receptor-mediated pathway and (2) via the inhibition of tyrosine kinase, in particular by genistein, which is one of the soy isoflavones. Although soy isoflavones appear to have a positive effect on brain function, further research is needed to determine not only the efficacy but also the safety of soy isoflavones on the nervous system and cognitive function. PMID:16169201

Lee, Yoon-Bok; Lee, Hyong Joo; Sohn, Heon Soo

2005-08-10

63

Cognitive control and attentional functions.  

PubMed

Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions are involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T; Fan, Jin

2013-06-19

64

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory.  

PubMed

Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary children. A 52-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 159 fifth graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.072). Hours of TV watching were predicted by number of times taught about healthy eating at school and self-control through goal setting (R2 = 0.055). Glasses of water consumed were predicted by expectations for drinking water (R2 = 0.091). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed were predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.137). Social cognitive theory offers a practically useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:17686739

Sharma, Manoj; Wagner, Donald I; Wilkerson, Janice

65

You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

von Stumm, Sophie

2012-01-01

66

Does Mother's IQ Explain the Association between Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a significant association between birth weight and cognitive test scores in childhood, even among individuals born at term and with normal birth weight. The association is not explained by the child's social background. Here we examine whether mother's cognitive ability accounts for the birth weight-cognitive ability association. We…

Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; Shenkin, Susan D.

2005-01-01

67

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-05-16

68

Physical activity and cognitive functioning in aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aging is associated with decline in a multitude of cognitive processes and brain functions. A growing body of literature suggests that decline in cognitive functioning of older adults can be reduced through memory training and physical activity. The purpose of this article was to examine the hypothesis that physical activity enhances cognitive functioning, to summarize the cross-sectional and intervention research

Henning Allmer

2005-01-01

69

Hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions in children with centrotemporal spikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of unilateral epileptic foci in benign idiopathic partial epilepsy of childhood with rolandic discharges (BECT) on performance and hemispheric specialization in lateralized cognitive functions. Six children with BECT with a left-sided focus (BECT-L), 6 children with BECT with a right-sided focus (BECT-R), and 12 control children were tested in verbal, visual–spatial, and visual-attention tasks, with visual

N. Bedoin; V. Herbillon; I. Lamoury; P. Arthaud-Garde; K. Ostrowsky; J. De Bellescize; P. Kéo Kosal; G. Damon; Ch. Rousselle

2006-01-01

70

Reduced activation and inter-regional functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks in adults with childhood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and persisting symptoms during tasks of motor inhibition and cognitive switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with fronto-striatal functional abnormalities during tasks of inhibitory control. In adults with ADHD, however, hardly any functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neurofunctional correlates of the most compromised cognitive functions of motor response inhibition and no study has investigated cognitive flexibility. In this study we used fMRI to

Ana Cubillo; Rozmin Halari; Christine Ecker; Vincent Giampietro; Eric Taylor; Katya Rubia

2010-01-01

71

Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Paula Barrett; Lara Healy-Farrell; John S. March

2004-01-01

72

Long-Term Cognitive and Academic Effects of Early Childhood Education on Children in Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and

W. Steven Barnett

1998-01-01

73

Pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral approaches in the treatment of childhood depression: A review and critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression in childhood is a neglected research area although studies have improved in quality and increased in quantity in recent years. Pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral therapies of depression in prepubertal children have been among those most commonly utilized. A review of research examining these therapies and the etiological models of childhood depression from which they are derived is presented. The efficacy

Martha U. Barnard; Michael A. Rapoff

1995-01-01

74

Early Childhood Development Interventions and Cognitive Development of Young Children in Rural Vietnam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive develop- ment of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The

Koichiro Watanabe; Rafael Flores; Junko Fujiwara; Lien Thi; Huong Tran

75

Reasoning about childhood nutritional deficiencies by mothers in rural India: A cognitive analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines reasoning about the cause and treatment of three types of childhood protein energy malnutrition (PEM) by 108 mothers in rural South India. The mothers were interviewed and their explanations of the childhood nutritional problems were verbally recorded, transcribed and then analyzed using cognitive methods of analysis. The results indicated that knowledge and practices associated with traditional systems

Malathi Sivaramakrishnan; Vimla L. Patel

1993-01-01

76

Childhood trauma and PTSD symptoms increase the risk of cognitive impairment in a sample of former indentured child laborers in old age.  

PubMed

A growing body of evidence suggests a link between early childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and higher risk for dementia in old age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between childhood trauma exposure, PTSD and neurocognitive function in a unique cohort of former indentured Swiss child laborers in their late adulthood. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study ever conducted on former indentured child laborers and the first to investigate the relationship between childhood versus adulthood trauma and cognitive function. According to PTSD symptoms and whether they experienced childhood trauma (CT) or adulthood trauma (AT), participants (n?=?96) were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: CT/PTSD+, CT/PTSD-, AT/PTSD+, AT/PTSD-. Information on cognitive function was assessed using the Structured Interview for Diagnosis of Dementia of Alzheimer Type, Multi-infarct Dementia and Dementia of other Etiology according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a vocabulary test. Depressive symptoms were investigated as a potential mediator for neurocognitive functioning. Individuals screening positively for PTSD symptoms performed worse on all cognitive tasks compared to healthy individuals, independent of whether they reported childhood or adulthood adversity. When controlling for depressive symptoms, the relationship between PTSD symptoms and poor cognitive function became stronger. Overall, results tentatively indicate that PTSD is accompanied by cognitive deficits which appear to be independent of earlier childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that cognitive deficits in old age may be partly a consequence of PTSD or at least be aggravated by it. However, several study limitations need to considered. Consideration of cognitive deficits when treating PTSD patients and victims of lifespan trauma (even without a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition) is crucial. Furthermore, early intervention may prevent long-term deficits in memory function and development of dementia in adulthood. PMID:23469076

Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas; Krammer, Sandy; Simmen-Janevska, Keti

2013-02-26

77

Cognitive side effects of anti-epileptic drugs. The relevance in childhood epilepsy.  

PubMed

In recent years several new anti-epileptic drugs have been introduced, also for the treatment of childhood epilepsy. A major concern is their effect on learning and cognitive development. Testing the genuine effects on cognition of the anti-epileptic drugs is methodologically not easy. At this moment there are very few controlled trials that systematically examine the cognitive side effects of anti-epileptic drugs in childhood epilepsy. The available data indicate that the newer anti-epileptic drugs have a safe cognitive profile when prescribed correctly at the right dose and in monotherapy. Possible negative effects are mainly found for speed of processing and attention processes. As these processes are important instruments in every day learning and cognition, it is necessary to test these newer anti-epileptic drugs in well designed studies and in specific childhood epilepsy syndromes. PMID:16563808

Lagae, Lieven

2006-03-24

78

Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

2008-01-01

79

Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

80

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

81

PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed.

Joan Newman; Amy G. Aucompaugh; Lawrence M. Schell; Melinda Denham; Anthony P. DeCaprio; Mia V. Gallo; Julia Ravenscroft; Chin-Cheng Kao; MaryEllen Rougas Hanover; Dawn David; Agnes M. Jacobs; Alice M. Tarbell; Priscilla Worswick

2006-01-01

82

The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

Stevens, Michael C.

2009-01-01

83

Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

2009-01-01

84

An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

2004-01-01

85

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

86

Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was

Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell

1998-01-01

87

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

88

Stability and change of cognitive attributes in children with uneven\\/delayed cognitive development from preschool through childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5±12.9 month-old) with uneven\\/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7±22.6 months from preschool through early childhood. The objectives were to determine the stability and related

Pinchen Yang; For-Wey Lung; Yuh-Jyh Jong; Hsiu-Yi Hsu; Cheng-Chung Chen

2010-01-01

89

The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Temperament, Parenting, and Negative Life Events in Childhood as Contributors to Negative Cognitive Style  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive

Amy H. Mezulis; Janet Shibley Hyde; Lyn Y. Abramson

2006-01-01

90

Attitudinal Orientations and Cognitive Functioning Among Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relations between attitudes and cognitive functioning in 950 Israeli seventh grade students. In the lowest socioeconomic group, locus of control was the most potent attitude variable while in the higher socioeconomic groups, self-concept and aspirations were most strongly associated with cognitive functioning. (JMB)|

Handel, Amos

1975-01-01

91

The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

Romero-Martinez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Catala-Minana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-01-01

92

Effects of childhood circumcision age on adult male sexual functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of childhood circumcision on male sexual function have been debated. However, there are no studies, to our knowledge, that assess the possible effects of childhood circumcision age on male sexual function. In an attempt to answer this question, we performed a prospective study to determine the possible relationship between circumcision age and male sexual function, using a validated

E Aydur; S Gungor; S T Ceyhan; L Taiimaz; I Baser

2007-01-01

93

Antihypertensive drugs and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in life expectancy is associated with a sharp rise in cognitive disorders, particularly after the age of 80 years.\\u000a The identification and management of risk factors for these invalidating and distressing conditions must be considered a priority.\\u000a Hypertension has been shown to carry an increased risk not only for cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality, but also for\\u000a cognitive impairment

Anne-Sophie Rigaud; M. G. M. Olde-Rikkert; Olivier Hanon; Marie-Laure Seux; Françoise Forette

2002-01-01

94

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

Richard W. Elwood

2001-01-01

95

Physical activity and obesity mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents' academic achievement  

PubMed Central

The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitive function and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (?) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement.

Kantomaa, Marko T.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Kankaanpaa, Anna; Kaakinen, Marika; Rodriguez, Alina; Taanila, Anja; Ahonen, Timo; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Tammelin, Tuija

2013-01-01

96

Overweight Is Associated With Decreased Cognitive Functioning Among School-age Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and

Yanfeng Li; Qi Dai; James C. Jackson; Jian Zhang

2008-01-01

97

Learning disabilities and cognitive functioning in a child psychiatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

In research there has been a great deal of discussion suggesting the comorbidity between childhood psychopathology, childhood learning disabilities and other cognitive impairments. No clear resolution to how these difficulties are interrelated exists. The purpose of the current study was to further understanding of the relationship between these problems in children. ^ This study examined 265 children from a private

Lori A Borelli

2001-01-01

98

Modeling Field Theory of Higher Cognitive Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chapter discusses a mathematical theory of higher cognitive functions, including concepts, emotions, instincts, understanding, imagination and intuition. Mechanisms of the knowledge instinct are proposed, driving our understanding of the world. Aesthetic emotions and perception of beauty are related to \\

Leonid Perlovsky

2007-01-01

99

Nutrition, Brain Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitive function has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate...

H. R. Lieberman

2003-01-01

100

Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according

Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli

2010-01-01

101

Early Childhood Stunting Is Associated with Poor Psychological Functioning in Late Adolescence and Effects Are Reduced by Psychosocial Stimulation1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stunting is associated with deficits in cognition and school achievement from early childhood to late adolescence; how- ever, there has been little investigation of emotional and behavioral outcomes. The objective of this study was to deter- mine whether linear growth retardation (stunting) in early childhood is associated with poorer psychological functioning in late adolescence. The study was a prospective cohort

Susan P. Walker; Susan M. Chang; Christine A. Powell; Emily Simonoff; Sally M. Grantham-McGregor

102

The role of cognitive–behavioral therapy in behavioral childhood insomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behavioral insomnia is a very common problem throughout childhood. It has negative impact on children and their families and can persist for many years if not treated. Interventions based on cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) principles have mainly focused on withdrawing excessive parental bedtime involvement and helping children develop self-soothing strategies for falling asleep and resuming sleep during the night. With young

Liat Tikotzky; Avi Sadeh

2010-01-01

103

Race and gender differences in the cognitive effects of childhood overweight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in the prevalence of overweight children (ages 6–13 years) in the United States over the past two decades is likely to result in adverse public health consequences. We use data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to investigate an additional consequence of childhood overweight – its effect on relative cognitive development. To

Susan L. Averett; David C. Stifel

2010-01-01

104

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

2008-01-01

105

The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

2009-01-01

106

Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

2012-01-01

107

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. A large literature analyzes their effects on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on early childhood cognitive development. Children in households randomly assigned to receive benefits had significantly higher levels

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2012-01-01

108

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. There is a large literature on the effects of these programs on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. Identification is based

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2012-01-01

109

Cash Transfers, Behavioral Changes, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Randomized Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cash transfer programs have become extremely popular in the developing world. There is a large literature on the effects of these programs on schooling, health and nutrition, but relatively little is known about possible impacts on child development. This paper analyzes the impact of a cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. Identification is based

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2011-01-01

110

Cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia. Deficits are moderate to severe across several domains, including attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions. These deficits pre-date the onset of frank psychosis and are stable throughout the course of the illness in most patients. Over the past decade, the focus on these deficits has increased dramatically with the recognition that they are consistently the best predictor of functional outcomes across outcome domains and patient samples. Recent treatment studies, both pharmacological and behavioral, suggest that cognitive deficits are malleable. Other research calls into question the meaningfulness of cognitive change in schizophrenia. In this article, we review cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and focus on their treatment and relationship to functional outcome.

Bowie, Christopher R; Harvey, Philip D

2006-01-01

111

Mood Symptoms, Cognition, and Everyday Functioning  

PubMed Central

People with depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia manifest considerable cognitive deficits and impairments in everyday functional outcomes. The severity of current mood symptoms is associated with the severity of cognitive deficits in people with unipolar and bipolar disorder, but impairments are clearly still present in cases with minimal current mood symptoms. In people with schizophrenia, depression is less strongly associated with cognitive deficits on a cross-sectional basis, and some evidence suggests that depression and cognitive impairments are inversely related. Furthermore, in schizophrenia, mood symptoms seem to affect everyday functioning in a way that is unassociated with the severity of deficits in cognition and functional capacity. In contrast, in bipolar disorder, mood symptoms seem to affect real-world functioning through an adverse effect on the ability to perform critical functional skills. In both mood disorders and schizophrenia, depression appears to impact the motivation to perform potentially reinforcing acts, possibly through the induction of anhedonia. Clearly, depression has a major adverse impact on everyday functioning in all variants of severe mental illness, and improving its recognition (in the case of schizophrenia) and management has the potential to reduce the adverse impact of severe mental illness on everyday functioning. Reducing disability has the potential to have positive impacts in multiple objective and subjective aspects of functioning in severe mental illness.

2011-01-01

112

Childhood Socioeconomic Status Predicts Physical Functioning a Half Century Later  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Socioeconomic status (SES) affects health outcomes at all stages of life. Relating childhood socio- economic environment to midlife functional status provides a life course perspective on childhood factors associated with poor and good health status later in life. Methods. The British 1946 birth cohort was prospectively evaluated with periodic examinations from birth through age 53 years, when physical performance

Jack M. Guralnik; Suzanne Butterworth; Michael E. J. Wadsworth; Diana Kuh

2006-01-01

113

Organization of Cognitive Functions in the Brain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Neuropsychological research on the effects of hemispherectomy-the excision of one of the cerebral hemispheres-in children and adults adds to knowledge about the division of labor between the left cerebral hemisphere, which specializes in language and verbal cognitive functions, and the right hemisphere, which specializes in nonlanguage functions.…

Smith, Aaron

114

White Matter Microstructure and Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

In recent years, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) has been increasingly used to explore the relationship between white matter structure and cognitive function. This technique uses the passive diffusion of water molecules to infer properties of the surrounding tissue. DW-MRI has been extensively employed to investigate how individual differences in behavior are related to variability in white matter microstructure on a range of different cognitive tasks and also to examine the effect experiential learning might have on brain structural connectivity. Using diffusion tensor tractography, large white matter pathways have been traced in vivo and used to explore patterns of white matter projections between different brain regions. Recent findings suggest that diffusion-weighted imaging might even be used to measure functional differences in water diffusion during task performance. This review describes some research highlights in diffusion-weighted imaging and how this technique can be employed to further our understanding of cognitive function.

Anderson, Elaine J.; Husain, Masud

2013-01-01

115

Early warning signs of functional illiteracy: predictors in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence determinants of functional literacy in adulthood are investigated, using 20-year longitudinal data from a sample of black children of teenaged mothers from the Baltimore metropolitan area. Document literacy was assessed by a test that consisted of a subset of items of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) adult literacy test. The Baltimore sample is compared to the NAEP sample. Family environmental factors, early childhood developmental level, and educational career factors were considered as predictors of young adulthood literacy. Preschool cognitive and behavioral functioning is highly predictive of literacy in young adulthood, even when the effects of family environmental characteristics, including living arrangements, the quality of the home environment, maternal education, and income, are controlled. Grade failure in elementary school is also associated with literacy, but this effect disappears when the measure of preschool abilities is controlled. Family environmental factors that are predictive of literacy include maternal education, family size in early childhood, maternal marital status, and income in middle childhood and early adolescence. Policy implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:8339697

Baydar, N; Brooks-Gunn, J; Furstenberg, F F

1993-06-01

116

Cognitive assessment of function knowledge  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two theories of assessing function knowledge were compared for intuitive physics. The choice assessment theory, derived from Piaget, presents subjects with two physical situations, each specified by the values of two physical variables; subjects choose the situation which will yield the greater value of a dependent variable. Functional measurement presents subjects with a single physical situation; subjects make a quantitative estimate of the dependent variable. Forty subjects made both choice and functional measurement responses for two situations of intuitive physics. The choice theory showed substantial frequencies of stepwise rules, implying that subjects failed to integrate the two given physical variables. Functional measurement, in contrast, showed that most subjects integrated the two variables, following exact addition or multiplication rules. It is concluded that functional measurement gives a more correct assessment of function knowledge and should be useful in science instruction.

Karpp, Edward; Anderson, Norman

2005-11-04

117

The origins of cognitive vulnerability in early childhood: mechanisms linking early attachment to later depression.  

PubMed

This paper examines the theory and research linking attachment relationships to cognitive vulnerability to depression and assesses evidence that early attachment experiences contribute to the development of these cognitive processes. Most research in this area has involved adult participants using self-report measures of both attachment and depressive vulnerabilities and thus cannot convincingly speak to the existence of such a developmental pathway. Several studies, however, have followed individuals from infancy and examined the emergence of self-esteem and responses to failure throughout childhood and adolescence. These studies suggest that early experiences in non-secure attachment relationships place an individual at-risk for developing a cognitive framework that increases their vulnerability to depression following stressful life events. The paper concludes with a discussion of how future research might best explore specific mechanisms through which distinct attachment relationships may lead to divergent developmental pathways sharing the common outcome of cognitive processes that place individuals at risk for depression. PMID:21820386

Morley, Tara E; Moran, Greg

2011-06-22

118

A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial of a Cognitive Remediation Program for Childhood Survivors of a Pediatric Malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survivors of childhood cancer whose malignancy and\\/or treatment involved the central nervous system may demonstrate a consistent pattern of neurocognitive deficits. The present study evaluated a randomized clinical trial of the Cognitive Remediation Program (CRP). Participants were 6- to 17-year-old survivors of childhood cancer (N = 161; 35% female, 18% Hispanic, 10% African American, 64% Caucasian, 8% other) who were

Robert W. Butler; Donna R. Copeland; Diane L. Fairclough; Raymond K. Mulhern; Ernest R. Katz; Anne E. Kazak; Robert B. Noll; Sunita K. Patel; Olle Jane Z. Sahler

2008-01-01

119

A Multicenter, Randomized Clinical Trial of a Cognitive Remediation Program for Childhood Survivors of a Pediatric Malignancy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Survivors of childhood cancer whose malignancy and/or treatment involved the central nervous system may demonstrate a consistent pattern of neurocognitive deficits. The present study evaluated a randomized clinical trial of the Cognitive Remediation Program (CRP). Participants were 6- to 17-year-old survivors of childhood cancer (N = 161; 35%…

Butler, Robert W.; Copeland, Donna R.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Katz, Ernest R.; Kazak, Anne E.; Noll, Robert B.; Patel, Sunita K.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.

2008-01-01

120

The Association Between Childhood Trauma and Memory Functioning in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Objective: Both neurocognitive impairments and a history of childhood abuse are highly prevalent in patients with schizophrenia. Childhood trauma has been associated with memory impairment as well as hippocampal volume reduction in adult survivors. The aim of the following study was to examine the contribution of childhood adversity to verbal memory functioning in people with schizophrenia. Methods: Eighty-five outpatients with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) diagnosis of chronic schizophrenia were separated into 2 groups on the basis of self-reports of childhood trauma. Performance on measures of episodic narrative memory, list learning, and working memory was then compared using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: Thirty-eight (45%) participants reported moderate to severe levels of childhood adversity, while 47 (55%) reported no or low levels of childhood adversity. After controlling for premorbid IQ and current depressive symptoms, the childhood trauma group had significantly poorer working memory and episodic narrative memory. However, list learning was similar between groups. Conclusion: Childhood trauma is an important variable that can contribute to specific ongoing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

Shannon, Ciaran; Douse, Kate; McCusker, Chris; Feeney, Lorraine; Barrett, Suzanne; Mulholland, Ciaran

2011-01-01

121

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and ado- lescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake in- hibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis

John T. Walkup; Anne Marie Albano; John Piacentini; Boris Birmaher; Scott N. Compton; Joel T. Sherrill; Golda S. Ginsburg; Moira A. Rynn; James McCracken; Bruce Waslick; Satish Iyengar; John S. March; Philip C. Kendall

2008-01-01

122

Some Issues About Cognitive Modelling and Functionalism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this paper is to introduce some methodological issues about cognitive explanatory power of AI systems. We use the\\u000a new concept of mesoscopic functionalism which is based on links between computational complexity theory and functionalism. This functionalism tries to introduce\\u000a an unique intermediate, mesoscopic, descriptive level based on the key role of heuristics. The enforcement of constraints at

Francesco Gagliardi

2007-01-01

123

Deficits in cognitive function and achievement in Mexican first-graders with low blood lead concentrations.  

PubMed

Elevated blood lead levels in children are associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive functioning. Recent studies have reported inverse relations between lifetime exposure and intellectual functioning at blood lead concentrations below 10 microg/dL, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) level of concern. We report associations between blood lead and cognitive performance for first-grade Mexican children living near a metal foundry. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined the relation between children's concurrent blood lead concentrations (mean (SD) 11.4 microg/dL (6.1)) and their performance on 14 tests of global or specific cognitive functions. The blood lead-cognition relations were modeled using both linear and nonlinear methods. After adjustment for covariates, a higher blood lead level was associated with poorer cognitive performance on several cognitive tests. Segmented linear regressions revealed significant effects of lead but only for the segments defined by a concurrent blood lead concentration below 10-14 microg/dL. One implication of these findings is that at the age of 7 years, even in the absence of information on lead exposure in infancy and early childhood, a test result with blood lead < 10 microg/dL should not be considered safe. Together with other recent findings, these results add to the empirical base of support available for evaluating the adequacy of current screening guidelines and for motivating efforts at primary prevention of childhood lead exposure. PMID:16169549

Kordas, Katarzyna; Canfield, Richard L; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge L; Vargas, Gonzalo García; Cebrián, Mariano E; Rico, Javier Alatorre; Ronquillo, Dolores; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

2005-09-19

124

[Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].  

PubMed

The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2013-05-01

125

Self-esteem and cognitive development in the era of the childhood obesity epidemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized

F. Wang; P. J. Veugelers

2008-01-01

126

Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which early childhood programs produce long-term benefits in chil- dren's cognitive development, socialization, and school success is a matter of some controversy. This article reviews 36 studies of both model demonstration projects and large-scale public programs to examine the long-term effects of these programs on children from low-income families. The review carefully considers issues related to research

W. Steven Barnett

1995-01-01

127

Childhood Maltreatment and Psychopathology: Prospective Tests of Attachment, Cognitive Vulnerability, and Stress as Mediating Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A childhood history of maltreatment is a distal risk factor for depression, although less research has examined the proximal\\u000a mechanisms for this relation. To address this question, three theoretically derived mechanisms were tested as mediators: an\\u000a insecure attachment style, a negative cognitive style, and negative life events. These mediating processes were examined in\\u000a two prospective studies. In the first, young

Benjamin L. Hankin

2005-01-01

128

Maturation of Cognitive Processes From Late Childhood to Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize cognitive maturation through adolescence, processing speed, voluntary response suppression, and spatial working memory were measured in 8- to 30-year-old (N 5245) healthy participants using oculo- motor tasks. Development progressed with a steep initial improvement in performance followed by stabilization in adolescence. Adult-level mature performance began at approximately 15, 14, and 19 years of age for processing speed, response

Beatriz Luna; Krista E. Garver; Nicole A. Lazar; John A. Sweeney

2004-01-01

129

Long-term cognitive and academic effects of early childhood education on children in poverty.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and academic success as measured by grade repetition, special education placement, and high school graduation. Early childhood education is found to produce persistent effects on achievement and academic success, but not on IQ (with some exceptions). Head Start and public school programs produce the same types of effects as better funded model programs, but at least some of the effects are smaller. Cost-benefit analysis based on one randomized trial finds that the economic return from providing early education to children in poverty far exceeds the costs. Head Start, public school preschool education, and education in high-quality child care programs all offer avenues for government investment to improve the long-term cognitive development and academic success of children in poverty. PMID:9578996

Barnett, W S

130

Cognitive underpinnings of recovered memories of childhood abuse.  

PubMed

Recent research on recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse has shown that there are at least two types of recovered memory experiences: those that are gradually recovered within the context of suggestive therapy and those that are spontaneously recovered, without extensive prompting or explicit attempts to reconstruct the past. These recovered memory experiences have different origins, with people who recover memories through suggestive therapy being more prone to forming false memories, and with people who report spontaneously recovered memories being more prone to forgetting prior instances of remembering. Additionally, the two types of recovered memory experiences are linked to differences in corroborative evidence, implying that memories recovered spontaneously, outside of suggestive therapy, are more likely to correspond to genuine abuse events. This chapter highlights the background of the recovered memory debate, summarizes recent studies with individuals reporting recovered memory experiences and points towards applications in the justice system and in clinical practice. PMID:22303767

Geraerts, Elke

2012-01-01

131

PCBs and cognitive functioning of Mohawk adolescents.  

PubMed

This paper reports on the relationships between the cognitive functioning and PCB current body burdens of adolescents in the Mohawk Nation of Akwesasne where there is concern about industrial pollution of the environment. Three cognitive tests (Woodcock Johnson-Revised, Test of Memory and Learning, and Ravens Progressive Matrices) provide 13 subtests that allow a variety of cognitive outcomes to be assessed. A summary measure of PCB level was created from the congeners detected in at least 50% of the participants. The most notable finding was the significant negative relationship between PCB levels and two separate measures of long term memory. There was also a negative relationship with a measure of comprehension and knowledge. Significant relationships were not large, but provide evidence of subtle negative effects of PCB exposure. PMID:16809019

Newman, Joan; Aucompaugh, Amy G; Schell, Lawrence M; Denham, Melinda; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Gallo, Mia V; Ravenscroft, Julia; Kao, Chin-Cheng; Hanover, MaryEllen Rougas; David, Dawn; Jacobs, Agnes M; Tarbell, Alice M; Worswick, Priscilla

2006-06-30

132

Chronic stress, cognitive functioning and mental health.  

PubMed

This review aims to discuss the evidence supporting the link between chronic stress, cognitive function and mental health. Over the years, the associations between these concepts have been investigated in different populations. This review summarizes the findings that have emerged from older populations as well as from populations suffering from pathological aging, namely Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease. Although older adults are an interesting population to study in terms of chronic stress, other stress-related diseases can occur throughout the lifespan. The second section covers some of these stress-related diseases that have recently received a great deal of attention, namely burnout, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Given that chronic stress contributes to the development of certain pathologies by accelerating and/or exacerbating pre-existing vulnerabilities that vary from one individual to the other, the final section summarizes data obtained on potential variables contributing to the association between chronic stress and cognition. PMID:21376129

Marin, Marie-France; Lord, Catherine; Andrews, Julie; Juster, Robert-Paul; Sindi, Shireen; Arsenault-Lapierre, Geneviève; Fiocco, Alexandra J; Lupien, Sonia J

2011-03-02

133

Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

1989-01-01

134

Mental exercises for cognitive function: clinical evidence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645

Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-30

135

The Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines relations between the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities and reading achievement during childhood and adolescence. Operational measures of CHC cognitive abilities obtained from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) were found to be significantly related to the components of reading achievement. Results provide valuable…

Evans, Jeffrey J.; Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Leforgee, Maria H.

2002-01-01

136

Prospective Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge and Teacher Self-Efficacy: Exploring Domain-Specific Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored South Korean prospective early childhood educators' situation-specific meta-cognitive knowledge about five problem-solving strategies, investigating whether situated strategic knowledge contributed to teacher self-efficacy domains. Overall, pre-service teachers with higher meta-cognitive knowledge were found to have…

Kim, Yeon Ha

2011-01-01

137

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

138

An experimental analysis of dynamic hypotheses about cognitive abilities and achievement from childhood to early adulthood.  

PubMed

This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672). Contrary to Cattell's hypothesis, a first set of findings indicated that fluid and crystallized abilities, as defined by the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised (WJ-R; R. W. Woodcock & M. B. Johnson, 1989-1990), were not dynamically coupled with each other over time. A second set of findings provided support for the original predictions and indicated that fluid ability was a leading indicator of changes in achievement measures (i.e., quantitative ability and general academic knowledge). The findings of this study suggest that the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement follow a more complex pattern than that specified by Cattell's investment hypothesis. PMID:15535749

Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J

2004-11-01

139

Cognitive Functioning in the Schizophrenia Prodrome  

PubMed Central

In the last decade, there has been an increasing interest in cognitive alterations during the early course of schizophrenia. From a clinical perspective, a better understanding of cognitive functioning in putative at-risk states for schizophrenia is essential for developing optimal early intervention models. Two approaches have more recently been combined to assess the entire course of the initial schizophrenia prodrome: the predictive “basic symptom at-risk” (BS) and the ultra high-risk (UHR) criteria. Basic symptoms are considered to be present during the entire disease progression, including the initial prodrome, while the onset of symptoms captured by the UHR criteria expresses further disease progression toward frank psychosis. The present study investigated the cognitive functioning in 93 subjects who met either BS or UHR criteria and thus were assumed to be at different points on the putative trajectory to psychosis. We compared them with 43 patients with a first episode of psychosis and to 49 help-seeking patient controls. All groups performed significantly below normative values. Both at-risk groups performed at intermediate levels between the first-episode (FE) group and normative values. The UHR group demonstrated intermediate performance between the FE and BS groups. Overall, auditory working memory, verbal fluency/processing speed, and declarative verbal memory were impaired the most. Our results suggest that cognitive impairments may still be modest in the early stages of the initial schizophrenia prodrome and thus support current efforts to intervene in the early course of impending schizophrenia because early intervention may prevent or delay the onset of frank psychosis and thus prevent further cognitive damage.

Simon, Andor E.; Cattapan-Ludewig, Katja; Zmilacher, Solange; Arbach, Dima; Gruber, Kerstin; Dvorsky, Diane N.; Roth, Binia; Isler, Emanuel; Zimmer, Alexander; Umbricht, Daniel

2007-01-01

140

Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: From Etiology to Maladaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the extant literature on functional abdominal pain in childhood through the lens of the developmental psychopathology perspective and to systematize research results by means of a two-stage pathway model in which the emergence of functional abdominal pain and its potential transition into a somatoform adjustment disorder is outlined. Methods: Using electronic searches for published studies and previous

Ilva Elena Schulte; Franz Petermann; Meinolf Noeker

2010-01-01

141

Cognitive functioning in recent onset psychosis.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the cognitive functioning of persons with a recent onset of psychosis with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder and nonpsychiatric controls. A total of 56 persons with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder and 60 with bipolar disorder, all with a recent onset psychosis, and 312 nonpsychiatric controls were evaluated using the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Comparison of the three groups through analysis of covariance indicated a significant difference among the groups for all of the cognitive variables. Pairwise contrasts of the two recent onset groups showed a significant difference favoring the bipolar disorder group on RBANS Language (p = 0.020) and Total (p = 0.050) and a marginally significant difference on RBANS Immediate Memory (p = 0.053) but not on the other RBANS variables or on the WCST. Cognitive performance is broadly impaired in recent onset psychosis, with a cognitive advantage to bipolar disorder patients compared with schizophrenia-spectrum patients. PMID:21629013

Dickerson, Faith; Stallings, Cassie; Vaughan, Crystal; Origoni, Andrea; Khushalani, Sunil; Dickinson, Dwight; Medoff, Deborah

2011-06-01

142

Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing

Jenna R. Rinsky; Stephen P. Hinshaw

2011-01-01

143

Neuropsychological weaknesses in adult ADHD; cognitive functions as core deficit and roles of them in persistence to adulthood.  

PubMed

Prior investigations have shown that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have impaired neuropsychological functions. This study had two aims, first to investigate weakened cognitive functions in adult ADHD (aADHD), and second, to investigate difference between persisters (those having persistently ongoing ADHD diagnosis in adulthood), and remitters (those having ADHD diagnosis only in childhood and not in adulthood), in terms of cognitive deficits. We evaluated performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery in three groups including 34 persisters, 35 remitters, and 35 healthy control group (absence of childhood and adulthood ADHD diagnosis). Our findings showed that adults with ADHD have inefficient attention, interference control and set-shifting functions, which may be revealed on neuropsychological tests that require greater cognitive demand. Given the finding that interference control deficit exists across the lifespan in people with ADHD, we suggest that interference control-associated functional weakness may be a core deficit for ADHD. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-8). PMID:22687463

Pazvanto?lu, Ozan; Aker, Arzu Alptekin; Karabekiro?lu, Koray; Akba?, Seher; Sar?soy, Gökhan; Baykal, Saliha; Korkmaz, I??l Zabun; Pazvanto?lu, Emel Alkan; Böke, Omer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat

2012-06-12

144

Childhood Cognition and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Midadulthood: The 1958 British Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We sought to establish whether associations between childhood cognition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood are explained by common causes, or adult social position or health behavior. Methods. We analyzed associations between cognition at age 11 and cardiovascular disease risk factors at age 45 in the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 9377), with and without adjustment for covariates. Results. General ability was inversely associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides (in women), body mass index, and waist circumference. Systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.47 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] = ?0.90, –0.05) for a 1-standard-deviation increase in ability. Separate adjustment for social class at birth, education level by adulthood, adult social class, and health behaviors reduced the associations respectively by 14% to 34%, 36% to 50%, 14% to 36%, and 24% to 73%. Full adjustment reduced associations between ability and risk factors at age 45 years by 43% to 92%, abolishing all associations. Conclusions. Increments across the distribution of childhood cognition are associated with improvements in cardiovascular risk profile in midlife, with associations primarily mediated through adult health behavior and social destinations.

Jefferis, Barbara J. M. H.; Manor, Orly

2010-01-01

145

Extended Household Transitions, Race/Ethnicity, and Early Childhood Cognitive Outcomes*  

PubMed Central

Beyond mothers’ union status transitions, other adults’ transitions into and out of the household contribute to family instability, particularly in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N?8,550), this study examines associations between extended household transitions and age 2 cognitive development. A substantial minority of toddlers experiences these transitions, and their consequences vary by household member type, entry versus exit, and race/ethnicity. Extended household transitions predict lower cognitive scores for white children, but the selection of low-socioeconomic status families into extended households explains these disparities. Grandparent transitions predict significantly higher cognitive scores for African American and Latino children than whites, and some “other adult” transitions predict higher scores for Latinos than African Americans and whites. Extended household transitions’ consequences are independent of co-occurring residential moves and partner transitions. Findings suggest that studying extended household transitions is useful for understanding children’s early development, and their consequences vary by race/ethnicity.

Mollborn, Stefanie; Fomby, Paula; Dennis, Jeff A.

2012-01-01

146

Cognitive Adaptation Training: Establishing Environmental Supports to Bypass Cognitive Deficits and Improve Functional Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use

NATALIE J. MAPLES; DAWN I. VELLIGAN

2008-01-01

147

Cognitive correlates of psychosocial outcome following traumatic brain injury in early childhood: comparisons between groups of children aged under and over 10 years of age.  

PubMed

Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore potential cognitive and socioemotional effects following childhood TBI, before and after the age of 10 years. We also wanted to identify cognitive correlates of psychosocial dysfunction. Measures of cognitive function and socioemotional disturbance administered to 14 children with TBI aged 8-10 years, and 14 children with TBI aged 10-16 years, were compared to control data from 22 non-injured 8- to 10 year-olds and 67 non-injured 10- to 16-year-olds. Results indicated that only the older group of children with TBI were impaired in tests of EF, but significant socioemotional difficulties were commonly evident in both groups. Processing speed (as well as EF) was found to correlate with socioemotional disturbance. We conclude that poor processing speed may also index the risk of socioemotional difficulties, but our general findings indicate that cognitive functions relevant to socioemotional functioning are not readily testable in younger children and are not strongly associated with such outcomes as they may be in adults. PMID:21571762

Tonks, James; Williams, W Huw; Yates, Phil; Slater, Alan

2011-04-01

148

Altered Microstructure Within Social-Cognitive Brain Networks During Childhood in Williams Syndrome.  

PubMed

Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion of ?26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a distinctive pattern of social cognition. Accordingly, neuroimaging studies show that WS is associated with structural alterations of key brain regions involved in social cognition during adulthood. However, very little is currently known regarding the neuroanatomical structure of social cognitive brain networks during childhood in WS. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the structural integrity of a specific set of white matter pathways (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF] and uncinate fasciculus [UF]) and associated brain regions [fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOG)] known to be involved in social cognition in children with WS and a typically developing (TD) control group. Children with WS exhibited higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity values and lower radial diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within the IFOF and UF, higher FA values within the FG, amygdala, and hippocampus and lower ADC values within the FG and MOG compared to controls. These findings provide evidence that the WS genetic deletion affects the development of key white matter pathways and brain regions important for social cognition. PMID:23709644

Haas, Brian W; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Sheau, Kristen E; Yamagata, Bun; Ullas, Shruti; Reiss, Allan L

2013-05-24

149

Cognitive Function and Dialysis Adequacy: No Clear Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Cognitive impairment is common in hemodialysis patients and may be impacted by multiple patient and treatment characteristics. The impact of dialysis dose on cognitive function remains uncertain, particularly in the current era of increased dialysis dose and flux. Methods: We explored the cross-sectional relationship between dialysis adequacy and cognitive function in a cohort of maintenance hemodialysis patients. Adequacy was

Lena M. Giang; Daniel E. Weiner; Brian T. Agganis; Tammy Scott; Eric P. Sorensen; Hocine Tighiouart; Mark J. Sarnak

2011-01-01

150

Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Testosterone levels decline as men age, as does cognitive function. Whether there is more than a temporal relationship between testosterone and cognitive function is unclear. Chemical castration studies in men with prostate cancer suggest that low serum testosterone may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. Low testosterone levels have also been observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild

Olivier Beauchet

2006-01-01

151

How older people nurses assess cognitive function through daily observation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To obtain knowledge and insight into how older people nurses observe the cognitive function of their patients. BACKGROUND: In cases of cognitive decline not due to delirium, the daily observation of cognitive function by nurses has not been standardised in hospital wards specialised in the care of older people. DESIGN: A qualitative study with purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews.

A. Persoon; M. Van der Cruijsen; N. Schlattmann; F. Simmes; T. van Achterberg

2011-01-01

152

The Relationship Between Specific Cognitive Functions and Falls in Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined the relationship between cognitive function and falls in older people who did not meet criteria for dementia or mild cognitive impairment (N = 172). To address limitations of previous research, the authors controlled for the confounding effects of gait measures and other risk factors by means of associations between cognitive function and falls. A neuropsychological test

Roee Holtzer; Rachel Friedman; Richard B. Lipton; Mindy Katz; Xiaonan Xue; Joe Verghese

2007-01-01

153

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed Central

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans.

Penland, J G

1994-01-01

154

Micronutrient status, cognition and behavioral problems in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely accepted that the rapid rate of growth of the brain during the last third of gestation and the early postnatal\\u000a stage makes it vulnerable to an inadequate diet, although brain development continues into adulthood and micronutrient status\\u000a can influence functioning beyond infancy. A deficiency of various micro-nutrients in developing countries has been found to\\u000a have long-term implication

David Benton

2008-01-01

155

The Relationship between Height and Cognitive Function among Community-dwelling Elderly: Hallym Aging Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Height is known as an index that reflects the environment of the fetal, childhood, and adolescent periods, which affect adult health. This study was conducted to elucidate whether height is associated with cognitive impairment in community-dwelling elders in Korea. METHODS The study subjects were recruited among community dwelling elderly individuals aged 65 or over who participated in the 2004 Hallym Aging Study. They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Cognitive function measurement was performed using the Korean-Mini Mental State Examination. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between height and cognitive function. RESULTS After adjusting for potential covariates such as age and education, the smallest group was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment compared with the tallest group among elderly men (odds ratio [OR], 4.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-17.36), but not among elderly women (OR,1.65; 95% CI, 0.62-4.40). CONCLUSIONS The reason for this difference according to sex may be explained by the differential effects of education on cognitive function by sex. A larger population-based prospective cohort study is needed to examine the association between height and cognitive function according to sex.

Quan, Shan Ai; Jeong, Jin-Young

2013-01-01

156

Impaired cognition and schooling in adults with end stage renal disease since childhood  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine cognitive and educational attainment in adults with end stage renal disease (ESRD) since childhood. Methods: All Dutch patients with onset of ESRD at age 0–14 years between 1972 and 1992, who were born before 1979, were asked to perform the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Educational attainment was assessed by a questionnaire. Determinants of cognitive performance were measured by reviewing medical charts in 37 hospitals. Data on cognition were compared to those of age matched controls who cooperated in the revision of the Dutch WAIS. National Dutch Statistics data were used to compare educational attainment. Results: Data on intelligence and schooling were acquired in 126 of 187 patients (67%) and data on determinants of outcome in all patients. Clinical characteristics of participants and non-participants were comparable. Educational attainment of patients was low compared to the Dutch standard. Patient mean full scale IQ, performal IQ, and verbal IQ were 10.4, 9.2, and 9.7 points lower, respectively, compared to those of 36 controls. The lowest scores were observed in tasks which require concentration, memory, and general knowledge. Patients currently on dialysis and transplanted patients had similar IQ scores. Cumulative dialysis duration of more than four years was associated with a 3.4 times higher chance of having a full scale IQ of 1 SD below the mean. Conclusion: ESRD of childhood is associated with an impaired cognitive and educational attainment in adulthood. Long duration of dialysis may enhance intellectual impairment, which may not be reversible after renal transplantation.

Groothoff, J; Grootenhuis, M; Dommerholt, A; Gruppen, M; Offringa, M; Heymans, H

2002-01-01

157

Executive Function, Coping, and Behavior in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia*  

PubMed Central

Objective?To examine the role of executive function in coping and behavioral outcomes in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) survivors.?Methods?We examined associations among several domains of executive function (working memory, behavioral inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and self-monitoring), coping, and emotional/behavioral problems in 30 children and adolescents ages 10- to 20-years old who completed treatment for ALL and 30 healthy controls matched on age and sex.?Results?We found partial support for our hypothesis that performance on executive function measures is associated with strategies used to cope with stress, and emotional and behavioral problems in ALL survivors.?Conclusions?Findings suggest that executive function impairment may be associated with difficulties in coping and emotion regulation in a subgroup of children treated for ALL. Directions for future research on executive function deficits and coping skills in survivors of pediatric ALL are suggested.

Scaduto, Mary; Van Slyke, Deborah; Niarhos, Frances; Whitlock, James A.

2009-01-01

158

Predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors using social cognitive theory: children in China.  

PubMed

Four commonly suggested public health strategies to combat childhood obesity are limiting television viewing, encouraging daily physical activity, increasing fruit and vegetable intake, and increasing water consumption. This study examined the extent to which selected social cognitive theory constructs can predict these four behaviors in upper elementary Chinese children. A 55-item valid and reliable scale was administered to 282 fifth-graders. Minutes of physical activity was predicted by self-efficacy to exercise and number of times taught at school (R2 = 0.198). Hours of TV watching was predicted by self-efficacy of watching less than two hours of TV (R2 = 0.155). Glasses of water consumed was predicted by self-efficacy for drinking water, gender, and number of times taught about physical activity at school (R2 = 0.100). Servings of fruits and vegetables consumed was predicted by self-efficacy of eating fruits and vegetables (R2 = 0.197). Social cognitive theory offers a useful framework for designing primary prevention interventions to reduce childhood obesity. PMID:17686715

Murnan, Judy; Sharma, Manoj; Lin, Danhua

159

Prospective early childhood educators’ meta-cognitive knowledge and teacher self-efficacy: exploring domain-specific associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored South Korean prospective early childhood educators’ situation-specific meta-cognitive knowledge about five problem-solving strategies, investigating whether situated strategic knowledge contributed to teacher self-efficacy domains. Overall, pre-service teachers with higher meta-cognitive knowledge were found to have higher teacher self-efficacy, but the strength of correlations differed according to types of strategies (free production, analogy, step-by-step analysis, visualisation and combining)

Yeon Ha Kim

2011-01-01

160

Executive Cognitive Function and Heavy Drinking Behavior Among College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Executive cognitive functions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty

Arthur W. Blume; G. Alan Marlatt; Karen B. Schmaling

2000-01-01

161

Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict…

Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

162

Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

2013-01-01

163

Variation in cognitive functioning as a refined approach to comparing aging across countries  

PubMed Central

Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitive functioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries’ industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitive functioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come.

Skirbekk, Vegard; Loichinger, Elke; Weber, Daniela

2012-01-01

164

Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would…

McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

2005-01-01

165

Childhood Familial Environment, Maltreatment and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in a Non-Clinical Sample: A Cognitive Behavioural Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study sought to determine if cognitive beliefs and schemas mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood events and adult borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring BPD symptoms, core beliefs,…

Carr, Steven; Francis, Andrew

2009-01-01

166

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…

Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

2004-01-01

167

Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

2007-01-01

168

Genetics of brain function and cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is overwhelming evidence for the existence of substantial genetic influences on individ- ual differences in general and specific cognitive abilities, especially in adults. The actual local- ization and identification of genes underlying variation in cognitive abilities and intelligence has only just started, however. Successes are currently limited to neurological mutations with rather severe cognitive effects. The current approaches to

Geus de E. J. C; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Dorret I. Boomsma

2001-01-01

169

Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

2010-01-01

170

The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood  

PubMed Central

Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The heritability of general cognitive ability increases significantly and linearly from 41% in childhood (9 years) to 55% in adolescence (12 years) and to 66% in young adulthood (17 years) in a sample of 11 000 pairs of twins from four countries, a larger sample than all previous studies combined. In addition to its far-reaching implications for neuroscience and molecular genetics, this finding suggests new ways of thinking about the interface between nature and nurture during the school years. Why, despite life’s ‘slings and arrows of outrageous fortune’, do genetically driven differences increasingly account for differences in general cognitive ability? We suggest that the answer lies with genotype–environment correlation: as children grow up, they increasingly select, modify and even create their own experiences in part based on their genetic propensities.

Haworth, CMA; Wright, MJ; Luciano, M; Martin, NG; de Geus, EJC; van Beijsterveldt, CEM; Bartels, M; Posthuma, D; Boomsma, DI; Davis, OSP; Kovas, Y; Corley, RP; DeFries, JC; Hewitt, JK; Olson, RK; Rhea, S-A; Wadsworth, SJ; Iacono, WG; McGue, M; Thompson, LA; Hart, SA; Petrill, SA; Lubinski, D; Plomin, R

2009-01-01

171

Functional Connectivity Variations in Mild Cognitive Impairment: Associations with Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have a higher likelihood of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to those without MCI, and functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI) used with MCI participants may prove to be an important tool in identifying early biomarkers for AD. We tested the hypothesis that functional connectivity differences exist between older adults with and without MCI using resting-state fMRI. Data were collected on over 200 participants of the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based, clinical-pathological cohort study of aging. From the cohort, 40 participants were identified as having MCI, and were compared to 40 demographically matched participants without cognitive impairment. MCI participants showed lesser functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and right and left orbital frontal, right middle frontal, left putamen, right caudate, left superior temporal, and right posterior cingulate regions; and greater connectivity with right inferior frontal, left fusiform, left rectal, and left precentral regions. Furthermore, in an alternate sample of 113, connectivity values in regions of difference correlated with episodic memory and processing speed. Results suggest functional connectivity values in regions of difference are associated with cognitive function and may reflect the presence of AD pathology and increased risk of developing clinical AD.

Han, S. Duke; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; Fleischman, Debra A.; Leurgans, Sue E.; Tuminello, Elizabeth R.; Edmonds, Emily C.; Bennett, David A.

2012-01-01

172

No association of CETP genotype with cognitive function or age-related cognitive change  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) genotype (V\\/V homozygosity for I405V, NCBI dbSNP rs5882) has been associated with preservation of cognitive function in old age, in addition to its associations with exceptional longevity and cardiovascular disease. We tested the hypotheses that this polymorphism was associated with either level of cognitive function or lifetime cognitive change in 525 participants who took

Wendy Johnson; Sarah E. Harris; Patrick Collins; John M. Starr; Lawrence J. Whalley; Ian J. Deary

2007-01-01

173

Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted…

Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

174

Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Background Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000 rural elderly Chinese persons. Six cognitive assessment tests were used to evaluate cognitive function in this population, and a composite score was created to represent global cognitive function. Trace element levels of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc were analyzed in plasma samples of 188 individuals who were randomly selected and consented to donating fasting blood. Analysis of covariance models were used to assess the association between each trace element and the composite cognitive score adjusting for demographics, medical history of chronic diseases, and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Three trace elements—calcium, cadmium, and copper—were found to be significantly related to the composite cognitive score. Increasing plasma calcium level was associated with higher cognitive score (p < .0001). Increasing cadmium and copper, in contrast, were significantly associated with lower composite score (p = .0044 and p = .0121, respectively). Other trace elements did not show significant association with the composite cognitive score. Conclusions Our results suggest that calcium, cadmium, and copper may be associated with cognitive function in the elderly population.

Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ma, Feng; Hall, Kathleen S.; Murrell, Jill R.; Cheng, Yibin; Shen, Jianzhao; Ying, Bo; Ji, Rongdi; Matesan, Janetta; Liang, Chaoke; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2009-01-01

175

Childhood Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Child\\/Adolescent  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rome II pediatric criteria for functional gastrointes- tinal disorders (FGIDs) were defined in 1999 to be used as diagnostic tools and to advance empirical research. In this document, the Rome III Committee aimed to update and revise the pediatric criteria. The decision- making process to define Rome III criteria for children aged 4 -18 years consisted of arriving at

ANDRÉE RASQUIN; CARLO DI LORENZO; DAVID FORBES; ERNESTO GUIRALDES; JEFFREY S. HYAMS; ANNAMARIA STAIANO; LYNN S. WALKER

176

Everyday functioning in mild cognitive impairment and its relationship with executive cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of dementia and functional impairments. The present study investigated the contribution of three domains of executive cognition to everyday functioning among persons with MCI. Methods 124 MCI patients and 68 cognitively normal elderly participants were administered a cognitive screening battery. These tests were used to divide patients into four subgroups (amnestic single domain, amnestic multiple domain, non-amnestic single domain, and non-amnestic multiple domain). Subjects were then administered 18 executive function tests that assess planning/problem-solving, working memory, and judgment. Performance of everyday activities and everyday cognition was rated with two informant-reported measures. Results All MCI subtypes had more difficulties in everyday activities than cognitively normal elderly participants. Multiple domain MCI patients had more functional impairments than single domain MCI patients. Contrary to our expectations, only one executive function component, working memory, contributed significantly to functional status after controlling for demographic, health-related and other cognitive factors. Conclusions Functional abilities are compromised in all MCI subtypes. Working memory may be associated with functional impairments, but general cognitive measures account for more unique variance.

Aretouli, Eleni; Brandt, Jason

2010-01-01

177

Cognitive functioning after subthalamic nucleotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate whether subthalamic nucleotomy produces adverse cognitive effects in patients with Parkinson's disease.?METHOD—Twelve patients with Parkinson's disease underwent stereotactic surgery to the subthalamic nucleus. Presurgical and postsurgical neuropsychological assessment of attention, memory, executive function, language, and verbal intellect were undertaken with a battery of tests designed to minimise potential contamination of cognitive effects by motor symptoms.?RESULTS—There was no statistically significant difference in the cognitive tests results after operation for the group as a whole. Reliable change indexes were generated for the cognitive tests. Reliable change postoperatively was found on specific tests of verbal memory, attention, and planning. Left sided operations were associated with greater incidence of deterioration postsurgery.?CONCLUSIONS—Preliminary data on the first reported cognitive changes after subthalamic nucleotomy suggested few adverse cognitive effects of the surgery although discrete neuropsychological changes were seen in some patients. These effects were consistent with current theories on the cognitive functions of the basal ganglia.??

McCarter, R.; Walton, N.; Rowan, A.; Gill, S.; Palomo, M.

2000-01-01

178

The Role of Protective Self-cognitions in the Relationship Between Childhood Trauma and Later Resource Loss  

PubMed Central

We examined a prospective model investigating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and protective self-cognitions (self-esteem and self-efficacy) with later resource loss among 402 inner-city women who experienced childhood abuse. We predicted that women with PTSD may fail to develop or sustain protective self-cognitions that could protect against future stress. Results from the hypothesized model suggest that child abuse was associated with greater PTSD symptoms and later resource loss. PTSD symptoms were also related to protective self-cognitions, which in turn were associated with less resource loss. We also examined an alternative model exploring the relationship between resource loss and later PTSD symptoms. Findings allude to the relationship of risk and resiliency variables among women with childhood trauma histories.

Walter, Kristen H.; Horsey, Katie J.; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Hobfoll, Stevan E.

2010-01-01

179

Trial-based functional analysis and functional communication training in an early childhood setting.  

PubMed

Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted trial-based FAs and FCT with 3 children in an early childhood special education setting. All trial-based FAs resulted in identification of behavioral functions, and subsequent FCT led to reductions in problem behavior and increases in communication. PMID:23060670

Lambert, Joseph M; Bloom, Sarah E; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

180

Facing fears and sadness: cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief.  

PubMed

The term childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is being increasingly used to refer to the particular reaction in children that may follow the death of a loved one during a traumatic event. The goal of this case study is to describe the theoretical argument and framework for, as well as a clinical example of, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for CTG. We present a case of a five-year-old boy whose father, a firefighter, died in the line of duty at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. This specific case will highlight the steps of CBT for CTG, the value of assessment during the therapeutic process, and the need to consider developmental and family factors in treatment. PMID:15371061

Brown, Elissa J; Pearlman, Michelle Y; Goodman, Robin F

181

Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood  

PubMed Central

Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urine samples were collected and analyzed for organophosphate metabolites (n = 360). Prenatal maternal blood was analyzed for PON1 activity and genotype. Children returned for neurodevelopment assessments ages 12 months (n = 200), 24 months (n = 276), and 6–9 (n = 169) years of age. Results: Prenatal total dialkylphosphate metabolite level was associated with a decrement in mental development at 12 months among blacks and Hispanics. These associations appeared to be enhanced among children of mothers who carried the PON1 Q192R QR/RR genotype. In later childhood, increasing prenatal total dialkyl- and dimethylphosphate metabolites were associated with decrements in perceptual reasoning in the maternal PON1 Q192R QQ genotype, which imparts slow catalytic activity for chlorpyrifos oxon, with a monotonic trend consistent with greater decrements with increasing prenatal exposure. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphates is negatively associated with cognitive development, particularly perceptual reasoning, with evidence of effects beginning at 12 months and continuing through early childhood. PON1 may be an important susceptibility factor for these deleterious effects.

Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.

2011-01-01

182

Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

Soubelet, Andrea

2012-01-01

183

Functional brain imaging of nicotinic effects on higher cognitive processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as

Paul A. Newhouse; Alexandra S. Potter; Julie A. Dumas; Christiane M. Thiel

2011-01-01

184

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

185

Adverse drug reactions and cognitive function among hospitalized older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To explore the relationship between cognitive function and the detection of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and to evaluate whether cognitive function could influence the association between age and ADRs. Methods. A total of 16,926 patients admitted to 81 hospitals throughout Italy between 1991 and 1997 were included in the study. ADRs detected the during hospital stay were recorded by

Graziano Onder; Giovanni Gambassi; Christian J. Scales; Matteo Cesari; Cecilia Della Vedova; Francesco Landi; Roberto Bernabei

2002-01-01

186

Successful Development: Childhood Antecedents of Adaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was part of the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development. Data on developmental background for 131 women and 130 men consisted of variables for (1) emotion regulation at age 8, (2) cognitive–motivational orientation at age 14, and (3) family circumstances, and data on adult outcomes for variables concerning psychosocial functioning at age 36. Links between the

Lea Pulkkinen; Hille Nygren; Katja Kokko

2002-01-01

187

Mental function following scalp irradiation during childhood.  

PubMed

Between 1950 and 1960 about 20,000 israeli children were treated for tinea capitis by x-ray therapy as part of a large public health campaign to eradicate the disease. Dosimetric studies determined that these children were subjected to a mean brain dose of 130 rads. Almost 20 years later, possible radiation effects on the central nervous system were evaluated by comparing several measures of mental and brain function in approximately 11,000 of the irradiated children and in two nonirradiated, tinea-free comparison groups: (a) ethnic, sex- and age-matched individuals from the general population, and (b) siblings. While not all comparisons were statistically significant, there was a consistent trend for the irradiated subjects to exhibit signs of central nervous system inpairment more often than either comparison group. The irradiated children had lower examination scores on scholastic aptitude, intelligence quotient (IQ) and psychologic tests, completed fewer school grades, and had an increased risk for mental hospital admissions for certain disease categories. A slightly higher frequency of mental retardation was also suggested. These-long-lasting scholastic and mental health effects lead the authors to conclude that radiation to the immature brain may cause damage to the central nervous system. PMID:7102650

Ron, E; Modan, B; Floro, S; Harkedar, I; Gurewitz, R

1982-07-01

188

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings From the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference (WC) with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2,283 older, postmenopausal women (aged

Ira Driscoll; Mark A. Espeland; Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; Sarah A. Gaussoin; Jingzhong Ding; Iris A. Granek; Judith K. Ockene; Lawrence S. Phillips; Kristine Yaffe; Susan M. Resnick

2011-01-01

189

Working Memory in Survivors of Childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia: Functional Neuroimaging Analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Research on the physical and psychological late effects of treatment of childhood cancer has led to the identification of significant long-term neurocognitive deficits experienced by some survivors, particularly in the areas of memory and executive functioning. Despite indications of deficits based on cognitive assessment, the identification of specific mechanisms of neurocognitive deficits using neuroimaging techniques has yet to be adequately considered. Procedure This study used functional neuroimaging techniques to examine working memory and executive functioning deficits of survivors of childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), as compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Results There was a trend for ALL survivors to perform more poorly on a working memory task in terms of overall accuracy. Additionally, survivors displayed significantly greater activation in areas underlying working memory (dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) and error monitoring (dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex). Conclusions These results support the theory of compensatory activation in necessary brain regions in order to complete tasks in pediatric ALL survivors, similar to that observed in multiple sclerosis patients. Concurrent examination of testing and brain imaging enables the connection of behavioral observations with underlying neurological characteristics of deficits in survivors and may help provide insight into mechanisms through which deficits appear.

Robinson, Kristen E.; Livesay, Katherine L.; Campbell, Laura K.; Scaduto, Mary; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Whitlock, James A.; Compas, Bruce E.

2010-01-01

190

Benchmarking main activation functions in fuzzy cognitive maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuzzy cognitive maps (FCM) are graph-based modeling tools. FCM can to be used for structuring and supporting decisional processes. Also, FCM allow developing what-if analysis, through the definition of scenarios. It is possible to choose among four activation functions: (1) sigmoid function, (2) hyperbolic tangent function, (3) step function and (4) threshold linear function. The use of each function can

Salvador Bueno; Jose L. Salmeron

2009-01-01

191

Neurophysiological basis of cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.  

PubMed

Thirty-three survivors of childhood cancer were tested with event-related potentials (P300), motor reaction time tests, and neuropsychological tests to assess the underlying physiological basis of treatment-related cognitive sequelae. Thirteen patients had received intrathecal chemotherapy, 11 had received intrathecal chemotherapy plus cranial radiotherapy, and nine had been treated without any form of central nervous system therapy. Neuropsychological performance of the groups treated without cranial radiotherapy was normal, but the group given cranial radiotherapy was significantly impaired. Mean reaction time and P300 latency were somewhat slower in the group given intrathecal chemotherapy relative to the group given no central nervous system treatment, but were significantly delayed in the group given cranial radiotherapy. Correlations of reaction time and P300 latency with neuropsychological test scores were also obtained. Results suggest that slowing of cortical activity secondary to white-matter damage may underlie cognitive decline in children treated with intensive central nervous system therapies, especially cranial radiotherapy. PMID:1524513

Moore, B D; Copeland, D R; Ried, H; Levy, B

1992-08-01

192

Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641

Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

2013-01-01

193

Cognitive function in growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement.  

PubMed

There is converging evidence from neuropsychological studies that growth hormone (GH) is associated with cognitive function. The aim of the current study was to review the existing neuropsychological literature for studies in which cognitive assessment had been conducted in patients with GH deficiency (GHD), and where change in cognitive function had been assessed following treatment with GH. Studies that have investigated relationships between GH and cognitive function and those that have developed methodological and statistical approaches that could be useful in future GH studies were identified. In this review, GH levels were found to be associated with cognitive function. Untreated individuals with GHD showed reliable impairment in memory and attentional functions when compared with matched controls. Appropriately designed prospective studies also indicated that cognitive function improved with GH treatment. It was concluded that individuals with GHD do show cognitive impairment and that this is ameliorated to some extent by GH treatment. It is now important to establish the clinical importance of these findings, and further work is required to understand better the nature, magnitude and meaning of GH-related cognitive impairments and improvements. PMID:16439852

Maruff, Paul; Falleti, Marina

2006-01-20

194

Relationship between inflammation and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA\\u000a brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes.\\u000a It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect\\u000a of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and

Alexander Haensel; Wayne A. Bardwell; Paul J. Mills; Jose S. Loredo; Sonia Ancoli-Israel; Erin E. Morgan; Robert K. Heaton; Joel E. Dimsdale

2009-01-01

195

Cognitive functioning in orthostatic hypotension due to pure autonomic failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological science proposes close interactions between cognitive processes and autonomic responses, yet the consequences\\u000a of autonomic failure on cognitive functioning have not been documented. This pilot study investigates, for the first time,\\u000a the cognitive profile of 14 patients with Pure Autonomic Failure (PAF). Each patient was administered a comprehensive battery\\u000a of neuropsychological tests and neuroimaging investigation. A number of patients

Hannah C. Heims; Hugo D. Critchley; Naomi H. Martin; H. Rolf Jäger; Christopher J. Mathias; Lisa Cipolotti

2006-01-01

196

Abnormal cognitive function in treated congenital hypopituitarism  

PubMed Central

Aims: To assess cognitive function in school age children with congenital pituitary hormone deficiency (PHD). Methods: Ten children with PHD (aged 6.0–15.6 years, mean 11.5 years) and sibling controls (aged 8.7–14.9 years, mean 12.1 years) were assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC–III UK). Results: The patients' full scale IQ scores were all below average (mean 75, 95% CI 70–80), but were not significantly different to those of sibling controls (mean 82, 95% CI 75–89). There was no difference in verbal IQ between patients and siblings, but performance IQ was significantly reduced (mean 75, 95% CI 68–82 in patients; mean 88, 95% CI 80–96 in sibling controls). The reduced performance IQ reflected a poorer performance in tasks assessing perceptual organisational skills. Conclusions: Data suggest that children with PHD have an IQ that is below average when compared to the population norm and a reduced performance IQ when compared to sibling controls. This may reflect abnormal brain development or could be linked to the impact of hypoglycaemia or low thyroxine concentrations in early life. This information is of value when counselling parents and planning a child's care and education, although further, more extensive studies of patients and siblings are required.

Brown, K; Rodgers, J; Johnstone, H; Adams, W; Clarke, M; Gibson, M; Cheetham, T

2004-01-01

197

Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive

Brown, Maria Teresa

2010-01-01

198

Early executive function deficit in preterm children and its association with neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood: a literature review.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to examine the association of deficits of executive function (EF) and neurodevelopmental disorders in preterm children and the potential of assessing EF in infants as means of early identification. EF refers to a collection of related but somewhat discrete abilities, the main ones being working memory, inhibition, and planning. There is a general consensus that EF governs goal-directed behavior that requires holding those plans or programs on-line until executed, inhibiting irrelevant action and planning a sequence of actions. EF plays an essential role in cognitive development and is vital to individual social and intellectual success. Most researchers believe in the coordination and integrate cognitive-perceptual processes in relation to time and space, thus regulating higher-order cognitive processes, such as problem solving, reasoning, logical and flexible thinking, and decision-making. The importance of the maturation of the frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex, to the development of EF in childhood has been emphasized. Therefore, any abnormal development in the prefrontal lobes of infants and children could be expected to result in significant deficits in cognitive functioning. As this is a late-maturing part of the brain, various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, language disorders, and schizophrenia, as well as acquired disorders of the right brain (and traumatic brain injury) impair EF, and the prefrontal cortex may be particularly susceptible to delayed development in these populations. The deficits of EF in infants are persistent into childhood and related to neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23183728

Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

2012-01-01

199

Standing worsens cognitive functions in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension.  

PubMed

In previous studies, addressing the association between orthostatic hypotension and cognitive decline, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation in sitting position, and blood pressure values and cognition were not measured concurrently. Furthermore, no studies assessed the acute effects of orthostatic hypotension on cognitive performances. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a documented fall in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of at least 20 mmHg on a battery of cognitive tests in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension. Ten consecutive patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension, normal brain imaging, and a normal Mini Mental State Examination in supine position were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment (Brief Mental Deterioration battery and computerized tests) over two test sessions: the first while tilted to an angle able to cause a fall of at least 20 mmHg in SBP; the second while supine, after 30 min of rest. Parallel forms of the tests were presented on each testing session. Patients scored significantly worse in the visual search test, analogies test, immediate visual memory, and the measure of global cognitive functioning of Brief Mental Deterioration battery during the orthostatic challenge compared to the supine position. Orthostatic hypotension was associated with a significant worsening of cognitive performances, affecting both global cognitive functioning and specific tasks, mainly exploring executive functions. The assessment of cognitive function in patients with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension should be performed considering the body's position of the subject. PMID:21894556

Poda, R; Guaraldi, P; Solieri, L; Calandra-Buonaura, G; Marano, G; Gallassi, R; Cortelli, P

2011-09-06

200

The relationship between blood pressure and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between blood pressure (BP) and cognitive outcomes in elderly adults has implications for global health care. Both hypertension and hypotension affect brain perfusion and worsen cognitive outcomes. The presence of hypertension and other vascular risk factors has been associated with decreased performance in executive function and attention tests. Cerebrovascular reserve has emerged as a potential biomarker for monitoring

Ihab Hajjar; Vera Novak

2010-01-01

201

Cognitive function in HIV-seropositive Nigerians without AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of cognitive function in individuals with HIV infection who remain relatively asymptomatic have shown widely variable estimates of impairment in different races and countries. Limited data exist on the impact of early asymptomatic HIV infection on cognition in developing nations, and indeed none from Nigeria. Hence, this cross-sectional study sets out to determine whether there are differences between Nigerian

Fatai K. Salawu; Sunday A. Bwala; Musa A. Wakil; Bukar Bani; David N. Bukbuk; Ibrahim Kida

2008-01-01

202

Elicited emotions and cognitive functioning in preschool children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four? to five?year?old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of ‘happy’ and ‘sad’ video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart rate variations) indices of emotions were used to measure the elicited emotions. The

Rivka Blau; Pnina S. Klein

2010-01-01

203

Assessment of cognitive function in heart failure patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundResearch on the cognitive capacity of heart failure patients is limited, with a paucity of benchmark information available for this population. It is highly likely that cognitive deficits affect patients' understanding of disease and treatment requirements, as well as limiting their functional capacity and ability to implement treatment plans, and undertake self-care.

Rachel Wolfe; Linda Worrall-Carter; Kellie Foister; Nicholas Keks; Vivienne Howe

2006-01-01

204

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

205

The role of cognition in vocational functioning in schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizophrenia is associated with long-term unemployment. Cognitive dysfunction, rather than clinical symptoms, may be the most important factor in the ability to work for patients with this disorder. To evaluate the relationship of clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning to work status, thirty patients with schizophrenia, who were participants in a vocational rehabilitation program, were evaluated with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery

Susan R McGurk; Herbert Y Meltzer

2000-01-01

206

Cognitive Styles in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autistic Disorder.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study investigated the operationalization, the identification, and the prevalence of weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting in 35 high-functioning adolescents with autism. Weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting did not appear to be related to measures of symptom severity, social understanding, and social competence.…

Teunisse, Jan-Pieter; Cools, Alexander R.; van Spaendonck, Karel P. M.; Aerts, Francisca H. T. M.; Berger, Hans J. C.

2001-01-01

207

Cognitive Styles in High-Functioning Adolescents with Autistic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addressed the operationalization, the identification, and the prevalence of weak central coherence and poor cognitive shifting in 35 high-functioning adolescents with autism. Central coherence and cognitive shifting were represented by two factors in a factor analysis, each reflecting a constituent aspect of the domain in question. With regard to central coherence, these aspects were the ability of piecemeal

Jan-Pieter Teunisse; Alexander R. Cools; Karel P. M. van Spaendonck; Francisca H. T. M. Aerts; Hans J. C. Berger

2001-01-01

208

Symptoms of depression and cognitive functioning in older American Indians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Depression and lower cognitive functioning are common conditions in older populations. While links between psychopathology and neuropsychological performance have been studied in the white majority population, little is known about such links in the American Indian population. American Indians aged 60 and older (n = 140) completed structured interviews that included a depression screener and two cognitive screening measures, the

S. P. Verney; L. L. Jervis; A. Fickenscher; Y. Roubideaux; A. Bogart; J. Goldberg

2008-01-01

209

Agitated Behavior and Cognitive Functioning in Nursing Home Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agitation is a significant problem for nursing home residents, their families, and their caretakers. Previous literature suggests that agitation is related to dementia and cognitive deterioration in the elderly, but no empirical studies support this relationship. This study tests the relationship between level of cognitive functioning and the nature and level of agitation in nursing home residents. Nurses rated one

Jiska Cohen-Mansfield

1988-01-01

210

Physical activity and the maintenance of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental studies suggest that physical activity or exercise can prevent or delay the onset of age-related cognitive impairment or dementia. Several epidemiologic studies have attempted to address this issue by using widely varying definitions of physical activity as well as differing methods to assess cognitive function or dementia. Despite the variability in study design, longitudinal studies report that the risk

Kenneth Rockwood; Laura Middleton

2007-01-01

211

Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and cognitive functioning in children.  

PubMed

We examined associations between children's cognitive performance and both basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA regulation to a reaction time task. Cognitive performance was examined in the lab via standardized tests of cognitive functioning (Woodcock-Johnson III) and a reaction time task. Results suggest that a higher level of basal RSA is predictive of better performance on WJ III scales examining fluid intelligence (e.g., working memory, cognitive efficiency). RSA reactivity was not significantly related to cognitive performance. Results build on and extend the literature by demonstrating that, in typically developing elementary school age children, RSA is related to well-standardized measures of cognitive performance even after controlling for potential confounds. PMID:19107730

Staton, Lori; El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A

2009-04-01

212

Age-related functional reorganization, structural changes, and preserved cognition.  

PubMed

Although healthy aging is associated with general cognitive decline, there is considerable variability in the extent to which cognitive functions decline or are preserved. Preserved cognitive function in the context of age-related neuroanatomical and functional changes, has been attributed to compensatory mechanisms. However, the existing sparse evidence is largely focused on functions associated with the frontal cortex, leaving open the question of how wider age-related brain changes relate to compensation. We evaluated relationships between age-related neural and functional changes in the context of preserved cognitive function by combining measures of structure, function, and cognitive performance during spoken language comprehension using a paradigm that does not involve an explicit task. We used a graph theoretical approach to derive cognitive activation-related functional magnetic resonance imaging networks. Correlating network properties with age, neuroanatomical variations, and behavioral data, we found that decreased gray matter integrity was associated with decreased connectivity within key language regions but increased overall functional connectivity. However, this network reorganization was less efficient, suggesting that engagement of a more distributed network in aging might be triggered by reduced connectivity within specialized networks. PMID:23942392

Meunier, David; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Tyler, Lorraine K

2013-08-12

213

Rethinking cognitive function in multiple sclerosis: a nursing perspective.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment is a common problem in multiple sclerosis (MS); up to 65% of patients exhibit some neuropsychological dysfunction during the course of their disease. It is a major contributing factor to unemployment, accidents, impairment of daily functioning, and loss of social activity in those affected by MS. The areas of cognition typically impaired are memory, attention, information processing, executive functions, and visuospatial skills. Cognitive dysfunction is independent of disease duration and level of disability; cognitive decline may begin in the earliest stages of MS before patients become even mildly disabled. Structural brain imaging studies show a positive correlation between the extent of brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction. Despite its prevalence in MS, cognitive dysfunction often goes undiagnosed or is misdiagnosed as depression, stress, stubbornness, lack of intelligence, or psychosis. Because nurses play such an important role in the care of patients with MS, they are in a position to identify patients with cognitive dysfunction, educate patients and their families on ways to cope with cognitive deficits, and counsel patients on available treatment options. Practical guidelines help nurses identify and care for cognitively impaired MS patients. PMID:12795033

Halper, June; Kennedy, Patricia; Miller, Colleen Murphy; Morgante, Linda; Namey, Marie; Ross, Amy Perrin

2003-04-01

214

Effects of Parent-Adolescent Interaction on the Continuity of Cognitive Development from Early Childhood to Early Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuity of cognitive development from early childhood to early adolescence is examined in light of mother-adolescent interaction and demographic measures. The sample was comprised of fifty-four mother-adolescent dyads, from a follow-up of an early-age antipoverty intervention. Middle class and lower class control groups and an experimental group were balanced by social class, ethnicity and gender. Measures used were the

Richard M. Dunham; Jeannie S. Kidwell; Pedro R. Portes

1988-01-01

215

The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine.

Wesnes, Keith A.

2000-01-01

216

Flavonoid intake in relation to cognitive function in later life in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.  

PubMed

Previous studies have suggested a link between flavonoid intake and better cognitive function in later life but have not been able to control for possible confounding by prior intelligence quotient (IQ). The aim of the present study was to address this issue in a cross-sectional survey of 1091 men and women born in 1936, in whom IQ was measured at age 11 years. At the age of 70 years, participants carried out various neuropsychological tests and completed a FFQ. Associations between test scores and nutrient intake were assessed by linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Total fruit, citrus fruits, apple and tea intakes were initially found to be associated with better scores in a variety of cognitive tests, but the associations were no longer statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors, including childhood IQ. Flavanone intake was initially found to be associated with better scores in verbal fluency (P = 0·003, with standardised regression coefficient 0·10), but, again, the association was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. These findings do not support a role for flavonoids in the prevention of cognitive decline in later life. Studies of diet and cognitive function should include measurement of potential confounding variables, including prior IQ wherever possible. PMID:21303571

Butchart, Catherine; Kyle, Janet; McNeill, Geraldine; Corley, Janie; Gow, Alan J; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

2011-02-08

217

Influence of social support on cognitive function in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background Social support is important in daily activities of the elderly. This study tests the hypothesis that there is an association between social support and cognitive function among the elderly in a community setting. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted in a cross-sectional stratified random sample of 4,993 elderly (?65 years) city residents. Using multiple regression analysis, we investigated the influence of social support on cognitive function. Results 12% were over 80 years old. 53.28% were men. 67.14% were married. Higher Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ) scores (higher score means better cognitive function) were associated with strong social support, as measured by marital status and perceived positive support from friends. Lower cognitive function was associated with older and with female respondents. Only instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were statistically and negatively related to SPMSQ. Lower functional status was associated with lower cognitive function. Elders with grade school educations had lower SPMSQ scores than did elders with high school educations. Conclusions In Taiwan, higher cognitive function in community-living elderly was associated with increased social support. Life-style management should provide social activities for the elderly to promote a better quality of life.

Yeh, Shu-Chuan Jennifer; Liu, Yea-Ying

2003-01-01

218

Cognitive Function of Theoretical Knowledge in Procedural Learning.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present project continuous work began under a previous project, 'Knowledge-based revision of cognitive procedures in response to changing task demands: Toward a theory of the nature and function of principled knowledge'. In the course of the previous ...

S. Ohlsson

1992-01-01

219

Commonsense Psychology and the Functional Requirements of Cognitive Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike. Rather than wor...

A. S. Gordon

2005-01-01

220

Cognitive function in patients with Cushing syndrome: a longitudinal perspective.  

PubMed

The purposes of this study were to examine the level of improvement of cognitive function 12 months posttreatment in adult patients with Cushing syndrome (CS), the relationships of cognitive function to duration of CS or recovery of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, and depression and improved cognitive functioning. Thirty-three patients with CS and a matched comparison group were enrolled. IQ, depression, and endocrine factors were measured during the active phase of CS and at 12 months posttreatment for CS. Results show no group differences in cognitive function across time but a trend for CS patients to have lower IQ scores at baseline. Individual differences in performance were striking. For some subscales of IQ there was a positive relationship with recovery of the HPA axis and a negative relationship with duration of CS as well as an improvement if depression had decreased. Limitations of the study are cited along with clinical implications and directions for future research. PMID:11881698

Dorn, L D; Cerrone, P

2000-11-01

221

Cogimir: A Study of Cognitive Functions in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonspecific (attention psychomotor speed) and specific (mental flexibility, time estimation, visuospatial perception, and memory) cognitive functions were measured in a single case study during a six day visit on the Russian orbital complex Mir using comp...

T. Benke O. Koserenko F. Gerstenbrand N. Watson

1992-01-01

222

Violence exposure, a chronic psychosocial stressor, and childhood lung function  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic psychosocial stressors, including violence, have been linked to neuropsychological and behavioral development in children as well as physiologic alterations that may lead to broader health effects. Methods We examined the relationship between violence and childhood lung function in a prospective birth cohort of 313 urban children 6 and 7 years of age. Mothers reported on their child’s lifetime exposure to community violence (ETV) and interparental conflict in the home [Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS)] within one year of the lung function assessment. Results In linear regression analyses, adjusting for maternal education, child’s age, race, birthweight, tobacco smoke exposure, and medical history, girls in the highest CTS verbal aggression tertile had a 5.5% (95% CI: ?9.6, ?1.5) decrease in percent predicted FEV1 and a 5.4% (95% CI: ?9.7, ?1.1) decrease in FVC compared to girls in the lowest tertile. The CTS verbal aggression subscale was associated with lung function among boys in the same direction, albeit this was not statistically significant. Boys in the highest ETV tertile had a 3.4% (95% CI: ?8.0, 1.1) lower FEV1 and 5.3% lower (95% CI: ?10.2, ?0.4) FVC compared to boys in the lowest tertile. The ETV score was not a significant predictor of girl’s lung function. Conclusions Interparental conflict, specifically verbal aggression, and exposure to community violence were associated with decreased childhood lung function independent of socioeconomic status, tobacco smoke exposure, birthweight and respiratory illness history. Gender differences were noted based on the type of violence exposure which may warrant further exploration.

Suglia, Shakira Franco; Ryan, Louise; Laden, Francine; Dockery, Douglas; Wright, Rosalind J

2011-01-01

223

AR, apoE, and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction.

Raber, Jacob

2008-01-01

224

Cerebral white matter integrity and executive function in adult survivors of childhood medulloblastoma  

PubMed Central

Survivors of pediatric medulloblastoma are at risk for neurocognitive dysfunction. Reduced white matter integrity has been correlated with lower intelligence in child survivors, yet associations between specific cognitive processes and white matter have not been examined in long-term adult survivors. Twenty adult survivors of medulloblastoma were randomly recruited from a larger institutional cohort of adult survivors of childhood cancer. Survivors underwent comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations and MRI. Data on brain volume and cortical thickness and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired, including measures of fractional anisotropy, apparent diffusion coefficient, and axial and radial diffusivity. Observed neurocognitive scores were compared with population norms and correlated to MRI indices. Survivors were, on average, 29 years of age and 18 years postdiagnosis. Mean full-scale intelligence quotient was nearly 1 SD below the normative mean (86.3 vs 100, P = .004). Seventy-five percent of survivors were impaired on at least one measure of executive function. Radial diffusivity in the frontal lobe of both hemispheres was correlated with shifting attention (left: rs = ?0.67, P = .001; right: rs = ?0.64, P = .002) and cognitive flexibility (left: rs = ?0.56, P = .01; right: rs = ?0.54, P = .01). Volume and cortical thickness were not correlated with neurocognitive function. Neurocognitive impairment was common and involved many domains. Reduced white matter integrity in multiple brain regions correlated with poorer performance on tasks of executive function. Future research integrating diffusion tensor imaging should be a priority to more rigorously evaluate long-term consequences of cancer treatment and to inform cognitive intervention trials in this high-risk population.

Brinkman, Tara M.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Luxton, Joshua; Glass, John O.; Sabin, Noah D.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Krull, Kevin R.

2012-01-01

225

Alcohol Consumption and Cognitive Function in the Whitehall II Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive function in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitive function (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when

Annie Britton; Archana Singh-Manoux; Michael Marmot

226

Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and Cognitive Function in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Aging is associated with a decline in cognitive function; we explored the possible influence of dietary phytoestrogens on this decline. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 301 Dutch women aged 60-75 years. Dietary isoflavone and lignan intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire covering habitual diet in the year preceding enrolment. The endpoints were cognitive function measured in

Sanne Kreijkamp-Kaspers; Linda Kok; Diederick E. Grobbee; Edward H. F. de Haan; Yvonne T. van der Schouw

2007-01-01

227

Weight Change and Cognitive Function: Findings from the Women's Health Initiative Study of Cognitive Aging  

PubMed Central

Although studies exploring relationships between obesity and cognitive impairment in the elderly are conflicting, literature suggests that overweight and obesity may be protective against cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. We examine the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference with global and domain-specific cognitive function in a large, well-defined cohort of 2283 older, post-menopausal women (age 65-79) prospectively followed through the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Study of Cognitive Aging (WHISCA). We assessed the associations between changes in weight and waist circumference collected up to 5 years prior to WHISCA enrollment and mean levels of global and domain-specific cognitive performance across an average of 5.4 years of subsequent follow-up. There was a lack of associations between weight and cognition in women who remained stable or gained weight. The only significant relationships observed were in association with weight loss (p?0.05), most likely signaling incipient disease. Moreover, cognition was not related to changes in waist circumference. Relationships were largely independent of initial BMI, self-reported caloric intake or dieting. The lack of associations between weight gain and cognition in women is consistent with the existent literature.

Driscoll, Ira; Espeland, Mark A.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Gaussoin, Sarah A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Granek, Iris; Ockene, Judith K.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Yaffe, Kristine; Resnick, Susan M.

2011-01-01

228

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Effects on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

Stange, Jonathan P.; Eisner, Lori R.; Holzel, Britta K.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2012-01-01

229

Measures of cognitive functioning in the AHEAD Study.  

PubMed

Decline in cognitive functioning and onset of cognitive impairment are potentially important predictors of elderly persons needing informal assistance and formal health care. This article describes the measures of cognitive functioning that were developed for the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) study of some 6,500 Americans aged 70 years and older. The study was designed to investigate the impact of health on disbursement of family and economic resources. Evaluation of the cognitive measures in terms of psychometric properties and missing data, telephone administration, and formation of an aggregate index is encouraging. Their construct validity is evidenced by their correlations with sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators that replicate existing findings as well as by their prediction of IADL and ADL functioning that are consistent with theory. PMID:9215356

Herzog, A R; Wallace, R B

1997-05-01

230

Cognitive Outcomes Following Contemporary Treatment Without Cranial Irradiation for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has included the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in up to 20% of children with high-risk disease despite known cognitive risks of this treatment modality. Methods Patients enrolled on the St Jude ALL Total Therapy Study XV, which omitted prophylactic cranial irradiation in all patients, were assessed 120 weeks after completion of consolidation therapy (n = 243) using a comprehensive cognitive battery. ?2 analysis was used to compare the percentage of below-average performers among the entire ALL patient group to the expected rate based on the normative sample. Univariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of intensity of chemotherapy (treatment arm), age at diagnosis, and sex on the probability of below-average performance. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Overall, the ALL group had a statistically significantly higher risk for below-average performance on a measure of sustained attention (67.31% more than 1 SD below the normative mean for omission errors, P < .001) but not on measures of intellectual functioning, academic skills, or memory. Patients given higher intensity chemotherapy were at greater risk for below-average performance compared with those given lower intensity therapy on measures of processing speed (27.14% vs 6.25%, P = .009) and academic abilities (Math Reasoning: 18.60% vs 3.90%, P = .008; Word Reading: 20.00% vs 2.60%, P = .007; Spelling: 27.91% vs 3.90%, P = .001) and had higher parent-reported hyperactivity (23.00% vs 9.84%, P = .018) and learning problems (35.00% vs 16.39%, P = .005). Neither age at diagnosis nor sex was associated with risk for below-average cognitive performance. Conclusions Omitting cranial irradiation may help preserve global cognitive abilities, but treatment with chemotherapy alone is not without risks. Caregiver education and development of interventions should address both early attention deficits and cognitive late effects.

2012-01-01

231

Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

2011-01-01

232

Impact of Cognitive Impairment on Functional Outcome in Stroke  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cognitive impairment on functional status in patients with subacute stroke. Fifty-two patients with subacute stroke were included in the study. Mini mental state examination (MMSE) test was used for the evaluation of cognitive status. Patients were separated into two groups according to their cognitive functions. Functional follow-up parameters were activities of daily living (ADL), global recovery and ambulation status. All patients were evaluated on admission to rehabilitation unit, at discharge and 6 months after discharge. Forty-four patients were completed the study. Mean age was 66 and 57 years; disease duration on admission was 4,8 and 3,5 months in the cognitively impaired and normal groups, respectively. Significant improvement was found in terms of functional follow-up parameters in both groups at discharge (P < .05). Functional follow-up parameters did not show statistically significant difference between the groups. But community ambulation rate was higher in cognitively normal group at the sixth month visit. As a result of this study, inpatient rehabilitation was effective both cognitively normal and impaired subacute stroke patients.

Paker, Nurdan; Bugdayc?, Derya; Tekdos, Demet; Kaya, Betul; Dere, Caglayan

2010-01-01

233

Relationship between inflammation and cognitive function in obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Objectives Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can have adverse effects on cognitive functioning, mood, and cardiovascular functioning. OSA brings with it disturbances in sleep architecture, oxygenation, sympathetic nervous system function, and inflammatory processes. It is not clear which of these mechanisms is linked to the decrease in cognitive functioning. This study examined the effect of inflammatory parameters on cognitive dysfunction. Materials and methods Thirty-nine patients with untreated sleep apnea were evaluated by polysomnography and completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. After the first night of evaluation in the sleep laboratory, blood samples were taken for analysis of interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), and soluble TNF receptor 1 (sTNF-R1). Results sTNF-R1 significantly correlated with cognitive dysfunction. In hierarchical linear regression analysis, measures of obstructive sleep apnea severity explained 5.5% of the variance in cognitive dysfunction (n.s.). After including sTNF-R1, percentage of variance explained by the full model increased more than threefold to 19.6% (F= 2.84, df=3, 36, p=0.05). Only sTNF-R1 had a significant individual relationship with cognitive dysfunction (?=0.376 t=2.48, p=0.02). Conclusions sTNF-R1 as a marker of chronic inflammation may be associated with diminished neuropsychological functioning in patients with OSA.

Haensel, Alexander; Bardwell, Wayne A.; Mills, Paul J.; Loredo, Jose S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Morgan, Erin E.; Heaton, Robert K.; Dimsdale, Joel E.

2011-01-01

234

Functional Brain Imaging of Nicotinic Effects on Higher Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Significant advances in human functional brain imaging offer new opportunities for direct observation of the effects of nicotine, novel nicotinic agonists and nicotinic antagonists on human cognitive and behavioral performance. Careful research over the last decade has enabled investigators to explore the role of nicotinic systems on the functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry of cognitive tasks in domains such as selective attention, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive control, and emotional processing. In addition, recent progress in understanding functional connectivity between brain regions utilized during cognitive and emotional processes offers new opportunities for examining drug effects on network-related activity. This review will critically summarize available nicotinic functional brain imaging studies focusing on the specific cognitive domains of attention, memory, behavioral control, and emotional processing. Generally speaking, nicotine appears to increase task-related activity in non-smokers and deprived smokers, but not active smokers. By contrast, nicotine or nicotinic stimulation decreases the activity of structures associated with the default mode network. These particular patterns of activation and/or deactivation may be useful for early drug development and may be an efficient and cost-effective method of screening potential nicotinic agents. Further studies will have to be done to clarify whether such activity changes correlate with cognitive or affective outcomes that are clinically relevant. The use of functional brain imaging will be a key tool for probing pathologic changes related to brain illness and for nicotinic drug development.

Newhouse, Paul A.; Potter, Alexandra S.; Dumas, Julie A.; Thiel, Christiane M.

2011-01-01

235

Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults.  

PubMed

This study examined the association of caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee intake with cognitive function in a community-based sample of older adults in 1988-1992. Participants were 890 women with a mean age of 72.6 years and 638 men with a mean age of 73.3 years from the Rancho Bernardo Study. Cognitive function was assessed by 12 standardized tests, and lifetime consumption and current coffee consumption were obtained by questionnaire. After adjustment for confounders, higher lifetime coffee consumption in women was associated with better (p < or = 0.05) performance on six of 12 tests, with a trend (p < or = 0.10) on two other cognitive function tests; current caffeinated coffee intake was associated with better performance on two tests (p < 0.05), with a trend (p < 0.10) on one other test. Among women aged 80 or more years, lifetime coffee intake was nonsignificantly associated with better performance on 11 of the 12 tests. No relation was found between coffee intake and cognitive function among men or between decaffeinated coffee intake and cognitive function in either sex. Lifetime and current exposure to caffeine may be associated with better cognitive performance among women, especially among those aged 80 or more years. PMID:12397002

Johnson-Kozlow, Marilyn; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Morton, Deborah

2002-11-01

236

The Functional Significance of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deficits in a wide array of functional outcome areas (eg, social functioning, social skills, independent living skills, etc) are marked in schizophrenia. Consequently, much re- cent research has attempted to identify factors that may contribute to functional outcome; social cognition is one such domain. The purpose of this article is to review re- search examining the relationship between social cogni-

Shannon M. Couture; David L. Penn; David L. Roberts

2006-01-01

237

Predictors of maintaining cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Background: Although several risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified, much less is known about factors that predict maintenance of cognitive function in advanced age. Methods: We studied 2,509 well-functioning black and white elders enrolled in a prospective study. Cognitive function was measured using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline and years 3, 5, and 8. Random effects models were used to classify participants as cognitive maintainers (cognitive change slope ?0), minor decliners (slope <0 and >1 SD below mean), or major decliners (slope ?1 SD below mean). Logistic regression was used to identify domain-specific factors associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner. Results: Over 8 years, 30% of the participants maintained cognitive function, 53% showed minor decline, and 16% had major cognitive decline. In the multivariate model, baseline variables significantly associated with being a maintainer vs a minor decliner were age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55–0.77 per 5 years), white race (OR = 1.72, 95% CI 1.30–2.28), high school education level or greater (OR = 2.75, 95% CI 1.78–4.26), ninth grade literacy level or greater (OR = 4.85, 95% CI 3.00–7.87), weekly moderate/vigorous exercise (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62), and not smoking (OR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.14–2.97). Variables associated with major cognitive decline compared to minor cognitive decline are reported. Conclusion: Elders who maintain cognitive function have a unique profile that differentiates them from those with minor decline. Importantly, some of these factors are modifiable and thus may be implemented in prevention programs to promote successful cognitive aging. Further, factors associated with maintenance may differ from factors associated with major cognitive decline, which may impact prevention vs treatment strategies. GLOSSARY 3MS = Modified Mini-Mental State Examination; BMI = body mass index; CES-D = Center for Epidemiologic Studies–Depression Scale score; CI = confidence interval; CRP = C-reactive protein; Health ABC = Health, Aging and Body Composition; IL = interleukin; MI = myocardial infarction; OR = odds ratio; REALM = Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine; TNF = tumor necrosis factor.

Yaffe, K; Fiocco, A J.; Lindquist, K; Vittinghoff, E; Simonsick, E M.; Newman, A B.; Satterfield, S; Rosano, C; Rubin, S M.; Ayonayon, H N.; Harris, T B.

2009-01-01

238

Cognitive Stimulation and Cognitive and Functional Decline in Alzheimer's Disease: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To examine the association of engagement in cognitively stimulating activities with cognitive and functional decline in a population-based sample of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). Method. After diagnosis, 187 participants (65% females) were followed semiannually for a mean 2.7 (SD = 0.4) years. Mean age and education were 84.6 (SD = 5.8) and 13.2 (SD = 2.9) years. Caregivers enumerated cognitively stimulating leisure activities via the Lifestyle Activities Questionnaire. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination and functional ability via the Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes. Linear mixed models tested the association between stimulating activities and change over time in each outcome. Covariates were demographic factors, estimated premorbid IQ, presence/absence of the APOE ?4 allele, duration of dementia, level of physical activity, and general health. Results. At initial assessment, 87% of participants were engaged in one or more stimulating activities, with mean (SD) activities = 4.0 (3.0). This number declined to 2.4 (2.0) at the final visit. There was a statistical interaction between dementia duration and number of activities in predicting rate of cognitive decline (p = .02) and overall functional ability (p = .006). Discussion. Active involvement in cognitively stimulating pursuits may be beneficial for persons with AD.

Treiber, Katherine A.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Corcoran, Chris; Norton, Maria C.; Breitner, John C. S.; Piercy, Kathleen W.; DeBerard, Michael Scott; Stein, David; Foley, Beth; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A.; Frye, Amber; Lyketsos, Constantine G.

2011-01-01

239

Complex relationships of nicotinic receptor actions and cognitive functions.  

PubMed

Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other areas like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

Levin, Edward D

2013-08-06

240

Dose-Related Effects of Alcohol on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N?=?56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18–45 years) were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%), employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention); the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory); Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding); the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization); the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function); and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function). Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties.

Dry, Matthew J.; Burns, Nicholas R.; Nettelbeck, Ted; Farquharson, Aaron L.; White, Jason M.

2012-01-01

241

Methadone maintenance treatment and cognitive function: A systematic review.  

PubMed

Methadone has been used as a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Many studies examining the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence have documented a significant reduction in both criminal behavior and the use of other opiates. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that MMT may impair cognitive function. However, it is unclear as to the part methadone dose, duration of MMT or plasma level may play in any observed deficits. Given the large number of people enrolled in MMT world-wide and the potential for deficits in cognitive function, a systematic review of the research investigating the association between MMT and cognitive function seemed warranted. The following databases were searched with a combination of free-text and thesaurus terms (methadone AND cognition): MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Seventy-eight articles were retrieved of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of research suggests that MMT is associated with impaired cognitive function and that deficits extended across a range of domains. However, caution is required when interpreting these results due to the methodological limitations associated with many studies. Further research that includes a combination of psychological and physiological measures within well-controlled group comparison studies is required to more accurately assess which cognitive domains are affected. PMID:23773088

Wang, Grace Y; Wouldes, Trecia A; Russell, Bruce B

2013-06-14

242

Cognitive functioning in adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

In contrast to studies of cognitive functioning in adults with schizophrenia, there has been a relative paucity of studies assessing adolescents with schizophrenia. We investigated cognitive functioning in 22 adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders compared with 30 healthy adolescents. The patient group demonstrated impaired performance on all of the functions investigated except sustained attention. Against the background of this broad impairment, executive function and psychomotor speed were the most impaired, sustained attention was spared, while preattentional processing, early visual information processing, visual long-term memory, auditory short-term memory and working memory emerged as relative deficits. The study shows that adolescents with schizophrenia spectrum disorders demonstrate a similar pattern of cognitive functioning to adults in all areas, except sustained attention. PMID:15157749

Ueland, Torill; Øie, Merete; Inge Landrø, Nils; Rund, Bjørn R

2004-05-30

243

Aerodynamic indices of velopharyngeal function in childhood apraxia of speech.  

PubMed

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal function in children diagnosed with CAS from children with typically-developing speech. Pressure-flow techniques were used to estimate the velopharyngeal port size and measure the temporal sequencing of airflow and pressure events associated with production of a nasal + oral plosive sequence in the speech of three children with CAS and three age-matched comparison participants. The results of this pilot study revealed significant differences between the performance of the CAS group and the comparison group in three timing measures of velopharyngeal port closure and velopharyngeal orifice area during speech. PMID:20136498

Sealey, Linda R; Giddens, Cheryl L

2010-06-01

244

Socioeconomic Position and Cognitive Function in the Seychelles: A Life Course Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective Poorer socioeconomic conditions early in life have been linked with memory, attention and learning deficits in adulthood, as well as with specific areas of educational achievement. It remains unclear, however, whether these distal associations are mediated by more current socioeconomic factors. In this study, we sought to confirm the relation between early-life socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult cognitive function, and to examine potential mediation by contemporaneous SEP. Methods Data from 463 young adults from the Main Cohort of the Seychelles Child Development Study were analyzed using subtests of the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery and the Woodcock Johnson Test of Scholastic Achievement in relation to maternal Hollingshead Social Status Index scores at study enrollment (infancy), follow-up at 107 months, and follow-up at 17 years. Results Findings include evidence of a link between infant-period SEP and 17-year memory, which was not mediated by childhood and 17-year SEP. Verbal and mathematical achievement at 17 years was associated with SEP at all points in the life course. Conclusions SEP at different points during the young-adult life course may affect different cognitive domains later in life, which may provide targets for societal investment in ensuring adequate family resources throughout childhood and adolescence.

Kobrosly, Roni W.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin; Galea, Sandro; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.; Love, Tanzy; Hong, Caroline; Shamlaye, Conrad F.; Davidson, Philip W.

2011-01-01

245

Childhood executive function continues to predict outcomes in young adult females with and without childhood-diagnosed ADHD.  

PubMed

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF - particularly measures of global EF and working memory - predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540

Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J; Hinshaw, Stephen P

2012-07-01

246

Mild cognitive impairment and everyday functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated

Holly Tuokko; Carolyn Morris; Patricia Ebert

2005-01-01

247

Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes)

Joan Newman; Mia V. Gallo; Lawrence M. Schell; Anthony P. DeCaprio; Melinda Denham; Glenn D. Deane

2009-01-01

248

Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.  

PubMed

Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620

Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne

2012-12-21

249

Cohort Changes in Cognitive Function among Danish Centenarians  

PubMed Central

Background/Aim The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. Methods The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895 cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. Conclusion The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group.

Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

2009-01-01

250

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

251

Computer-assisted cognitive function assessment of pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

in an environment unforgiving of human error, where cogni- tive failure can lead to catastrophic consequences. Cognitive function testing is one means of selecting mentally capable pilots. It is also a means of screening for covert disease, and it can be used to establish baseline performance data and pro- vide ongoing monitoring of health. (For these reasons, cog- nitive function

Roderick Westerman; David G Darby; Paul Maruff; Alexander Collie

2001-01-01

252

Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

2007-01-01

253

Cognitive Status and Physical Function in Older African Americans  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To investigate the relationship between global cognition, three specific domains of cognition, and lower extremity function in community-dwelling elderly African Americans (AAs) from two community settings. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Community. PARTICIPANTS Ninety-six AA men and women aged 60 and older from two community settings, enrolled in the Boosting Minority Involvement (BMI) study, a community-based cohort study designed to increase research participation of older low-income AAs. MEASUREMENTS Physical performance was assessed using Short Physical Performance Battery score, which is composed of three timed tests: a 4-m walking task, static balance assessment, and a chair stand test. The Bushke Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) and Mini-Mental State Examination were used to assess global memory and global cognition, respectively. For domain-specific performance, three z-score composite scores (attention, verbal memory, and executive function) were developed using the Computer-based Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment. RESULTS All domains of cognition were significant predictors of lower extremity function except for verbal memory. Executive function and MIS were the best predictors of lower extremity function in adjusted models. Participants with poor executive function were more than four times as likely to have poorer lower extremity function (odds ratio = 4.96, 95% confidence interval = 1.07–23.0). CONCLUSION Global memory and executive function were the best predictors of lower extremity function in a sample of community-dwelling AA adults. Deficits in lower extremity function may depend on multifaceted higher executive function control processes.

Nieto, Maria L.; Albert, Steven M.; Morrow, Lisa A.; Saxton, Judith

2008-01-01

254

Speed of Word Recognition and Vocabulary Knowledge in Infancy Predict Cognitive and Language Outcomes in Later Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006 ) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical…

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

2008-01-01

255

Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

2010-01-01

256

Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Descriptive study. Setting University Alzheimer’s disease clinical and research program. Participants Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test. Results Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance. Conclusions These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls.

Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

2010-01-01

257

Childhood discipline, perceptions of parents, and current functioning in female college students  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students’ report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related uniquely when examining responses for mothers and fathers. Further, regression analyses suggested

Kimberly Renk; Cliff McKinney; Jenny Klein; Arazais Oliveros

2006-01-01

258

Childhood Discipline, Perceptions of Parents, and Current Functioning in Female College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students' report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related…

Renk, Kimberly; McKinney, Cliff; Klein, Jenny; Oliveros, Arazais

2006-01-01

259

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

260

The influence of ergotamine abuse on psychological and cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Migraine patients abusing ergotamine often have chronic daily headaches associated with tiredness, sleep and memory disturbances, and reduced general well-being. We quantified psychological and cognitive functioning in 12 migraine patients with and 12 without ergotamine abuse (> or = 5 days/week for > or = 6 months) and 12 healthy controls. Psychological functioning assessed by Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) and Profile Of Mood State (POMS), was impaired in ergotamine abusers compared to healthy controls. Cognitive functioning divided into four domains: attention (critical flicker frequency analysis and mental control subscale of the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS), speed of information processing (reaction time tasks and lexical decision tasks), memory (four subscales of the WMS) and cognitive flexibility (trailmaking test and WMS digits backwards), was impaired in ergotamine abusers in speed of information processing and cognitive flexibility. These differences disappeared after correction for total SCL-90 scores. In conclusion, ergotamine abuse is associated with high psychological distress but not with structural impaired cognitive functioning. PMID:11037742

Roon, K I; Bakker, D; van Poelgeest, M I; van Buchem, M A; Ferrari, M D; Middelkoop, H A

2000-06-01

261

Cortical gamma oscillations: the functional key is activation, not cognition.  

PubMed

Cortical oscillatory synchrony in the gamma range has been attracting increasing attention in cognitive neuroscience ever since being proposed as a solution to the so-called binding problem. This growing literature is critically reviewed in both its basic neuroscience and cognitive aspects. A physiological "default assumption" regarding these oscillations is introduced, according to which they signal a state of physiological activation of cortical tissue, and the associated need to balance excitation with inhibition in particular. As such these oscillations would belong among a variety of generic neural control operations that enable neural tissue to perform its systems level functions, without implementing those functions themselves. Regional control of cerebral blood flow provides an analogy in this regard, and gamma oscillations are tightly correlated with this even more elementary control operation. As correlates of neural activation they will also covary with cognitive activity, and this typically suffices to account for the covariation between gamma activity and cognitive task variables. A number of specific cases of gamma synchrony are examined in this light, including the original impetus for attributing cognitive significance to gamma activity, namely the experiments interpreted as evidence for "binding by synchrony". This examination finds no compelling reasons to assign functional roles to oscillatory synchrony in the gamma range beyond its generic functions at the level of infrastructural neural control. PMID:23333264

Merker, Bjorn

2013-01-17

262

Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction.

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

263

Cognitive function in hot environments: a question of methodology.  

PubMed

The physiological responses of thermal stress and its consequences on health have been well documented. However, the effect on cognitive function remains equivocal despite a substantial number of studies conducted in the area. Methodological discrepancies across different studies have made it difficult to conclude whether or not heat exposure per se has an adverse effect upon cognitive function and under what specific environmental and physiological conditions these alterations appear. This article gives an overview of the different confounding factors that have made it difficult to make conclusive interpretations. In addition, the current state of knowledge is presented and discussed with reference to the Global Workspace theory. Although previously presented conclusions are promising, much remains to be completed before understanding the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between heat exposure and cognitive function. Finally, recommendations are presented for further research in this area. PMID:21029192

Gaoua, N

2010-10-01

264

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

2009-01-01

265

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results showed that 95% of the participants experienced clinically

Jane Shakespeare-Finch; Therese de Dassel

2009-01-01

266

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

267

Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermakova, Radka; Cimermanova, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

2013-01-01

268

Speed of word recognition and vocabulary knowledge in infancy predict cognitive and language outcomes in later childhood  

PubMed Central

The nature of predictive relations between early language and later cognitive function is a fundamental question in research on human cognition. In a longitudinal study assessing speed of language processing in infancy, Fernald, Perfors and Marchman (2006) found that reaction time at 25 months was strongly related to lexical and grammatical development over the second year. In this follow-up study, children originally tested as infants were assessed at 8 years on standardized tests of language, cognition, and working memory. Speed of spoken word recognition and vocabulary size at 25 months each accounted for unique variance in linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years, effects that were attributable to strong relations between both infancy measures and working memory. These findings suggest that processing speed and early language skills are fundamental to intellectual functioning, and that language development is guided by learning and representational principles shared across cognitive and linguistic domains.

Marchman, Virginia A.; Fernald, Anne

2010-01-01

269

Assessment of cognitive function in the heterozygous reeler mouse.  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE The heterozygous reeler mouse has been proposed as a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, based on several neuroanatomical and behavioral similarities between these mice and patients with schizophrenia. However, the effect of reelin haploinsufficiency on one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia, the impairment of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function, has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE Here, we investigated multiple aspects of cognitive function in heterozygous reeler mice that are known to be impaired in schizophrenic patients. METHODS Heterozygous reeler mice were assessed for (1) cognitive flexibility in an instrumental reversal learning task; (2) impulsivity in an inhibitory control task; (3) attentional function in a three-choice serial reaction time task; and (4) working memory in a delayed matching-to-position task. RESULTS No differences were found between heterozygous reeler mice and wild-type littermate controls in any prefrontal-related cognitive measures. However, heterozygous reeler mice showed deficits in the acquisition of two operant tasks, consistent with a role for reelin in certain forms of learning. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that heterozygous reeler mice may not be an appropriate model for the core prefrontal-dependent cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia, but may model more general learning deficits that are associated with many psychiatric disorders.

Krueger, Dilja D.; Howell, Jessica L.; Hebert, Britni F.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Nairn, Angus C.

2006-01-01

270

Impact of Common KIBRA Allele on Human Cognitive Functions  

PubMed Central

The rs17070145 polymorphism (C ? T substitution, intron 9) of the KIBRA gene has recently been associated with episodic memory and cognitive flexibility. These findings were inconsistent across reports though, and largely lacked gene–gene or gene–environment interactions. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of the rs17070145 polymorphism on clinically relevant cognitive domains and its interaction with the modifiers ‘lifestyle' and ‘cardiovascular risk factors'. Five-hundred forty-five elderly volunteers (mean age 64 years, ±7 years, 56% women) accomplished a comprehensive cognitive testing. Principal component analysis was used to reveal the internal structure of the data, rendering four composite scores: verbal memory, word fluency, executive function/psychomotor speed, and working memory. Lifestyle was assessed with a detailed questionnaire, age-associated risk factors by clinical interview and examination. There was no main effect of the rs17070145 genotype on any cognitive composite scores. However, we found worse performance in executive functions for T-allele carriers in the presence of arterial hypertension (?=?0.365, p=0.0077 and 0.031 after Bonferroni correction). This association was further modified by gender, showing the strongest association in hypertensive females (?=?0.500, p=0.0072 and 0.029 after Bonferroni correction). The effect of KIBRA on cognitive function seems to be complex and modified by gender and arterial hypertension.

Wersching, H; Guske, K; Hasenkamp, S; Hagedorn, C; Schiwek, S; Jansen, S; Witte, V; Wellmann, J; Lohmann, H; Duning, K; Kremerskothen, J; Knecht, S; Brand, E; Floel, A

2011-01-01

271

Cognitive Variability in Adults with ADHD and AS: Disentangling the Roles of Executive Functions and Social Cognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these…

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-01-01

272

Social cognition, empathy and functional outcome in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Social and occupational functioning difficulties are a characteristic feature of schizophrenia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that deficits in social cognition contribute significantly to these functional impairments. The present study sought to investigate whether the association between social cognition and social functioning in schizophrenia would be mediated by self-reported levels of empathy. Thirty outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and twenty-five healthy controls completed a well-validated facial affect processing task (Ekman 60-faces facial task from the Facial Expressions of Emotion - Stimuli and Tests; FEEST), The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; to assess emotion perception and complex social cognitive skills such as the detection of sarcasm and deceit, from realistic social exchanges), and measures of self-reported empathy and social functioning. Participants with schizophrenia performed more poorly than controls in identifying emotional states from both FEEST and TASIT stimuli, and were impaired in their ability to comprehend counterfactual information in social exchanges, including sarcasm and lies, on the TASIT. Impairment in the comprehension of sarcasm was associated with higher empathic personal distress, and lower recreational functioning. Impairment in the identification of the emotions of others was found to be associated with lower satisfaction and lower empathic fantasy. However, empathy could not be explored as a mediator of associations between social cognition and functional outcome, due to lack of common associations with functional outcome measures. These findings have implications for the remediation of specific social cognitive deficits with respect to improving functional outcomes in schizophrenia. PMID:20609567

Sparks, Amy; McDonald, Skye; Lino, Bianca; O'Donnell, Maryanne; Green, Melissa J

2010-07-06

273

Analysis of PCB congeners related to cognitive functioning in adolescents.  

PubMed

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson-Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long-term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-Knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V; Schell, Lawrence M; DeCaprio, Anthony P; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D

2009-05-22

274

ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS RELATED TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING IN ADOLESCENTS  

PubMed Central

To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitive functioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work.

Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.

2011-01-01

275

Executive function and latent classes of childhood obesity risk.  

PubMed

Executive function (EF) is the set of neuro-cognitive processes associated with self-regulation, decision-making, and goal-directed behavior. The goal of this study is to examine cross-sectional relationships between EF and latent classes of youth characterized by patterns of obesity-related health behaviors (i.e., high fat/high sugar intake, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dieting). Participants were 997 4th grade youth in a school-based obesity prevention program. Cross-sectional relationships at study baseline between established latent classes of obesity risk and EF problems were assessed. General linear models demonstrated that EF problems were associated with classification into two unhealthy latent obesity risk classes. One potential implication of study findings is that obesity intervention efforts include EF promotion content tailored for latent classes of youth at different levels of obesity risk. PMID:22218938

Riggs, Nathaniel R; Huh, Jimi; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Pentz, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

276

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

277

Dose-related effects of alcohol on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

We assessed the suitability of six applied tests of cognitive functioning to provide a single marker for dose-related alcohol intoxication. Numerous studies have demonstrated that alcohol has a deleterious effect on specific areas of cognitive processing but few have compared the effects of alcohol across a wide range of different cognitive processes. Adult participants (N?=?56, 32 males, 24 females aged 18-45 years) were randomized to control or alcohol treatments within a mixed design experiment involving multiple-dosages at approximately one hour intervals (attained mean blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 0.00, 0.048, 0.082 and 0.10%), employing a battery of six psychometric tests; the Useful Field of View test (UFOV; processing speed together with directed attention); the Self-Ordered Pointing Task (SOPT; working memory); Inspection Time (IT; speed of processing independent from motor responding); the Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP; strategic optimization); the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; vigilance, response inhibition and psychomotor function); and the Trail-Making Test (TMT; cognitive flexibility and psychomotor function). Results demonstrated that impairment is not uniform across different domains of cognitive processing and that both the size of the alcohol effect and the magnitude of effect change across different dose levels are quantitatively different for different cognitive processes. Only IT met the criteria for a marker for wide-spread application: reliable dose-related decline in a basic process as a function of rising BAC level and easy to use non-invasive task properties. PMID:23209840

Dry, Matthew J; Burns, Nicholas R; Nettelbeck, Ted; Farquharson, Aaron L; White, Jason M

2012-11-29

278

Roles of Brain Angiotensin II in Cognitive Function and Dementia  

PubMed Central

The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II in neural injury, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function and that RAS blockade attenuates cognitive impairment in rodent dementia models of AD. Therefore, RAS regulation is expected to have therapeutic potential for AD. Here, we discuss the role of angiotensin II in cognitive impairment and AD. Angiotensin II binds to the type 2 receptor (AT2) and works mainly by binding with the type 1 receptor (AT1). AT2 receptor signaling plays a role in protection against multiple-organ damage. A direct AT2 receptor agonist is now available and is expected to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhance cell differentiation. We and other groups reported that AT2 receptor activation enhances neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the brain. Here, we also review the effect of the AT2 receptor on cognitive function. RAS modulation may be a new therapeutic option for dementia including AD in the future.

Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2012-01-01

279

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization  

PubMed Central

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the “global workspace” theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration.

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M.

2012-01-01

280

Pro-cognitive drug effects modulate functional brain network organization.  

PubMed

Previous studies document that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs improve attention, memory and cognitive control in healthy subjects and patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. In humans neural mechanisms of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation have mainly been analyzed by investigating drug-induced changes of task-related neural activity measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Endogenous neural activity has often been neglected. Further, although drugs affect the coupling between neurons, only a few human studies have explicitly addressed how drugs modulate the functional connectome, i.e., the functional neural interactions within the brain. These studies have mainly focused on synchronization or correlation of brain activations. Recently, there are some drug studies using graph theory and other new mathematical approaches to model the brain as a complex network of interconnected processing nodes. Using such measures it is possible to detect not only focal, but also subtle, widely distributed drug effects on functional network topology. Most important, graph theoretical measures also quantify whether drug-induced changes in topology or network organization facilitate or hinder information processing. Several studies could show that functional brain integration is highly correlated with behavioral performance suggesting that cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs which improve measures of cognitive performance should increase functional network integration. The purpose of this paper is to show that graph theory provides a mathematical tool to develop theory-driven biomarkers of pro-cognitive drug effects, and also to discuss how these approaches can contribute to the understanding of the role of cholinergic and noradrenergic modulation in the human brain. Finally we discuss the "global workspace" theory as a theoretical framework of pro-cognitive drug effects and argue that pro-cognitive effects of cholinergic and noradrenergic drugs might be related to higher network integration. PMID:22973209

Giessing, Carsten; Thiel, Christiane M

2012-08-28

281

Cognitive disinhibition and socioemotional functioning in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) experience difficulties with socioemotional functioning, and it has been proposed that cognitive disinhibition may be one potential mechanism that contributes to difficulties in this area. To test this possibility, twenty individuals with AD and 20 demographically matched controls were administered self-report measures of depression, emotion regulation and empathy, in addition to a behavioral measure that

SCOTT NASH; JULIE D. HENRY; SKYE MCDONALD; INGERITH MARTIN; HENRY BRODATY; MARIE-ANDREE PEEK-O'LEARY

2007-01-01

282

Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime

Melinda L. Jackson; Mark E. Howard; Maree Barnes

2011-01-01

283

Impairment in Cognitive Functions After Multiple Detoxifications in Alcoholic Inpatients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol results in a kindling-like process leading to increased likelihood and severity of convulsions during detoxification. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated withdrawals affect cognitive function. Methods: We investigated alcoholic patients undergoing detoxification in an inpatient setting, using tasks sensitive to dysfunction of prefrontal areas. The tasks applied were two

Theodora Duka; Julia M. Townshend; Kirsty Collier; David N. Stephens

2003-01-01

284

Cognitive Functioning and the Early Development of PTSD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cross-sectional studies of chronic PTSD reveal deficits in verbal memory. We studied cognitive functioning and its relationship to current and subsequent PTSD severity during an early phase of trauma response. Thirty-eight participants with traumatic injuries and only posttrauma incident psychopathology were evaluated shortly after admission to a Level I Trauma Center. Neuropsychological measures were obtained at baseline and assessment of

Victoria Bustamante; Thomas A. Mellman; Daniella David; Ana I. Fins

2001-01-01

285

Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

Johnson, Genevieve Marie

2007-01-01

286

Neuroimaging of cognitive functions in human parietal cortex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Functional neuroimaging has proven highly valuable in mapping human sensory regions, particularly visual areas in occipital cortex. Recent evidence suggests that human parietal cortex may also consist of numerous specialized subregions similar to those reported in neurophysiological studies of non-human primates. However, parietal activation generalizes across a wide variety of cognitive tasks and the extension of human brain mapping into

Jody C Culham; Nancy G Kanwisher

2001-01-01

287

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

288

Alcohol consumption and cognitive function in the Whitehall II Study.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitive function in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitive function (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when participants were aged 46-68 years. Of people who reported drinking alcohol in the past year, those who consumed at least one drink in the past week, compared with those who did not, were significantly less likely to have poor cognitive function. The beneficial effect extended to those drinking more than 240 g per week (approximately 30 drinks). The effect was stronger for women than men and was not confined to those with evidence of vascular disease. Similar associations were found in cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The relations were not explained by confounding by smoking and by physical and mental health and, to a large extent, were not mediated by cholesterol or blood pressure. However, the relations were weakened when social position was added to the model. The authors concluded that for middle-aged subjects, increasing levels of alcohol consumption were associated with better function regarding some aspects of cognition. Nonetheless, it is not proposed that these findings be used to encourage increased alcohol consumption. PMID:15257997

Britton, Annie; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Marmot, Michael

2004-08-01

289

Cognitive and Emotional Functioning in Hypopituitary Short-Statured Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven children with documented growth hormone deficiency were studied to assess their cognitive and emotional functioning and their academic achievement before and after 1 year of human growth hormone replacement therapy. Standardized personality and intelligence measures were used, and records of school achievement, as well as developmental and family history from parents, were obtained. Although some subjects in this group

Deborah Abbott; Diane Rotnem; Myron Genel; Donald J. Cohen

1982-01-01

290

Cognitive, Affective, and Marital Functioning of Recovering Male Polysubstance Abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research examining aspects of alcoholism and drug abuse has developed our knowledge of the components of addiction, especially alcoholism, within the fields of neuropsychology, affective disorders research, and marital and family research. The present study examined the relationships between these domains for 31 married couples in which the husband was a recovering polysubstance abuser. The cognitive functioning of the husband,

John Schafer; Gary R. Birchler; William Fals-Stewart

1994-01-01

291

Influence of Caffeine on Physiological and Cognitive Functions of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review is devoted to the analysis of the effect of caffeine on physiological and cognitive functions of humans. The methodological aspects of experiments with the use of caffeine are discussed, in particular, the dosage, the frequency of use, and in combination with other products. The possibilities of the use of caffeine for studying physiological and mental phenomena, as well

S. A. Schapkin

2002-01-01

292

Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-01-01

293

Timp-3 deficiency impairs cognitive function in mice  

PubMed Central

Extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation is performed primarily by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MMPs have recently been shown to regulate synaptic activity in the hippocampus and to affect memory and learning. The tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (Timp) is an endogenous factor that controls MMP activity by binding to the catalytic site of MMPs. At present, four Timp isotypes have been reported (Timp-1 through Timp-4) with 35–50% amino-acid sequence homology. Timp-3 is a unique member of Timp proteins in that it is bound to the ECM. In this study, we used the passive avoidance test, active avoidance test, and water maze test to examine the cognitive function in Timp-3 knockout (KO) mice. Habituation was evaluated using the open-field test. The water maze test showed that Timp-3 KO mice exhibit deterioration in cognitive function compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The open-field test showed decreased habituation of Timp-3 KO mice. Immunostaining of brain slices revealed the expression of Timp-3 in the hippocampus. In situ zymography of the hippocampus showed increased gelatinolytic activity in Timp-3 KO mice compared with WT mice. These results present the first evidence of Timp-3 involvement in cognitive function and hippocampal MMP activity in mice. Moreover, our findings suggest a novel therapeutic target to be explored for improvement of cognitive function in humans.

Baba, Yoshichika; Yasuda, Osamu; Takemura, Yukihiro; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Iwanami, Jun; Mogi, Masaki; Doe, Nobutaka; Horiuchi, Masatsugu; Maeda, Nobuyo; Fukuo, Keisuke; Rakugi, Hiromi

2011-01-01

294

Cognitive-Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.

Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay

2004-01-01

295

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

296

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

297

Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation for childhood leukemia on subsequent cognitive and problem-solving skills  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has indicated that children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), treated with a CNS prophylaxis of 2,400 cGy radiation and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), demonstrate a decline in both global and specific aspects of their cognitive functioning. Recent changes in treatment protocols for ALL have resulted in a significant reduction in radiation to a dosage of 1,800 cGy, or the elimination of radiation altogether. Today, it is recognized that for low- and average-risk ALL patients the use of intrathecal methotrexate is equally effective for reducing the occurrence of CNS leukemic relapse. Current research has not yet fully determined the impact of this lowered dosage of radiation on later intellectual functioning in survivors of ALL. The present research compared the standardized-test performance of a group of children receiving 1,800 cGy radiation and IT-MTX (n = 15) to a group receiving IT-MTX only (n = 10) as a CNS prophylaxis. All subjects were treated with one leg of the Childrens Cancer Study Group protocols {number sign}161 or {number sign}162, and were evaluated at least 5 years post-diagnosis, while in remission from the disease process. Subjects ranged in age from seven to twelve at the time of participation. Tests administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), the Mental Processing subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and a variety of tasks which have been indicated to measure different aspects of children's cognitive strategy usage (including Tower of Hanoi and Matching Familiar Figures tasks). Analysis revealed significant performance-differences between these groups as reflected on the WISC-R (Verbal IQ) and on the K-ABC (Sequential Processing score), with the Radiated group performing more poorly than the Non-radiated group.

Hays, R.C.

1989-01-01

298

Cognition and daytime functioning in sleep-related breathing disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep-related breathing disorders encompass a range of disorders in which abnormal ventilation occurs during sleep as a result of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway, altered respiratory drive, abnormal chest wall movement, or respiratory muscle function. The most common of these is obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in both adults and children, and causing significant cognitive and daytime dysfunction and reduced quality of life. OSA patients experience repetitive brief cessation of breathing throughout the night, which causes intermittent hypoxemia (reductions in hemoglobin oxygen levels) and fragmented sleep patterns. These nocturnal events result in excessive daytime sleepiness, and changes in mood and cognition. Chronic excessive sleepiness during the day is a common symptom of sleep-related breathing disorders, which is assessed in sleep clinics both subjectively (questionnaire) and objectively (sleep latency tests). Mood changes are often reported by patients, including irritability, fatigue, depression, and anxiety. A wide range of cognitive deficits have been identified in untreated OSA patients, from attentional and vigilance, to memory and executive functions, and more complex tasks such as simulated driving. These changes are reflected in patient reports of difficulty in concentrating, increased forgetfulness, an inability to make decisions, and falling asleep at the wheel of a motor vehicle. These cognitive changes can also have significant downstream effects on daily functioning. Moderate to severe cases of the disorder are at a higher risk of having a motor vehicle accident, and may also have difficulties at work or school. A number of comorbidities may also influence the cognitive changes in OSA patients, including hypertension, diabetes, and stroke. These diseases can cause changes to neural vasculature and result in neural damage, leading to cognitive impairments. Examination of OSA patients using neuroimaging techniques such as structural magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has observed significant changes to brain structure and metabolism. The downstream effects of neural, cognitive, and daytime functional impairments can be significant if left untreated. A better understanding of the cognitive effects of these disorders, and development of more effective assessment tools for diagnosis, will aid early intervention and improve quality of life of the patient. PMID:21531244

Jackson, Melinda L; Howard, Mark E; Barnes, Maree

2011-01-01

299

Neuroligins and Neurexins Link Synaptic Function to Cognitive Disease  

PubMed Central

Preface The brain processes information by transmitting signals at synapses, which connect neurons into vast networks of communicating cells. In these networks, synapses not only transmit, but also process and refine information. Neurexins and neuroligins are synaptic cell-adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynaptic neurons at synapses, mediate trans-synaptic signaling, and shape neural network properties by specifying synaptic functions. In humans, alterations in neurexin or neuroligin genes are implicated in autism and other cognitive diseases, connecting synaptic cell adhesion to cognition and its disorders. Thus, neurexins and neuroligins are core components of the molecular machinery that controls synaptic transmission and enables neural networks to process complex signals.

Sudhof, Thomas C.

2009-01-01

300

Evolutionary Psychology, Cognitive Function, and Deterrence  

Microsoft Academic Search

For decades deterrence has been understood to depend largely on psychology—convincing an adversary that certain actions are not in the adversary's best interests. However, beyond a token mention, contemporary discussions of deterrence seldom examine further the role of psychology and brain function in human decision making in matters of war and violence. Instead, deterrence planners typically rely on the rational

Thomas Scheber

2011-01-01

301

Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.  

PubMed

Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

2010-12-08

302

Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

2010-01-01

303

Enhancing cognitive functioning in the elderly: multicomponent vs resistance training  

PubMed Central

Purpose The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different exercise training programs on executive cognitive functions and functional mobility in older adults. A secondary purpose was to explore the potential mediators of training effects on executive function and functional mobility with particular reference to physical fitness gains. Methods A sample of 42 healthy community dwelling adults aged 65 to 75 years participated twice weekly for 3 months in either: (1) multicomponent training, prioritizing neuromuscular coordination, balance, agility, and cognitive executive control; or (2) progressive resistance training for strength conditioning. Participants were tested at baseline (T1), following a 4-week control period (T2), and finally at postintervention (T3) for executive function (inhibition and cognitive flexibility) and functional mobility (maximal walking speed with and without additional task requirements). Cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were also assessed as potential mediators. Results Indices of inhibition, the functions involved in the deliberate withholding of prepotent or automatic responses, and measures of functional mobility improved after the intervention, independent of training type. Mediation analysis suggested that different mechanisms underlie the effects of multicomponent and progressive resistance training. While multicomponent training seemed to directly affect inhibitory capacity, resistance training seemed to affect it indirectly through gains in muscular strength. Physical fitness and executive function variables did not mediate functional mobility changes. Conclusion These results confirm that physical training benefits executive function and suggest that different training types might lead to such benefits through different pathways. Both types of training also promoted functional mobility in older adulthood; however, neither inhibitory capacity, nor muscular strength gains seemed to explain functional mobility outcomes.

Forte, Roberta; Boreham, Colin AG; Leite, Joao Costa; De Vito, Giuseppe; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Pesce, Caterina

2013-01-01

304

Cognitive Distortion and Functional Impairment in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the influence of cognitivedistortion (e.g., catastrophizing, overgeneralization)on functional impairment among coronary heart disease(CHD) patients undergoing outpatient cardiacrehabilitation. Forty-two CHD patients completed a versionofthe Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CEQ; Lefebvre,1981) shortly after hospital discharge at the initiationof the rehabilitation program. Functional impairmentwas assessed both pre- and postrehabilitation usingscales from the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP; Bergner etal., 1981) and a

Alan J. Christensen; Dawn L. Edwards; Patricia J. Moran; Rachael Burke; Patricia Lounsbury; Ellen E. I. Gordon

1999-01-01

305

Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women  

PubMed Central

Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

2011-01-01

306

Cognitive functioning ten years following traumatic brain injury and rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Many previous studies investigating long-term cognitive impairments following traumatic brain injury (TBI) have focused on extremely severely injured patients, relied on subjective reports of change and failed to use demographically relevant control data. The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive impairments 10 years following TBI and their association with injury severity. Sixty TBI and 43 control participants were assessed on tests of attention, processing speed, memory, and executive function. The TBI group demonstrated significant cognitive impairment on measures of processing speed (Symbol Digit Modalities Test [SDMT], Smith, 1973; Digit Symbol Coding, Wechsler, 1997), memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]; Rey, 1958; Lezak, 1976), Doors and People tests; Baddeley, Emslie & Nimmo-Smith, 1994) and executive function (Hayling C [Burgess & Shallice, 1997] and SART errors, Robertson, Manly, Andrade, Baddeley & Yiend, 1997). Logistic Regression analyses indicated that the SDMT, Rey AVLT and Hayling C and SART errors most strongly differentiated the groups in the domains of attention/processing speed, memory and executive function, respectively. Greater injury severity was significantly correlated with poorer test performances across all domains. This study shows that cognitive impairments are present many years following TBI and are associated with injury severity. PMID:18763881

Draper, Kristy; Ponsford, Jennie

2008-09-01

307

Long-term enhancement of brain function and cognition using cognitive training and brain stimulation.  

PubMed

Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic, was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity. PMID:23684971

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-05-16

308

Cognitive remediation for treatment-resistant depression: effects on cognition and functioning and the role of online homework.  

PubMed

Neurocognitive impairments are observed in depression and associated with poor functioning. This study examined the efficacy and the effectiveness of cognitive remediation with supplemental Internet-based homework in treatment-resistant depression. Participants were randomized to treatment or wait list control conditions. Treatment consisted of 10 weeks of weekly group sessions and daily online cognitive exercises completed at home. The participants were assessed on cognitive, mood, motivation, and functioning measures. There was a significant time by treatment interaction for attention/processing speed and verbal memory. Changes in functioning were not significant, although improved cognition predicted improvements in functioning. Number of minutes of online exercise was associated with greater cognitive improvements. Cognitive deficits are malleable with behavioral treatment in a mood disorder characterized by severe and persistent symptoms. PMID:23896849

Bowie, Christopher R; Gupta, Maya; Holshausen, Katherine; Jokic, Ruzica; Best, Michael; Milev, Roumen

2013-08-01

309

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

310

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-07-20

311

Gender characteristics of cerebral hemodynamics during complex cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series of cerebral hemodynamic parameters in the middle cerebral arteries (MCA) during the Trail Making Tests (TMT), a means of selective attention and complex cognitive functioning. In females, there was a frequency peak at 0.375 Hz in both MCA, and we observed a dynamic shift in hemispheric dominance during that condition. Further, after the start phase, there was an MFV decline during complex functioning for the entire sample. These novel results suggest condition-specific features of cerebral hemodynamics in females, and it adds to the notion that gender is a fundamental confounder of brain physiology. PMID:21420774

Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, André; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

2011-03-21

312

Cognitive, Behavioral, and Functional Consequences of Inadequate Sleep in Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Synopsis During the past few decades, studies using multiple research designs have examined whether sleep during childhood and adolescence is related to cognition, behavior, and other aspects of daytime functioning. This paper summarizes recent correlational, case-control, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, highlighting how the strengths and limitations of each research design are complementary, thereby allowing one to more confidently draw conclusions when viewing the research literature as a whole. Viewed in this manner, published findings suggest that inadequate sleep quality and/or quantity can cause sleepiness, inattention and, very likely, other cognitive and behavioral deficits that significantly impact children and adolescents in important functional settings (e.g., school). This paper then integrates findings from longitudinal studies within a developmental psychopathology model. In this model, inadequate sleep is viewed as a noxious exposure that can, over time, fundamentally alter a child or adolescent's development, resulting in poorer long-term outcomes. Important research questions remain, but the available evidence supports the integration of sleep screening and interventions into routine clinical care and also supports advocacy for public policy changes to improve the sleep of children and adolescents.

Beebe, Dean W.

2011-01-01

313

Selenium Level and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

PubMed Central

Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitive function or Alzheimer’s disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People’s Republic of China was conducted from December 2003 to May 2005 by use of the Community Screening Instrument for Dementia, the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease (CERAD) Word List Learning Test, the Indiana University Story Recall Test, the Animal Fluency Test, and the Indiana University Token Test. Over 70% of the study participants have lived in the same village since birth. Nail samples were collected and analyzed for selenium contents. Analysis-of-covariance models were used to estimate the association between quintile selenium levels measured in nail samples and cognitive test scores, with adjustment for other covariates. Lower selenium levels measured in nail samples were significantly associated with lower cognitive scores (p < 0.0087 for all tests) except the Animal Fluency Test (p = 0.4378). A dose-response effect of selenium quintiles was also seen for those significant associations. Results in this geographically stable cohort support the hypothesis that a lifelong low selenium level is associated with lower cognitive function.

Gao, Sujuan; Jin, Yinlong; Hall, Kathleen S.; Liang, Chaoke; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ji, Rongdi; Murrell, Jill R.; Cao, Jingxiang; Shen, Jianzhao; Ma, Feng; Matesan, Janetta; Ying, Bo; Cheng, Yibin; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Hendrie, Hugh C.

2009-01-01

314

Does Childhood Diarrhea Influence Cognition Beyond the Diarrhea-Stunting Pathway?  

PubMed Central

Background Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet the additional effects and sequelae, such as cognitive impairment associated with diarrhea, have not been quantified. Methods We quantified the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognitive outcomes while controlling for linear growth in 4 study populations. Cognition was assessed using different methods across sites and was expressed in standardized units. We built linear regression models for each study with standardized cognitive score as the outcome and diarrhea prevalence as the main predictor variable. We then conducted meta-analyses of the regression coefficients to generate pooled estimates of the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognition whilst controlling for anthropometric status and other covariates. Results Diarrhea was not a significant predictor of cognitive score in any site in the regression models or in the meta-analyses (Coefficient?=?0.07; 95% CI: ?0.1, 0.2). The length for age Z- score was negatively related to cognition in all sites (0.18; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.21), with coefficients remarkably similar across sites (Coefficient Range: 0.168–0.186). Conclusions We did not demonstrate an association between diarrhea and cognition with stunting included in the model. The links between diarrhea, stunting, and cognition provide additional rationale for accelerating interventions to reduce diarrhea.

Fischer Walker, Christa L.; Lamberti, Laura; Adair, Linda; Guerrant, Richard L.; Lescano, Andres G.; Martorell, Reynaldo; Pinkerton, Relana C.; Black, Robert E.

2012-01-01

315

Neuro-cognitive impairment following acquired central nervous system infections in childhood: a systematic review.  

PubMed

The morbid consequences of central nervous system (CNS) infections are often overlooked in the face of high mortality rates. However, neurological impairments not only affect the child's development and future prospects but also place an economic and social burden on communities and countries that often have few resources to deal with such problems. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the occurrence and pattern of persisting neurological impairment after common CNS infections. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO databases, supplemented by hand-searches of key journals, resulted in forty-six eligible studies, five of which gave information on the spectrum of developmental domains. Despite the lack of comprehensive, methodologically-sound studies, the results show that postinfectious neurological impairment persists, most commonly in cognition and motor functions. Deficits include more subtle problems, which can be difficult to detect on gross neurological assessment but may still be deleterious to the child's social and educational functioning. Higher morbidity for similar mortality in acute bacterial meningitis compared with cerebral malaria in the epidemiological data may suggest future research directions for clinical research to devise more effective interventions. PMID:14499462

Carter, Julie A; Neville, Brian G R; Newton, Charles R J C

2003-09-01

316

Social and Cognitive Functioning as Risk Factors for Suicide: A Historical-Prospective Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives- Previous studies have shown that poor cognitive and social functioning are associated with increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to examine the association between social and cognitive functioning in adolescence and later completed suici...

E. Fruchter G. Lubin N. Rotem N. Werbeloff R. Neidorf

2011-01-01

317

The effect of age on frontal lobe related cognitive functions of unmedicated depressed patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAging is associated with a decline in frontal lobe related cognitive functioning of healthy subjects (i.e., executive functioning and higher-order cognition). Unipolar depression is associated with dysfunctions in similar cognitive domains — deficits that impact the functioning and quality of life of these patients. The effect of age on frontal lobe related cognitive functions of depressed patients, however, has not

Yoram Braw; Shai Aviram; Yuval Bloch; Yechiel Levkovitz

2011-01-01

318

The duration of inpatient admission predicts cognitive functioning at discharge in patients with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies of cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder generally indicate that a more severe course of illness is associated with greater cognitive impairment. In particular, a history of greater number and longer duration of mood episodes predicts enduring cognitive deficits in euthymic patients. Shifting the focus of this investigation to the cognitive effects of a discrete mood episode, the current

Boaz Levy; Matthew R. Stephansky; Kris C. Dobie; Benedetta A. Monzani; Anna Marie Medina; Roger D. Weiss

2009-01-01

319

Social-Cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptually related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as moderators of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in…

Hoglund, Wendy L. G.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.

2008-01-01

320

Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

2010-01-01

321

Development of response inhibition and decision-making across childhood: A cognitive neuroscience perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent advances within the field of neuroimaging and psychophysiological recording techniques have enabled the identification of key brain regions that contribute to developmental changes in cognitive control and decision-making. This chapter will focus on two influential paradigms in the field of experimental cognitive neuroscience that have contributed to our understanding of the nature of the increasing ability in children to

Wildenberg van den W. P. M; Eveline A. Crone

2005-01-01

322

Social-cognitive Competence, Peer Rejection and Neglect, and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Middle Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptu- ally related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as modera- tors of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in grades 2 and 3. As expected, peer rejection and neglect increased risks for behavioral and emotional problems

Wendy L. G. Hoglund; Christopher E. Lalonde; Bonnie J. Leadbeater

2008-01-01

323

Resveratrol Preserves Cerebrovascular Density and Cognitive Function in Aging Mice  

PubMed Central

Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol abundant in grapes and red wine, has been reported to exert numerous beneficial health effects. Among others, acute neuroprotective effects of resveratrol have been described in several models of neurodegeneration, both in vitro and in vivo. In the present study we examined the neuroprotective effects of long-term dietary supplementation with resveratrol in mice on behavioral, neurochemical and cerebrovascular level. We report a preserved cognitive function in resveratrol-treated aging mice, as shown by an enhanced acquisition of a spatial Y-maze task. This was paralleled by a higher microvascular density and a lower number of microvascular abnormalities in comparison to aging non-treated control animals. We found no effects of resveratrol supplementation on cholinergic cell number or fiber density. The present findings support the hypothesis that resveratrol exerts beneficial effects on the brain by maintaining cerebrovascular health. Via this mechanism resveratrol can contribute to the preservation of cognitive function during aging.

Oomen, Charlotte A.; Farkas, Eszter; Roman, Viktor; van der Beek, Eline M.; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Meerlo, Peter

2009-01-01

324

Factors Associated with Changing Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Implications for Nursing Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the significant effects of aging on cognitive function. As people age, brain tissue volume decreases, white matter hyperintensities increase, and associated deficits are seen in working memory, attention, and executive function. Comorbidities include hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Another factor that affects cognitive function is the presence of apolipoprotein E-4, which is negatively correlated with cognitive

Jamie S. Myers

325

Vascular disease and cognitive function in older men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: stroke can impair cognitive function, but the associations between other manifestations of vascular disease and cognitive function have not been adequately studied in representative population samples of subjects. We report the associations between cardiac and peripheral vascular disease and cognitive function for a large representative sample of men in Caerphilly, South Wales, UK. Design: the Caerphilly cohort is the

PETER C. ELWOOD; J ANET PICKERING; A NTHONY BAYER; J OHN E. J. GALLACHER

326

Family Functioning and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated family functioning and relationships between family functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer. To assess family functioning, 144 adolescent cancer survivors 1 to 12 years post–cancer treatment (M = 5.3 years) and their parents completed the Family Assessment Device (FAD). To assess PTSD, adolescents were administered a structured diagnostic interview. Nearly half

Melissa A. Alderfer; Neha Navsaria; Anne E. Kazak

2009-01-01

327

Childhood Overweight and the Relationship between Parent Behaviors, Parenting Style, and Family Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and how a family functions with respect to the development of childhood overweight. Parents can influence a child's weight through specific feeding and activity practices and perhaps more broadly through their parenting style and management of family functioning. These more global influences of parenting style and family functioning provide a

Kyung Rhee

2008-01-01

328

Cognitive enhancement by omega-3 fatty acids from child-hood to old age: findings from animal and clinical studies.  

PubMed

Omega-(n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are major components of neuronal membranes and have a wide range of functions, from modulating synaptic plasticity and neurochemistry, to neuroimmune-modulation and neuroprotection. Thus, it is not surprising that n-3 PUFA are widely acknowledged to have cognitive-enhancing effects. Although clinical evidence is somewhat conflicting, probably in large part due to methodological issues, animal studies have consistently demonstrated that n-3 PUFA are indispensable for proper brain development, may enhance cognitive function in healthy, adult individuals and attenuate cognitive impairment in aging and age-related disorders, such as dementia. This review discusses and integrates up to date evidence from clinical and animal studies investigating the cognitive-enhancing effects of n-3 PUFA during development, child- and adult-hood, as well as old-age with associated neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, we cover the major underlying biochemical and neurophysiological mechanisms by which n-3 PUFA mediate these effects on cognition. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22841917

Luchtman, Dirk W; Song, Cai

2012-07-27

329

Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory con- trol processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant develop- ment of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psycho- pathologies. Method: The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging

Rachel Marsh; Tiago V. Maia; Bradley S. Peterson

2009-01-01

330

Aerodynamic Indices of Velopharyngeal Function in Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal…

Sealey, Linda R.; Giddens, Cheryl L.

2010-01-01

331

Effects of GH on cognitive function in elderly patients with adult-onset GH deficiency: a placebo-controlled 12-month study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced memory and attention, which can be improved by treatment with GH. Little information is available on cognitive function in elderly GHD patients. Design: Single center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 52-week duration. Methods: Elderly GH therapy naive GHD patients (nZ34; age range 60-77 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive

Mahesh Sathiavageeswaran; Pia Burman; David Lawrence; Alan G Harris; Marina G Falleti; Paul Maruff; John Wass

2007-01-01

332

Cognitive function of 6-year old children exposed to mold-contaminated homes in early postnatal period. Prospective birth cohort study in Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade, the neurologic effects of various air pollutants have been the focus of increasing attention. The main purpose of this study was to assess the potential impact of early childhood exposure to indoor molds on the subsequent cognitive function of 6-year old children. The results of this study are based on the six-year follow-up of 277 babies

Wieslaw Jedrychowski; Umberto Maugeri; Frederica Perera; Laura Stigter; Jeffrey Jankowski; Maria Butscher; Elzbieta Mroz; Elzbieta Flak; Anita Skarupa; Agata Sowa

2011-01-01

333

Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

2006-01-01

334

Ethical questions in functional neuroimaging and cognitive enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new field of neuroethics has recently emerged following unprecedented developments in the neurosciences. Neuroimaging\\u000a and cognitive enhancement in particular are demanding ethical debate. For example, neuroscientists are able to measure, with\\u000a increasing accuracy, intimate personal biases and thoughts as they occur in the brain. “Smart drugs” are now available that\\u000a can effectively and safely enhance mental functioning in both

Danielle C. Turner; Barbara J. Sahakian

2006-01-01

335

Cognitive function in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy correlates with the molecular defect.  

PubMed

Previous studies based on case descriptions and neuroradiological findings have suggested central nervous system (CNS) involvement in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. The aim of this work is to explore the relationship between cognitive/personality pattern and the underlying molecular defect for this muscular dystrophy. We performed a wide-ranging neuropsychological assessment of 34 molecularly confirmed facioscapulohumeral dystrophy patients and 49 control subjects, all of whom also received the Millon-II Multiaxial Clinical Inventory (MCMI-II). Patients and controls show mild learning-level differences in the neuropsychological profile, and only the hysteriform scale is statistically higher in patients than controls. The patients' intelligence quotient (IQ) is related to the size of the deleted fragment but not to the degree of muscular impairment. The results of this study indicate a cut-off point and two distinct cognitive profiles in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, depending on the patients' molecular defect: patients with a fragment size > 24 kb show a relatively normal cognitive pattern, whereas those with a fragment size < or = 24 kb show a significantly reduced IQ and difficulties with verbal function and visuo-constructive tasks. This work provides more evidence for the involvement of the CNS in facioscapulohumeral dystrophy and suggests that the fragment size should be taken into account in the clinical management of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy as it has a predictive value on the cognitive phenotype. PMID:18823405

Sistiaga, A; Camaño, P; Otaegui, D; Ibáñez, B; Ruiz-Martinez, J; Martí-Massó, J F; López de Munain, A

2008-09-22

336

[Neonatal exposure to anesthesia and adverse cognitive outcome in childhood. Insight from epidemiology].  

PubMed

Adverse effects of general anesthesia have been observed repeatedly, mainly in animal model studies and in rodents. Already in 2005, the Food and Drug Administration recommended proceeding to similar studies in human infants, highlighting that there were several methodological issues to solve before being able to appreciate the risk of anesthetic agents on the developing brain. Most studies conducted in humans were observational studies, showing a very mild adverse effect on cognitive functions, an effect that disappeared when properly adjusted analysis was performed (with various modalities for analysis and protocols for these adjusted results). Due to numerous biases in these observational studies - bias related to selection of the population and the control subjects and their comparability as well as outcome measure assessment, it has become extremely important to conduct prospective studies. Two international studies are currently under way, but their results will not be available for a few years. How animal model results can be relevant to human babies remains controversial. Until today, and according to the current state of the art, no changes in practices are indicated, and it is important for infants and their families to avoid sensationalist messages. PMID:23880252

Cans, C

2013-07-20

337

Neural underpinnings of within-person variability in cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Increased intraindividual variability (IIV), reflecting within-person fluctuations in behavioral performance, is commonly observed in aging as well as in select disorders including traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and dementia. Much recent progress has been made toward understanding the functional significance of IIV in cognitive performance (MacDonald, Nyberg, & Bäckman, 2006) and biological information processing (Stein, Gossen, & Jones 2005), with parallel efforts devoted to investigating the links between older adults' deficient neuromodulation and their more variable neuronal and cognitive functions (Bäckman, Nyberg, Lindenberger, Li, & Farde, 2006). Despite these advances in the study of IIV, there has been little empirical examination of underlying neural correlates and virtually no synthesis of extant findings. The present review summarizes the accumulating empirical evidence linking age-related increases in IIV in cognitive performance to neural correlates at anatomical, functional, neuromodulatory, and genetic levels. Computational theories of neural dynamics (e.g., Li, Lindenberger, & Sikström, 2001) are also introduced to illustrate how age-related neuromodulatory deficiencies may contribute to increased neuronal noise and render information processing in aging neurocognitive systems to be less robust. The potential benefits of stochastic resonance and external noise are also discussed with respect to processing subthreshold stimuli (e.g., Li, von Oertzen, & Lindenberger, 2006). We conclude by highlighting important challenges and outstanding research issues that remain to be answered in the study of IIV. PMID:20025396

MacDonald, Stuart W S; Li, Shu-Chen; Bäckman, Lars

2009-12-01

338

Associations Between Sleep Duration Patterns and Behavioral/Cognitive Functioning at School Entry  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between longitudinal sleep duration patterns and behavioral/cognitive functioning at school entry. Design, Setting, and Participants: Hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI), inattention, and daytime sleepiness scores were measured by questionnaire at 6 years of age in a sample of births from 1997 to 1998 in a Canadian province (N=1492). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT-R) was administered at 5 years of age and the Block Design subtest (WISC-III) was administered at 6 years of age. Sleep duration was reported yearly by the children's mothers from age 2.5 to 6 years. A group-based semiparametric mixture model was used to estimate developmental patterns of sleep duration. The relationships between sleep duration patterns and both behavioral items and neurodevelopmental tasks were tested using weighted multivariate logistic regression models to control for potentially confounding psychosocial factors. Results: Four sleep duration patterns were identified: short persistent (6.0%), short increasing (4.8%),10-hour persistent (50.3%), and 11-hour persistent (38.9%). The association of short sleep duration patterns with high HI scores (P=0.001), low PPVT-R performance (P=0.002), and low Block Design subtest performance (P=0.004) remained significant after adjusting for potentially confounding variables. Conclusions: Shortened sleep duration, especially before the age of 41 months, is associated with externalizing problems such as HI and lower cognitive performance on neurodevelopmental tests. Results highlight the importance of giving a child the opportunity to sleep at least 10 hours per night throughout early childhood. Citation: Touchette E; Petit D; Séguin JR; Boivin M; Tremblay RE; Montplaisir JY. Associations between sleep duration patterns and behavioral/cognitive functioning at school entry. SLEEP 2007;30(9):1213-1219.

Touchette, Evelyne; Petit, Dominique; Seguin, Jean R.; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.; Montplaisir, Jacques Y.

2007-01-01

339

Executive functioning deficits and childhood trauma in juvenile violent offenders in China.  

PubMed

A large body of evidence indicates that violent offenders have executive functioning deficits. However, previous studies have not considered childhood trauma, which is likely to influence the executive functioning of violent offenders. The aim of the present study was to compare the difference of executive functioning among juvenile violent offenders, with non-violent offenders and normal controls, and then to analyse whether executive functioning was affected independently of childhood trauma. In addition to using a battery of tests assessing executive functioning including the Intra/Extradimensional Shift Test(IED), the Stockings of Cambridge Test (SOC), and the Spatial Working Memory Test (SWM) from the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Testing Battery (CANTAB), the short form of the Chinese Revision of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-RC) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 item Short Form (CTQ) were also used among 107 violent offenders, 107 non-violent offenders and 107 normal controls. Our results showed that both offender groups obtained significantly lower estimated Intelligence Quotient (IQ) scores and experienced more childhood trauma than did normal controls. Violent offenders showed impaired executive functioning on tasks of attention set-shifting, working memory and planning. Finally, spatial working memory (SWM) deficits, particularly SWM strategy scores, may be associated with childhood trauma. PMID:23036491

Zou, Zhili; Meng, Huaqing; Ma, Zhongrui; Deng, Wei; Du, Lian; Wang, Hui; Chen, Pinhong; Hu, Hua

2012-10-01

340

Cognitive Discrepancies Versus APOE Genotype as Predictors of Cognitive Decline in Normal-Functioning Elderly Individuals: A Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Cognitive-discrepancy analysis has been shown to be a useful technique for detecting subtle cognitive deficits in normal-functioning elderly individuals who are genetically at-risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, studies that have used cognitive-discrepancy measures to date have used retrospective or cross-sectional designs, and the utility of this approach to predict cognitive decline has not been examined in a prospective investigation. Design Longitudinal study. Setting San Diego, CA, Veterans Administration Hospital. Participants Twenty-four normal-functioning elderly individuals participated in the study, with 16 subjects exhibiting no change in their Dementia Rating Scale (DRS) scores over an 1-year period (Stable Group), and 8 subjects exhibiting a decline in DRS scores over the 1-year period (Decline group). Measurements A cognitive-discrepancy measure isolating cognitive switching was computed that contrasted performance on a new higher-level task of executive functioning (a Stroop/Switching measure) relative to a composite measure of lower-level Stroop conditions. Results a) In the year before their cognitive changes, the Decline group exhibited a significantly larger cognitive-discrepancy (Stroop/Switching versus lower-level Stroop conditions) score compared with a control (Stable) group; and b) the cognitive-discrepancy measure was superior to APOE genotype in predicting DRS decline. Conclusion Cognitive-discrepancy analysis isolating a component executive function ability not only seems to be a useful tool for identifying individuals at risk for cognitive deficits, but also shows promise in predicting individuals who may show subtle cognitive decline over time.

Fine, Eric M.; Delis, Dean C.; Wetter, Spencer R.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Jak, Amy J.; McDonald, Carrie R.; Braga, Jodessa C.; Thal, Leon J.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

2011-01-01

341

Cerebellar hypoplasia and frontal lobe cognitive deficits in disorders of early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

A developmental chronometry hypothesis of early brain damage is suggested in which regions of the brain with a protracted course of postnatal development will be more vulnerable than earlier maturing areas to deleterious effects of early insult and, therefore, may become common sites of abnormality across many disorders originating in early childhood. Initial investigations of the cerebellum and frontal lobes

K. T Ciesielski; Richard J Harris; Blaine L Hart; Henry F Pabst

1997-01-01

342

Literature review on the role of dietary protein and amino acids in cognitive functioning and cognitive decline.  

PubMed

As the population of elderly people is growing rapidly, the number of individuals with dementia and cognitive impairment is also increasing. One of the preventive measures against cognitive decline is diet and different dietary factors have already been investigated. This review provides an overview of studies on dietary protein and cognitive functioning and cognitive decline. Also studies on the individual amino acids that are related to brain function, tryptophan and tyrosine, are discussed. Overall, the role of dietary protein intake on cognitive functioning as well as cognitive decline has hardly been studied; we found eight observational studies and three intervention studies. More studies investigated the role of tryptophan (14 studies) and tyrosine (nine studies) in relation to cognitive functioning, but all these studies were performed in young adult populations and mostly under special conditions. Research in elderly populations, in particular, is warranted. Also more research is needed to come to definitive conclusions and specific recommendations regarding protein intake or intake of specific amino acids for maintaining optimal cognitive functioning. PMID:23990160

van de Rest, Ondine; van der Zwaluw, Nikita L; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

2013-08-29

343

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Posttreatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive

Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh

2009-01-01

344

Association between Alcohol Intake and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moderate levels of alcohol intake may be associated with better cognitive function; however, this relationship may vary between cognitive domains. Women, aged 65–80 years, enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy, underwent annual standardized testing for global cognitive function through the ancillary WHI Memory Study (average follow-up of 4.5 years) and domain-specific cognitive function

Mark A. Espeland; Laura H. Coker; Robert Wallace; Stephen R. Rapp; Susan M. Resnick; Marian Limacher; Lynda H. Powell; Catherine R. Messina

2006-01-01

345

Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the relative efficacy of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus family-based relaxation treatment (RT) for young children ages 5 to 8 years with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

JENNIFER B. FREEMAN; ABBE M. GARCIA; LISA COYNE; CHELSEA ALE; AMY PRZEWORSKI; MICHAEL HIMLE; SCOTT COMPTON; HENRIETTA L. LEONARD

2008-01-01

346

A brief group cognitive-behavioral intervention for social phobia in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three preadolescent children (ages 8–11) meeting criteria for social phobia were randomly assigned to either a 3-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention or a wait-list control group. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive strategies, and behavioral exposure. Outcome measures included diagnostic interview as well as parent and child report measures of anxiety and depression. Improvements were observed at posttest, with results stronger

Heather M Gallagher; Brian A Rabian; Michael S McCloskey

2004-01-01

347

CAT\\/CLAMS: its use in detecting early childhood cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cognitive Adaptive Test\\/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT\\/CLAMS), a neurodevelopmental tool for the cognitive assessment of infants and toddlers, correlates well with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. In 1993 the Bayley Scales were revised and the second edition published (BSID-II). This study was designed to determine how well the CAT\\/CLAMS correlates with the BSID-II and its utility

David A. Kube; William M. Wilson; Mario C. Petersen; Frederick B. Palmer

2000-01-01

348

The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

2001-01-01

349

Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?  

PubMed Central

An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease. A confirmatory 4-factor structural equation model was tested on data derived from 162 participants with HIV. The model posited that measures of ProM comprise a unique factor, apart from standard clinical tests of retrospective memory, executive functions, and motor skills. The fit of the model was evaluated using the Bollen-Stine bootstrap method and indicated a 4-factor model with measures of ProM loading on a unique factor fit the data well, and better than a model with a single common factor hypothesized to drive cognitive performance. The results of this study lend further evidence to the dissociability of ProM in HIV infection, are consistent with prior studies in healthy adults, and contribute to a growing literature on the construct validity of ProM in HIV disease.

Gupta, Saurabh; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

350

Do LCPUFAs Influence Cardiovascular Function in Early Childhood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been reports linking breast milk intake in infancy to lower blood pressure during childhood. The\\u000a mechanisms underlying the relationship remain uncertain however there has been recent interest in the role of long chain polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Several studies involving human adults have reported a lowering of blood pressure with n-3 fatty acid\\u000a supplementation. Data

J. Stewart Forsyth

351

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

352

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

353

Effects of traumatic stress and perceived stress on everyday cognitive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressful or traumatic events have been shown to impair cognitive functioning on laboratory-based tasks due to stress-related intrusive thoughts and avoidance. However, research on the effects of stress on everyday cognitive functioning has been lacking. A sample of 909 undergraduates completed measures of perceived stress, PTSD symptoms, and everyday cognitive failures. The results revealed that both perceived stress and PTSD

Adriel Boals; Jonathan B. Banks

2012-01-01

354

Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): A promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to

Lisa B. Thorell; Lilianne Eninger; Karin C. Brocki; Gunilla Bohlin

2010-01-01

355

Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function

Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

2013-01-01

356

The Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure as a measure of executive function in childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

In adults, the Rey–Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) can be used for the assessment of not only visuoconstructional ability and visual memory, but also executive function in adults. We studied whether ROCF scores also correlated with executive function in childhood. The subjects consisted of 56 patients with various neurological diseases (5 years 7 months–14 years 11 months; mean: 8 years 8

Kiyoko Watanabe; Tatsuya Ogino; Kousuke Nakano; Junri Hattori; Yoko Kado; Satoshi Sanada; Yoko Ohtsuka

2005-01-01

357

Childhood Personality Influences on Social–Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation of childhood personality to the development of friendship understanding and moral judgment in adolescence was considered in a longitudinal study. Personality at age 7, assessed with the California Child Q-Set, was characterized in terms of ego-resiliency and ego-control. IQ and social class were also measured. Friendship understanding was assessed when the participants were ages 7, 9, 12, 15,

Daniel Hart; Monika Keller; Wolfgang Edelstein; Volker Hofmann

1998-01-01

358

Social cognition and social functioning in nonclinical paranoia.  

PubMed

Introduction. Persons with nonclinical paranoia show many of the same biases as those with clinical paranoia, suggesting that paranoia exists on a continuum. However, little is known about the various social cognitive processes found in paranoia and how these relate to social functioning and social behaviours in general. This study will examine performance on emotion perception and attributional style measures and their relationship to social functioning, social problem solving, and social skill. A key element in this study will be the incorporation of ambiguity in the perception of emotional expressions and the assignment of attributional blame, which appears to be an important, yet neglected, construct in paranoia. Methods. Twenty-six persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia and 31 persons with low levels of paranoia completed measures of emotion perception, attributional style, social functioning, and social problem solving. Salient and subtle emotional expressions were used to examine how ambiguity impacts emotion perception in paranoia. Results. The group high in nonclinical paranoia showed reduced accuracy for subtle negative emotional expressions and showed more perceived hostility and blame for ambiguous social situations as compared to the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Also, the high nonclinical paranoia group reported less social engagement, fewer social contacts, and more problems in social perception and social skill than the group low in nonclinical paranoia. Conclusion. Social cognitive and social functioning biases are found in persons with high levels of nonclinical paranoia. Possible mechanisms of these biases and relevance for treatment approaches are discussed. PMID:23445398

Combs, Dennis R; Finn, Jacob A; Wohlfahrt, Whitney; Penn, David L; Basso, Michael R

2013-02-27

359

Longitudinal models of developmental dynamics between reading and cognition from childhood to adolescence.  

PubMed

The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children--Revised (i.e., Full, Performance, and Verbal) and specific markers of the Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery--Revised reading cluster (i.e., Letter-Word ID, Decoding, and Comprehension). The results of these analyses indicate that (a) there is a positive dynamic relation between reading and cognition across the selected age range; (b) this dynamic relation is symbiotic, with positive influences in both directions; (c) the influence from cognition to reading is stronger when considering the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children Performance--Revised Performance scale and weaker with the Verbal scale; (d) when examining the different Reading subtests, the influences from cognition are more apparent for Letter-Word ID and Comprehension and are less perceptible for Decoding; and (e) the dynamics of reading and cognition appear to be of stronger magnitude during 1st to 3rd grade, less strong during 4th to 8th grade, and weaker from 9th to 12th grade. PMID:18020824

Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J; Shaywitz, Bennett A; Holahan, John M; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E

2007-11-01

360

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

361

Heritability of Cognitive Functions in Families of Successful Cognitive Aging Probands from the Central Valley of Costa Rica  

PubMed Central

We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age).We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4±3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4±5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h2 = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h2 = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h2 = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h2 = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h2 = 0.42), fluency (h2 = 0.39), abstraction (h2 = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h2 = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA.

Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Beeri, Michal S.; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventos, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrion-Baralt, Jose R.; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

2012-01-01

362

Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.  

PubMed

Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ? 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ?5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146

Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

2013-09-01

363

Cognitive and Psychological Factors Associated with Early Post-Treatment Functional Outcomes in Breast Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between post-chemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month post-chemotherapy; data were collected on cognitive functioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon Signed Rank analyses revealed cognitive deficits in executive functioning and verbal fluency. Subsequent regression analyses demonstrated that poorer executive functioning was associated with decreased productivity, community involvement, and social role functioning. Poorer quality of life was predicted by depression and reluctance to seek social support, but not cognitive functioning. These findings indicate that executive functioning deficits are associated with important functional outcomes among breast cancer survivors 1-month post-chemotherapy. Thus, treatment efforts should focus on addressing cognitive, as well as psychological and physical, issues among cancer survivors.

Reid-Arndt, Stephanie A.; Yee, Albert; Perry, Michael C.; Hsieh, Catherine

2009-01-01

364

Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study.  

PubMed

This study used a British cohort (n = ?13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age 3 years, but only for children of mothers with low education. These effects did not persist to ages 5 or 7 years. Early center-based care was associated with better cognitive outcomes than informal care at ages 3 and 5 years, but not at 7 years. Effect sizes were larger among children whose mother had low education. Propensity score matching and multiple imputation revealed significant findings undetected using regression and complete-case approaches. PMID:23331073

Côté, Sylvana M; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amélie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-17

365

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

366

Ginkgo biloba does not improve cognitive function in MS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether Ginkgo biloba extract (ginkgo) improves cognitive function in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Persons with MS from the Seattle and Portland VA clinics and adjacent communities who scored 1 SD or more below the mean on one of 4 neuropsychological tests (Stroop Test, California Verbal Learning Test II [CVLT-II], Controlled Oral Word Association Test [COWAT], and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task [PASAT]) were randomly assigned to receive either one 120-mg tablet of ginkgo (EGb-761; Willmar Schwabe GmbH & Co, Germany) or one placebo tablet twice a day for 12 weeks. As the primary outcome, we compared the performance of the 2 groups on the 4 tests at exit after adjusting for baseline performance. Results: Fifty-nine subjects received placebo and 61 received ginkgo; 1 participant receiving placebo and 3 receiving ginkgo were lost to follow-up. Two serious adverse events (AEs) (myocardial infarction and severe depression) believed to be unrelated to the treatment occurred in the ginkgo group; otherwise, there were no significant differences in AEs. The differences (ginkgo ? placebo) at exit in the z scores for the cognitive tests were as follows: PASAT ?0.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.5 to 0.1); Stroop Test ?0.5 (95% CI ?0.9 to ?0.1); COWAT 0.0 (95% CI ?0.2 to 0.3); and CVLT-II 0.0 (95% CI ?0.3 to 0.3); none was statistically significant. Conclusions: Treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day did not improve cognitive performance in persons with MS. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that treatment with ginkgo 120 mg twice a day for 12 weeks does not improve cognitive performance in people with MS.

Kim, Edward; Heriza, Elizabeth; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Hunziker, James; Turner, Aaron P.; Adams, Joshua; Stover, Thomas; Sangeorzan, Adam; Sloan, Alicia; Howieson, Diane; Wild, Katherine; Haselkorn, Jodie; Bourdette, Dennis

2012-01-01

367

Morphological and functional vascular changes induced by childhood obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: To investigate endothelial dysfunction and morphological vascular changes in childhood obesity.Methods: 93 overweight\\/obese children (body mass index 26 ± 5 kg\\/m2; median 26 kg\\/m2; interquartile range 22–28 kg\\/m2), mean age 10.9 ± 2.7 years, underwent a check-up of total, high-density lipoprotein- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count, together with ultrasound measures

Marco Matteo Ciccone; Vito Miniello; Roberto Marchioli; Pietro Scicchitano; Francesca Cortese; Vincenzo Palumbo; Stefano Giuseppe Primitivo; Marco Sassara; Gabriella Ricci; Santa Carbonara; Michele Gesualdo; Lucia Diaferio; Giuseppe Mercuro; Giovanni De Pergola; Paola Giordano; Stefano Favale

2011-01-01

368

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure.  

PubMed

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation. Participants were given standardized IQ and achievement tests to assess cognitive functioning and ability. Academic performance was determined by evaluating grades for the semester in which the testing was performed; a grade point average (GPA) was calculated based on a 4.0-point scale. The 11 dialysis patients and 13 transplant patients were comparable in age, race, sex, and socioeconomic status. Overall IQ and subtest scores demonstrated no differences between the two groups. Performance on the Woodcock-Johnson achievement tests showed that the transplant patients did better on achievement tests of written language (P = 0.04) and in school performance in English compared with dialysis patients (P < 0.05). Furthermore the dialysis patients tended to be below age and grade level in all areas, whereas the transplant patients were achieving at or above these levels. There were significant differences in the age equivalent scores between the dialysis and transplant patients in the areas of mathematics and written language (P < 0.05). However, when grades were evaluated there were no differences in overall GPA or in the mathematics GPA. Days absent were not different between the two groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7917859

Lawry, K W; Brouhard, B H; Cunningham, R J

1994-06-01

369

Cognitive function affects trainability for physical performance in exercise intervention among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Although much evidence supports the hypothesis that cognitive function and physical function are interrelated, it is unclear whether cognitive decline with mild cognitive impairment influences trainability of physical performance in exercise intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cognitive function at baseline and change in physical performance after exercise intervention in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Methods Forty-four older adults diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment based on the Peterson criteria (mean age 74.8 years) consented to and completed a 6-month twice weekly exercise intervention. The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test was used as a measure of physical performance. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Trail Making Test Part B, Geriatric Depression Scale, baseline muscle strength of knee extension, and attendance rate of intervention, were measured as factors for predicting trainability. Results In the correlation analysis, the change in TUG showed modest correlations with attendance rate in the exercise program (r = ?0.354, P = 0.027) and MMSE at baseline (r = ?0.321, P = 0.034). A multiple regression analysis revealed that change in TUG was independently associated with attendance rate (? = ?0.322, P = 0.026) and MMSE score (? = ?0.295, P = 0.041), controlling for age and gender. Conclusion General cognitive function was associated with improvements in physical performance after exercise intervention in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to examine the effects of exercise programs designed to address cognitive obstacles in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

Uemura, Kazuki; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

370

Regional cortical volume and cognitive functioning following traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

There has been limited examination of the effect of brain pathology on subsequent function. The current study examined the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume, age and cognitive impairment using a semi-automated image analysis tool. This study included 69 individuals with mild-to-severe TBI, 41 of whom also completed neuropsychological tests of attention, working memory, processing speed, memory and executive functions. A widespread reduction in grey matter volume was associated with increasing age. Regional volumes that were affected also related to the severity of injury, whereby the most severe TBI participants displayed the most significant pathology. Poorer retention of newly learned material was associated with reduced cortical volume in frontal, parietal, and occipital brain regions. In addition, poorer working memory and executive control performance was found for individuals with lower cortical volume in temporal, parietal, and occipital regions. These findings are largely in line with previous literature, which suggests that frontal, temporal, and parietal regions are integral for the encoding of memories into long-term storage, memory retrieval, and working memory. The present study suggests that automated image analysis methods may be used to explore the relationships between regional variation in grey matter volume and cognitive function following TBI. PMID:23872098

Spitz, Gershon; Bigler, Erin D; Abildskov, Tracy; Maller, Jerome J; O'Sullivan, Richard; Ponsford, Jennie L

2013-07-18

371

What's Cooking? - Cognitive Training of Executive Function in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks.

Wang, Man-Ying; Chang, Chien-Yu; Su, Shou-Yi

2011-01-01

372

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

373

Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

2005-01-01

374

Brief Report: Stability and Change in Cognitive and Behavioral Characteristics of Autism through Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study reports behavioral and cognitive stability and change in 76 children with autistic spectrum disorders, evaluated at ages 7 and 11. Verbal IQ, performance IQ, severity of autistic characteristics, and social characteristics were analyzed. The study found that IQ and more severe expression of autistic symptoms were very stable. (CR)|

Eaves, Linda C.; Ho, Helena H.

1996-01-01

375

The heritability of general cognitive ability increases linearly from childhood to young adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although common sense suggests that environmental influences increasingly account for individual differences in behavior as experiences accumulate during the course of life, this hypothesis has not previously been tested, in part because of the large sample sizes needed for an adequately powered analysis. Here we show for general cognitive ability that, to the contrary, genetic influence increases with age. The

C. M. A. Haworth; M. J. Wright; M Luciano; N. G. Martin; E J C de Geus; C E M van Beijsterveldt; M. Bartels; D. Posthuma; D. I. Boomsma; O. S. P. Davis; Y. Kovas; R. P. Corley; J. C. DeFries; J. K. Hewitt; R. K. Olson; S.-A. Rhea; S. J. Wadsworth; W. G. Iacono; M. McGue; L. A. Thompson; S. A. Hart; S. A. Petrill; D. Lubinski; R. Plomin

2010-01-01

376

A Social-Cognitive Perspective on Early Childhood Influences in Psychopathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freudian view of psychopathology suggests that the individual is motivated to distort reality. In contrast, social-cognitive theory views the individual as a naive social scientist, who observes his behavior, others' behavior, and the social context. Out of these observations come meaning structures which organize, guide, and structure…

Bohart, Arthur C.

377

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

378

Longitudinal Associations of Adiposity With Adult Lung Function in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health (CDAH) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood BMI has been reported to be positively associated with adult lung function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood BMI on young adult lung function independently of the effects of lean body mass (LBM). Clinical and questionnaire data were collected from 654 young Australian adults (aged 27–36 years), first studied when age 9, 12,

Beverley A. Curry; C. Leigh Blizzard; Michael D. Schmidt; E. Haydn Walters; Terence Dwyer; Alison J. Venn

2011-01-01

379

Cognitive function during early abstinence from opioid dependence: a comparison to age, gender, and verbal intelligence matched controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Individuals with opioid dependence have cognitive deficits during abuse period in attention, working memory, episodic memory, and executive function. After protracted abstinence consistent cognitive deficit has been found only in executive function. However, few studies have explored cognitive function during first weeks of abstinence. The purpose of this study was to study cognitive function of individuals with opioid dependence

Pekka Rapeli; Reetta Kivisaari; Taina Autti; Seppo Kähkönen; Varpu Puuskari; Olga Jokela; Hely Kalska

2006-01-01

380

Childhood maltreatment and response to novel face stimuli presented during functional magnetic resonance imaging in adults.  

PubMed

Facial cues contain important information for guiding social interactions, but not all humans are equally expert at face processing. A number of factors, both genetic and environmental, contribute to differences in face-processing ability. For example, both heritable individual differences in temperament and exposure to childhood maltreatment are associated with alterations in face processing ability and social function. Understanding the neural correlates of alterations in face-processing ability can provide insights into how genetic and environmental risk factors impair social functioning. We examined the association between childhood maltreatment and blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal as measured in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of young adults with an inhibited temperament. We hypothesized that childhood maltreatment exposure would correlate positively with BOLD signal in regions subserving face processing and novelty detection during viewing of novel compared to familiar faces. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) degree of exposure to childhood maltreatment was positively correlated with BOLD signal in the bilateral fusiform gyri and the left hippocampus. These fMRI findings suggest that young adults with an inhibited temperament and a history of maltreatment may be particularly vulnerable to neural alterations. These differences could be related to a heightened sensitivity to potential threat-for example, from new people-and may contribute to both the altered social functioning and increased incidence of anxiety disorders in these individuals. PMID:23477839

Edmiston, Elliot Kale; Blackford, Jennifer Urbano

2013-03-07

381

Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence.  

PubMed

A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

2013-01-01

382

A multimethod assessment of psychosocial functioning and late effects in survivors of childhood cancer and hematopoietic cell transplant.  

PubMed

Previous research in childhood cancer and hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) survivorship has relied on the use of standardized questionnaires that assess symptoms of psychological functioning but do not sufficiently capture the cancer survivorship experience. Study aims are to quantitatively and qualitatively assess the psychosocial functioning of pediatric cancer and HCT survivors seen in a multidisciplinary survivorship clinic, determine survivorship concerns, and assess potential demographic and medical correlates of psychosocial outcomes. Data were collected using a retrospective chart review of a parent-report questionnaire of the child's psychological functioning, responses to a semistructured interview that qualitatively assessed adjustment to life after treatment, and documented medical late effects. Results indicated the majority of survivors had healthy psychological adjustment based upon a parent-report questionnaire. However, nearly 72% of survivors reported 1 or more survivorship concerns during the interview, with the primary concerns being current and future health or physical functioning, including the possibility of cancer recurrence. A content analysis of the interview responses indicated HCT survivors had more school or cognitive functioning concerns compared with survivors who did not have an HCT. Further research should use survivorship-specific measures to better identify survivors at risk and determine the impact of late effects on their quality of life. PMID:22082747

Bingen, Kristin; Schroedl, Rose Lucey; Anderson, Lynnette; Schmidt, Debra; Hoag, Jennifer; Christiansen, Heather; Kupst, Mary Jo

2012-01-01

383

The relation between moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive function in older women with type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between moderate drinking, cognitive function, and cognitive decline in women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: From 1995-2001, we assessed cognitive function in 1,698 women aged 71-80 years with type 2 diabetes in the Nurses' Health Study. Assessments were repeated twice at 2-year intervals. We used linear regression to estimate multivariable-adjusted mean differences in initial cognitive function and longitudinal models to estimate cognitive decline over 4 years, according to average alcohol intake between diagnosis with diabetes and the initial cognitive measurement. Results: At the initial assessment, the mean score on our test of general cognition was 0.31 (95% CI 0.02, 0.60) points higher in women who were moderate alcohol drinkers (those consuming 1.0-9.9 grams of alcohol, or about 1 drink, per day) compared with abstainers. However, moderate alcohol was not associated with cognitive decline. Higher alcohol consumption (10.0-30.0 grams of alcohol per day) was not associated with initial cognition or cognitive decline, although there was no apparent harm either. Conclusions: Among women with type 2 diabetes, moderate alcohol was associated with better initial cognition, but not reduced rates of cognitive decline. Thus, we found no clear and consistent cognitive benefits of moderate alcohol in diabetes.

Townsend, Mary K.; Devore, Elizabeth; Kang, Jae Hee; Grodstein, Francine

2009-01-01

384

Repeated Traumatic Brain Injury Affects Composite Cognitive Function in Piglets  

PubMed Central

Abstract Cumulative effects of repetitive mild head injury in the pediatric population are unknown. We have developed a cognitive composite dysfunction score that correlates white matter injury severity in neonatal piglets with neurobehavioral assessments of executive function, memory, learning, and problem solving. Anesthetized 3- to 5-day-old piglets were subjected to single (n?=?7), double one day apart (n?=?7), and double one week apart (n?=?7) moderate (190?rad/s) rapid non-impact axial rotations of the head and compared to instrumented shams (n?=?7). Animals experiencing two head rotations one day apart had a significantly higher mortality rate (43%) compared to the other groups and had higher failures rates in visual-based problem solving compared to instrumented shams. White matter injury, assessed by ?-APP staining, was significantly higher in the double one week apart group compared to that with single injury and sham. Worsening performance on cognitive composite score correlated well with increasing severity of white matter axonal injury. In our immature large animal model of TBI, two head rotations produced poorer outcome as assessed by neuropathology and neurobehavioral functional outcomes compared to that with single rotations. More importantly, we have observed an increase in injury severity and mortality when the head rotations occur 24?h apart compared to 7 days apart. These observations have important clinical translation to infants subjected to repeated inflicted head trauma.

Friess, Stuart H.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Ralston, Jill; Ryall, Karen; Helfaer, Mark A.; Smith, Colin

2009-01-01

385

Early Detection of Markers for Synaesthesia in Childhood Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We show that the neurological condition of synaesthesia--which causes fundamental differences in perception and cognition throughout a lifetime--is significantly represented within the childhood population, and that it manifests behavioural markers as young as age 6 years. Synaesthesia gives rise to a merging of cognitive and/or sensory functions

Simner, Julia; Harrold, Jenny; Creed, Harriet; Monro, Louise; Foulkes, Louise

2009-01-01

386

Functional Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy: A Brief, Individual Treatment for Functional Impairments Resulting From Psychotic Symptoms in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a novel cognitive-behavioural approach to treating psychotic symptoms—functional cognitive-behavioural therapy (FCBT)—which was developed with the primary aim of remediating social functioning deficits in patients with residual psychotic symptoms. In FCBT, symptom-focused cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions are delivered in the context of working on functional goals: a premise of FCBT is that the therapeutic alliance and patient motivation

Corinne Cather

2005-01-01

387

Age-related effects of blood pressure on everyday cognitive function in community-dwelling women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Blood pressure is an indicator of vascular health that has been associated with cognition and quality of life in older age. Few studies have examined blood pressure across everyday cognitive tasks, which may have superior predictive functional utility than traditional cognitive measures. We explored blood pressure as a predictor of everyday problem solving (EPS) performance in middle-aged and older

Sophie E. Yeung; Wendy Loken Thornton

2011-01-01

388

The Relationship between Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Type 2 Diabetes, and Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present review integrates findings of published studies that have evaluated the cognitive function of treated and untreated type 2 diabetic patients and provides a detailed overview of the neuropsychological assessments conducted. Cognitive deficits are observed in older people with glucose intolerance or untreated diabetes but these deficits appear to be attenuated by treatments that improve glycemic control. Cognitive decrements

Nesrine Awad; Michèle Gagnon; Claude Messier

2004-01-01

389

Functional Status and Clinical Correlates in Cognitively Impaired Community-Living Older People  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the prevalence of cognitive impairment in a population of community-living older people, its associa tion with functional decline, and degree of comorbidity. In addition, we examined the relationship between different levels of cognitive impairment and mortality. We conducted an observational study of 1787 patients aged 65 years and above with any degree of cognitive impairment. Patient data were

Francesco Landi; Graziano Onder; Caterina Cattel; Giovanni Gambassi; Fabrizia Lattanzio; Matteo Cesari; Andrea Russo; Roberto Bernabei

2001-01-01

390

The longitudinal relationship of clinical symptoms, cognitive functioning, and adaptive life in geriatric schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a major contributor to the adaptive impairment seen in most patients with schizophrenia. Reported here is a prospective longitudinal evaluation of the relationship between cognitive and adaptive functioning in elderly patients with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that baseline cognitive and negative, but not positive symptoms, would be predictive of cross-sectional impairment and longitudinal

Susan R McGurk; Patrick J Moriarty; Philip D Harvey; Michael Parrella; Leonard White; Kenneth L Davis

2000-01-01

391

Cognitive Accuracy and Intelligent Executive Function in the Brain and in Business  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews research on cognition, language, orga- nizational culture, brain, behavior, and evolution to posit the value of operating with a stable reference point based on cognitive accuracy and a rational bias. Drawing on rational-emotive behavioral science, social neuroscience, and cognitive organizational science on the one hand and a general model of brain and frontal lobe executive function on

CHARLES E. BAILEY

2007-01-01

392

Blood lead levels in relation to cognitive function in older U.S. adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies suggest that cumulative exposure to lead, as measured in the bone, is associated with accelerated cognitive decline at older age. It is presently unclear, however, whether current blood lead levels (BLLs) are adversely related to cognitive functioning in older adults. We evaluated BLLs in relation to cognition in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The current

Edwin van Wijngaarden; Paul C. Winters; Deborah A. Cory-Slechta

2011-01-01

393

Cognitive function in the Caerphilly study: Associations with age,social class, education and mood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline cognitive function was established for a study of pre- symptomatic cognitive decline in 1870 men from the general population aged 55–69 years as part of the third examination of the Caerphilly Study. Cognitive assessment included the AH4, a four choice serial reaction time task, a modified CAMCOG, MMSE, NART and various memory tests. Distributions and relationships with age, social

John E. J. Gallacher; Peter C. Elwood; Carole Hopkinson; Patrick M. A. Rabbitt; Brian T. Stollery; Peter M. Sweetnam; Carol Brayne; Felicia A. Huppert

1999-01-01

394

Men Who Were Sexually Abused in Childhood: Coping Strategies and Comparisons in Psychological Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: Coping strategies of men who were sexually abused in childhood were examined to ascertain their relationship to clinical diagnoses. Time elapsed since the abuse occurred was examined for its relationship to psychological functioning. Clinical psychopathology of this primary sample of sexually abused men was compared to a community…

O'Leary, Patrick J.

2009-01-01

395

Phaeochromocytoma and functioning paraganglioma in childhood and adolescence: role of iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaeochromocytomas and functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours in childhood and adolescence. We review our experience of 43 cases (24 men, 19 women) who were first diagnosed at the age of ? 18 years. All patients were evaluated at some point in their illness with iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) scintigraphy. Eight patients (19%) had bilateral adrenal tumours, 12 (28%) had solitary

Frederick A. Khafagi; Brahm Shapiro; Manfred Fischer; James C. Sisson; Raymond Hutchinson; William H. Beierwaltes

1991-01-01

396

Alone Is a Crowd: Social Motivations, Social Withdrawal, and Socioemotional Functioning in Later Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…

Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

2013-01-01

397

Elevated Childhood Serotonergic Function Protects against Adolescent Aggression in Disruptive Boys  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This longitudinal study examined whether responsiveness of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) in childhood predicts adolescent aggression. Method: Boys (N = 33) with disruptive behavior disorders who received assessments of central 5-HT function via the prolactin response to fenfluramine between 1990 and 1994 when they were 7 to 11…

Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Marks, David J.; Sharma, Vanshdeep; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

2006-01-01

398

Contributions of modern measurement theory to measuring executive function in early childhood: An empirical demonstration  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from low-income and African American families. IRT models were applied

Michael T. Willoughby; R. J. Wirth; Clancy B. Blair

2011-01-01

399

Drug Use and Psychosocial Functioning of a Community-Derived Sample of Adolescents with Childhood ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the late adolescent psychosocial outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with ADHD who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. A range of outcomes were compared between ADHD (n = 119) and normal control (n = 93) groups, as well as ADHD subgroups that varied as a function of the course of externalizing predominantly ODD problems (persisters,

George M. Realmuto; Ken C. Winters; Gerald J. August; Susanne Lee; Tamara Fahnhorst; Andria Botzet

2009-01-01

400

Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in evaluation of the functional capacity of survivors of childhood cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in the treatment of pediatric cancer has resulted in a growing population of survivors of malignancy treated in childhood. These individuals may have evidence of multiple organ system impairment related to oncologic disease and its therapy. Metabolic exercise testing measures cardiovascular, pulmonary and musculoskeletal components of maximal exercise performance, quantifying functional capacity. This information has been used to describe

Alexa N Hogarty; Jeffrey H Silber; Stephen M Paridon

1998-01-01

401

Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

2011-01-01

402

Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

2012-01-01

403

Maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure and childhood lung function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUNDExposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) during childhood and in utero exposure to maternal smoking are associated with adverse effects on lung growth and development.METHODSA study was undertaken of the associations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to ETS, and pulmonary function in 3357 school children residing in 12 Southern California communities. Current and past exposure to household ETS and

Frank D Gilliland; Kiros Berhane; Rob McConnell; W James Gauderman; Hita Vora; Edward B Rappaport; Edward Avol; John M Peters

2000-01-01

404

Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment  

PubMed Central

Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament.

Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

2012-01-01

405

The quality of life of adult survivors of childhood hematopoietic cell transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Survival rates after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in childhood have improved. We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating the quality of life (QOL) of 214 adult survivors of a childhood HCT compared with controls using standardized self-report measures with strong psychometric properties to evaluate physical function, psychological function and cognitive symptoms. From these results we conducted a multivariate analysis of

J E Sanders; P A Hoffmeister; B E Storer; F R Appelbaum; R F Storb; K L Syrjala

2010-01-01

406

Cognitive Biases in Childhood Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression: Are They Pervasive or Specific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which children’s negative information processing biases are pervasive across the cognitive modalities of attention, judgment, and memory and, further, whether such biases are specifically associated with anxiety, depression, and\\/or aggression. 133 children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were assessed on an attention allocation task, a vignette interpretation measure, and a memory recall

Sophie C. Reid; Karen Salmon; Peter F. Lovibond

2006-01-01

407

Severe protein-calorie malnutrition and cognitive development in infancy and early childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observed the effects of severe protein-calorie malnutrition during infancy on cognitive development. 20 protein-calorie deficient 11.8-43.5 mo. old children and 19 controls without a history of malnutrition were tested with 10 different sorting tasks. Following 12 wk. of further nutritional treatment the experimental Ss were retested. Analysis of the total test scores indicate that malnourished Ss performed significantly lower than

Lois M. Brockman; Henry N. Ricciuti

1971-01-01

408

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

409

Recollection of childhood abdominal pain in adults with functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective It is hypothesized that adults who can recall abdominal pain as children are at risk of experiencing a functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID), but this is not specific to any particular FGID. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between recollecting abdominal pain as a child and experiencing a FGID. Material and methods A valid self-reported questionnaire of GI symptoms was mailed to a random population-based sample in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Logistic regression models adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), somatization, and other factors were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) for having a FGID in individuals recalling bouts of stomach or abdominal pain in childhood (before age 15). Results Overall, 2298 (55%) of a total of 4194 eligible adult subjects returned a completed questionnaire. Of the respondents, 213 (9%) recalled experiencing abdominal pain as children. Adults who recalled experiencing abdominal pain in childhood had greater odds for reporting symptoms of a FGID (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.4–2.7). Recalling abdominal pain in childhood was significantly associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.7–3.6) but not gastroesophageal reflux, dyspepsia, constipation, or diarrhea, adjusting for age, gender, BMI, somatic symptoms, marital status, and education. Conclusions Recollection of childhood abdominal pain is specifically associated with IBS in adults. This suggests that a proportion of adults with IBS may have onset of symptoms of abdominal pain during childhood.

CHITKARA, DENESH K.; TALLEY, NICHOLAS J.; SCHLECK, CATHY; ZINSMEISTER, ALAN R.; SHAH, NILAY D.; LOCKE, G. RICHARD

2009-01-01

410

Classroom-based physical activity, cognition, and academic achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is increasing evidence for the association between physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, fatness, and cognitive function during childhood and adolescence. Evidence also suggests that these variables are linked to academic achievement. Classroom-based physical activity provides a viable approach to improve fitness, body mass index (BMI), cognitive function, and ultimately academic achievement.

Joseph E. Donnelly; Kate Lambourne

2011-01-01

411

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

412

The aging systemic milieu negatively regulates neurogenesis and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Summary In the central nervous system (CNS), aging results in a precipitous decline in adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) and neurogenesis, with concomitant impairments in cognitive functions1. Interestingly, such impairments can be ameliorated through systemic perturbations such as exercise1. Here, using heterochronic parabiosis we show that blood-borne factors present in the systemic milieu can inhibit or promote adult neurogenesis in an age dependent fashion in mice. Accordingly, exposing a young animal to an old systemic environment, or to plasma from old mice, decreased synaptic plasticity and impaired contextual fear conditioning and spatial learning and memory. We identify chemokines - including CCL11/Eotaxin – whose plasma levels correlate with reduced neurogenesis in heterochronic parabionts and aged mice, and whose levels are increased in plasma and cerebral spinal fluid of healthy aging humans. Finally, increasing peripheral CCL11 chemokine levels in vivo in young mice decreased adult neurogenesis and impaired learning and memory. Together our data indicate that the decline in neurogenesis, and cognitive impairments, observed during aging can be in part attributed to changes in blood-borne factors.

Villeda, Saul A.; Luo, Jian; Mosher, Kira I.; Zou, Bende; Britschgi, Markus; Bieri, Gregor; Stan, Trisha M.; Fainberg, Nina; Ding, Zhaoqing; Eggel, Alexander; Lucin, Kurt M.; Czirr, Eva; Park, Jeong-Soo; Couillard-Despres, Sebastien; Aigner, Ludwig; Li, Ge; Peskind, Elaine R.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.; Quinn, Joseph F.; Galasko, Douglas R.; Xie, Xinmin S.; Rando, Thomas A.; Wyss-Coray, Tony

2011-01-01

413

ACE I\\/D polymorphism affects cognitive function and gray-matter volume in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize the correlates of cognitive function, serum concentrations of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and brain structure with the ACE insertion or deletion (I\\/D) polymorphism were analyzed in subjects with amnestic-mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A group of 48 subjects meeting criteria for aMCI and 36 age-matched control subjects were assessed using a comprehensive battery of standardized neuropsychological tests and magnetic

Zhengsheng Zhang; Linglong Deng; Feng Bai; Yongmei Shi; Hui Yu; Yonggui Yuan; Tianzi Jiang; Jianping Jia; Zhijun Zhang

2011-01-01

414

Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. PMID:23220737

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2012-12-07

415

Executive–cognitive functioning in the development of antisocial personality disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the association of cognitive–executive abilities to two risk factors for alcoholism, i.e., antisocial behaviors and a family history (FH+) of alcohol dependence. A sample of 91 right-handed, non-substance-dependent, young male adults recruited from the community were classified into three groups: (1) a control group of n=32 men with no history of DSM-III-R childhood conduct disorder (CD)

Michael C. Stevens; Richard F. Kaplan; Victor M. Hesselbrock

2003-01-01

416

Bridging embodied cognition and brain function: The role of phenomenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both cognitive science and phenomenology accept the primacy of the organism-environment system and recognize that cognition should be understood in terms of an embodied agent situated in its environment. How embodiment is seen to shape our world, however, is fundamentally different in these two disciplines. Embodiment, as understood in cognitive science, reduces to a discussion of the consequences of having

Donald Borrett; Sean Kelly; Hon Kwan

2000-01-01

417

The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention  

PubMed Central

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control.

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Knecht, Anya M.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2013-01-01

418

Functional Disturbances Within Frontostriatal Circuits Across Multiple Childhood Psychopathologies  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.

2009-01-01

419

Cognitive function and number of teeth in a community-dwelling population in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that oral health is poor in elderly populations and is associated with poor cognition and dementia. The objective of this study was to examine the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between tooth loss and cognitive function in 462 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was employed to measure global cognitive status. A multiple logistic regression analysis, with both crude and adjusted conditions for confounding factors, was used to assess the relationship between poor cognition and the number of remaining teeth. Results The overall prevalence of poor cognition (MMSE ? 23) in this study population was 5.6%. Subjects with poor cognition were significantly older, less educated, scored lower in intellectual activity, and had fewer remaining teeth than those with normal cognition. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, a lower number of teeth (0–10) was found to be a significant independent risk factor (OR = 20.21, 95% confidence interval = 2.20 to 185.47) of cognitive impairment. Conclusions This cross-sectional study on a Japanese community-dwelling population revealed relationships between tooth loss and cognitive function. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by a lack of data, including socioeconomic status and longitudinal observations. Future research exploring tooth loss and cognitive function is warranted.

2013-01-01

420

Alzheimer's disease neurodegenerative biomarkers are associated with decreased cognitive function but not beta-amyloid in cognitively normal older individuals  

PubMed Central

Beta amyloid (A?)-plaque deposition and neurodegeneration within temporoparietal and hippocampal regions may indicate increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examined relationships between AD biomarkers of A? and neurodegeneration as well as cognitive performance in cognitively normal older individuals. A? burden was quantified in 72 normal older human subjects from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC) using [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) PET. In the same individuals, we measured hippocampal volume, as well as glucose metabolism and cortical thickness, which were extracted from a template of cortical AD-affected regions. The three functional and structural biomarkers were merged into a highly AD-sensitive multi-modality biomarker reflecting neural integrity. In the normal older individuals, there was no association between A? burden and either the single-modality or the multi-modality neurodegenerative biomarkers. While lower neural integrity within the AD-affected regions and a control area (the visual cortex) was related to lower scores on memory and executive function tests, the same association was not found with PIB retention. The relationship between cognition and the multi-modality AD biomarker was stronger in individuals with the highest PIB uptake. The findings indicate that neurodegeneration occurs within AD regions irrespective of A? deposition and accounts for worse cognition in cognitively normal older people. The impact of neural integrity on cognitive functions is enhanced in the presence of high A? burden for regions that are vulnerable to AD pathology.

Wirth, Miranka; Madison, Cindee M.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Oh, Hwamee; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

2013-01-01

421

A Comparative Analysis of the Function of Coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care in France and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several European countries professionals are in charge of the coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care provision at local community level. For the past 20 years the number of this personnel has grown considerably in Italy and in France. This study provides a comparative analysis of the function of coordinating Early Childhood Education and Care services in these two

Olga Baudelot; Sylvie Rayna; Susanna Mayer; Tullia Musatti

2003-01-01

422

Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether

F Ducci; M-A Enoch; C Hodgkinson; K Xu; M Catena; R W Robin; D Goldman

2008-01-01

423

Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

2003-01-01

424

Posttraumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Social Support in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia and Their Mothers and Fathers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological sequelae are examined in 130 former childhood leukemia patients and 155 comparison participants and their parents. The major dependent variables are symptoms of anxiety and posttraumatic stress, family functioning, and social support. Multivariate analyses of covariance indicated significantly more posttraumatic stress symptoms in mothers and fathers of childhood leukemia survivors (p < .001) and no differences between survivors and

Anne E. Kazak; Lamia P. Barakat; Kathleen Meeske; Dimitri Christakis; Anna T. Meadows; Rosemary Casey; Biancamaria Penati; Margaret L. Stuber

1997-01-01

425

Functional Somatic Syndromes and Childhood Physical Abuse in Women: Data From a Representative Community-Based Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether childhood physical abuse was associated with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) in women while controlling for age, race, and four clusters of potentially confounding factors: (a) Other childhood adversities, (b) adult health behaviors, (c) socioeconomic status and stressors, and (d) mental health. A regional subsample of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey of 7,342 women was used.

Esme Fuller-Thomson; Joanne Sulman; Sarah Brennenstuhl; Moeza Merchant

2011-01-01

426

A virtual shopping test for realistic assessment of cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive dysfunction caused by brain injury often prevents a patient from achieving a healthy and high quality of life. By now, each cognitive function is assessed precisely by neuropsychological tests. However, it is also important to provide an overall assessment of the patients’ ability in their everyday life. We have developed a Virtual Shopping Test (VST) using virtual reality technology. The objective of this study was to clarify 1) the significance of VST by comparing VST with other conventional tests, 2) the applicability of VST to brain-damaged patients, and 3) the performance of VST in relation to age differences. Methods The participants included 10 patients with brain damage, 10 age-matched healthy subjects for controls, 10 old healthy subjects, and 10 young healthy subjects. VST and neuropsychological tests/questionnaires about attention, memory and executive function were conducted on the patients, while VST and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were conducted on the controls and healthy subjects. Within the VST, the participants were asked to buy four items in the virtual shopping mall quickly in a rational way. The score for evaluation included the number of items bought correctly, the number of times to refer to hints, the number of movements between shops, and the total time spent to complete the shopping. Results Some variables on VST correlated with the scores of conventional assessment about attention and everyday memory. The mean number of times referring to hints and the mean number of movements were significantly larger for the patients with brain damage, and the mean total time was significantly longer for the patients than for the controls. In addition, the mean total time was significantly longer for the old than for the young. Conclusions The results suggest that VST is able to evaluate the ability of attention and everyday memory in patients with brain damage. The time of VST is increased by age.

2013-01-01

427

Subjective cognitive function and decline among older adults with psychometrically defined amnestic MCI  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Objective To examine the relationship between subjective cognitive function and subsequent cognitive decline among individuals with psychometrically defined amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to determine whether the presence of depressive symptoms modifies this relationship. Method Fifty-five individuals met psychometric criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Cognitive decline was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which was administered at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Subjective cognitive function was examined using two different one-item memory complaints, as well as a scale focused on current level of cognitive function relative to past function and a scale focused on forgetting in specific everyday situations. Results In multiple regression analyses, the one-item complaint of change in memory at baseline predicted future cognitive decline. There was a significant interaction effect whereby this association was stronger in participants who endorsed fewer symptoms of depression. Conclusion Individuals showing memory deficits consistent with amnestic MCI have at least some insight regarding cognitive decline and the extent to which subjective cognitive function is useful in predicting future decline may depend on what particular questions are asked as well as presence of depressive symptoms.

Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Wadley, Virginia; Cook, Sarah; Unverzagt, Frederick; Marsiske, Michael; Ball, Karlene

2010-01-01