Sample records for childhood cognitive function

  1. Parental Family Stress during Pregnancy and Cognitive Functioning in Early Childhood: The Generation R Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrichs, Jens; Schenk, Jacqueline J.; Kok, Rianne; Ftitache, Bouchra; Schmidt, Henk G.; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Tiemeier, Henning

    2011-01-01

    We investigated whether parental family stress during pregnancy is associated with cognitive functioning in early childhood in a population-based cohort (n = 3139). Family stress was assessed using the Family Assessment Device at the 20th week of pregnancy and was reported by mothers and fathers. Mothers completed the MacArthur Communicative…

  2. Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446

  3. Mental Ability in Childhood and Cognitive Aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J. Gow; Wendy Johnson; Alison Pattie; Martha C. Whiteman; John Starr; Ian J. Deary

    2008-01-01

    Background: Identifying the determinants of cognitive aging is a research priority; however, few studies are able to examine the influence of pre-morbid cognitive ability on later changes in cognitive function. Objective: To examine the association between childhood cognitive ability and cognitive change from age 79 to 83 in the presence of other demographic and lifestyle indicators. Methods: The participants took

  4. Beyond Language: Childhood Bilingualism Enhances High-Level Cognitive Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ágnes Melinda Kovács

    Children growing up in a bilingual environment have to build up two language systems from the linguistic input. They will use the two languages alternately as a function of their interlocutor in their everyday interaction. At a young age, a bilingual child may be faced with somewhat different requirements than a monolingual one. This chapter will discuss the possible changes

  5. Effects of Early Childhood Health and Family Planning Interventions on Adolescent Cognitive Functioning: Evidence from Matlab in Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania Barham

    Early childhood health and nutrition interventions have been shown to improve the health status of young children in developing countries. It is believed that improvements received early in life may lead to improved cognitive development, health, educational achievements, and labor market opportunities. Yet there is little evidence that the benefits of early childhood health interventions continue into adolescence and adulthood,

  6. Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR?=?1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to influence the prevalence of GSCE when level of BPP was taken into account. PMID:23320411

  7. ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DIARRHEA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS WITH IMPAIRED PHYSICAL FITNESS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOUR-SEVEN YEARS LATER IN A POOR URBAN COMMUNITY IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID I. GUERRANT; SEAN R. MOORE; ALDO A. M. LIMA; PETER D. PATRICK; JOHN B. SCHORLING; RICHARD L. GUERRANT

    1999-01-01

    To determine potential, long-term deficits associated with early childhood diarrhea and parasitic infec- tions, we studied the physical fitness (by the Harvard Step Test) and cognitive function (by standardized tests noted below) of 26 children who had complete surveillance for diarrhea in their first 2 years of life and who had continued surveillance until 6-9 years of age in a

  8. Childhood, death, and cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald P. Koocher

    1973-01-01

    Employed Piaget's framework for conceptualizing cognitive development to explore and analyze children's attitudes toward death. Ss were 75 6-15 yr olds with at least average intellectual ability, as measured by the WISC Similarities subtest. Conservation tests were used to determine S's primary level of cognitive functioning. Each S was asked the following questions: What makes things die? How can you

  9. Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

    1999-01-01

    This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II PMID:10457047

  10. ADVERSE CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENT AND LATE-LIFE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING Karen Ritchie1*

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    isabelle.jaussent@inserm.fr Tel: (33) 4 99 61 45 60; Fax: (33) 4 99 61 45 79 KEY WORDS: elderly, child abuse, cognition, ApoE, gene-environment interaction inserm-00584172,version1-7Apr2011 Author manuscript, published in "International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 2011;26(5):503-10" DOI : 10.1002/gps.2553 #12

  11. Executive Functioning in Childhood Epilepsy: Parent-Report and Cognitive Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Joy; Geary, Elizabeth; Jones, Jana; Seth, Raj; Hermann, Bruce; Seidenberg, Michael

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the assessment of executive function (EF) in pediatric clinical populations but only a few well-standardized measures exist. We examined EF in 53 children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (31 males, 22 females) and 50 control children (23 males, 27 females) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of…

  12. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in First-Episode Psychosis, Including a Discussion on Childhood Trauma, Stress, and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157

  13. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103

  14. Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

  15. Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

  16. Childhood Functional GI Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Advocacy Activities, Legislative & Regulatory Research Leadership Code of Ethics Funding IFFGD Standards For Collaboration Industry Council GI ... aboutIncontinence.org | aboutKidsGI.org | giResearch.org | ... Copyright 1998-2015 International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders, ...

  17. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Cognitive Flexibility in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Spann, Marisa N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Kalmar, Jessica H.; Guiney, Joanne; Womer, Fay Y.; Pittman, Brian; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Sinha, Rajita; Blumberg, Hilary P.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with diminished executive functioning in children and adults; however, there is a relative paucity of study of executive function in adolescents exposed to CM. Yet, executive dysfunction in adolescence may have important adverse consequences including increased vulnerability to risky behaviors and impaired school functioning. This study investigates the relationship between self-reported CM and an executive function, cognitive flexibility, in adolescents without identified psychiatric disorders. Effects of physical and emotional, abuse and neglect, maltreatment subtypes were explored. Thirty adolescents ages 12–17 years, 50% females, completed the retrospective self-report Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and were administered the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Correlational analyses assessed the relationship between WCST perseverative error scores norm-referenced for age and education with CTQ total scores. The relationship with non-perseverative errors, as well as with physical and emotional abuse and neglect CM subscores, were explored. Total CTQ scores showed significant associations with perseverative errors on the WCST, but not with non-perseverative errors. Significant associations with perseverative errors were seen for physical abuse and physical neglect among the CTQ subscales. The results suggest both physical abuse and physical neglect are associated with diminished cognitive flexibility in adolescents. These effects were detected in adolescents without identified psychiatric diagnoses suggesting the importance of considering executive dysfunction in adolescents exposed to CM who may not meet diagnostic criteria for an Axis I disorder and that tests of perseverative errors, such as those of the WCST, may be sensitive indicators of this dysfunction. PMID:21942637

  18. The Effects of Clozapine, Risperidone, and Olanzapine on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert Y. Meltzer; Susan R. McGurk

    1999-01-01

    Cognitive function is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitive function, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate

  19. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD. PMID:24918067

  20. Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger were used to measure early-life nutritional deficiencies. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that both anthropometric measures and self-report markers of early-life nutritional status were significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline for both men and women after controlling for age and ethnicity. Adjustments for childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status, adulthood health, and lifestyle habits had little effect on these associations except for the effect of hunger among men. Results from multinomial logistic regression models show that during the three-year follow-up period, arm length was significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment after controlling for various confounders in men, but not in women. Our findings suggest that early-life nutritional deprivation may contribute to cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults. PMID:20591545

  1. Early Hormonal Influences on Cognitive Functioning in Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Susan M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitive functioning.…

  2. Cognitive functioning and anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Eysenck; Colin MacLeod; Andrew Mathews

    1987-01-01

    Various possible differences in cognitive functioning between those high and low in trait anxiety are considered. Particular emphasis is paid to the hypothesis that individuals high in trait anxiety tend to approach threatening stimuli, whereas those low in trait anxiety tend to avoid such stimuli. The evidence indicates that there are such differences in the processing of threatening stimuli as

  3. Cognitive function\\/dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lennart Hansson

    2000-01-01

    Several recent observations show that elevated blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) or reduced cognitive function. In a 15-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of elderly individuals that prior to developing AD such subjects had significantly higher systolic and diastolic BPs than those who remained mentally intact during follow-up(1).In a 20-year follow-up data on 999 men

  4. Fetal and Childhood Exposure to Phthalate Diesters and Cognitive Function in Children Up to 12 Years of Age: Taiwanese Maternal and Infant Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Han-Bin; Chen, Hsin-Yi; Su, Pen-Hua; Huang, Po-Chin; Sun, Chien-Wen; Wang, Chien-Jen; Chen, Hsiao-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the association between environmental phthalate exposure and children’s neurocognitive development. This longitudinal study examined cognitive function in relation to pre-and postnatal phthalate exposure in children 2–12 years old. We recruited 430 pregnant women in their third trimester in Taichung, Taiwan from 2001–2002. A total of 110, 79, 76, and 73 children were followed up at ages 2, 5, 8, and 11, respectively. We evaluated the children’s cognitive function at four different time points using the Bayley and Wechsler tests for assessing neurocognitive functions and intelligence (IQ). Urine samples were collected from mothers during pregnancy and from children at each follow-up visit. They were analyzed for seven metabolite concentrations of widely used phthalate esters. These esters included monomethyl phthalate, monoethyl phthalate, mono-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate, and three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, namely, mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate, and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate. We constructed a linear mixed model to examine the relationships between the phthalate metabolite concentrations and the Bayley and IQ scores. We found significant inverse associations between the children’s levels of urinary mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate and the sum of the three metabolites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and their IQ scores (? = -1.818; 95% CI: -3.061, -0.574, p = 0.004 for mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate; ? = -1.575; 95% CI: -3.037, -0.113, p = 0.035 for the sum of the three metabolites) after controlling for maternal phthalate levels and potential confounders. We did not observe significant associations between maternal phthalate exposure and the children’s IQ scores. Children’s but not prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with decreased cognitive development in the young children. Large-scale prospective cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings in the future. PMID:26121592

  5. Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty. PMID:24675708

  6. You Are What You Eat? Meal Type, Socio-Economic Status and Cognitive Ability in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…

  7. Changing Views on Cognition in Early Childhood: Putting Some Sacred Cows out to Pasture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catherwood, Di

    1994-01-01

    Explores cognitive development in early childhood education and examines four kinds of prevailing misconceptions in the light of recent evidence: (1) infants and very young children are limited to sensorimotor cognition; (2) young children's cognition is animistic; (3) young children's thought is egocentric; and (4) young children can think only…

  8. HOMOCYSTEINE AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The prevention and treatment of age-related cognitive impairment and dementia is one of the greatest and most elusive challenges of our time. The prevalence of dementia increases exponentially with age, as does the prevalence of those with micronutrient deficiency. Several studies have shown that el...

  9. Cognitive Control and Attentional Functions

    PubMed Central

    Mackie, Melissa-Ann; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Fan, Jin

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive control is essential to flexible, goal-directed behavior under uncertainty, yet its underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Because attentional functions are known to allocate mental resources and prioritize the information to be processed by the brain, we propose that the attentional functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control and the interactions among them contribute to cognitive control in the service of uncertainty reduction. To test this hypothesis, we examined the relationship between cognitive control and attentional functions. We used the Majority Function Task (MFT) to manipulate uncertainty in order to evoke cognitive control along with the Revised Attention Network Test (ANT-R) to measure the efficiency and the interactions of attentional functions. A backwards, stepwise regression model revealed that performance on the MFT could be significantly predicted by attentional functions and their interactions as measured by the ANT-R. These results provide preliminary support for our theory that the attentional functions may be involved in the implementation of cognitive control as required to reduce uncertainty, though further investigation is needed. PMID:23792472

  10. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui-Lobera, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitive functions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups. PMID:25419131

  11. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Jill N

    2015-06-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise. PMID:26031719

  12. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  13. Childhood Trauma and PTSD Symptoms Increase the Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Sample of Former Indentured Child Laborers in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Krammer, Sandy; Simmen-Janevska, Keti

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests a link between early childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and higher risk for dementia in old age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between childhood trauma exposure, PTSD and neurocognitive function in a unique cohort of former indentured Swiss child laborers in their late adulthood. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study ever conducted on former indentured child laborers and the first to investigate the relationship between childhood versus adulthood trauma and cognitive function. According to PTSD symptoms and whether they experienced childhood trauma (CT) or adulthood trauma (AT), participants (n?=?96) were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: CT/PTSD+, CT/PTSD-, AT/PTSD+, AT/PTSD-. Information on cognitive function was assessed using the Structured Interview for Diagnosis of Dementia of Alzheimer Type, Multi-infarct Dementia and Dementia of other Etiology according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a vocabulary test. Depressive symptoms were investigated as a potential mediator for neurocognitive functioning. Individuals screening positively for PTSD symptoms performed worse on all cognitive tasks compared to healthy individuals, independent of whether they reported childhood or adulthood adversity. When controlling for depressive symptoms, the relationship between PTSD symptoms and poor cognitive function became stronger. Overall, results tentatively indicate that PTSD is accompanied by cognitive deficits which appear to be independent of earlier childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that cognitive deficits in old age may be partly a consequence of PTSD or at least be aggravated by it. However, several study limitations need to considered. Consideration of cognitive deficits when treating PTSD patients and victims of lifespan trauma (even without a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition) is crucial. Furthermore, early intervention may prevent long-term deficits in memory function and development of dementia in adulthood. PMID:23469076

  14. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  15. Cognitive Processes Influencing Marital Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana

    This paper reviews the literature on the role of mediating cognitive factors in marital functioning and satisfaction. Types and patterns of causal attributions of distressed and nondistressed couples are compared and the effectiveness of various intervention models is discussed. The materials also discuss the role of unfulfilled expectations as a…

  16. Placebo Sleep Affects Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-01-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether…

  17. An Experimental Analysis of Dynamic Hypotheses About Cognitive Abilities and Achievement From Childhood to Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…

  18. Cognitive function in older adults according to current socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Michael; Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Brown, Bruce L; Woody, Parker; Hedges, Dawson W

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive function may be influenced by education, socioeconomic status, sex, and health status. Furthermore, aging interacts with these factors to influence cognition and dementia risk in late life. Factors that may increase or decrease successful cognitive aging are of critical importance, particularly if they are modifiable. The purpose of this study was to determine if economic status in late life is associated with cognition independent of socioeconomic status in early life. Cross-sectional demographic, socioeconomic, and cognitive function data were obtained in 2592 older adults (average age 71.6 years) from the Center for Disease Control's National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and analyzed with linear regression modeling. Cognitive function, as measured with a test of processing speed, was significantly associated with poverty index scores after adjusting for educational attainment as an estimate of childhood socioeconomic status, ethnic background, age, health status, and sex (P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that current economic status is independently associated with cognitive function in adults over age 60 years. PMID:25565407

  19. Executive functioning of 4 children with hyperphenylalaninemia from childhood to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Rachael; Sullivan, Karen A; Jones, Toni; Young, Ross McD; McGill, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Hyperphenylalaninemia is a variant of phenylketonuria, and debate remains as to what, if any, active management of this condition is required to preserve cognitive function and psychological well-being. This study is the first to examine longitudinally the executive function (EF) in adolescents with hyperphenylalaninemia. Two sibling pairs with mild hyperphenylalaninemia underwent neuropsychological examination in early childhood and again in adolescence using EF tests that were highly sensitive to phenylalanine exposure. By early adolescence, none of the 4 children demonstrated EF impairment. The children demonstrated a typical developmental trajectory of EF from childhood to adolescence, given phenylalanine exposure consistent with their condition. PMID:25825540

  20. Placebo sleep affects cognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Draganich, Christina; Erdal, Kristi

    2014-05-01

    The placebo effect is any outcome that is not attributed to a specific treatment but rather to an individual's mindset (Benson & Friedman, 1996). This phenomenon can extend beyond its typical use in pharmaceutical drugs to involve aspects of everyday life, such as the effect of sleep on cognitive functioning. In 2 studies examining whether perceived sleep quality affects cognitive functioning, 164 participants reported their previous night's sleep quality. They were then randomly assigned to 1 of 2 sleep quality conditions or 2 control conditions. Those in the "above average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had spent 28.7% of their total sleep time in REM, whereas those in the "below average" sleep quality condition were informed that they had only spent 16.2% of their time in REM sleep. Assigned sleep quality but not self-reported sleep quality significantly predicted participants' scores on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and Controlled Oral Word Association Task. Assigned sleep quality did not predict participants' scores on the Digit Span task, as expected, nor did it predict scores on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, which was unexpected. The control conditions showed that the findings were not due to demand characteristics from the experimental protocol. These findings supported the hypothesis that mindset can influence cognitive states in both positive and negative directions, suggesting a means of controlling one's health and cognition. PMID:24417326

  1. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  2. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621419

  3. Functional Decline in Cognitive Impairment – The Relationship between Physical and Cognitive Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tung Wai Auyeung; Timothy Kwok; Jenny Lee; Ping Chung Leung; Jason Leung; Jean Woo

    2008-01-01

    Background: Physical function decline is associated with dementia, which might either be mediated by the coexisting sarcopenia or directly related to the impaired cognition. Our objectives are to examine the relationship between cognitive function and performance-based physical function and to test the hypothesis that cognitive function is related to poor physical function independent of muscle mass. Methods: We measured muscle

  4. Childhood Depression: A Developmental Perspective on Disruption of Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rebecca Lynne

    This paper reviews research on childhood depression and its relation to developmental processes, family functioning, academic performance, and peer relationships. The methodological strengths and weaknesses of the research are examined. A section on developmental perspectives looks at early childhood, school age children, and adolescence. Support…

  5. Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

  6. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  7. Computer-assisted cognitive remediation in patients with schizophrenia : effects on symptoms, cognition and psychosocial functioning 

    E-print Network

    MacLeod, Joanne Louise

    2013-07-02

    Background: Cognitive remediation is a behavioural intervention that aims to improve cognitive functioning with the goal of durability and generalisation. Although evidence suggests that computer-assisted cognitive ...

  8. The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Temperament, Parenting, and Negative Life Events in Childhood as Contributors to Negative Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental…

  9. Cognitive-Behavioral Family Treatment of Childhood Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Controlled Trial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Paula; Healy-Farrell, Lara; March, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents with…

  10. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings from a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…

  11. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  12. Childhood aerobic fitness predicts cognitive performance one year later

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Chaddock; Charles H. Hillman; Matthew B. Pontifex; Christopher R. Johnson; Lauren B. Raine; Arthur F. Kramer

    2012-01-01

    Aerobically fit children outperform less fit peers on cognitive control challenges that involve inhibition, cognitive flexibility, and working memory. The aim of this study was to determine whether, compared with less fit children, more fit 9- and 10-year-old pre-adolescents exhibit superior performance on a modified compatible and incompatible flanker task of cognitive control at the initial time of fitness testing

  13. Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

  14. Cognitive Functioning in Major Depression – A Summary

    PubMed Central

    Hammar, Åsa; Årdal, Guro

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitive functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitive functioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitive functioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted.In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. PMID:19826496

  15. Physical and cognitive function 1 Running title: Physical and cognitive function

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Physical and cognitive function 1 29.12.2008 Running title: Physical and cognitive function Physical and cognitive function in midlife: reciprocal effects? A 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. 3 National Research and Development Centre of Welfare and Health

  16. Cognitive Function in Early Onset Schizophrenia: A Selective Review

    PubMed Central

    Frangou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitive function. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies. PMID:20140271

  17. Extended household transitions, race/ethnicity, and early childhood cognitive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Fomby, Paula; Dennis, Jeff A

    2012-09-01

    Beyond mothers' union status transitions, other adults' transitions into and out of the household contribute to family instability, particularly in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N?8550), this study examines associations between extended household transitions and age 2 cognitive development. A substantial minority of toddlers experiences these transitions, and their consequences vary by household member type, entry versus exit, and race/ethnicity. Extended household transitions predict lower cognitive scores for white children, but the selection of low-socioeconomic status families into extended households explains these disparities. Grandparent transitions predict significantly higher cognitive scores for African American and Latino children than whites, and some "other adult" transitions predict higher scores for Latinos than African Americans and whites. Extended household transitions' consequences are independent of co-occurring residential moves and partner transitions. Findings suggest that studying extended household transitions is useful for understanding children's early development, and their consequences vary by race/ethnicity. PMID:23017924

  18. Cognitive and Academic Functioning in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, Joseph C.; Barth, Richard P.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines cognitive functioning and academic achievement in maltreated children. The data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a national probability study of children receiving child welfare services due to alleged child maltreatment. Assessments of the cognitive and academic functioning of school-age…

  19. Residual cognitive deficits 50 years after lead poisoning during childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R F White; R Diamond; S Proctor; C Morey; H Hu

    1993-01-01

    The long term neurobehavioural consequences of childhood lead poisoning are not known. In this study adult subjects with a documented history of lead poisoning before age 4 and matched controls were examined with an abbreviated battery of neuropsychological tests including measures of attention, reasoning, memory, motor speed, and current mood. The subjects exposed to lead were inferior to controls on

  20. Overweight Is Associated With Decreased Cognitive Functioning Among School-age Children and Adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yanfeng Li; Qi Dai; James C. Jackson; Jian Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and

  1. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according

  2. 9.85 Infant and Early Childhood Cognition, Fall 2005

    E-print Network

    Schulz, Laura

    This course is an introduction to cognitive development focusing on children's understanding of objects, agents, and causality. Students develop a critical understanding of experimental design and how developmental research ...

  3. Does Childhood Executive Function Predict Adolescent Functional Outcomes in Girls with ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meghan Miller; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2010-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of\\u000a measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes in adolescence. Measures of neuropsychological\\u000a functioning comprised the childhood predictors, with academic,

  4. [Gonadal function after treatment for a childhood or adolescent cancer].

    PubMed

    Rousset-Jablonski, Christine; Giscard d'Estaing, Sandrine; Bernier, Valérie; Lornage, Jacqueline; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Aubier, Françoise; Faure-Conter, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Due to high cure rate in childhood and adolescent cancer, fertility preservation is a major concern. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery may alter gonadal function, and uterine cavity in women. In women, combined toxicity affecting both endocrine function and ovulation are observed leading to premature ovarian insufficiency. In men, spermatogenesis is frequently affected whereas endocrine function is almost always preserved. The current article focuses on investigations concerning gonadal function after treatment for a cancer during childhood or adolescence and treatment of subsequent infertility or hypogonadism. Nevertheless, those therapeutic are still limited and pretherapeutic preservation of fertility is preferred when possible. PMID:25890827

  5. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078.) PMID:18974308

  6. Cognitive function in subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Sarita; Sachan, Shivam; Misra, Vatsala; Varma, Anurag; Saxena, Piyush

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the association of cognitive function with subclinical hypothyroidism in elderly. Materials and Methods: It's a cross-sectional, case-control study of 103 patients (?65 years) who met the criteria for subclinical hypothyroidism. Similarly 103 age, sex and education-matched healthy controls were taken. Serum TSH, free T3 and free T4 were measured. Cognitive functions were assessed by using Folstein Mini Mental Examination (MMSE) and clock drawing test. Results: Out of the 103 diagnosed subclinical hypothyroidism cases, cognitive impairment (by MMSE) was found in 33 (30.9%) while it was present in only 15 (14.54%) out of 103 controls (P = 0.003), cognitive impairment (by CDT) was present in 32 patients (31.06%) out of 103 cases while it was present in 26 patients (25.24%) out of 103 controls (P > 0.05, insignificant). Mean TSH of subclinical hypothyroidism with cognitive impairment was 7.67 ± 1.22 mIU/liter and without cognitive impairment was 6.47 ± 0.98 mIU/liter (P value = 0.0001, significant) Conclusions: Prevalence of cognitive impairment was significantly higher in subclinical hypothyroidism as compared to controls. Presence of cognitive impairment correlated with the level of TSH; as TSH increased cognitive function declined. PMID:25364675

  7. MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard W. Elwood

    2001-01-01

    MicroCog: Assessment of Cognitive Functioning version 2.1 (Powell, D. H., Kaplan, E. F., Whitla, D., Catlin, R., and Funkenstein, H. H. (1993). The Psychological corporation, San Antonio, TX.) is one of the first computerized assessment batteries commercially developed to detect early signs of cognitive impairment. This paper reviews its psychometric characteristics and relates them to its clinical utility. It concludes

  8. Mesocortical dopaminergic function and human cognition

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberger, D.R.; Berman, K.F.; Chase, T.N.

    1988-01-01

    In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.

  9. Cognitive performance in childhood and early adult illness: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, L.; Fitzmaurice, G.; Kindlon, D.; Buka, S.

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To evaluate whether cognitive performance in childhood is an early determinant of adult illness. Design: Prospective cohort study covering over 30 years. Setting: Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Participants: 633 people ages 30–39 followed up since birth as part of the Providence cohort of the national collaborative perinatal project. Main results: Higher cognitive performance at age 7 was related to a significantly reduced risk of serious illness in adulthood, OR = 0.65 (95%CI: 0.47 to 0.89) for a one standard deviation (15 point) increase in IQ score. This association was independent of both parental socioeconomic status and participant's attained level of education. Conclusions: General cognitive performance may be an important and informative early determinant of adult health. Further evaluation of this association and mechanisms linking cognitive performance and health may provide new and innovative strategies to improve disease management and reduce morbidity. PMID:15252070

  10. Parents’ perceptions of pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for childhood anxiety disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy M. Brown; Brett J. Deacon; Jonathan S. Abramowitz; Julie Dammann; Stephen P. Whiteside

    2007-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and pharmacotherapy are the most well-established treatments for childhood anxiety disorders. This study examined how parents (N=71) seeking treatment for their child's anxiety disorder perceive the acceptability, believability, and effectiveness of these treatments. While both treatments were perceived favorably, CBT was rated as more acceptable, believable, and effective in the short- and long-term. Children's treatment history influenced

  11. Efficacy of Modular Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.; Taylor, Alissa A.; Francis, Sarah E.; Moffitt, Catherine; Austin, Ayda A.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the initial efficacy of a modular approach to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. Modular CBT consists of the guided combination of individually scripted techniques that are explicitly matched to the child's individual strengths and needs. Eleven youth primarily of Asian and Pacific…

  12. Motor Learning in Childhood Education: Curricular, Compensatory, Cognitive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.

    Noting that unilateral definitions of motor learning as separate from ideational learning are inadequate, this book identifies and explores certain branches of specific aspects of motor learning. The book is divided into three parts, dealing with curricular motor learning, compensatory motor learning, and cognitive motor learning. Part I is…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John T. Walkup; Anne Marie Albano; John Piacentini; Boris Birmaher; Scott N. Compton; Joel T. Sherrill; Golda S. Ginsburg; Moira A. Rynn; James McCracken; Bruce Waslick; Satish Iyengar; John S. March; Philip C. Kendall

    2008-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and ado- lescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake in- hibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis

  14. Functional Abdominal Pain in Childhood: From Etiology to Maladaptation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilva Elena Schulte; Franz Petermann; Meinolf Noeker

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the extant literature on functional abdominal pain in childhood through the lens of the developmental psychopathology perspective and to systematize research results by means of a two-stage pathway model in which the emergence of functional abdominal pain and its potential transition into a somatoform adjustment disorder is outlined. Methods: Using electronic searches for published studies and previous

  15. Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions

    PubMed Central

    Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

    2011-01-01

    Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180

  16. Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenna R. Rinsky; Stephen P. Hinshaw

    2011-01-01

    We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing

  17. Cognitive function at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Kramer, A F; Coyne, J T; Strayer, D L

    1993-06-01

    The effects of altitude on human performance and cognition were evaluated in a field study performed on Mount Denali in Alaska during the summer of 1990. Climbers performed a series of perceptual, cognitive, and sensory-motor tasks before, during, and after climbing the West Buttress route on Denali. Relative to a matched control group that performed the tasks at sea level, the climbers showed deficits of learning and retention in perceptual and memory tasks. Furthermore, climbers performed more slowly on most tasks than did the control group, suggesting long-term deficits that may be attributed to repeated forays to high altitudes. PMID:8349291

  18. Memory functioning in adult women traumatized by childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Stein, M B; Hanna, C; Vaerum, V; Koverola, C

    1999-07-01

    Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task (Benton, 1974), were administered to 22 female adult survivors of childhood sexual trauma and to 20 demographically and educationally similar nonvictimized women. No evidence was found of explicit memory impairment in the abuse survivors. Furthermore, neither PTSD severity, dissociative symptom severity, nor extent of preexisting amnesia for childhood trauma contributed to the variance in memory functioning. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent to which impaired explicit memory functioning is a common feature of posttraumatic stress syndromes. PMID:10467560

  19. Nicotinic systems and cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward D. Levin

    1992-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found to be important for maintaining optimal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In humans, nicotine-induced improvement of rapid information processing is particularly well documented. In experimental animals nicotine has been found to improve learning and memory on a variety of tasks, while the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine has been found to impair memory performance.

  20. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation. PMID:15590616

  1. Young people making sense of pain: Cognitive appraisal, function, and pain in 8–16 year old children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Huguet; Christopher Eccleston; Jordi Miró; Jeremy Gauntlett-Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Recurrent pain is a common childhood problem which for some becomes chronic and is associated with severely impaired functioning. Relationships of psychological variables with impaired functioning have rarely been investigated in samples of children reporting pain in non-clinical settings. The aim of this study was to examine the role of cognitive appraisal in the relationship between chronic pain and level

  2. Pulmonary function after treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Nysom, K.; Holm, K.; Olsen, J. H.; Hertz, H.; Hesse, B.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine pulmonary function after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood and identify risk factors for reduced pulmonary function. We studied a population-based cohort of 94 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in childhood who were in first remission after treatment without spinal irradiation or bone marrow transplantation. Pulmonary function test results were compared with reference values for our laboratory, based on 348 healthy subjects who had never smoked from a local population study. A median of 8 years after cessation of therapy (range 1-18 years) the participants had a slight, subclinical, restrictive ventilatory insufficiency and reduced transfer factor and transfer coefficient. The changes in lung function were related to younger age at treatment and to more dose-intensive treatment protocols that specified more use of cranial irradiation and higher cumulative doses of anthracyclines, cytosine arabinoside and intravenous cyclophosphamide than previous protocols. We conclude that, 8 years after treatment without bone marrow transplantation or spinal irradiation, survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in first remission were without pulmonary symptoms but had signs of slight restrictive pulmonary disease including reduced transfer factor. The increased dose intensity of many recent protocols for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia may lead to increased late pulmonary toxicity. PMID:9662245

  3. Improving executive function in childhood: evaluation of a training intervention for 5-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Traverso, Laura; Viterbori, Paola; Usai, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to a set of higher order cognitive processes that control and modulate cognition under continuously changing and multiple task demands. EF plays a central role in early childhood, is associated and predictive of important cognitive achievements and has been recognized as a significant aspect of school readiness. This study examines the efficacy of a group based intervention for 5-year-old children that focuses on basic components of EF (working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). The intervention included 12 sessions, lasted 1 month and used low-cost materials. Seventy-five children took part in the study. The results indicate that the children who attended the intervention outperformed controls in simple and more complex EF tasks. Specifically, these children exhibited increased abilities to delay gratification, to control on-going responses, to process and update information, and to manage high cognitive conflict. These results suggest the possibility that this intervention, which may be easily implemented in educational services, can promote EF during preschool period before the entrance in primary school. PMID:25983706

  4. Social cognitive maternal-mediated nutritional correlates of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Knowlden, Adam P; Sharma, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the extent to which the maternal-facilitated, social cognitive theory constructs of environment, emotional coping, expectations, self-control, and self-efficacy predicted child fruit and vegetable consumption and sugar-free beverage intake. Instrumentation comprised three stages of data collection and analysis. Stage 1 included item generation, face and content validity by a panel of six experts, and readability by Flesch Reading Ease and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level tests. Stage 2 assessed stability of the theoretical constructs using the test-retest procedure with 30 participants. Structural equation modeling was used during Stage 3 to conduct confirmatory factor analysis and to establish predictive validity of the models. A total of 224 respondents participated in this study. Maternal-facilitated home environment and self-efficacy were significant predictors of child fruit and vegetable consumption while maternal-mediated home environment and emotional coping were significant predictors of child sugar-free beverage intake. PMID:25856808

  5. Chewing Maintains Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2015-01-01

    Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711

  6. 5-HTTLPR and Early Childhood Adversities Moderate Cognitive and Emotional Processing in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555

  7. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style. PMID:17087538

  8. Down syndrome: Cognitive and behavioral functioning across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Grieco, Julie; Pulsifer, Margaret; Seligsohn, Karen; Skotko, Brian; Schwartz, Alison

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) commonly possess unique neurocognitive and neurobehavioral profiles that emerge within specific developmental periods. These profiles are distinct relative to others with similar intellectual disability (ID) and reflect underlying neuroanatomic findings, providing support for a distinctive phenotypic profile. This review updates what is known about the cognitive and behavioral phenotypes associated with DS across the lifespan. In early childhood, mild deviations from neurotypically developing trajectories emerge. By school-age, delays become pronounced. Nonverbal skills remain on trajectory for mental age, whereas verbal deficits emerge and persist. Nonverbal learning and memory are strengths relative to verbal skills. Expressive language is delayed relative to comprehension. Aspects of language skills continue to develop throughout adolescence, although language skills remain compromised in adulthood. Deficits in attention/executive functions are present in childhood and become more pronounced with age. Characteristic features associated with DS (cheerful, social nature) are personality assets. Children are at a lower risk for psychopathology compared to other children with ID; families report lower levels of stress and a more positive outlook. In youth, externalizing behaviors may be problematic, whereas a shift toward internalizing behaviors emerges with maturity. Changes in emotional/behavioral functioning in adulthood are typically associated with neurodegeneration and individuals with DS are higher risk for dementia of the Alzheimer's type. Individuals with DS possess many unique strengths and weaknesses that should be appreciated as they develop across the lifespan. Awareness of this profile by professionals and caregivers can promote early detection and support cognitive and behavioral development. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25989505

  9. Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.

    PubMed

    Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

    2007-12-01

    Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

  10. [Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].

    PubMed

    Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-05-01

    The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

  11. Left ventricular diastolic function after anthracycline chemotherapy in childhood: relation with systolic function, symptoms, and pathophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. BuLock; M. G. Mott; A. Oakhill; R. P. Martin

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients previously treated with anthracycline drugs for childhood malignancy. To consider clinical relevance, relations with systolic dysfunction, and the pathophysiology of anthracycline cardiotoxicity. DESIGN--Cross sectional echocardiographic study of LV function. SETTING--Supraregional centre for paediatric cardiology, principal centre for the treatment of childhood malignancy in southwest England. PATIENTS--226 of 236 patients surviving between

  12. Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: Cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Tony T.; Vanderlind, W. Michael; Selby, Edward A.; Beevers, Christopher G.

    2014-01-01

    Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive “scars” that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

  13. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  14. Survivorship: Cognitive Function, Version 1.2014

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J.; O’Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R.; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  15. Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.

    PubMed

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  16. Phytoestrogens and cognitive function: a review.

    PubMed

    Soni, Mira; Rahardjo, Tri Budi W; Soekardi, Rodiyah; Sulistyowati, Yenny; Lestariningsih; Yesufu-Udechuku, Amina; Irsan, Atik; Hogervorst, Eef

    2014-03-01

    Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitive function in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046

  17. Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted…

  18. An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional Approach

    E-print Network

    Cook, Robert

    An Ontology for Comparative Cognition 36 An Ontology for Comparative Cognition: A Functional introduce an ontology for the study of how animals think, as well as a comprehensive model of human and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition

  19. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabi, Hamid R.; Bates, Kristyn A.; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S.; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R.; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Bird, Sabine M.; Brown, Belinda M.; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S.; Mehta, Pankaj D.; Foster, Jonathan K.; Martins, Ian J.; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M.; Martins, Ralph N.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34–87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  20. Bone mineral density, adiposity, and cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Hamid R; Bates, Kristyn A; Weinborn, Michael; Bucks, Romola S; Rainey-Smith, Stephanie R; Rodrigues, Mark A; Bird, Sabine M; Brown, Belinda M; Beilby, John; Howard, Matthew; Criddle, Arthur; Wraith, Megan; Taddei, Kevin; Martins, Georgia; Paton, Athena; Shah, Tejal; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Martins, Ian J; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Mastaglia, Francis; Laws, Simon M; Martins, Ralph N

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive decline and dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. A number of potentially modifiable risk factors should be taken into account when preventive or ameliorative interventions targeting dementia and its preclinical stages are investigated. Bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition are two such potentially modifiable risk factors, and their association with cognitive decline was investigated in this study. 164 participants, aged 34-87 years old (62.78 ± 9.27), were recruited for this longitudinal study and underwent cognitive and clinical examinations at baseline and after 3 years. Blood samples were collected for apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotyping and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was conducted at the same day as cognitive assessment. Using hierarchical regression analysis, we found that BMD and lean body mass, as measured using DXA were significant predictors of episodic memory. Age, gender, APOE status, and premorbid IQ were controlled for. Specifically, the List A learning from California Verbal Learning Test was significantly associated with BMD and lean mass both at baseline and at follow up assessment. Our findings indicate that there is a significant association between BMD and lean body mass and episodic verbal learning. While the involvement of modifiable lifestyle factors in human cognitive function has been examined in different studies, there is a need for further research to understand the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID:25741279

  1. Clinical and Functional Outcome of Childhood ADHD 33 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Ramos Olazagasti, María A.; Roizen Belsky, Erica; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin; Castellanos, F. Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Context Prospective studies of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. Objective To test whether children diagnosed with ADHD at mean age 8 (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, marital outcomes; higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance disorders (SD); adult onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations, than non-ADHD comparisons, at mean age 41. To test for: positive associations between probands’ ongoing ADHD and ASPD, and SD’s; and for worse social and occupational functioning in probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders, than comparisons. Design Prospective, 33 year follow-up study, with blind clinical assessments. Setting Research clinic. Participants 135 Caucasian males with ADHD in childhood, free of conduct disorder, and 136 male comparisons without childhood ADHD (65% and 76% of original cohort, respectively). Main Outcome Measures Occupational, economic, and educational attainment; marital history; occupational and social functioning; ongoing and lifetime psychiatric disorders; psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations. Results Probands had significantly worse educational, occupational, economic, social outcomes, and more divorces than comparisons; higher rates of ongoing ADHD (22% vs 5%, p<.001), ASPD (16% vs 0%, p<.001)and SD (14% vs 5%, p<.01), but not more mood or anxiety disorders (p’s=.36 and .33). Ongoing ADHD was weakly related to ongoing SD (phi=.19, p=.04), and ASPD+SD (phi=.20, p=.04). Lifetime, probands had significantly more ASPD and SD’s, but not mood or anxiety disorders, and more psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations than comparisons. Relative to comparisons, psychiatric disorders with onsets at age 21 or beyond were not significantly elevated in probands. Probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders had worse social, but not occupational, functioning. Conclusions The multiple disadvantages predicted by childhood ADHD well into adulthood began in adolescence, without increased onsets of new disorders after age 20. Findings highlight the importance of extended monitoring and treatment of children with ADHD. PMID:23070149

  2. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  3. Vitamin B12 and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitive function in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitive function. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitive function. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897

  4. DHEA and cognitive function in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Maggio, Marcello; De Vita, Francesca; Fisichella, Alberto; Colizzi, Elena; Provenzano, Sandra; Lauretani, Fulvio; Luci, Michele; Ceresini, Graziano; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Caffarra, Paolo; Valenti, Giorgio; Ceda, Gian Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The adrenal prohormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphate conjugate (DHEAS) steadily decrease with age by 10% per decade reaching a nadir after the age of 80. Both DHEA and DHEAS (DHEA/S) exert many biological activities in different tissues and organs. In particular, DHEA and DHEAS are produced de novo in the brain, hence their classification as neurosteroids. In humans, the brain-to-plasma ratios for DHEA and DHEAS are 4-6.5 and 8.5, respectively, indicating a specific neuroendocrine role for these hormones. DHEA/S stimulates neurite growth, neurogenesis and neuronal survival, apoptosis, catecholamine synthesis and secretion. Together with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glucocorticoid properties, it has been hypothesized a neuroprotective effect for DHEA/S. We conducted an accurate research of the literature using PubMed. In the period of time between 1994 and 2013, we selected the observational human studies testing the relationship between DHEA/S and cognitive function in both sexes. The studies are presented according to the cross-sectional and longitudinal design and to the positive or neutral effects on different domains of cognitive function. We also analysed the Clinical Trials, available in the literature, having cognitive domains as the main or secondary outcome. Although the cross-sectional evidence of a positive association between DHEA/S and cognitive function, longitudinal studies and RCTs using DHEA oral treatment (50mg/day) in normal or demented adult-older subjects, have produced conflicting and inconsistent results. In summary, the current data do not provide clear evidence for the usefulness of DHEA treatment to improve cognitive function in adult-older subjects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'. PMID:24794824

  5. The nature and rate of cognitive maturation from late childhood to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Cromer, Jason A; Schembri, Adrian J; Harel, Brian T; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the nature and rate of cognitive change across adolescence, the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) was utilized to assess psychomotor function, attention, working memory, and visual learning in individuals aged 10-18 years old. Since all CBB tasks have equivalent perceptual, motor, and linguistic demands as well as being appropriate for both children and adults, this approach allowed direct across-age comparison of multiple cognitive domains. Exponential decreases in reaction time and linear increases in accuracy were observed across adolescent development in a cross-sectional sample of 38,778 individuals and confirmed in a 5788 individual longitudinal sample with 1-year repeat assessments. These results have important implications for the repeated assessment of cognition during development where expected maturational changes in cognition must be accounted for during cognitive testing. PMID:26074853

  6. The nature and rate of cognitive maturation from late childhood to adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Cromer, Jason A.; Schembri, Adrian J.; Harel, Brian T.; Maruff, Paul

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the nature and rate of cognitive change across adolescence, the Cogstate Brief Battery (CBB) was utilized to assess psychomotor function, attention, working memory, and visual learning in individuals aged 10–18 years old. Since all CBB tasks have equivalent perceptual, motor, and linguistic demands as well as being appropriate for both children and adults, this approach allowed direct across-age comparison of multiple cognitive domains. Exponential decreases in reaction time and linear increases in accuracy were observed across adolescent development in a cross-sectional sample of 38,778 individuals and confirmed in a 5788 individual longitudinal sample with 1-year repeat assessments. These results have important implications for the repeated assessment of cognition during development where expected maturational changes in cognition must be accounted for during cognitive testing. PMID:26074853

  7. Functional status of thyroid and cognitive functions after menopause.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material and Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  8. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values of TSH, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, and AB-TSHR were higher and FT4 was lower in examined women. The results were poorer in examination of cognitive functions measured with a battery of CNS-VS tests. PMID:26042394

  9. Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

    2004-01-01

    There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

  10. Measurement of the Cognitive Functional Complexity of Software

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yingxu Wang; Jingqiu Shao

    2003-01-01

    One of the central problems in software engineering is its inherited complexity. It is recognized that cognitive informatics plays an important role in understanding the fundamental characteristics of software. This paper models the cognitive weights of basic control structures of software, and develops a new concept of cognitive functional size for measuring software complexity. Comparative case studies between the cognitive

  11. Hippocampal-neocortical functional reorganization underlies children's cognitive development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Cho, Soohyun; Chen, Tianwen; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the hippocampal system for rapid learning and memory is well recognized, but its contributions to a cardinal feature of children's cognitive development – the transition from procedure-based to memory-based problem solving strategies – are unknown. Here we show that the hippocampal system is pivotal to this strategic transition. Longitudinal fMRI in children, ages 7 to 9, revealed that the transition from use of counting to memory-based retrieval parallels increased hippocampal and decreased prefrontal-parietal engagement during arithmetic problem solving. Critically, longitudinal improvements in retrieval strategy use were predicted by increased hippocampal-neocortical functional connectivity. Beyond childhood, retrieval strategy use continued to improve through adolescence into adulthood, and was associated with decreased activation but more stable inter-problem representations in the hippocampus. Our findings provide novel insights into the dynamic role of the hippocampus in the maturation of memory-based problem solving, and establish a critical link between hippocampal-neocortical reorganization and children's cognitive development. PMID:25129076

  12. Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

    2005-01-01

    Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

  13. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  14. Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

  15. The Impact of Social Disparity on Prefrontal Function in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; Sarsour, Khaled; Jutte, Douglas; D'Esposito, Mark; Boyce, W. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex (PFC) develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children. PMID:22563395

  16. Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships. PMID:23174335

  17. Childhood maltreatment and its effect on neurocognitive functioning: Timing and chronicity matter.

    PubMed

    Cowell, Raquel A; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-05-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a complex stressor, with the developmental timing, duration, frequency, and type of maltreatment varying with each child (Barnett, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1993; Cicchetti & Manly, 2001). Multiple brain regions and neural circuits are disrupted by the experience of child maltreatment (Cicchetti & Toth, in press; DeBellis et al., 2002; McCrory & Viding, 2010; Teicher, Anderson, & Polcari, 2012). These neurobiological compromises indicate the impairment of a number of important cognitive functions, including working memory and inhibitory control. The present study extends prior research by examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on neurocognitive functioning based on developmental timing of maltreatment, including onset, chronicity, and recency, in a sample of 3- to 9-year-old nonmaltreated (n = 136) and maltreated children (n = 223). Maltreated children performed more poorly on inhibitory control and working-memory tasks than did nonmaltreated children. Group differences between maltreated children based on the timing of maltreatment and the chronicity of maltreatment also were evident. Specifically, children who were maltreated during infancy, and children with a chronic history of maltreatment, exhibited significantly poorer inhibitory control and working-memory performance than did children without a history of maltreatment. The results suggest that maltreatment occurring during infancy, a period of major brain organization, disrupts normative structure and function, and these deficits are further instantiated by the prolonged stress of chronic maltreatment during the early years of life. PMID:25997769

  18. Measuring cognitive function in MDD: emerging assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Burdick, Katherine E

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is emerging as an important therapeutic target in patients with psychiatric illnesses, including major depressive disorder (MDD). The objective of this general overview is to briefly review the evidence for cognitive impairment in MDD and to summarize a representative sample of cognitive assessment tools currently available to assess cognitive function in depressed patients. Study results in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction are somewhat inconsistent, likely due to the heterogeneity of the disorder as well as the use of diverse assessment tools. Measuring cognitive changes in this population is challenging. Cognitive symptoms are typically less severe than in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, requiring greater sensitivity than afforded by existing tools. Preliminary evidence suggests antidepressant treatments may improve cognitive functioning as a direct result of ameliorating depressive symptoms; however, any procognitive effects have not been elucidated. To evaluate antidepressant efficacy in MDD patients with cognitive dysfunction, a standardized cognitive battery for use in clinical trials is essential. PMID:25421437

  19. [Improving functional outcome of schizophrenia with cognitive remediation].

    PubMed

    Franck, Nicolas; Demily, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The functional outcome of schizophrenia is partly conditioned by cognitive disorders associated with this disease. The functional outcome of schizophrenia depends not only on psychotropic medications, but also on non-pharmacological measures and in particular on cognitive remediation. All patients suffering from schizophrenia should benefit from a multidisciplinary functional evaluation including neuropsychological assessment. The restitution of the functional evaluation's results values preserved skills rather than deficits. Cognitive remediation should be considered when cognitive disorders have a functional impact. It reduces the impact of the patient's cognitive disorders and improves the success of his/her concrete projects. PMID:25544348

  20. Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania

    PubMed Central

    Flessner, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Tic disorders (i.e., Tourette's syndrome, chronic tic disorders) and trichotillomania (i.e., chronic hair pulling) are the most often studied and (arguably) most debilitating of these conditions. Therefore, this article will focus on the efficacy of CBT for tic disorders and trichotillomania. After a brief introduction to these disorders, the author will provide an overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns. In particular, this review will focus on a therapeutic technique that is at the core of most all CBT-based interventions, habit reversal training. Discussion of two recent empirical studies pointing to the immense potential of CBT for the treatment of childhood repetitive behavior disorders will follow. Finally, future areas of research will be discussed. PMID:21440858

  1. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404). Third-trimester maternal urine samples were collected and analyzed for organophosphate metabolites (n = 360). Prenatal maternal blood was analyzed for PON1 activity and genotype. Children returned for neurodevelopment assessments ages 12 months (n = 200), 24 months (n = 276), and 6–9 (n = 169) years of age. Results: Prenatal total dialkylphosphate metabolite level was associated with a decrement in mental development at 12 months among blacks and Hispanics. These associations appeared to be enhanced among children of mothers who carried the PON1 Q192R QR/RR genotype. In later childhood, increasing prenatal total dialkyl- and dimethylphosphate metabolites were associated with decrements in perceptual reasoning in the maternal PON1 Q192R QQ genotype, which imparts slow catalytic activity for chlorpyrifos oxon, with a monotonic trend consistent with greater decrements with increasing prenatal exposure. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to organophosphates is negatively associated with cognitive development, particularly perceptual reasoning, with evidence of effects beginning at 12 months and continuing through early childhood. PON1 may be an important susceptibility factor for these deleterious effects. PMID:21507778

  2. The impact of childhood abuse among women with assault-related PTSD receiving short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885

  3. Early executive function deficit in preterm children and its association with neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association of deficits of executive function (EF) and neurodevelopmental disorders in preterm children and the potential of assessing EF in infants as means of early identification. EF refers to a collection of related but somewhat discrete abilities, the main ones being working memory, inhibition, and planning. There is a general consensus that EF governs goal-directed behavior that requires holding those plans or programs on-line until executed, inhibiting irrelevant action and planning a sequence of actions. EF plays an essential role in cognitive development and is vital to individual social and intellectual success. Most researchers believe in the coordination and integrate cognitive-perceptual processes in relation to time and space, thus regulating higher-order cognitive processes, such as problem solving, reasoning, logical and flexible thinking, and decision-making. The importance of the maturation of the frontal lobe, particularly the prefrontal cortex, to the development of EF in childhood has been emphasized. Therefore, any abnormal development in the prefrontal lobes of infants and children could be expected to result in significant deficits in cognitive functioning. As this is a late-maturing part of the brain, various neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, language disorders, and schizophrenia, as well as acquired disorders of the right brain (and traumatic brain injury) impair EF, and the prefrontal cortex may be particularly susceptible to delayed development in these populations. The deficits of EF in infants are persistent into childhood and related to neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23183728

  4. Cognitive Improvement Associated with Tricyclic Antidepressant Treatment of Childhood Major Depressive Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton, R. Dennis; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Describes the results of detailed neuropsychological testing done before and during drug-induced remission of depressive illness in 11 children (ages 6-13 years), demonstrating significant improvement in cognitive function, especially that of the right hemisphere and frontal lobes. (Author/SJL)

  5. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  6. Cognitive and symptom profiles in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomonori; Tachimori, Hisateru; Osada, Hirokazu; Takeda, Toshinobu; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2007-02-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and autistic disorder are two subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), but there has been considerable debate over whether AS and autistic disorder without mental retardation (IQ > or = 70), called high-functioning autism (HFA), are distinct conditions or not. The aim of the present paper was to clarify this issue through a comparison of cognitive function and autistic symptom profiles. Based on the DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions of language acquisition, 36 age- and IQ-balanced subjects with AS (mean age, 12.8 years; mean full-scale IQ, 98.3) were compared with 37 subjects with HFA (mean age, 12.6 years; mean full-scale IQ, 94.6) on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV). Compared with the HFA subjects, the AS subjects scored significantly higher on Verbal IQ, Vocabulary, and Comprehension, but scored significantly lower on Coding. Although the total CARS-TV score did not differ significantly between the two groups, AS subjects scored significantly lower (i.e. less abnormal) on Verbal communication and Non-verbal communication than did the HFA subjects. A history of normal language acquisition in early childhood could predict his/her better verbal ability in mid-childhood or later. Autistic cognitive characteristics shared by both AS and HFA subjects appear to support the validity of the current diagnostic classification of PDD. PMID:17239046

  7. No association between gain in body mass index across the life course and midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve—The 1946 British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Albanese, Emiliano; Hardy, Rebecca; Wills, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Guralnik, Jack; Richards, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between lifelong body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function has not been comprehensively studied. Methods In more than 2000 men and women born in 1946, we tested associations between BMI gain at 15, 20, 26, 36, 43, and 53 years with respect to the previous measure (gain at age 15 years with respect to BMI at age 11 years), and semantic fluency (animal naming) and cognitive reserve (the National Adult Reading Test) at age 53 years, and verbal memory (word list recall) and speed/concentration (letter cancellation) at ages 43 and 53 years. Measures of BMI gain were adjusted in stages for childhood intelligence, education, socioeconomic position (SEP), lifestyle, and vascular risk factors. Results Independent of childhood intelligence, BMI gain between ages 26 and 36 years was associated with lower memory scores (? per SD increase in BMI in men = ?0.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: ?0.19, ?0.02), verbal fluency (? in women = ?0.11; 95% CI: ?0.20, ?0.02), and lower National Adult Reading Test score (? in women = ?0.08; 95% CI: ?0.15, ?0.01), but not with speed/concentration (? in men = 0.02; 95% CI: ?0.11, 0.07). Associations were largely explained by educational attainment and SEP (P ? .10). However, BMI gain at 53 years in men was independently associated with better memory (? = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.22), and both underweight (? = ?1.54; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) and obese (? = ?0.30; 95% CI: ?2.52, ?0.57) women at 53 years had significantly lower memory scores. Conclusion The adverse effect of higher BMI gain on midlife cognitive function and cognitive reserve is independent of childhood intelligence but not of education and SEP. The independent association between greater BMI gain in midlife and better cognitive function deserves further investigation. PMID:22858531

  8. Relation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning in the CARDIA Study

    E-print Network

    Lehman, Barbara J.

    in childhood have been linked to a high rate of physical health disorders in adulthood. The objectiveRelation of Childhood Socioeconomic Status and Family Environment to Adult Metabolic Functioning and to relate them to metabolic functioning (MF) in the Coronary Artery Risk Development In Young Adults (CARDIA

  9. Primed to be inflexible: the influence of set size on cognitive flexibility during childhood

    PubMed Central

    FitzGibbon, Lily; Cragg, Lucy; Carroll, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of human cognition is cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt thoughts and behaviors according to changing task demands. Previous research has suggested that the number of different exemplars that must be processed within a task (the set size) can influence an individual's ability to switch flexibly between different tasks. This paper provides evidence that when tasks have a small set size, children's cognitive flexibility is impaired compared to when tasks have a large set size. This paper also offers insights into the mechanism by which this effect comes about. Understanding how set size interacts with task-switching informs the debate regarding the relative contributions of bottom-up priming and top-down control processes in the development of cognitive flexibility. We tested two accounts for the relationship between set size and cognitive flexibility: the (bottom-up) Stimulus-Task Priming account and the (top-down) Rule Representation account. Our findings offered support for the Stimulus-Task Priming account, but not for the Rule Representation account. They suggest that children are susceptible to bottom-up priming caused by stimulus repetition, and that this priming can impair their ability to switch between tasks. These findings make important theoretical and practical contributions to the executive function literature: theoretically, they show that the basic features of a task exert a significant influence on children's ability to flexibly shift between tasks through bottom-up priming effects. Practically, they suggest that children's cognitive flexibility may have been underestimated relative to adults', as paradigms used with children typically have a smaller set size than those used with adults. These findings also have applications in education, where they have the potential to inform teaching in key areas where cognitive flexibility is required, such as mathematics and literacy. PMID:24575074

  10. Treatment of childhood anxiety disorders: a preliminary comparison between cognitive-behavioral group therapy and a psychological placebo intervention

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Muris; Cor Meesters; Marion van Melick

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of group cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in the treatment of childhood anxiety disorders. Thirty high-anxious children (aged 9–12 years) were assigned to either (a) group CBT (n=10), (b) a psychological placebo intervention (i.e., emotional disclosure [ED]; n=10), or (c) a no-treatment control condition (n=10). Therapy outcome measures (i.e., children's self-report of anxiety disorders symptoms, depression,

  11. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annmarie McDonagh; Matthew Friedman; Gregory McHugo; Julian Ford; Anjana Sengupta; Kim Mueser; Christine Carney Demment; Debra Fournier; Paula P. Schnurr; Monica Descamps

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in decreasing PTSD and related symptoms.

  12. Clinical and functional implications of a history of childhood ADHD in first-episode psychosis.

    PubMed

    Rho, Aldanie; Traicu, Alexandru; Lepage, Martin; Iyer, Srividya N; Malla, Ashok; Joober, Ridha

    2015-07-01

    There is mounting evidence indicating that a childhood history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with an increased risk for psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. However, the implications of such a history on the symptomatic and functional outcomes of patients with psychotic disorders are still not well documented. This study examined the prevalence of childhood ADHD in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) consecutively admitted to a specialized early intervention clinic covering a well-defined catchment area, and compared patients with and without a history of childhood ADHD on socio-demographic, clinical, and functional outcomes over a six to twelve months period. Out of 179 patients with FEP, 27 (15%) were treated for ADHD during childhood, consistent with previous literature indicating an association between childhood ADHD and psychosis. FEP patients with childhood history of ADHD had lower academic achievement, earlier onset of psychosis, and higher rates of childhood conduct and learning disorder. While the two groups had similar scores on psychopathology and functioning at baseline, patients with childhood ADHD showed significantly less improvement in positive and negative symptoms, as well as social and occupational functioning. These results strongly indicate that a history of childhood ADHD in FEP is more frequent than that reported in the general population and predictive of poorer clinical response to treatment. This emphasizes the need for actively screening for a history of ADHD in FEP patients and for treatments that are tailored for these patients. PMID:25921441

  13. Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and Without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n=140) and matched comparison girls (n=88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF – particularly measures of global EF and working memory – predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540

  14. Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

  15. Do childhood cognitive ability or smoking behaviour explain the influence of lifetime socio-economic conditions on premature adult mortality in a British post war birth cohort??

    PubMed Central

    Kuh, Diana; Shah, Imran; Richards, Marcus; Mishra, Gita; Wadsworth, Michael; Hardy, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Poor childhood and adult socio-economic conditions, lower childhood cognitive ability and cigarette smoking are all associated with adult mortality risk. Using data on 4458 men and women aged 60 years from a British birth cohort study, we investigated the extent to which these risk factors are part of the same pathway linking childhood experience to adult survival. Compared with women from non-manual origins, men from non-manual origins, women and men from manual origins, and those with missing data on father's social class had about double the risk of mortality between 26 and 60 years. Cox proportional hazards models showed that these differences were reduced but remained significant after adjusting for childhood cognitive ability, adult socio-economic conditions and smoking. Higher childhood ability increased survival chances by securing better adult socio-economic conditions, such as home ownership, which was strongly associated with survival. These findings were similar for cardiovascular and cancer mortality. PMID:19269077

  16. Cognitive function in midlife and beyond: physical and cognitive activity related to episodic memory and executive functions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the relationships between physical activity (PA), cognitive activity, and cognitive function for the purpose of developing future brain-fitness programs. A sample of 2,305 participants (age?=?50-84, mean age: 63.1 years) was selected from the Midlife in the United States longitudinal study for analysis. The strength of the associations between the dependent variables (episodic memory and executive functions) and independent variables (three domains of PA and cognitive activity) were determined by hierarchical regression. Episodic memory regressed positively on leisure-time PA (LPA) and cognitive activity. Executive functions regressed positively on LPA and Cognitive activity, but negatively on job-related PA (JPA). The interaction effect (JPA?×?Cognitive activity) was nonsignificant. Community-dwelling participants are encouraged to engage in more LPA and cognitive activity to increase brain fitness. Further research may explore the distinctive effects of JPA. PMID:25888534

  17. Homocysteine and Cognitive Function in Geriatric Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Alexopoulos; S. Topalidis; G. Irmisch; K. Prehn; S. U. Jung; K. Poppe; H. Sebb; R. Perneczky; A. Kurz; S. Bleich; S. C. Herpertz

    2010-01-01

    Background\\/Objectives: Cognitive dysfunction is a common aspect of the spectrum of symptoms of geriatric depression. High homocysteine levels have been linked to cognitive decline in neuropsychiatric disorders. The present study investigated possible associations between cognitive impairment observed in geriatric depression and homocysteine levels. Methods: The performance of 25 mentally healthy individuals and 40 patients with geriatric depression in terms of

  18. Measuring Cognitive Function: An Empirical Investigation of the Psychometric Properties of a Cognitive Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witta, E. Lea; Sivo, Stephen A.

    Herzog and Wallace (A. Herzog and R. Wallace, 1997) discussed a measure designed to assess the cognitive functioning of older adults who participated in the study formerly known as the Asset and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). The measure derived from four well-known tests of cognitive functioning, but improves on them by combining…

  19. Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function

    E-print Network

    of the leading causes of disability in the United States (Ormel et al., 2008). Therefore, cognitionCommon and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function Julia M in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects

  20. Computational modeling of high-level cognition and brain function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel Adam Just; Patricia A. Carpenter; Sashank Varma

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition,

  1. Dynamic reorganization of brain functional networks during cognition.

    PubMed

    Bola, Micha?; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    How does cognition emerge from neural dynamics? The dominant hypothesis states that interactions among distributed brain regions through phase synchronization give basis for cognitive processing. Such phase-synchronized networks are transient and dynamic, established on the timescale of milliseconds in order to perform specific cognitive operations. But unlike resting-state networks, the complex organization of transient cognitive networks is typically not characterized within the graph theory framework. Thus, it is not known whether cognitive processing merely changes the strength of functional connections or, conversely, requires qualitatively new topological arrangements of functional networks. To address this question, we recorded high-density EEG while subjects performed a visual discrimination task. We conducted an event-related network analysis (ERNA) where source-space weighted functional networks were characterized with graph measures. ERNA revealed rapid, transient, and frequency-specific reorganization of the network's topology during cognition. Specifically, cognitive networks were characterized by strong clustering, low modularity, and strong interactions between hub-nodes. Our findings suggest that dense and clustered connectivity between the hub nodes belonging to different modules is the "network fingerprint" of cognition. Such reorganization patterns might facilitate global integration of information and provide a substrate for a "global workspace" necessary for cognition and consciousness to occur. Thus, characterizing topology of the event-related networks opens new vistas to interpret cognitive dynamics in the broader conceptual framework of graph theory. PMID:25828884

  2. The Effects of Exercise Under Hypoxia on Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Soichi; Hatamoto, Yoichi; Sudo, Mizuki; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki

    2013-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cognitive function improves during a single bout of moderate exercise. In contrast, exercise under hypoxia may compromise the availability of oxygen. Given that brain function and tissue integrity are dependent on a continuous and sufficient oxygen supply, exercise under hypoxia may impair cognitive function. However, it remains unclear how exercise under hypoxia affects cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercise under different levels of hypoxia on cognitive function. Twelve participants performed a cognitive task at rest and during exercise at various fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2: 0.209, 0.18, and 0.15). Exercise intensity corresponded to 60% of peak oxygen uptake under normoxia. The participants performed a Go/No-Go task requiring executive control. Cognitive function was evaluated using the speed of response (reaction time) and response accuracy. We monitored pulse oximetric saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygenation to assess oxygen availability. SpO2 and cerebral oxygenation progressively decreased during exercise as the FIO2 level decreased. Nevertheless, the reaction time in the Go-trial significantly decreased during moderate exercise. Hypoxia did not affect reaction time. Neither exercise nor difference in FIO2 level affected response accuracy. An additional experiment indicated that cognitive function was not altered without exercise. These results suggest that the improvement in cognitive function is attributable to exercise, and that hypoxia has no effects on cognitive function at least under the present experimental condition. Exercise-cognition interaction should be further investigated under various environmental and exercise conditions. PMID:23675496

  3. Cognitive Training Improves Sleep Quality and Cognitive Function among Older Adults with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Haimov, Iris; Shatil, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. Design Participants (n?=?51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n?=?34) or to an active control group (n?=?17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning. Before and after training, all participants' sleep was monitored for one week by an actigraph and their cognitive performance was evaluated. Setting Community setting: residential sleep/performance testing facility. Participants Fifty-one older adults with insomnia (aged 65–85). Interventions Eight weeks of computerized cognitive training for older adults with insomnia. Results Mixed models for repeated measures analysis showed between-group improvements for the cognitive training group on both sleep quality (sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency) and cognitive performance (avoiding distractions, working memory, visual memory, general memory and naming). Hierarchical linear regressions analysis in the cognitive training group indicated that improved visual scanning is associated with earlier advent of sleep, while improved naming is associated with the reduction in wake after sleep onset and with the reduction in number of awakenings. Likewise the results indicate that improved “avoiding distractions” is associated with an increase in the duration of sleep. Moreover, the results indicate that in the active control group cognitive decline observed in working memory is associated with an increase in the time required to fall asleep. Conclusions New learning is instrumental in promoting initiation and maintenance of sleep in older adults with insomnia. Lasting and personalized cognitive training is particularly indicated to generate the type of learning necessary for combined cognitive and sleep enhancements in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00901641 PMID:23577218

  4. The kidney disease quality of life cognitive function subscale and cognitive performance maintenance hemodialysis patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Cognitive impairment is common but often undiagnosed in patients with end-stage renal disease, in part reflecting limited validated and easily administered tools to assess cognitive function in dialysis patients. Accordingly, we assessed the utility of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life ...

  5. Psychosocial well-being in young adults with chronic illness since childhood: the role of illness cognitions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More and more pediatric patients reach adulthood. Some of them are successfully integrating in adult life, but many others are not. Possibly Illness cognitions (IC) - the way people give meaning to their illness/disability – may play a role in individual differences on long-term adjustment. This study explored the association of IC with disease–characteristics and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression in young adults with a disability benefit due to childhood-onset chronic condition. Methods In a cross-sectional study, young adults (22–31 years, N?=?377) who claimed a disability benefit because of a somatic condition since childhood, completed the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (acceptance-helplessness-benefits), RAND-36 (HRQoL) and HADS (anxiety and depression) online. Besides descriptive statistics, linear regression analyses were conducted to predict (1) illness cognitions by age, gender and disease-characteristics, and (2) HRQoL (Mental and Physical Component Scale), Anxiety and Depression by illness cognitions, controlling for disease-characteristics, age and gender. Results Respectively 90.2%, 83.8% and 53.3% of the young adults with a disability benefit experienced feelings of acceptance, benefits and helplessness. Several disease-characteristics were associated with IC. More acceptance and less helplessness were associated with better mental (??=?0.31; ??=??0.32) and physical (??=?0.16; ??=??0.15) HRQoL and with less anxiety (??=??0.27; ??=?0.28) and depression (??=??0.29; ??=?0.31). Conclusions IC of young adult beneficiaries were associated with their HRQoL and feelings of anxiety and depression. Early recognition of psychological distress and negative IC might be a key to the identification of pediatric patients at risk for long-term dysfunction. Identification of maladaptive illness cognitions enables the development of psychosocial interventions to optimise their well-being and adaptation to society. PMID:24735489

  6. Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

  7. Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

    2012-01-01

    Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

  8. Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

  9. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Farup, Per G; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the "Depression" and "Neurological" group, respectively. In the "Depression" group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. PMID:26089869

  10. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Farup, Per G.; Hestad, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. PMID:26089869

  11. Cognitive Predictors of Everyday Functioning in Older Adults: Results From the ACTIVE Cognitive Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Willis, Sherry L.; Brandt, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Objective. The present study sought to predict changes in everyday functioning using cognitive tests. Methods. Data from the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial were used to examine the extent to which competence in different cognitive domains—memory, inductive reasoning, processing speed, and global mental status—predicts prospectively measured everyday functioning among older adults. Coefficients of determination for baseline levels and trajectories of everyday functioning were estimated using parallel process latent growth models. Results. Each cognitive domain independently predicts a significant proportion of the variance in baseline and trajectory change of everyday functioning, with inductive reasoning explaining the most variance (R2 = .175) in baseline functioning and memory explaining the most variance (R2 = .057) in changes in everyday functioning. Discussion. Inductive reasoning is an important determinant of current everyday functioning in community-dwelling older adults, suggesting that successful performance in daily tasks is critically dependent on executive cognitive function. On the other hand, baseline memory function is more important in determining change over time in everyday functioning, suggesting that some participants with low baseline memory function may reflect a subgroup with incipient progressive neurologic disease. PMID:21558167

  12. Ovarian function following the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, W H; Shalet, S M; Tetlow, L J; Morris-Jones, P H

    1993-01-01

    Ovarian function was assessed in 40 long term survivors who had received standard United Kingdom Acute Lymphoblastic leukaemia (UKALL) protocols and were in first clinical and haematological remission. A menstrual and pregnancy history was taken (median age at assessment: 18.8 (12-34.7) years) and the acquisition of adult secondary sexual characteristics confirmed in each patient. Basal bloods were taken for follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and serum oestradiol estimations. Serum progesterone concentration was measured in those patients who were in the luteal phase of their menstrual cycle at assessment. In addition, menstrual cycle profiles of salivary progesterone concentrations were derived from daily samples in 12 patients. All patients achieved adult sexual development; median age at menarche was early at 12.4 (9.0-14.6) years and 37 of them have regular menses. Ten patients have had 14 live births, and evidence of ovulation was seen in a further 11 patients assessed in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Four patients had damaged ovaries, two of whom show evidence of ovulation; three of the four received craniospinal irradiation and one received cyclophosphamide as part of her chemotherapy regimen. None of these patients has yet developed total ovarian failure or required sex steroid replacement therapy. The medium term outlook for ovarian function is good for the majority of childhood ALL survivors. The spinal component of craniospinal irradiation is a major risk factor for ovarian damage, and cyclophosphamide may be a contributory factor. A premature menopause remains a possibility if significant follicular depletion has occurred at the time of cytotoxic treatment. PMID:8492747

  13. The value of assessing cognitive function in drug development

    PubMed Central

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the value and utility of measuring cognitive function in the development of new medicines by reference to the most widely used automated system in clinical research. Evidence is presented from phase 1 to 3 of the nature and quality of the information that can be obtained by applying the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment system to ongoing clinical trials. Valuable evidence can be obtained even in the first trial in which a novel compound is administered to man. One application of such testing is to ensure that novel compounds are relatively free from cognition-impairing properties, particularly in relation to competitor products. Another is to ensure that unwanted interactions with alcohol and other medications do not occur, or, if they do, to put them in context. In many patient populations, cognitive dysfunction occurs as a result of the disease process, and newer medicines which can treat the symptoms of the disease without further impairing function can often reveal benefits as the disease-induced cognitive dysfunction is reduced. Another major application is to identify benefits for compounds designed to enhance cognitive function. Such effects can be sought in typical phase 1 trials, or a scopolamine model of the core deficits of Alzheimer's disease can be used to screen potential antidernentia drugs. Ultimately, of course, such effects can be demonstrated using properly validated and highly sensitive automated procedures in the target populations. The data presented demonstrate that the concept of independently assessing a variety of cognitive functions is crucial in helping differentiate drugs, types of dementia, and different illnesses. Such information offers a unique insight into how the alterations to various cognitive functions will manifest themselves in everyday behavior. This reveals a major limitation of scales that yield a single score, because such limited information does not permit anything but a quantitative interpretation; and the concept of “more” cognitive function or “less” is manifestly inappropriate for something as complex and diverse as the interplay between cognitive function and human behavior. Finally, the next generations of cognitive testing are described. Testing via the telephone has just been introduced and will have dramatic effects on the logistics of conducting cognitive testing in large patient trials. Testing via the Internet is not far off either, and will come fully into play as the proportion of homes connected to the Internet increases in Europe and North America. There are no sound reasons for not wishing to include cognitive function testing in the development protocol of any novel medicine. PMID:22033754

  14. Modelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies

    E-print Network

    Wennekers, Thomas

    Modelling generic cognitive functions with operational Hebbian cell assemblies Thomas Wennekers1(0)1752-23-3593 Fax: +44(0)1752-23-3349 Email: Thomas.Wennekers@plymouth.ac.uk 2 Department of Neural Information

  15. [Cognitions and functioning in euthymic bipolar patients: screening and treatment].

    PubMed

    Bellivier, Frank

    2012-12-01

    Persistent cognitive deficits in euthymic bipolar patients are now well documented. Indeed, several studies and meta-analyzes clearly establish the existence of cognitive deficits in specific domains: attention (in particular sustained attention), Memory (in particular verbal memory) and executive functions. The impact of cognitive deficits on patient's functioning is also well documented and their role appear to be more important than expected by comparison with the impairment related to thymic residual symptoms. The development of specific cognitive remediation strategies is therefore a major hope for improving the quality of remission and functional outcome. The aetiology of these deficits remains poorly understood. However, the implication of factors related to the biological/genetic vulnerability to bipolar disorder is likely well as a "neurotoxic" effects of major mood episodes, in particular acute manic episodes that seems to play a important role in the worsening of these deficits over time. This further stresses the importance maintenance strategies for long-term functional outcome. PMID:23395229

  16. Stability and Change of Cognitive Attributes in Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Development from Preschool through Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Pinchen; Lung, For-Wey; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yi; Chen, Cheng-Chung

    2010-01-01

    As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…

  17. Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

    1998-01-01

    Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

  18. Controlling human striatal cognitive function via the frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    van Schouwenburg, Martine R; O'Shea, Jacinta; Mars, Rogier B; Rushworth, Matthew F S; Cools, Roshan

    2012-04-18

    Cognitive flexibility is known to depend on the striatum. However, the striatum does not act in isolation to bias cognitive flexibility. In particular, cognitive flexibility also implicates the frontal cortex. Here we tested the hypothesis that the human frontal cortex controls cognitive flexibility by regulating striatal function via topographically specific frontostriatal connections. To this end, we exploited a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol over frontal cortex that is known to increase dopamine release in the striatum. This intervention was combined with functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the functional and topographic specificity of its consequences at the whole brain level. Participants were scanned both before and after off-line TMS while performing a cognitive switching task that is known to depend on a specific striatal substructure, the putamen. Frontal stimulation perturbed task-specific functional signals in the putamen, while reducing fronto-striatal functional connectivity. There were no such effects of TMS over the medial parietal cortex. These data strengthen the hypothesis that cognitive flexibility involves topographic frontal control of striatal function. PMID:22514324

  19. Caudate Nucleus Volume and Cognitive Performance: Are they related in Childhood Psychopathology?1

    PubMed Central

    Voelbel, Gerald T.; Bates, Marsha E.; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Pandina, Gahan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Impaired neuropsychological test performance, especially on tests of executive function and attention, is often seen in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Structures involved in fronto-striatal circuitry, such as the caudate nucleus, may support these cognitive abilities. However, few studies have examined caudate volumes specifically in children with ASD, or correlated caudate volumes to cognitive ability. Methods Neuropsychological test scores and caudate volumes of children with ASD were compared to those of children with bipolar disorder (BD) and of typically developing (TD) children. The relationship between test performance and caudate volumes was analyzed. Results The ASD group displayed larger right and left caudate volumes, and modest executive deficits, compared to TD controls. While caudate volume inversely predicted performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test in all participants, it differentially predicted performance on measures of attention across the ASD, BD and TD groups. Conclusions Larger caudate volumes were related to impaired problem solving. On a test of attention, larger left caudate volumes predicted increased impulsivity and more omission errors in the ASD group as compared to the TD group, however smaller volume predicted poorer discriminant responding as compared to the BD group. PMID:16950212

  20. Social-cognitive functioning and schizotypal characteristics.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Joseph; Shean, Glenn

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the relationship between social cognition and a feature of schizotypal personality referred to as magical ideation, defined broadly as the presence and intensity of illogical beliefs about causality and the nature of reality. The measures of social cognition used in this study were the Character Intention Task (CIT) and the adult version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test. Regression analyses indicated that understanding of character intentions, as measured by CIT scores, and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Principal components analysis of the Magical Ideation Scale generated 3 factors: Occult Beliefs, Non-Realism, and New Age Ideas. Results indicated that impaired understanding of character intentions and ability to identify emotions on the Eyes test were related to non-realistic beliefs. Understanding the cognitive impairments associated with schizotypal characteristics can facilitate development of more targeted therapeutic interventions. PMID:16916074

  1. Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    Highly readable and comprehensive, this volume explores the significance of friendship for social, emotional, and cognitive development from early childhood through adolescence. The authors trace how friendships change as children age and what specific functions these relationships play in promoting adjustment and well-being. Compelling topics…

  2. Childhood Overweight and the Relationship between Parent Behaviors, Parenting Style, and Family Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyung Rhee

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and how a family functions with respect to the development of childhood overweight. Parents can influence a child's weight through specific feeding and activity practices and perhaps more broadly through their parenting style and management of family functioning. These more global influences of parenting style and family functioning provide a

  3. Family Functioning and Sibling Adjustment Following Treatment of Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Cindy L.; Hansen, James C.; Zevon, Michael A.

    Childhood cancer and its treatment have been identified as significant stressors for individuals and families. The impact of this experience on healthy siblings has not been clearly determined. This study was designed to assess siblings regarding their adjustment and their perceptions of their families following a sick sibling's treatment.…

  4. Memory Functioning in Adult Women Traumatized by Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murray B. Stein; Cindy Hanna; Vibeke Vaerum; Catherine Koverola

    1999-01-01

    Memory impairment has been reported in some studies of patients with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and in rape victims with PTSD. The authors tested whether explicit memory impairment was evident in adult women who were traumatized by severe sexual abuse in childhood. The California Verbal Learning Test (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 1987) and the Benton Visual Retention Task

  5. Aerodynamic Indices of Velopharyngeal Function in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealey, Linda R.; Giddens, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal…

  6. Cognitive Functioning Is Related to Physical Functioning in a Longitudinal Study of Women at Midlife

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathleen Ford; MaryFran Sowers; Theresa E Seeman; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Susan A. Everson-Rose

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported declines with age in cognitive or physical functioning, but rarely identify whether these are parallel or linked events in the same study. Furthermore, most research in this area has focused on persons in late life rather than midlife. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine (1) if cognitive functioning was related to physical functioning

  7. Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation for childhood leukemia on subsequent cognitive and problem-solving skills

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), treated with a CNS prophylaxis of 2,400 cGy radiation and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), demonstrate a decline in both global and specific aspects of their cognitive functioning. Recent changes in treatment protocols for ALL have resulted in a significant reduction in radiation to a dosage of 1,800 cGy, or the elimination of radiation altogether. Today, it is recognized that for low- and average-risk ALL patients the use of intrathecal methotrexate is equally effective for reducing the occurrence of CNS leukemic relapse. Current research has not yet fully determined the impact of this lowered dosage of radiation on later intellectual functioning in survivors of ALL. The present research compared the standardized-test performance of a group of children receiving 1,800 cGy radiation and IT-MTX (n = 15) to a group receiving IT-MTX only (n = 10) as a CNS prophylaxis. All subjects were treated with one leg of the Childrens Cancer Study Group protocols {number sign}161 or {number sign}162, and were evaluated at least 5 years post-diagnosis, while in remission from the disease process. Subjects ranged in age from seven to twelve at the time of participation. Tests administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), the Mental Processing subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and a variety of tasks which have been indicated to measure different aspects of children's cognitive strategy usage (including Tower of Hanoi and Matching Familiar Figures tasks). Analysis revealed significant performance-differences between these groups as reflected on the WISC-R (Verbal IQ) and on the K-ABC (Sequential Processing score), with the Radiated group performing more poorly than the Non-radiated group.

  8. Effects of topiramate on cognitive function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Thompson; S A Baxendale; J S Duncan; J W A S Sander

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.METHODSThis was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals.

  9. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment.

    PubMed

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-José; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dick J; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Elzinga, Bernet M

    2014-12-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional face processing. However, no study has yet investigated the functional neural correlates of neutral and emotional memory in adults reporting CEM. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated CEM-related differential activations in mPFC during the encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words. The sample (N = 194) consisted of patients with depression and/or anxiety disorders and healthy controls (HC) reporting CEM (n = 96) and patients and HC reporting no abuse (n = 98). We found a consistent pattern of mPFC hypoactivation during encoding and recognition of positive, negative and neutral words in individuals reporting CEM. These results were not explained by psychopathology or severity of depression or anxiety symptoms, or by gender, level of neuroticism, parental psychopathology, negative life events, antidepressant use or decreased mPFC volume in the CEM group. These findings indicate mPFC hypoactivity in individuals reporting CEM during emotional and neutral memory encoding and recognition. Our findings suggest that CEM may increase individuals' risk to the development of psychopathology on differential levels of processing in the brain; blunted mPFC activation during higher order processing and enhanced amygdala activation during automatic/lower order emotion processing. These findings are vital in understanding the long-term consequences of CEM. PMID:24493840

  10. Complex Relationships of Nicotinic Receptor Actions and Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Edward D.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies to improve cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. Nicotine both stimulates and desensitizes nicotinic receptors, thus acting both as an agonist and a net antagonist. The relative roles of these two actions for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement have not yet been fully determined. We and others have found that acute nicotinic antagonist treatment can improve learning and attention. Nicotine acts on a variety of nicotinic receptor subtypes. The relative role and interactions of neuronal nicotinic receptor subtypes for cognition also needs to be better characterized. Nicotine acts on nicotinic receptors in a wide variety of brain areas. The role of some of these areas such as the hippocampus has been relatively well studied but other area like the thalamus, which has the densest nicotinic receptor concentration are still only partially characterized. In a series of studies we characterized nicotinic receptor actions, anatomic localization and circuit interactions, which are critical to nicotine effects on the cognitive functions of learning, memory and attention. The relative role of increases and decreases in nicotinic receptor activation by nicotine were determined in regionally specific studies of the hippocampus, the amygdala, the frontal cortex and the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus with local infusions of antagonists of nicotinic receptor subtypes (?7 and ?4?2). The understanding of the functional neural bases of cognitive function is fundamental to the more effective development of nicotinic drugs for treating cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23928190

  11. How Does Early Childhood Care and Education Affect Cognitive Development? An International Review of the Effects of Early Interventions for Children from Different Social Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burger, Kaspar

    2010-01-01

    A number of authors have investigated the impact of early childhood education and care programs on the development of children. Often they have focused on the effects on children from socio-economically disadvantaged families. To assess the effects of various preschool programs on cognitive development, recent key studies were reviewed. In…

  12. How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaspar Burger

    2010-01-01

    A number of authors have investigated the impact of early childhood education and care programs on the development of children. Often they have focused on the effects on children from socio-economically disadvantaged families. To assess the effects of various preschool programs on cognitive development, recent key studies were reviewed. In addition, the extent to which these programs could establish equal

  13. USING FEMINIST, EMOTION-FOCUSED, AND DEVELOPMENTAL APPROACHES TO ENHANCE COGNITIVE–BEHAVIORAL THERAPIES FOR POSTTRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER RELATED TO CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JACQUELINE N. COHEN

    2008-01-01

    A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive–behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique

  14. Social/communication skills, cognition, and vocational functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Dwight; Bellack, Alan S; Gold, James M

    2007-09-01

    Deficits in social/communications skills have been documented in schizophrenia, but it is unclear how these deficits relate to cognitive deficits and to everyday functioning. In the current study, social/communication skills performance was measured in 29 schizophrenia patients with a history of good vocational functioning (GVF) and 26 with a history of poor vocational functioning (PVF) using a role-play-based social skills assessment, the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC). A battery of standard cognitive tasks was also administered. MASC-indexed social skills were significantly impaired in PVF relative to GVF patients (odds ratio = 3.61, P < .001). Although MASC social skills performance was significantly associated with cognitive performance in domains of verbal ability, processing speed, and memory, the MASC nevertheless remained an independent predictor of vocational functioning even after controlling for cognitive performance. Social/communications skills predict vocational functioning history independently of cognitive performance, and social skills measures should be considered for inclusion in test batteries designed to predict everyday functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:17164469

  15. Relationships between cognitive and social functioning in preschool children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Emmerich; Rodney R. Cocking; Irving E. Sigel

    1979-01-01

    Examined short-term longitudinal relationships between test measures of cognitive processes and ratings of classroom behaviors observed during free play. Ss were 64 35–57 mo old middle-class preschoolers, 34 boys and 30 girls. Magnification of the same covariation pattern over time was used as an index of reciprocal influences between cognitive and social functioning. Analyses differentiated between the static (individually stable)

  16. Cohort Changes in Cognitive Function among Danish Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Jeune, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Background/Aim The objective was to examine cohort changes in cognitive function in 2 cohorts of centenarians born 10 years apart. Methods The Longitudinal Study of Danish Centenarians comprises all Danes reaching the age of 100 in the period April 1, 1995 through May 31, 1996. A total of 207 out of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results There were no significant differences in cognitive score between the two centenarian birth cohorts. However, modest tendencies were seen towards better cognitive functioning for the centenarians in the 1905 cohort living at home compared to the home-dwelling ones in the 1895 cohort and worse cognitive performance for the centenarians in the 1905 group living in nursing homes compared to the nursing home dwellers in the 1895 cohort. Conclusion The increasing number of centenarians may not entail larger proportions of cognitively impaired individuals in this extreme age group. PMID:18679030

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

  18. Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

    2007-01-01

    Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

  19. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Infancy Interact to Predict Executive Functioning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ursache, Alexandra; Blair, Clancy; Stifter, Cynthia; Voegtline, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function

  20. Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI): A promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa B. Thorell; Lilianne Eninger; Karin C. Brocki; Gunilla Bohlin

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to

  1. Association of Catechol-O-methyltransferase val/met polymorphism with cognitive function in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ji, Weidong; Li, Ning; Ju, Kang; Zheng, Hong; Yang, Chuang; Xu, Ping; Chen, Silu; Cao, Aiai; Chen, Xue; Guo, Lanting

    2015-04-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a kind of neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset. The cognitive dysfunction caused by GTS could affect the growth and learning of children and adolescents. The mechanism of cognitive functions was associated with dopaminergic system, thus we access the associations between polymorphism of some dopaminergic system-related genes including Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) met/val, Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III 48 bp VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats), Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5, and cognitive functions in GTS patients. Genotyping analysis was performed through polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Test for cognitive functions of GTS patients included modified wisconsin card sorting test (WCST), trail making test, visual reproduction test, stroop test and verbal fluency test. The patients with COMT met/met genotype showed less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with COMT val/val genotype (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, patients without allele val had better delayed memory in visual reproduction test, less errors in the stroop test and less perseverative errors in modified WCST test compared with patients with allele val (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found in cognitive functions among patients with different genotypes or alleles of polymorphisms of DRD4 exon III 48 bp VNTR, IL-1 Ra 86 bp and IL-1? exon 5 (P > 0.05). Polymorphism of COMT met/val was correlated with cognitive functions in GTS patients. This study provided basis for the analysis of molecular genetic pathology of cognitive dysfunctions in GTS. PMID:25367405

  2. Pulse wave velocity and cognitive function in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitive function. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitive function was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitive function, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267

  3. Minimal Therapist-Assisted Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy Interventions in Stepped Care for Childhood Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alison Salloum

    2010-01-01

    New effective, efficient, and accessible service delivery methods for cognitive–behavioral therapies for pediatric anxiety disorders are needed. Many anxious children do not receive needed treatment because of barriers such as limited availability of trained practitioners, costs of treatment, and time. A cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) stepped care approach that \\

  4. Teachers' Understanding of Mathematical Cognition in Childhood: Towards a Shift in Pedagogical Content Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…

  5. CAT/CLAMS: its use in detecting early childhood cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Kube, D A; Wilson, W M; Petersen, M C; Palmer, F B

    2000-09-01

    The Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS), a neurodevelopmental tool for the cognitive assessment of infants and toddlers, correlates well with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. In 1993 the Bayley Scales were revised and the second edition published (BSID-II). This study was designed to determine how well the CAT/CLAMS correlates with the BSID-II and its utility in identifying mild and severe cognitive impairment. Sixty-eight infants and toddlers (age range = 14-48 months), referred for suspected developmental delays, were administered the CAT/CLAMS and BSID-II and the results compared. The correlation between the two instruments was strong (r = 0.89, P<0.0001). The CAT/CLAMS was sensitive (81%) and specific (85%) for detecting overall cognitive impairment (BSID-II less than 70) and was even more sensitive (100%) and specific (96%) in detecting severe cognitive impairment (BSID-II less than 50). The physician using the CAT/CLAMS formulated a clinical impression of cognitive impairment that was sensitive (95%) and specific (84%) compared with formal psychologic testing. The CAT/CLAMS correlates well with the BSID-II. It is useful for detecting and quantifying mild and severe cognitive impairment. It permits the physician to formulate an accurate clinical impression of cognitive impairment consistent with possible mental retardation. PMID:11033282

  6. Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

  7. Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

  8. Cognitive function in hot environments: a question of methodology.

    PubMed

    Gaoua, N

    2010-10-01

    The physiological responses of thermal stress and its consequences on health have been well documented. However, the effect on cognitive function remains equivocal despite a substantial number of studies conducted in the area. Methodological discrepancies across different studies have made it difficult to conclude whether or not heat exposure per se has an adverse effect upon cognitive function and under what specific environmental and physiological conditions these alterations appear. This article gives an overview of the different confounding factors that have made it difficult to make conclusive interpretations. In addition, the current state of knowledge is presented and discussed with reference to the Global Workspace theory. Although previously presented conclusions are promising, much remains to be completed before understanding the mechanisms that could explain the relationship between heat exposure and cognitive function. Finally, recommendations are presented for further research in this area. PMID:21029192

  9. Improving functional disability and cognition in Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Javier; García-Gorostiaga, Inés; Gomez-Beldarrain, Maria Angeles; Díez-Cirarda, María; Ojeda, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of an integrative cognitive training program (REHACOP) to improve cognition, clinical symptoms, and functional disability of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Methods: Forty-two patients diagnosed with PD in Hoehn & Yahr stages 1 to 3 were randomly assigned to either the cognitive training group (REHACOP) or the control group (occupational activities) for 3 months (3 sessions, 60 min/wk). Primary outcomes were change on processing speed, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning, and theory of mind. Secondary outcomes included changes on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, apathy, and functional disability. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02118480). Results: No baseline group differences were found. Bootstrapped analysis of variance results showed significant differences in the mean change scores between the REHACOP group and control group in processing speed (0.13 [SE = 0.07] vs ?0.15 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.025), visual memory (0.10 [SE = 0.10] vs ?0.24 [SE = 0.09], p = 0.011), theory of mind (1.00 [SE = 0.37] vs ?0.27 [SE = 0.29], p = 0.013), and functional disability (?5.15 [SE = 1.35] vs 0.53 [SE = 1.49], p = 0.012). Conclusions: Patients with PD receiving cognitive training with REHACOP demonstrated statistically significant and clinically meaningful changes in processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. Future studies should consider the long-term effect of this type of intervention. These findings support the integration of cognitive training into the standard of care for patients with PD. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with PD, an integrative cognitive training program improves processing speed, visual memory, theory of mind, and functional disability. PMID:25361785

  10. Cerebellar hypoplasia and frontal lobe cognitive deficits in disorders of early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T Ciesielski; Richard J Harris; Blaine L Hart; Henry F Pabst

    1997-01-01

    A developmental chronometry hypothesis of early brain damage is suggested in which regions of the brain with a protracted course of postnatal development will be more vulnerable than earlier maturing areas to deleterious effects of early insult and, therefore, may become common sites of abnormality across many disorders originating in early childhood. Initial investigations of the cerebellum and frontal lobes

  11. Cognitive-behavioral family treatment for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder: a 7-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Emily Marie McHugh; Barrett, Paula; Fjermestad, Krister W

    2009-10-01

    This study evaluated the long-term durability of individual and group cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT) for childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Thirty-eight participants (age 13-24 years) from a randomized controlled trial of individual or group CBFT for childhood OCD were assessed 7 years post-treatment. Diagnostic, symptom severity interviews and self-report measures of OCD, anxiety, and depression were administered. Seven years after treatment, 79% of participants from individual therapy and 95% from group therapy had no diagnosis of OCD. These results are near identical to results found at 12 and 18 months follow-ups of the same sample. No significant differences were found between treatment conditions, self-reports of symptom severity, except that depressive symptoms were significantly more pronounced for individual treatment condition, and those in the older age group (19-24 years of age). Results suggest that CBFT for obsessive-compulsive disorder is effective 7 years post-treatment. PMID:19640677

  12. Amgydala subregional structure and intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in anxiety during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Shaozheng; Young, Christina B; Duan, Xujun; Chen, Tianwen; Supekar, Kaustubh; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background Early childhood anxiety has been linked to an increased risk for developing mood and anxiety disorders. Little, however, is known about its effect on the brain during early childhood – a period when anxiety-related traits begin to be reliably identifiable. Even less is known about the neurodevelopmental origins of individual differences in childhood anxiety. Methods We combined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with neuropsychological assessment of anxiety based on daily life experiences to investigate the effects of anxiety on the brain in seventy-six young children. We then used machine learning algorithms with balanced cross-validation to examine brain-based predictors of individual differences in childhood anxiety. Results Even in children as young as ages 7–9, high childhood anxiety is associated with enlarged amygdala volume and this enlargement is localized specifically to the basolateral amygdala. High childhood anxiety is also associated with increased connectivity between the amygdala and distributed brain systems involved in attention, emotion perception and regulation, and these effects are most prominent effect in basolateral amygdala. Critically, machine learning algorithms revealed that levels of childhood anxiety could be reliably predicted by amygdala morphometry and intrinsic functional connectivity, with the left basolateral amygdala emerging again as the strongest predictor. Conclusions Individual differences in anxiety can be reliably detected with high predictive value in amygdala-centric emotion circuits at a surprisingly young age. Our study provides important new insights into the neurodevelopmental origins of anxiety, and has significant implications for the development of predictive biomarkers to identify children at-risk for anxiety disorders. PMID:24268662

  13. Association between SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms and cognition in autism: functional consequences and potential therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Braida, D; Guerini, F R; Ponzoni, L; Corradini, I; De Astis, S; Pattini, L; Bolognesi, E; Benfante, R; Fornasari, D; Chiappedi, M; Ghezzo, A; Clerici, M; Matteoli, M; Sala, M

    2015-01-01

    Synaptosomal-associated protein of 25?kDa (SNAP-25) is involved in different neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Consistently, SNAP-25 polymorphisms in humans are associated with hyperactivity and/or with low cognitive scores. We analysed five SNAP-25 gene polymorphisms (rs363050, rs363039, rs363043, rs3746544 and rs1051312) in 46 autistic children trying to correlate them with Childhood Autism Rating Scale and electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities. The functional effects of rs363050 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the gene transcriptional activity, by means of the luciferase reporter gene, were evaluated. To investigate the functional consequences that SNAP-25 reduction may have in children, the behaviour and EEG of SNAP-25+/? adolescent mice (SNAP-25+/+) were studied. Significant association of SNAP-25 polymorphism with decreasing cognitive scores was observed. Analysis of transcriptional activity revealed that SNP rs363050 encompasses a regulatory element, leading to protein expression decrease. Reduction of SNAP-25 levels in adolescent mice was associated with hyperactivity, cognitive and social impairment and an abnormal EEG, characterized by the occurrence of frequent spikes. Both EEG abnormalities and behavioural deficits were rescued by repeated exposure for 21 days to sodium salt valproate (VLP). A partial recovery of SNAP-25 expression content in SNAP-25+/? hippocampi was also observed by means of western blotting. A reduced expression of SNAP-25 is responsible for the cognitive deficits in children affected by autism spectrum disorders, as presumably occurring in the presence of rs363050(G) allele, and for behavioural and EEG alterations in adolescent mice. VLP treatment could result in novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25629685

  14. Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22659109

  15. Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

    2010-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735

  16. Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms. PMID:24926308

  17. Developmental Pathways among Adaptive Functioning and Externalizing and Internalizing Behavioral Problems: Cascades from Childhood into Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Suwalsky, Joan T D

    2013-01-01

    A developmental cascade describes a longitudinal cross-domain unique relation. Here, a 3-wave multivariate design and developmental cascade analysis were used to investigate pathways among adaptive functioning and externalizing and internalizing behavioral problems in a community sample of 134 children seen at 4, 10, and 14 years. Children, mothers, and teachers provided data. Nested path analytic models tested the plausible cascades among the three domains apart from their covariation at each age and rank-order stability across age. Adaptive functioning in early adolescence was predicted by early childhood adaptive functioning and externalizing behavioral problems, with both effects mediated by late childhood adaptive functioning and internalizing behavioral problems; externalizing behavioral problems in early adolescence were predicted by early childhood internalizing behavioral problems with the effect mediated by late childhood externalizing behavioral problems. These developmental cascades obtained independent of child intelligence; child age and maternal education and social desirability were also considered but were not related to any outcome variables. The findings suggest that strategically timed and targeted interventions designed to address young children's behavioral problems may return investment in terms of an enhanced epidemiology of adaptively functioning teens. PMID:23585713

  18. Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart David C. Plaut

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010) David C) argued that Cognitive Neuropsychology has had a limited impact on Cognitive Science due to a nearly Cognitive Neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its "functional architecture

  19. Cognitively challenging physical activity benefits executive function in overweight children.

    PubMed

    Crova, Claudia; Struzzolino, Ilaria; Marchetti, Rosalba; Masci, Ilaria; Vannozzi, Giuseppe; Forte, Roberta; Pesce, Caterina

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the association between aerobic fitness and executive function and the impact of enhanced, cognitively challenging physical activity on executive function in overweight and lean children. Seventy children aged 9-10 years were assigned to either a 6-month enhanced physical education programme including cognitively demanding (open skill) activities or curricular physical education only. Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed aerobic capacity (Leger test) and two components of executive function: inhibition and working memory updating (random number generation task). Indices of inhibition and memory updating were compared in higher- and lower-fit children and intervention effects were evaluated as a function of physical activity programme (enhanced vs. curricular) and weight status (lean vs. overweight). Results showed better inhibition in higher- than lower-fit children, extending the existing evidence of the association between aerobic fitness and executive function to new aspects of children's inhibitory ability. Overweight children had more pronounced pre- to post-intervention improvements in inhibition than lean children only if involved in enhanced physical education. Such intervention effects were not mediated by aerobic fitness gains. Therefore, the cognitive and social interaction challenges inherent in open skill tasks, even though embedded in a low-dose physical activity programme, may represent an effective means to promote cognitive efficiency, especially in overweight children. PMID:24015968

  20. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cato, M. Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L.; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W.; Ruedy, Katrina J.; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L.; White, Neil H.; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Research Design and Methods Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10yrs across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. Results The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5yrs and average onset age was 4yrs. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < 0.001). Learning and memory (p = 0.46) and processing speed (p = 0.25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Conclusions Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

  1. Cognitive functioning in young children with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cato, M Allison; Mauras, Nelly; Ambrosino, Jodie; Bondurant, Aiden; Conrad, Amy L; Kollman, Craig; Cheng, Peiyao; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina J; Aye, Tandy; Reiss, Allan L; White, Neil H; Hershey, Tamara

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess cognitive functioning in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and examine whether glycemic history influences cognitive function. Neuropsychological evaluation of 216 children (healthy controls, n = 72; T1D, n = 144) ages 4-10 years across five DirecNet sites. Cognitive domains included IQ, Executive Functions, Learning and Memory, and Processing Speed. Behavioral, mood, parental IQ data, and T1D glycemic history since diagnosis were collected. The cohorts did not differ in age, gender or parent IQ. Median T1D duration was 2.5 years and average onset age was 4 years. After covarying age, gender, and parental IQ, the IQ and the Executive Functions domain scores trended lower (both p = .02, not statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons) with T1D relative to controls. Children with T1D were rated by parents as having more depressive and somatic symptoms (p < .001). Learning and memory (p = .46) and processing speed (p = .25) were similar. Trends in the data supported that the degree of hyperglycemia was associated with Executive Functions, and to a lesser extent, Child IQ and Learning and Memory. Differences in cognition are subtle in young children with T1D within 2 years of onset. Longitudinal evaluations will help determine whether these findings change or become more pronounced with time. PMID:24512675

  2. Cognitive predictors of functional decline in vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Angela L.; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah; Boyle, Patricia; Paul, Robert H.; Moser, David J.; Gordon, Norman; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Background This study examined changes in cognitive-functional relationships in vascular dementia (VaD) over the course of one year. Methods Twenty-four patients with probable VaD were administered the Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Caregivers completed an informant-based measure of instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (BADL). Follow-up assessment was conducted one-year post-baseline. Results Logistic regression revealed that changes in the DRS Initiation/Perseveration and DRS Memory subscales were significantly associated with declines in IADLs and BADLs, respectively. Conclusions Among patients with VaD, longitudinal changes in IADLs and BADLs are most strongly associated with changes in executive functioning and memory abilities, respectively. Findings suggest that different cognitive functions subserve complex instrumental and rote, habituated basic functional activities, and neuropsychological screening measures are useful in the prediction of such functional changes. PMID:16906630

  3. CAT\\/CLAMS: its use in detecting early childhood cognitive impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Kube; William M. Wilson; Mario C. Petersen; Frederick B. Palmer

    2000-01-01

    The Cognitive Adaptive Test\\/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT\\/CLAMS), a neurodevelopmental tool for the cognitive assessment of infants and toddlers, correlates well with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. In 1993 the Bayley Scales were revised and the second edition published (BSID-II). This study was designed to determine how well the CAT\\/CLAMS correlates with the BSID-II and its utility

  4. Parathyroid Hormone, Cognitive Function and Dementia: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lourida, Ilianna; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Dickens, Chris M.; Soni, Maya; Ku?ma, El?bieta; Kos, Katarina; Llewellyn, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic factors are increasingly recognized to play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. Abnormal parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels play a role in neuronal calcium dysregulation, hypoperfusion and disrupted neuronal signaling. Some studies support a significant link between PTH levels and dementia whereas others do not. Methods We conducted a systematic review through January 2014 to evaluate the association between PTH and parathyroid conditions, cognitive function and dementia. Eleven electronic databases and citation indexes were searched including Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Hand searches of selected journals, reference lists of primary studies and reviews were also conducted along with websites of key organizations. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts of identified studies. Data extraction and study quality were performed by one and checked by a second reviewer using predefined criteria. A narrative synthesis was performed due to the heterogeneity of included studies. Results The twenty-seven studies identified were of low and moderate quality, and challenging to synthesize due to inadequate reporting. Findings from six observational studies were mixed but suggest a link between higher serum PTH levels and increased odds of poor cognition or dementia. Two case-control studies of hypoparathyroidism provide limited evidence for a link with poorer cognitive function. Thirteen pre-post surgery studies for primary hyperparathyroidism show mixed evidence for improvements in memory though limited agreement in other cognitive domains. There was some degree of cognitive impairment and improvement postoperatively in observational studies of secondary hyperparathyroidism but no evident pattern of associations with specific cognitive domains. Conclusions Mixed evidence offers weak support for a link between PTH, cognition and dementia due to the paucity of high quality research in this area. PMID:26010883

  5. Sexual Cognitions in Victims of Childhood and Adolescence/Adulthood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between 1) child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual abuse (AASA), and both (CSA+AASA), and 2) the frequency of positive and negative sexual cognitions according to their content -intimate, exploratory, dominance, submission, and impersonal- in men and women. We also analyzed the severity of the sexual contact of individuals who had experienced AASA. We assessed a Spanish sample of 228 men and 333 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old. In the sample, 341 individuals reported having experienced some type of sexual victimization (victims group), while 220 individuals reported no victimization (non-victims group). Overall, sexual victims reported a higher frequency of positive sexual cognitions compared to non-victims, particularly when they had experienced CSA+AASA and the severity of the sexual contact was greater. Men and women who had experienced abuse reported a higher frequency of exploratory cognitions (p < .01). Male victims reported more cognitions of submission (p < .01), whereas female victims reported more cognitions of dominance (p < .05), which indicates lack of congruence with traditional gender roles. Finally, only intimate cognitions (p < .001) were experienced as negative by male victims. We discuss the relevance of the findings for therapeutic interventions with sexual abuse victims. PMID:26100528

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  7. Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early-Childhood-Onset Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early-childhood-onset MDD. Method: A total of 51 children 7 through 11 years of age who had…

  8. Contributions of Modern Measurement Theory to Measuring Executive Function in Early Childhood: An Empirical Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…

  9. Cognitive-Neuropsychological Function in Chronic Physical Aggression and Hyperactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay

    2004-01-01

    Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.

  10. Functional Internet Literacy: Required Cognitive Skills with Implications for Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Genevieve Marie

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of typical Internet use provide the basis for defining "functional Internet literacy." Internet use commonly includes communication, information, recreation, and commercial activities. Technical competence with connectivity, security, and downloads is a prerequisite for using the Internet for such activities. Bloom's taxonomy of cognitive

  11. An automated system for assessing cognitive function in any environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnes, Keith A.

    2005-05-01

    The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitive function including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitive function. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitive function assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.

  12. Cognitive functioning, neurologic status and brain imaging in classical galactosemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francine Ratner Kaufman; Cammie McBride-Chang; Franklin R. Manis; Jon A. Wolff; Marvin D. Nelson

    1995-01-01

    A historical group of 45 children (4–18 years) and adults (18–39 years) with classical galactosemia had deficits of cognitive function that were variable and not related to the age at diagnosis or to severity of illness at presentation. There was a trend for patients to score highest on visual processing tasks. The standardized tests of speech and memory skills fell

  13. Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

    1990-01-01

    Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

  14. Gender Characteristics of Cerebral Hemodynamics during Complex Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misteli, Maria; Duschek, Stefan; Richter, Andre; Grimm, Simone; Rezk, Markus; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Boeker, Heinz; Seifritz, Erich; Schuepbach, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Functional Transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) has been applied to assess peak mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MFV) with a high temporal resolution during cognitive activation. Yet, little attention has been devoted to gender-related alterations of MFV, including spectral analysis. In healthy subjects, fTCD was used to investigate a series…

  15. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the

    E-print Network

    Murray, Scott

    magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been extensively used to study the neural sub- strates of the handBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Reveals the Neural Substrates the everyday act of reaching out to pick up a coffee cup seems like a single fluid action, arguably

  16. High functioning autism and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder in half brothers.

    PubMed

    Zwaigenbaum, L; Szatmari, P; Mahoney, W; Bryson, S; Bartolucci, G; MacLean, J

    2000-04-01

    Childhood Disintegrative Disorder (CDD) is grouped with autism as a subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) in ICD-10 and DSM-IV. This is the first report of autism and CDD cosegregating within a sibship. J. P. and M. P. are half-brothers with the same mother. J. P. is an 18-year-old with impairments in communication, social reciprocity, and stereotypies and was diagnosed with autism. M. P. is a 7-year-old who developed normally to 2 years 4 months. He then underwent a profound regression, becoming nonverbal and socially withdrawn, and lost adaptive skills. Investigations did not reveal any neurodegenerative process. M. P. was diagnosed with CDD. The rarity of the two conditions suggests a shared transmissible mechanism. The implications for autism/PDD genetic studies are discussed. PMID:10832776

  17. [Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].

    PubMed

    Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

  18. PATH57 Altered structural and functional network connectivity predicts cognitive function after traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Sharp; Powell J Leech R; V Bonnelle; C F Beckmann; X De Boissezon; R Greenwood; K Kinnunen

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments that limit recovery. The key pathophysiological predictors of recovery are uncertain, but the disruption of brain networks by diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is likely to be important. Here we use MRI to investigate the effect of TBI on structural and functional connections within cognitive brain networks. We studied 21 patients after

  19. Contribution of Physical Fitness, Cerebrovascular Reserve and Cognitive Stimulation to Cognitive Function in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Eskes, Gail A.; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D.; McMorris, Carly A.; Langdon, Kristopher D.; Hogan, David B.; Poulin, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V?O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study. PMID:21048898

  20. Functional disconnection and social cognition in schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Mukherjee, Prerona

    2011-11-25

    Introduction Social and emotional functions play a key role in schizophrenia. Both positive symptoms, such as hallucinations and persecutory delusions, as well as negative symptoms such as social withdrawal, and flattened ...

  1. Cognitive functioning and cortisol profiles in first episode major depression.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Pia Berner; Murison, Robert; Lund, Anders; Hammar, Åsa

    2015-08-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is often associated with high levels of stress and disturbances in the Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) system, yielding high levels of cortisol, in addition to cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies have shown a relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in recurrent MDD in general. More specifically, the association between hypercortisolism and cognitive functioning, such as memory and Executive Functioning (EF), and also more recently cortisol suppression has been explored. However, no studies have investigated these relationships in patients diagnosed with first episode MDD. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cortisol levels before and after the Dexamethasone suppression test (DST) and cognitive function in first episode MDD patients. Twenty-one patients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a first episode of MDD diagnosis were included in the study. The control group was matched for age, gender and education level. Cortisol was measured in saliva collected with Salivette sampling devices. Saliva samples were collected 4 times during a 24 hours period over two consecutive days: at awakening, after 45 minutes, after 7 hours and at 11 pm. Dexamethasone (1.0 mg) was given orally on Day 1 at 11 pm. The neuropsychological test battery consisted of standardized tests measuring executive functioning (EF) and memory functioning. Cortisol levels did not differ significantly between patients and controls on Day 1, except for the last sample before Dexamethasone administration, where the control group showed higher levels. Both groups showed suppression after Dexamethasone. On Day 2 there was a significant difference between groups at the third sample, showing a significantly lower level in the control group, suggesting that the controls have a more effective suppression profile than the patients. There were no significant correlations between cortisol levels before or after Dexamethasone and cognitive measures. The results indicate impairment on HPA-axis functioning in first episode MDD patients, with less suppression functioning compared to healthy controls, but no relationship between cortisol profile and cognitive functioning in EF or Memory. PMID:26032571

  2. Alterations in cognitive and psychological functioning after organic solvent exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitive functioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.

  3. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul F.; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function. PMID:24324413

  4. Child care in infancy and cognitive performance until middle childhood in the millennium cohort study.

    PubMed

    Côté, Sylvana M; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amélie; Timmins, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This study used a British cohort (n = ?13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age 3 years, but only for children of mothers with low education. These effects did not persist to ages 5 or 7 years. Early center-based care was associated with better cognitive outcomes than informal care at ages 3 and 5 years, but not at 7 years. Effect sizes were larger among children whose mother had low education. Propensity score matching and multiple imputation revealed significant findings undetected using regression and complete-case approaches. PMID:23331073

  5. Facial affect recognition: A mediator between cognitive and social functioning in psychosis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean Addington; Huma Saeedi; Donald Addington

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundFacial affect recognition has been implicated in the relationship between cognition and social functioning. This 1-year longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that facial affect recognition mediates the relationship between cognitive and social functioning.

  6. J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter lesions in the elderly

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    J Alzheimers Dis . Author manuscript Page /1 6 Caffeine, cognitive functioning, and white matter Objective The present study examines the epidemiological evidence for a causal relationship between caffeine examining cognitive functioning, caffeine consumption, magnetic resonance imaging volumetrics and other

  7. The dystrophin gene and cognitive function in the general population.

    PubMed

    Vojinovic, Dina; Adams, Hieab Hh; van der Lee, Sven J; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Brouwer, Rutger; van den Hout, Mirjam Cgn; Oole, Edwin; van Rooij, Jeroen; Uitterlinden, Andre; Hofman, Albert; van IJcken, Wilfred Fj; Aartsma-Rus, Annemieke; van Ommen, GertJan B; Ikram, M Arfan; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Amin, Najaf

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our study is to investigate whether single-nucleotide dystrophin gene (DMD) variants associate with variability in cognitive functions in healthy populations. The study included 1240 participants from the Erasmus Rucphen family (ERF) study and 1464 individuals from the Rotterdam Study (RS). The participants whose exomes were sequenced and who were assessed for various cognitive traits were included in the analysis. To determine the association between DMD variants and cognitive ability, linear (mixed) modeling with adjustment for age, sex and education was used. Moreover, Sequence Kernel Association Test (SKAT) was used to test the overall association of the rare genetic variants present in the DMD with cognitive traits. Although no DMD variant surpassed the prespecified significance threshold (P<1 × 10(-4)), rs147546024:A>G showed strong association (?=1.786, P-value=2.56 × 10(-4)) with block-design test in the ERF study, while another variant rs1800273:G>A showed suggestive association (?=-0.465, P-value=0.002) with Mini-Mental State Examination test in the RS. Both variants are highly conserved, although rs147546024:A>G is an intronic variant, whereas rs1800273:G>A is a missense variant in the DMD which has a predicted damaging effect on the protein. Further gene-based analysis of DMD revealed suggestive association (P-values=0.087 and 0.074) with general cognitive ability in both cohorts. In conclusion, both single variant and gene-based analyses suggest the existence of variants in the DMD which may affect cognitive functioning in the general populations. PMID:25227141

  8. Chronic Ambient Hydrogen Sulfide Exposure and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Bruce R.; Crane, Julian; Garrett, Nick; Woods, David L.; Bates, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposures to hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) have been inconclusively linked to a variety of negative cognitive outcomes. We investigated possible effects on cognitive function in an urban population with chronic, low-level exposure to H2S. Methods Participants were 1,637 adults, aged 18-65 years from Rotorua city, New Zealand, exposed to ambient H2S from geothermal sources. Exposures at homes and workplaces were estimated from data collected by summer and winter H2S monitoring networks across Rotorua in 2010/11. Metrics for H2S exposure at the time of participation and for exposure over the last 30 years were calculated. H2S exposure was modeled both as continuous variables and as quartiles of exposure covering the range of 0 – 64 ppb (0-88 ?g/m3). Outcomes were neuropsychological tests measuring visual and verbal episodic memory, attention, fine motor skills, psychomotor speed and mood. Associations between cognition and measures of H2S exposure were investigated with multiple regression, while covarying demographics and factors known to be associated with cognitive performance. Results The consistent finding was of no association between H2S exposure and cognition. Quartiles of H2S exposure had a small association with simple reaction time: higher exposures were associated with faster response times. Similarly, for digit symbol, higher H2S exposures tended to be marginally associated with better performance. Conclusion The results provide evidence that chronic H2S exposure, at the ambient levels found in and around Rotorua, is not associated with impairment of cognitive function. PMID:24548790

  9. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Ducci; M-A Enoch; C Hodgkinson; K Xu; M Catena; R W Robin; D Goldman

    2008-01-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether

  10. Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

  11. Why they reminisce: Caregiver reports of the functions of joint reminiscence in early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Kulkofsky; Jessie Bee Kim Koh

    2009-01-01

    Theorists have long suggested that joint caregiver–child reminiscence is functional, in that it is useful, adaptive, and can be utilised to achieve a variety of goals in everyday life. In the present study we investigated caregiver reports of the functions of joint reminiscence across early childhood. Participants were 203 parents or other guardians of 2–6-year-old children. Caregivers completed the Caregiver–child

  12. Longitudinal Models of Developmental Dynamics Between Reading and Cognition from Childhood to Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Holahan, John M.; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E.

    2007-01-01

    The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the…

  13. Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

  14. Ostracism in childhood and adolescence: Emotional, cognitive, and behavioral effects of social exclusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Wölfer; Herbert Scheithauer

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on theories of development, motivation, and personality we examined children's and adolescents’ emotional and cognitive perception of, and explained their behavioral reactions to, ostracism in two experimental studies. In Study one, 93 fourth- and eighth-graders (49 girls) were either socially included or excluded within a virtual ball-tossing game (cyberball). Results demonstrated that ostracism causes negative emotions and a selective

  15. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  16. Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

  17. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

  18. Measuring Social-Cognitive Functions in Children with Somatotropic Axis Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Skuse; Kate Lawrence; Joey Tang

    2005-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are expressed in specific regions of the central nervous system during early human development. They may consequently influence aspects of cognition, or emotional and behavioural adjustment from childhood to adulthood, in conditions associated with abnormalities of the somatotropic axis. GH receptors are relatively common within hippocampal and perihippocampal regions that are

  19. Differential associations between childhood trauma subtypes and adolescent HPA-axis functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kuhlman, Kate R.; Geiss, Elisa G.; Vargas, Ivan; Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Studies examining the association between childhood trauma exposure and neuroendocrine functioning have returned inconsistent findings. To date, few studies have accounted for the role exposure to different types of childhood trauma may have on different neuroendocrine adaptations, and no study has examined this association using multiple indices of hypothalamic—pituitary—adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning. The purpose of this study was to characterize the unique associations between exposure to physical abuse, emotional abuse, and non-intentional trauma, and multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning. Methods A community sample of 138 youth (aged 9—16) completed the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Task (SE-CPT) while their parents completed the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). All youth then collected 4 diurnal salivary cortisol samples at home across 2 consecutive weekdays. Results High reported exposure to non-intentional trauma was associated with intact diurnal regulation but elevated cortisol at bedtime, physical abuse was associated with faster reactivity to acute stress, and emotional abuse was associated with delayed recovery of cortisol following acute stress. Taken together, there was a heterogeneous relationship among different indices of HPA-axis functioning and trauma subtype. Discussion Different types of childhood trauma exposure are related to distinct anomalies in HPA-axis functioning. This study underscores the importance of research incorporating multiple indices of HPA-axis functioning to inform our understanding of the underlying neuroendocrine dysregulation that may later lead to stress-related psychopathology. PMID:25704913

  20. Nutritional influences on cognitive function: mechanisms of susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Leigh Gibson, E; Green, Michael W

    2002-06-01

    The impact of nutritional variation, within populations not overtly malnourished, on cognitive function and arousal is considered. The emphasis is on susceptibility to acute effects of meals and glucose loads, and chronic effects of dieting, on mental performance, and effects of cholesterol and vitamin levels on cognitive impairment. New developments in understanding dietary influences on neurohormonal systems, and their implications for cognition and affect, allow reinterpretation of both earlier and recent findings. Evidence for a detrimental effect of omitting a meal on cognitive performance remains equivocal: from the outset, idiosyncrasy has prevailed. Yet, for young and nutritionally vulnerable children, breakfast is more likely to benefit than hinder performance. For nutrient composition, despite inconsistencies, some cautious predictions can be made. Acutely, carbohydrate-rich-protein-poor meals can be sedating and anxiolytic; by comparison, protein-rich meals may be arousing, improving reaction time but also increasing unfocused vigilance. Fat-rich meals can lead to a decline in alertness, especially where they differ from habitual fat intake. These acute effects may vary with time of day and nutritional status. Chronically, protein-rich diets have been associated with decreased positive and increased negative affect relative to carbohydrate-rich diets. Probable mechanisms include diet-induced changes in monoamine, especially serotoninergic neurotransmitter activity, and functioning of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis. Effects are interpreted in the context of individual traits and susceptibility to challenging, even stressful, tests of performance. Preoccupation with dieting may impair cognition by interfering with working memory capacity, independently of nutritional status. The change in cognitive performance after administration of glucose, and other foods, may depend on the level of sympathetic activation, glucocorticoid secretion, and pancreatic beta-cell function, rather than simple fuelling of neural activity. Thus, outcomes can be predicted by vulnerability in coping with stressful challenges, interacting with nutritional history and neuroendocrine status. Functioning of such systems may be susceptible to dietary influences on neural membrane fluidity, and vitamin-dependent cerebrovascular health, with cognitive vulnerability increasing with age. PMID:19087403

  1. Sleep as a support for social competence, peer relations, and cognitive functioning in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Brian E; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Shin, Nana; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Evidence that sleep influences social and cognitive adaptation for school-age children and adolescents is accumulating rapidly, but less research focuses on the role of sleep for adaptive functioning during early childhood. We addressed these questions using actigraphy to assess sleep duration, sleep quality, and variability in sleep schedules in relation to a range of social/emotional and cognitive measures, including receptive vocabulary, emotion understanding, peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, and temperament. Children in a convenience sample (N = 62, 40 boys, mean age = 4.15 yrs, 67% European American) wore actigraphs for 4-7 days, with sleep and wake states determined using Sadeh's scoring algorithm. Older children spent less time in bed at night and ethnic minority children (mostly African Americans) slept less at night and had lower sleep efficiency than did European American ethnic status children. Bivariate relations (controlling for sex, age, and ethnicity) between sleep variables and child adaptation scores showed that sleep duration was positively associated with peer acceptance, social skills, social engagement, receptive vocabulary, and understanding of the causes of emotions. Fewer variables were associated with nighttime sleep quality and variability and these tended to be related to outcome variables suggestive of behavioral and emotional regulation. Results suggest that sleep parameters are broadly implicated in the adjustment of preschool age children. PMID:24527839

  2. Low Cognitive Functioning in Nondemented 80+-Year-Old Twins Is Not Heritable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrill, Stephen A.; Johansson, Boo; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Berg, Stig; Plomin, Robert; Ahern, Frank; McClearn, Gerald E.

    2001-01-01

    Studied the genetic influence of low cognitive functioning in 200 pairs of twins aged at least 80 years and identified as not demented. Results suggest that the heritability of low cognitive functioning in this group was nonsignificant, but above-average cognitive functioning shows substantial group heritability. (SLD)

  3. A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

    2001-01-01

    A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

  4. Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans During Middle Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie J. Rowley; Margaret R. Burchinal; Joanne E. Roberts; Susan A. Zeisel

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social

  5. Parents’ Education, Mothers’ Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise. PMID:22021308

  6. Social Engagement and Cognitive Function in Old Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin R. Krueger; Robert S. Wilson; Julia M. Kamenetsky; Lisa L. Barnes; Julia L. Bienias; David A. Bennett

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association of diverse measures of social engagement with level of function in multiple cognitive domains in 838 persons without dementia who had a mean age of 80.2 (SD = 7.5). Social network size, frequency of social activity, and level of perceived social support were assessed in linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education, and other covariates. Social activity

  7. Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris-Ellyn Johanson; Kirk A. Frey; Leslie H. Lundahl; Pamela Keenan; Nancy Lockhart; John Roll; Gantt P. Galloway; Robert A. Koeppe; Michael R. Kilbourn; Trevor Robbins; Charles R. Schuster

    2006-01-01

    Objective  Preclinical investigations have established that methamphetamine (MA) produces long-term changes in dopamine (DA) neurons in the striatum. Human studies have suggested similar effects and correlated motor and cognitive deficits. The present study was designed to further our understanding of changes in brain function in humans that might result from chronic high dose use of MA after at least 3 months of

  8. Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice. PMID:23596103

  9. Twins Early Development Study (TEDS): A Genetically Sensitive Investigation of Cognitive and Behavioral Development From Childhood to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Davis, Oliver S. P.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) is a large longitudinal sample of twins born in England and Wales between 1994 and 1996. The focus of TEDS has been on cognitive and behavioral development, including difficulties in the context of normal development. TEDS began when multiple births were identified from birth records and the families were invited to take part in the study; 16,810 pairs of twins were originally enrolled in TEDS. More than 10,000 of these twin pairs remain enrolled in the study to date. DNA has been collected for more than 7,000 pairs, and genome-wide genotyping data for two million DNA markers are available for 3,500 individuals. The TEDS families have taken part in studies when the twins were aged 2, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 12, 14, and 16 years of age. Data collection is currently underway to assess the adult destinations of the twins as they move from school to university and the workplace. Between January 2012 and December 2014, all of the TEDS twins will turn 18, and the study will transition to an adult sample. TEDS represents an outstanding resource for investigating the developmental effects of genes and environments on complex quantitative traits from childhood to young adulthood and beyond. PMID:23110994

  10. The effect of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cognitive function for stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, In-Seok; Yoon, Jung-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on cognitive function in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] We enrolled 20 patients and divided them into CACR and rTMS groups. CACR and rTMS were performed thrice a week for 4 weeks. Cognitive function was measured with the Korean Mini-Mental State Examination (K-MMSE) and Lowenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment-Geriatric (LOTCA-G) before and after treatment. The independent samples t-test was performed to test the homogeneity of K-MMSE and LOTCA-G before treatment and compare the differences in cognitive improvement between the CACR and rTMS groups. A paired samples t-test was used to compare cognitive function before and after treatment. [Results] Cognitive function of both the groups significantly improved after the intervention based on the K-MMSE and LOTCA-G scores. While the LOTCA-G score improved significantly more in the CACR group than in the rTMS group, no significant difference was seen in the K-MMSE scores. [Conclusion] We showed that CACR is more effective than rTMS in improving cognitive function after stroke. PMID:25931728

  11. Test-retest reliability of a new executive function battery for use in early childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Willoughby; Clancy Blair

    2011-01-01

    This study reported test-retest reliability for a newly developed executive function battery designed for use in early childhood. A total of 140 predominantly low-income children (M?=?48.1 months; 51% male; 43% African American) completed up to six tasks on two occasions an average of 18 (Mdn?=?16) days apart. Pearson correlations between individual task scores indicated moderate retest reliability (mean r?=?.60; range?=?.52?.66)

  12. Birth weight, childhood lower respiratory tract infection, and adult lung function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S O Shaheen; J A C Sterne; J S Tucker; C du V Florey

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUNDHistorical cohort studies in England have found that impaired fetal growth and lower respiratory tract infections in early childhood are associated with lower levels of lung function in late adult life. These relations are investigated in a similar study in Scotland.METHODSIn 1985–86 a follow up study was carried out of 1070 children who had been born in St Andrew’s from

  13. From cognitive motor preparation to visual processing: The benefits of childhood fitness to brain health.

    PubMed

    Berchicci, M; Pontifex, M B; Drollette, E S; Pesce, C; Hillman, C H; Di Russo, F

    2015-07-01

    The association between a fit body and a fit brain in children has led to a rise of behavioral and neuroscientific research. Yet, the relation of cardiorespiratory fitness on premotor neurocognitive preparation with early visual processing has received little attention. Here, 41 healthy, lower and higher fit preadolescent children were administered a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task while electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were recorded. Event-related potentials (ERPs) locked to the stimulus onset with an earlier than usual baseline (-900/-800ms) allowed investigation of both the usual post-stimulus (i.e., the P1, N1 and P2) as well as the pre-stimulus ERP components, such as the Bereitschaftspotential (BP) and the prefrontal negativity (pN component). At the behavioral level, aerobic fitness was associated response accuracy, with higher fit children being more accurate than lower fit children. Fitness-related differences selectively emerged at prefrontal brain regions during response preparation, with larger pN amplitude for higher than lower fit children, and at early perceptual stages after stimulus onset, with larger P1 and N1 amplitudes in higher relative to lower fit children. Collectively, the results suggest that the benefits of being aerobically fit appear at the stage of cognitive preparation prior to stimulus presentation and the behavioral response during the performance of a task that challenges cognitive control. Further, it is likely that enhanced activity in prefrontal brain areas may improve cognitive control of visuo-motor tasks, allowing for stronger proactive inhibition and larger early allocation of selective attention resources on relevant external stimuli. PMID:25907444

  14. Histamine-selective H3 receptor ligands and cognitive functions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Vohora, Divya

    2004-07-01

    This review presents a link between histamine and cognition and provides an overview on the effect of histamine and selective ligands of histamine receptors on experimental models for learning, memory and cognitive functions, with a special focus on recently developed H(3) receptor ligands. Studies suggest a tremendous potential for H(3) antagonists in cognitive function disorders. PMID:15243869

  15. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

  16. Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage. PMID:22476990

  17. Functional neuroimaging of social and nonsocial cognitive control in autism.

    PubMed

    Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related to circumscribed interests in autism. The ASD group demonstrated relatively increased activation to social targets in right insular cortex and in left superior frontal gyrus and relatively decreased activation to nonsocial targets related to circumscribed interests in multiple frontostriatal brain regions. Findings suggest that frontostriatal recruitment during cognitive control in ASD is contingent on stimulus type, with increased activation for social stimuli and decreased activation for nonsocial stimuli related to circumscribed interests. PMID:23636715

  18. Violence in Development: The Functions of Aggression in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartup, Willard W.

    This report describes a naturalistic observational study concerned with the functions of aggression in children and how they change with age. Background on aggression is provided through a discussion of the problems of definition and ontogenesis, which have led to a general shortage of relevant developmental data. This study involved 102 children,…

  19. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/FK506-Binding Protein 5 Genotype by Childhood Trauma Interactions Do Not Impact on Hippocampal Volume and Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hernaus, Dennis; van Winkel, Ruud; Gronenschild, Ed; Habets, Petra; Kenis, Gunter; Marcelis, Machteld; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Collip, Dina

    2014-01-01

    In the development of psychotic symptoms, environmental and genetic factors may both play a role. The reported association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms could therefore be moderated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the stress response, such as FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Recent studies investigating childhood trauma by SNP interactions have inconsistently found the hippocampus to be a potential target underlying these interactions. Therefore, more detailed modelling of these effects, using appropriate covariates, is required. We examined whether BDNF/FKBP5 and childhood trauma interactions affected two proxies of hippocampal integrity: (i) hippocampal volume and (ii) cognitive performance on a block design (BD) and delayed auditory verbal task (AVLT). We also investigated whether the putative interaction was different for patients with a psychotic disorder (n?=?89) compared to their non-psychotic siblings (n?=?95), in order to elicit possible group-specific protective/vulnerability effects. SNPs were rs9296158, rs4713916, rs992105, rs3800373 (FKBP5) and rs6265 (BDNF). In the combined sample, no BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were apparent for either outcome, and BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were not different for patients and siblings. The omission of drug use and alcohol consumption sometimes yielded false positives, greatly affected explained error and influenced p-values. The consistent absence of any significant BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions on assessments of hippocampal integrity suggests that the effect of these interactions on psychotic symptoms is not mediated by hippocampal integrity. The importance of appropriate statistical designs and inclusion of relevant covariates should be carefully considered. PMID:24658422

  20. Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

  1. Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

  2. Changes in Brain Functioning From Infancy to Early Childhood: Evidence From EEG Power and Coherence During Working Memory Tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Ann Bell; Christy D. Wolfe

    2007-01-01

    Using measures of EEG power and coherence with a longitudinal sample, the goal of this study was to examine developmental changes in brain electrical activity during higher order cognitive processing at infancy and early childhood. Infants were recruited at 8 months of age and performed an infant working-memory task based on a looking version of the A-not-B task. At age

  3. Monitoring asthma in childhood: lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Alexander; Carlsen, Kai-Hakon; Sly, Peter D; Baraldi, Eugenio; Piacentini, Giorgio; Pavord, Ian; Lex, Christiane; Saglani, Sejal

    2015-06-01

    This review focuses on the methods available for measuring reversible airways obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and inflammation as hallmarks of asthma, and their role in monitoring children with asthma. Persistent bronchial obstruction may occur in asymptomatic children and is considered a risk factor for severe asthma episodes and is associated with poor asthma outcome. Annual measurement of forced expiratory volume in 1?s using office based spirometry is considered useful. Other lung function measurements including the assessment of BHR may be reserved for children with possible exercise limitations, poor symptom perception and those not responding to their current treatment or with atypical asthma symptoms, and performed on a higher specialty level. To date, for most methods of measuring lung function there are no proper randomised controlled or large longitudinal studies available to establish their role in asthma management in children. Noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring inflammation in children are available, for example the measurement of exhaled nitric oxide fraction, and the assessment of induced sputum cytology or inflammatory mediators in the exhaled breath condensate. However, their role and usefulness in routine clinical practice to monitor and guide therapy remains unclear, and therefore, their use should be reserved for selected cases. PMID:26028633

  4. Cognitive functioning after pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Perrine, K.; Dogali, M.; Fazzini, E.; Sterio, D.; Kolodny, E.; Eidelberg, D.; Devinsky, O.; Beric, A.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Earlier approaches to pallidotomy for refractory Parkinson's disease had significant complication rates. More recent approaches show fewer complications, but the effect of pallidotomy on cognition is unclear. The current study was conducted to examine the neuropsychological effects of unilateral pallidotomy.?METHODS—Neuropsychological testing was performed on patients with medically refractory, predominantly unilateral Parkinson's disease at baseline and after unilateral ventral pallidotomy (n=28) or after an equivalent period without surgery in control patients (n=10).?RESULTS—Pallidotomy patients showed no significant changes from baseline to retesting relative to the control group for any measure. Across all of the tests administered, only five of the surgery patients showed a significant decline, and of these five none declined on more than one test. Depression did not relate to preoperative or postoperative cognition. The pallidotomy group showed a significant improvement in motor functioning and activities of daily living whereas the control group did not. These measures were not associated with the neuropsychological test scores at baseline or retest.?CONCLUSIONS—Stereotactic unilateral ventral pallidotomy does not seem to produce dramatic cognitive declines in most patients.?? PMID:9703163

  5. Microinfarcts, brain atrophy, and cognitive function: the HAAS autopsy study

    PubMed Central

    Launer, Lenore J; Hughes, Timothy M; White, Lon R

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To study the association of microinfarcts (MBI) to ante-mortem global cognitive function (CF), and to investigate whether brain weight (BW), Alzheimer’s lesions (neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) or neuritic plaques (NP) mediate the association. Methods Subjects are 437 well-characterized male decedents from the Honolulu Asia Aging Autopsy Study. Brain pathology was ascertained with standardized methods, CF was measured by the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI)and data were analyzed using formal mediation analyses, adjusted for age at death, time between last CF measure and death, education, and head size. Based on ante-mortem diagnoses, demented and non-demented subjects were examined together and separately. Results In those with no dementia, MBI were strongly associated with the last ante-mortem CF score; this was significantly mediated by BW, and not NFT or NP. In contrast, among those with an ante-mortem diagnosis of dementia, NFT had the strongest associations with BW and with CF, and MIB were modestly associated with CF. Interpretation This suggests microinfarct pathology is a significant and independent factor contributing to brain atrophy and cognitive impairment, particularly before dementia is clinically evident. The role of vascular damage as initiator, stimulator, or additive contributor to neurodegeneration may differ depending on when in the trajectory towards dementia the lesions develop. PMID:22162060

  6. Cognitive functioning in socially anxious adults: insights from the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery

    PubMed Central

    Troller-Renfree, Sonya V.; Barker, Tyson V.; Pine, Daniel S.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that individuals with social anxiety manifest unique patterns of cognition with less efficient fluid cognition and unperturbed crystallized cognition; however, empirical support for these ideas remains inconclusive. The heterogeneity of past findings may reflect unreliability in cognitive assessments or the influence of confounding variables. The present study examined the relations among social anxiety and performance on the reliable, newly established NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. Results indicate that high socially anxious adults performed as well as low anxious participants on all measures of fluid cognition. However, high socially anxious adults demonstrated enhanced crystallized cognitive abilities relative to a low socially anxious comparison group.

  7. To rise and to fall: functional connectivity in cognitively normal and cognitively impaired patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gorges, Martin; Müller, Hans-Peter; Lulé, Dorothée; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Kassubek, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive decline is a burdensome extra-motor symptom associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed at investigating intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the brain in cognitively unimpaired (PD-CU) and impaired PD patients (PD-CI) compared with age-matched healthy controls. "Resting-state" functional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired in 53 subjects, that is, 14 PD-CU patients, 17 PD-CI patients, and 22 control subjects. Cognition and cognitive status for patient classification were assessed using detailed neuropsychological testing. In PD-CU patients versus controls, we demonstrated significantly increased iFC (hyperconnectivity) presenting as network expansions in cortical, limbic, and basal ganglia-thalamic areas. Significantly, decreased iFC in PD-CI patients compared with control subjects was observed, predominantly between major nodes of the default mode network. In conclusion, the increased iFC might be the initial manifestation of altered brain function preceding cognitive deficits. Hyperconnectivity could be an adaptive (compensatory) mechanism by recruiting additional resources to maintain normal cognitive performance. As PD-related pathology progresses, functional disruptions within the default mode networks seem to be considerably associated with cognitive decline. PMID:25623332

  8. Early Childhood OCD: Preliminary Findings From a Family-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Przeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative efficacy of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) versus family-based relaxation treatment (RT) for young children ages 5 to 8 years with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method Forty-two young children with primary OCD were randomized to receive 12 sessions of family-based CBT or family-based RT. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment by independent raters blind to treatment assignment. Primary outcomes included scores on the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement. Results For the intent-to-treat sample, CBT was associated with a moderate treatment effect (d = 0.53), although there was not a significant difference between the groups at conventional levels. For the completer sample, CBT had a large effect (d = 0.85), and there was a significant group difference favoring CBT. In the intent-to-treat sample, 50% of children in the CBT group achieved remission as compared to 20% in the RT group. In the completer sample, 69% of children in the CBT group achieved a clinical remission compared to 20% in the RT group. Conclusions Results indicate that children with early-onset OCD benefit from a treatment approach tailored to their developmental needs and family context. CBT was effective in reducing OCD symptoms and in helping a large number of children achieve a clinical remission. PMID:18356758

  9. Processing speed mediates executive function difficulties in very preterm children in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Hanna; Pitchford, Nicola J; Marlow, Neil

    2011-05-01

    Executive function and attention difficulties are reported in very preterm (VPT) children at school entry, but it is unclear if these remain at later ages and/or if these difficulties are mediated by more basic functions, such as processing speed. Processing speed has been shown to underlie academic and behavioral problems in VPT children in middle childhood (Mulder, Pitchford, & Marlow, 2010, 2011), so may also underpin executive function and attention difficulties. We investigated this by comparing VPT (gestational age <31 weeks; N = 56) to term children (N = 22) aged 9-10 years on a comprehensive battery of executive function and attention tasks from the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (Manly, Robertson, Anderson, & Nimmo-Smith, 1999) and NEPSY (Korkman, Kirk, & Kemp, 1998). Selective and sustained attention, inhibition, working memory, shifting, verbal fluency, planning, and processing speed were examined. Group differences favoring term children were shown on most executive function tasks (i.e., inhibition, working memory, verbal fluency, and shifting), all of which were mediated by slow processing speed in the VPT group, except response inhibition. Seemingly, processing speed is an important determinant underpinning many neuropsychological deficits seen in VPT children in middle childhood. PMID:21439114

  10. Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2013-01-01

    Background We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with ADHD (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories and dimensional measures of ADHD symptoms. We hypothesized that (a) EF trajectories would be similar in girls both with and without childhood ADHD, with the ADHD group showing greater impairment across time; and (b) changes in EF abilities would predict changes in ADHD symptoms across time, consistent with the theory that ADHD symptom reductions partially result from prefrontally-mediated EF development. Method Latent growth curve models were used to evaluate development of sustained attention, response inhibition, working memory, and global EF abilities, and associations between EF trajectories and ADHD symptom trajectories. Results Girls with childhood-diagnosed ADHD showed greater improvement across development on measures of sustained attention and global EF, but similar rates of improvement on measures of working memory and response inhibition. Changes in the global EF measure predicted changes in both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms across time, whereas changes in response inhibition predicted changes in hyperactive-impulsive symptoms; associations between changes in other EF variables and symptoms were not significant. Conclusions Findings suggest variability in patterns of EF improvement over time in females with ADHD histories and indicate that EF development may play a role in symptom change. PMID:23600917

  11. Intraoperative cerebral high intensity transient signals and postoperative cognitive function: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kristin K; Wigginton, Jeremy B.; Babikian, Viken L; Pochay, Val E.; Crittenden, Michael D.; Rudolph, James L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Microemboli during surgery have been hypothesized to cause postoperative cognitive changes. The purpose of this article was to systematically review the available literature related to intraoperative microemboli, measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound and postoperative cognitive function. The literature remains largely undecided on the role of microemboli and cognitive impairment after surgery, because most studies underpowered to show a relationship. PMID:18723157

  12. Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology

    E-print Network

    Memphis, University of

    Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First to the science of psychology. Finally, the reciprocal interactions between computational modeling/cognitive

  13. Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010)

    E-print Network

    Plaut, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Beyond Functional Architecture in Cognitive Neuropsychology: A Reply to Coltheart (2010) David C We (Patterson & Plaut, 2009) argued that cognitive neuropsychology has had a limited impact is misplaced because cognitive neuropsychology is concerned only with studying the mind, in terms of its

  14. Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular

    E-print Network

    Cognitive Function in Late Life Depression: Relationships to Depression Severity, Cerebrovascular depression (LLD). To understand the influence of LLD on cognition, it is important to determine if deficits in a number of cognitive domains are relatively independent, or mediated by depression- related deficits

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Yaffe, Kristine; Bryan, Nick; Launer, Lenore J.; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Sidney, Stephen; Demerath, Ellen; Thomas, William; Bouchard, Claude; He, Ka; Reis, Jared; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether greater cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is associated with better cognitive function 25 years later. Methods: We studied 2,747 participants in the community-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study of black and white men and women aged 18 to 30 years at recruitment in 1985–1986 (baseline year 0). Symptom-limited maximal treadmill test durations at years 0 and 20 provided measures of CRF. Cognitive tests at year 25 measured verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test [RAVLT]), psychomotor speed (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST]), and executive function (Stroop Test). Results: Per minute of baseline CRF, the RAVLT was 0.12 words recalled higher (standard error [SE] = 0.03, p < 0.0001), the DSST was 0.92 digits higher (SE = 0.13, p < 0.0001), and the Stroop Test score was 0.52 lower (better performance, SE = 0.11, p < 0.0001), after accounting for race, sex, age, education, and clinical center. Compared with the lowest quartile of CRF, each cognitive test was 21% to 34% of an SD better in the highest CRF quartile. Further adjustment for lifestyle and clinical measures attenuated coefficients for RAVLT and DSST slightly, while the coefficient predicting the Stroop Test lost more than half its value (p = 0.07). Analysis in the subset of 1,957 participants who also completed the year-20 treadmill test showed that 20-year change in CRF was positively associated only with DSST (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Better verbal memory and faster psychomotor speed at ages 43 to 55 years were clearly associated with better CRF 25 years earlier. PMID:24696506

  16. Association of VEGF polymorphisms with childhood asthma, lung function and airway responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, S.; Murphy, A.J.; Soto-Quiros, M.E.; Avila, L.; Klanderman, B.J.; Sylvia, J.S.; Celedón, J.C.; Raby, B.A.; Weiss, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic factor implicated in asthma severity. The objective of the present study was to determine whether VEGF single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with asthma, lung function and airway responsiveness. The present authors analysed 10 SNPs in 458 white families in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP). Tests of association with asthma, lung function and airway responsiveness were performed using PBAT software (Golden Helix, Inc. Bozeman, MT, USA; available at www.goldenhelix.com). Family and population-based, revpeated measures analysis of airflow obstruction were conducted. Replication studies were performed in 412 asthmatic children and their parents from Costa Rica. Associations with asthma, lung function and airway responsiveness were observed in both cohorts. SNP rs833058 was associated with asthma in both cohorts. This SNP was also associated with increased airway responsiveness in both populations. An association of rs4711750 and its haplotype with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio in both cohorts was observed. Longitudinal analysis in CAMP confirmed an association of rs4711750 with FEV1/FVC decline over ~4.5 yrs of observation. VEGF polymorphisms are associated with childhood asthma, lung function and airway responsiveness in two populations, suggesting that VEGF polymorphisms influence asthma susceptibility, airflow obstruction and airways responsiveness. PMID:19196819

  17. Nutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement of Aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Malaysia

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    's cognitive development(8,9) . Needless to say, poor socio-economic status is a strong inhibitor limitingNutritional and socio-economic determinants of cognitive function and educational achievement influencing the cognitive function and educational achievement of these children. Cognitive function

  18. Coupled cognitive and functional change in Alzheimer's disease and the influence of depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Devanand, D P; Stern, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), cognition and function are only moderately correlated in cross-sectional studies, and studies of their longitudinal association are less common. One potential non-cognitive contributor to function is depression, which has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes. The current study investigated longitudinal associations between functional abilities, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms in AD. 517 patients diagnosed with probable AD and enrolled in The Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer's Disease were included. Patients were followed at 6-month intervals over 5.5 years. Longitudinal changes in the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, modified Mini-Mental State Exam, and the depression subscale of the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in AD were examined in a multivariate latent growth curve model that controlled for gender, age, education, and recruitment site. Results showed that cognition and function worsened over the study period, whereas depressive symptoms were largely stable. Rates of change in cognition and function were correlated across participants and coupled within participants, indicating that they travel together over time. Worse initial cognitive status was associated with faster subsequent functional decline, and vice versa. Higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse initial functioning and faster subsequent cognitive and functional decline. These findings highlight the importance of both cognitive and psychiatric assessment for functional prognosis. Targeting both cognitive and depressive symptoms in the clinical treatment of AD may have incremental benefit on functional abilities. PMID:23302654

  19. Sex Dependence of Cognitive Functions in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ?ojko, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitive functioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitive functions. PMID:24616627

  20. Influence of childhood growth on asthma and lung function in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M.M.; Howe, Laura D.; Granell, Raquel; Duijts, Liesbeth; Sterne, Jonathan A.C.; Tilling, Kate; Henderson, A. John

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and rapid infant growth in early infancy are associated with increased risk of childhood asthma, but little is known about the role of postinfancy growth in asthmatic children. Objectives We sought to examine the associations of children's growth patterns with asthma, bronchial responsiveness, and lung function until adolescence. Methods Individual growth trajectories from birth until 10 years of age were estimated by using linear spline multilevel models for 9723 children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Current asthma at 8, 14, and 17 years of age was based on questionnaires. Lung function and bronchial responsiveness or reversibility were measured during clinic visits at 8 and 15 years of age. Results Rapid weight growth between 0 and 3 months of age was most consistently associated with increased risks of current asthma at the ages of 8 and 17 years, bronchial responsiveness at age 8 years, and bronchial reversibility at age 15 years. Rapid weight growth was associated with lung function values, with the strongest associations for weight gain between 3 and 7 years of age and higher forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1 values at age 15 years (0.12 [95% CI, 0.08 to 0.17] and 0.11 [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.15], z score per SD, respectively) and weight growth between 0 and 3 months of age and lower FEV1/FVC ratios at age 8 and 15 years (?0.13 [95% CI, ?0.16 to ?0.10] and ?0.04 [95% CI, ?0.07 to ?0.01], z score per SD, respectively). Rapid length growth was associated with lower FVC and FVC1 values at age 15 years. Conclusion Faster weight growth in early childhood is associated with asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and faster weight growth across childhood is associated with higher FVC and FEV1 values. PMID:25577593

  1. Cognitive Function and Control of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Satyajeet; Kim, Nami; Desai, Anjali; Komaragiri, Mahathi; Baxi, Namrata; Jassil, Navinder; Blessinger, Megan; Khan, Maliha; Cole, Robert; Desai, Nayan; Terrigno, Rocco; Hunter, Krystal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been associated with impairment of cognitive function. Studies show a strong negative correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and cognitive function in adult patients above the mean age of 60 years. In healthy adults, age-related cognitive impairment is mostly reported after the age of 60 years, hence the decline in cognitive function can be a part of normal aging without diabetes. Since the majority of patients with diabetes are between the ages of 40 and 59 years, it is crucial to ascertain whether the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin negatively correlate with the levels of cognitive function scores in adult patients of age 60 years or younger, similar to the way it correlates in patients older than 60 years of age, or not. Aims: We observed the relationship between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and the levels of cognitive function in patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. Materials and Methods: Eighty-two patients with T2DM underwent cognitive assessment testing by using a Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), and their cognitive function scores were correlated with their glycosylated hemoglobin levels, durations of diabetes, and levels of education. Results: Cognitive impairment was observed in 19.5% of the studied patients. We found a weakly negative relationship between the glycosylated hemoglobin level and cognitive function score (r = -0.292), a moderately negative relationship between the duration of diabetes and cognitive function score (r = -0.303), and a weakly positive relationship between the level of education and cognitive function score (r = 0.277). Conclusion: Cognitive impairment affects one-fifth of the patients of age 60 years or younger with T2DM. It is weakly negatively related to the glycosylated hemoglobin level, moderately negatively related to the duration of diabetes, and weakly positively related to the level of education.

  2. Acute Cold Exposure and Cognitive Function: Evidence for Sustained Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Matthew D.; Gunstad, John; Alosco, Michael L.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Updegraff, John; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Glickman, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Several industries experience periods of cold exposure and rewarming throughout the workday but mental performance under these conditions is unknown. A better understanding of cognition during the rewarming phase after cold exposure may help reduce accidents and improve performance. Ten young men (wearing~0.1 clo) underwent 3 consecutive mornings trials where they were exposed to cold air (10°C) and then subsequently re-warmed (25°C air). A computerized test battery was administered during each stage of the protocol to determine working memory, choice reaction time, executive function, and maze navigation. Rectal and skin temperature, oxygen consumption, and thermal sensation were also measured throughout and showed a typical response. Relative to baseline performance, working memory, choice reaction time, and executive function declined during exposure to 10°C, and these impairments persisted 60 minutes into the recovery period (i.e. once physiological parameters had returned to baseline). Further work is needed to develop countermeasures to this predicament. PMID:22506538

  3. Understanding and Auto-Control of Cognitive Functions: Implications for the Relationship Between Cognition and Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebre-Pinard, Monique

    1983-01-01

    Presents an integrated view of contributions made by various sections within cognitive psychology in which problems of consciousness are addressed. Implications concerning the relationship between cognition and behavior are pointed out. (Author/RH)

  4. Drug Use and Psychosocial Functioning of a Community Derived Sample of Adolescents with Childhood ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Realmuto, George M.; Winters, Ken C.; August, Gerald J.; Lee, Susanne; Fahnhorst, Tamara; Botzet, Andria

    2009-01-01

    We describe the late adolescent psychosocial outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with ADHD who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. A range of outcomes were compared between ADHD (n=119) and normal control (n=93) groups, as well as ADHD subgroups that varied as a function of the course of externalizing, predominantly ODD, problems (persisters, desisters, escalators, and resisters). ADHD youth that did not show externalizing problems during childhood (ADHD-resisters) were associated with drug use outcomes generally comparable to the normal non-affected controls. All other ADHD groups with externalizing problems (ADHD-persisters, ADHD-escalaters, and ADHD-desisters) consistently revealed worse drug use outcomes compared to controls/ADHD-resisters. However, ADHD youth with or without externalizing problems showed worse outcomes compared to the control group on the non-drug, psychosocial functioning variables. The study highlights that ADHD with co-existing disruptiveness, whether the disruptiveness persists or remits before adolescence, is associated with an increased risk for drug involvement and that ADHD, regardless of the comorbid pattern, confers a poorer level of psychosocial functioning. PMID:19890469

  5. Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311

  6. Cognitive function following treadmill exercise in thermal protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David

    2012-05-01

    Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitive function changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644

  7. What’s Mom Got to Do with It? Contributions of Maternal Executive Function and Caregiving to the Development of Executive Function Across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Watson, Amanda J.; Morasch, Katherine C.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control) are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and associated with optimal cognitive and socio-emotional development. This study provides the first concurrent analysis of the relative contributions of maternal EF and caregiving to child EF. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate interaction (10, 24, 36 months) and EF tasks (child: 24, 36, and 48 months). Regression analyses revealed that by 36 months of age, maternal EF and negative caregiving behaviors accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond maternal education and child verbal ability. These findings were confirmed when using an early child EF composite-our most reliable measure of EF—and a similar pattern was found when controlling for stability in child EF. Furthermore, there was evidence that maternal EF had significant indirect effects on changes in child EF through maternal caregiving. At 24 months, EF was associated with maternal EF, but not negative caregiving behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that links between negative caregiving and child EF are increasingly manifested during early childhood. Although maternal EF and negative caregiving are related, they provide unique information about the development of child EF. PMID:24410963

  8. Examining the dynamic, bidirectional associations between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults.

    PubMed

    Krall, Jenna R; Carlson, Michelle C; Fried, Linda P; Xue, Qian-Li

    2014-10-15

    The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829

  9. Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia on Brain Morphology and Function

    PubMed Central

    Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Krone, Franziska; Hoffmann, Andre; Holfeld, Elisabeth; Vorwerk, Peter; Kramm, Christof; Gruhn, Bernd; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernaiz-Driever, Pablo; Mandal, Rakesh; Suttorp, Meinolf; Hummel, Thomas; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Smolka, Michael N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using multidisciplinary treatment modalities the majority of children with cancer can be cured but we are increasingly faced with therapy-related toxicities. We studied brain morphology and neurocognitive functions in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute, low and standard risk lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which was successfully treated with chemotherapy. We expected that intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy administered in childhood will affect grey matter structures, including hippocampus and olfactory bulbs, areas where postnatal neurogenesis is ongoing. Methods We examined 27 ALL-survivors and 27 age-matched healthy controls, ages 15–22 years. ALL-survivors developed disease prior to their 11th birthday without central nervous system involvement, were treated with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy and received no radiation. Volumes of grey, white matter and olfactory bulbs were measured on T1 and T2 magnetic resonance images manually, using FIRST (FMRIB’s integrated Registration and Segmentation Tool) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Memory, executive functions, attention, intelligence and olfaction were assessed. Results Mean volumes of left hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and nucleus accumbens were smaller in the ALL group. VBM analysis revealed significantly smaller volumes of the left calcarine gyrus, both lingual gyri and the left precuneus. DTI data analysis provided no evidence for white matter pathology. Lower scores in hippocampus-dependent memory were measured in ALL-subjects, while lower figural memory correlated with smaller hippocampal volumes. Interpretation Findings demonstrate that childhood ALL, treated with chemotherapy, is associated with smaller grey matter volumes of neocortical and subcortical grey matter and lower hippocampal memory performance in adolescence and adulthood. PMID:24265700

  10. The cognitive control network: Integrated cortical regions with dissociable functions.

    PubMed

    Cole, Michael W; Schneider, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Consensus across hundreds of published studies indicates that the same cortical regions are involved in many forms of cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that these coactive regions form a functionally connected cognitive control network (CCN). Network status was identified by convergent methods, including: high inter-regional correlations during rest and task performance, consistently higher correlations within the CCN than the rest of cortex, co-activation in a visual search task, and mutual sensitivity to decision difficulty. Regions within the CCN include anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area (ACC/pSMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior frontal junction (IFJ), anterior insular cortex (AIC), dorsal pre-motor cortex (dPMC), and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We used a novel visual line search task which included periods when the probe stimuli were occluded but subjects had to maintain and update working memory in preparation for the sudden appearance of a probe stimulus. The six CCN regions operated as a tightly coupled network during the 'non-occluded' portions of this task, with all regions responding to probe events. In contrast, the network was differentiated during occluded search. DLPFC, not ACC/pSMA, was involved in target memory maintenance when probes were absent, while both regions became active in preparation for difficult probes at the end of each occluded period. This approach illustrates one way in which a neuronal network can be identified, its high functional connectivity established, and its components dissociated in order to better understand the interactive and specialized internal mechanisms of that network. PMID:17553704

  11. The Effect of Solifenacin on Cognitive Function following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Our aim was to investigate the effect of solifenacin (an anticholinergic) on cognitive function after stroke. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 66 stroke cases who were prescribed solifenacin for more than 2 months. A control group was generated matching the patients both for sex and age. The interval changes in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB) score after solifenacin administration were compared to those of the control group. Results The baseline MMSE score of the control group was 15.9 ± 9.2 and that of the solifenacin group was 14.3 ± 7.8. After using solifenacin for an average of 76.9 days, there was a change in the MMSE score of 1.9 ± 5.2. During similar periods, there was a change in the MMSE score of 2.9 ± 3.7 in the control group (not using solifenacin). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the CDR-SB score between the two groups. Conclusion Solifenacin treatment did not affect the short-term cognitive performance in stroke patients. This information might be useful when prescribing anticholinergics to stroke patients. PMID:23687509

  12. Nodakenin Enhances Cognitive Function and Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qingtao; Jeon, Se Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Hyung Eun; Park, Se Jin; Lee, Younghwan; Lee, Younghwa; Ko, Sang Yoon; Kim, Boseong; Choi, Jae Sue; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2015-07-01

    In our previous study, we demonstrated that nodakenin, a coumarin compound isolated from Angelica decursiva, ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by scopolamine. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nodakenin on the cognitive function in the normal naïve mice in a passive avoidance task, and the results showed that nodakenin significantly increased the latency time in normal naïve mice. In addition, sub-chronic administration of nodakenin increased the number of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. The percentage of BrdU and NeuN (neuronal cell marker)-immunopositive cells was also significantly increased by the nodakenin administration. Western blotting results showed that the expression levels of phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?) were significantly increased in hippocampal tissue by sub-chronic nodakenin administration. These findings suggest that the sub-chronic administration of nodakenin enhances adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the DG region via Akt-GSK-3? signaling and this increase may be associated with nodakenin's positive effect on cognitive processing. PMID:25998887

  13. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients. PMID:25563671

  14. Multiple Objective Fitness Functions for Cognitive Radio Adaptation

    E-print Network

    Newman, Timothy Ray

    2008-04-30

    This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...

  15. Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed. PMID:21722062

  16. Longitudinal links between childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning: developmental cascades.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric

    2013-11-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning were examined in a sample of 695 children assessed in Grade 3 (academic only) and Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8. Results revealed several complex patterns of associations in which poorer functioning in one domain influenced poorer outcomes in other areas. For example, a symptom driven pathway was consistently found with internalizing problems predicting future peer victimization. Support for an academic incompetence model was also found-- lower GPA in Grade 5, 6, and 7 was associated with more externalizing issues in the following year, and poor writing performance in Grade 3 predicted lower grades in Grade 5, which in turn predicted more externalizing problems in Grade 6. Results highlight the need to examine bidirectional influences and multifarious transactions that exist between peer victimization, mental health, and academic functioning over time. PMID:23907699

  17. Use of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) for Children with High Functioning Autism or Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning

  18. Executive Function and Gait in Older Adults With Cognitive Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol C. Persad; Joshua L. Jones; James A. Ashton-Miller; Neil B. Alexander; Bruno Giordani

    2008-01-01

    Background. Cognitive impairment has been shown to predict falls risk in older adults. The ability to step accurately is necessary to safely traverse challenging terrain conditions such as uneven or slippery surfaces. However, it is unclear how well persons with cognitive impairment can step accurately to avoid such hazards and what specific aspects of cognition predict stepping ability in different

  19. The Predictive Utility of Early Childhood Disruptive Behaviors for School-Age Social Functioning.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Lauretta M; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2015-08-01

    Research suggests that school-age children with disruptive behavior (DB) problems frequently demonstrate impaired social skills and experience rejection from peers, which plays a crucial role in the pathway to more serious antisocial behavior. A critical question is which DB problems in early childhood are prognostic of impaired social functioning in school-age children. This study examines the hypothesis that aggression in early childhood will be the more consistent predictor of compromised social functioning than inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or oppositional behavior. Participants included an ethnically diverse sample of 725 high-risk children from 3 geographically distinct areas followed from ages 2 to 8.5. Four latent growth models of DB from child ages 2 to 5, and potential interactions between dimensions, were used to predict latent parent and teacher ratings of school-age social dysfunction. Analyses were conducted in a multi-group format to examine potential differences between intervention and control group participants. Results showed that age 2 aggression was the DB problem most consistently associated with both parent- and teacher-rated social dysfunction for both groups. Early starting aggressive behavior may be particularly important for the early identification of children at risk for school-age social difficulties. PMID:25526865

  20. Distinct Functions of Egr Gene Family Members in Cognitive Processes

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Roseline; Cheval, Hélène; Mailhes, Caroline; Garel, Sonia; Charnay, Patrick; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The different gene members of the Egr family of transcriptional regulators have often been considered to have related functions in brain, based on their co-expression in many cell-types and structures, the relatively high homology of the translated proteins and their ability to bind to the same consensus DNA binding sequence. Recent research, however, suggest this might not be the case. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the functional roles of the different Egr family members in learning and memory. We briefly outline evidence from mutant mice that Egr1 is required specifically for the consolidation of long-term memory, while Egr3 is primarily essential for short-term memory. We also review our own recent findings from newly generated forebrain-specific conditional Egr2 mutant mice, which revealed that Egr2, as opposed to Egr1 and Egr3, is dispensable for several forms of learning and memory and on the contrary can act as an inhibitory constraint for certain cognitive functions. The studies reviewed here highlight the fact that Egr family members may have different, and in certain circumstances antagonistic functions in the adult brain. PMID:18982106

  1. Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren M. Turner-Brown; Timothy D. Perry; Gabriel S. Dichter; James W. Bodfish; David L. Penn

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve\\u000a social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously\\u000a validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with HFA adults (SCIT-A). We then\\u000a conducted a pilot study to compare SCIT-A

  2. Neurophysiological Basis of Sleep's Function on Memory and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2013-01-01

    A wealth of recent studies support a function of sleep on memory and cognitive processing. At a physiological level, sleep supports memory in a number of ways including neural replay and enhanced plasticity in the context of reduced ongoing input. This paper presents behavioral evidence for sleep's role in selective remembering and forgetting of declarative memories, in generalization of these memories, and in motor skill consolidation. Recent physiological data reviewed suggests how these behavioral changes might be supported by sleep. Importantly, in reviewing these findings, an integrated view of how distinct sleep stages uniquely contribute to memory processing emerges. This model will be useful in developing future behavioral and physiological studies to test predictions that emerge. PMID:24600607

  3. Adolescent social isolation influences cognitive function in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Feng; Han, Xiao; Shao, Shuang; Wang, Weiwen

    2013-04-15

    Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment. Evidence from animal studies suggests that isolated rearing can exert negative effects on behavioral and brain development. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of adolescent social isolation on latent inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the forebrain of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into adolescent isolation (isolated housing, 38-51 days of age) and social groups. Latent inhibition was tested at adulthood. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adolescent social isolation impaired latent inhibition and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the medial prefrontal cortex of young adult rats. These data suggest that adolescent social isolation has a profound effect on cognitive function and neurotrophin levels in adult rats and may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:25206396

  4. The Integration of Cognition and Emotion during Infancy and Early Childhood: Regulatory Processes Associated with the Development of Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…

  5. Plasticity for recovery, plasticity for development: cognitive outcome in twins discordant for mid-childhood ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Ross; Dennis, Maureen

    2004-06-01

    Cognitive and language profiles in a set of likely monozygotic 13-year-old twins raised together and discordant for an extensive left hemisphere stroke are described 6 years post-stroke. Recovery differed across four skill profiles, created based on a model of plasticity. Full recovery of lost skills and full or partial development of new skills typically involved either semantic memory or right hemisphere lateralized functions such as visual perception skills. Limited development of new skills and full or partial recovery of lost skills took place in either active verbal memory or oral language skills that are left hemisphere lateralized. Language skills concerned with real-time lexical retrieval, or the use and understanding of morphology and grammar, phonological processing skills, and auditory working memory were least likely to recover and continue to develop. PMID:15590490

  6. Direct and Mediated Effects of Cognitive Function with Multidimensional Outcome Measures in Schizophrenia: The Role of Functional Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Jennifer S.; Moore, Raeanne C.; Davine, Taylor; Cardenas, Veronica; Bowie, Christopher R.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Mausbach, Brent T.

    2013-01-01

    Although cognitive ability is a known predictor of real-world functioning in schizophrenia, there has been an expanded interest in understanding the mechanisms by which it explains real-world functioning in this population. We examined the extent to which functional capacity (i.e., skills necessary to live independently) mediated the relationship between cognitive ability and both observer and self-reported real-world functioning in 138 outpatients with schizophrenia. Functional capacity significantly mediated the relations between cognitive ability and observer rated real world functioning, but not self-reported real world functioning, with small to medium effect sizes observed for all outcomes. The role of cognitive ability in observer vs. self-reported real-world functioning may be explained by different mechanisms. PMID:23984631

  7. The Role of Family Environment and Multiple Forms of Childhood Abuse in the Shaping of Sexual Function and Satisfaction in Women.

    PubMed

    Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-08-01

    Studies suggest that sexual self-schemas are an important cognitive mechanism in the sexual development of women with a history of childhood abuse. This literature is only beginning to explore how multiple forms of abuse (i.e., physical, emotional, and sexual), rather than sexual abuse alone, can influence the development of adult sexuality. Moreover, the extant literature has not carefully considered important factors other than the severity of the abuse that may relate to sexual self-schemas, including family environment and quality of romantic relationships. Findings from this cross-sectional study conducted on 417 heterosexual women (ages 18-25 years) suggest that family dynamics and different types of childhood abuse contribute both directly and indirectly to adult sexual function and satisfaction and that part of those effects were mediated by other factors such as sexual self-schemas and romantic relationship quality. These results, including an exploration of the direct and indirect effects, were discussed in terms of the pervasive effects of abuse on people's lives and the potential treatment targets that can be addressed when trying to reduce sexual problems in women with a history of abuse. PMID:25339521

  8. Coping with incest: the relationship between recollections of childhood coping and adult functioning in female survivors of incest.

    PubMed

    Brand, Bethany L; Alexander, Pamela C

    2003-06-01

    One hundred and one adult female survivors' recollections of coping with childhood incest, abuse characteristics, and current functioning in adulthood were studied. Analyses controlling for characteristics of the trauma indicated that recollections of using avoidance coping and seeking social support were related to poor adult functioning whereas recollections of using distancing coping were related to better functioning. As a set of variables, abuse characteristics also predicted a significant amount of variance in adult functioning. Implications for future research were discussed. PMID:12816342

  9. Comparison of Cognitive Functions Between Male and Female Medical Students: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Guragain, Sanjeev

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are gender differences in cognitive abilities. The major enigma is whether males or females perform better in various cognitive tasks. The reports were found to be contradictory. Studies have shown that oestrogen and testosterone accentuate cognitive functions. But the effects of progesterone on cognitive functions are still contradictory. Objective: To assess and compare the cognitive functions between male and female students. Methods: This study was conducted on healthy male (n=21) and female (n=21) volunteers who were aged between 19-37 years. Cognitive functions which were assessed in males (one time) and females (two times: during preovulatory and postovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle) were attentional: visual reaction time (VRT) and Go/No-Go VRT; perceptual: fast counting (FC), executive: Erisken Flanker Test (EFT) and Stroop Test (ST), and working memory. Data were compared by using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: Cognitive functions in female preovulatory phase were comparable to male cognitive functions. In addition, the female postovulatory phase cognitive functions were also similar to those of males in all the tasks, except those seen in VRT and ST. Male performed better than females in VRT (M: 331.66 ms, IQR: 286.99-375.33 vs. M: 367.8 ms, IQR: 340.66-435.66; p=0.05). However, in ST, females showed higher accuracies in reading colour interferences than males (M: 100%, IQR: 95.12-100 vs. M: 95.24%, IQR: 86.36-100; p=0.04). In addition, males showed trend of a poorer performance than females in Go/No-Go VRT, ST colour reading normal time and interference time and in working-memory time. Conclusion: Male cognitive functions were comparable to female preovulatory phase cognitive functions. However, females, during postovulatory phase of their cycle, may have advantages in executive tasks (Stroop test) and disadvantages in attentional tasks (VRT), as compared to males. PMID:25120970

  10. Brain and cognitive evolution: Forms of modularity and functions of mind

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Geary; Kelly J. Huffman

    2002-01-01

    Genetic and neurobiological research is reviewed as related to controversy over the extent to which neocortical organization and associated cognitive functions are genetically constrained or emerge through patterns of developmental experience. An evolutionary framework that accommodates genetic constraint and experiential modification of brain organization and cognitive function is then proposed. The authors argue that 4 forms of modularity and 3

  11. Cognitive Functioning and Social Competence as Predictors of Maladjustment in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Jeremy P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    To explain sexually abused children's various degrees of maladjustment, assessed behavior problems, social competence, and cognitive functioning in 53 black girls (5 to 16 years old). Internalizing dysfunction was positively related to three cognition-related variables: intellectual functioning, academic achievement, and age. Anxiety over the…

  12. Metabolic syndrome over 10 years and cognitive functioning in late mid life: The Whitehall II study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Metabolic syndrome over 10 years and cognitive functioning in late mid life: The Whitehall II study Running Title: Metabolic syndrome and cognitive function Tasnime N. Akbaraly * a,b , PhD; Mika : 10.2337/dc09-1218 #12;2 ABSTRACT Objective: Evidence that the metabolic syndrome is a risk factor

  13. Church Attendance Mediates the Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Mexican Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos A. Reyes-Ortiz; Ivonne M. Berges; Mukaila A. Raji; Harold G. Koenig; Yong-Fang Kuo; Kyriakos S. Markides

    2008-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to examine how the effect of depressive symptoms on cognitive function is modified by church attendance. Methods. We used a sample of 2759 older Mexican Americans. Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) at baseline, 2, 5, 7, and 11 years of follow-up. Church attendance was dichotomized as frequent

  14. How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

  15. Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, Kelly B.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

  16. Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures. PMID:24795687

  17. Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.

    PubMed

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  18. Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

  19. Cognitive Function Predicts 24-Month Weight Loss Success Following Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Alosco, Michael; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinically significant cognitive impairment, particularly in attention/executive and memory function, is found in many patients undergoing bariatric surgery. These difficulties have previously been linked to decreased weight loss 12 months post-surgery, but more protracted examination of this relationship has not yet been conducted. Objectives The current study prospectively examined the independent contribution of cognitive function to weight loss 24 months following bariatric surgery. Given the rapid rate of cognitive improvement observed following surgery, postoperative cognitive function (i.e., cognition 12 weeks following surgery, controlling for baseline cognition) was expected to predict lower body mass index (BMI) and higher percent total weight loss (%WL) at 24-month follow-up. Setting Data were collected by three sites of the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery (LABS) parent project. Methods Fifty-seven individuals enrolled in the LABS project undergoing bariatric surgery completed cognitive evaluation at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 months. %WL and BMI were calculated for 24-month postoperative follow-up. Results Better cognitive function 12 weeks following surgery predicted higher %WL and lower BMI at 24 months, and specific domains of attention/executive and memory function were robustly related to decreased BMI and greater %WL at 24 months. Conclusions Results demonstrate that cognitive performance shortly after bariatric surgery predicts greater long-term %WL and lower BMI 24 months following bariatric surgery. Further work is needed to clarify the degree to which this relationship is mediated by adherence to postoperative guidelines. PMID:23816443

  20. The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitive function depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitive function in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240

  1. Male gonadal function in survivors of childhood Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Ben Arush, M W; Solt, I; Lightman, A; Linn, S; Kuten, A

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of therapy on long-term gonadal function of young people cured of childhood lymphomas and to assess whether a prepubertal state during the treatment protects the gonads from chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy late effects. Clinical evaluation, semen analysis, and endocrine status were studied in 20 survivors of childhood lymphomas. Five patients received Inverted Y radiotherapy, 2320 cGy (1550-4000); all 20 received chemotherapy as follows: MOPP/ABVD protocol, 9 patients; COMP protocol, 5 patients; MOPP protocol, 3 patients; other protocols, 3 patients. Semen analysis results were as follows: normal values, 4/20 patients; oligospermia, 8/20 patients; azoospermia, 8/20 patients; FSH above normal level, 10/20 patients; 4/5 who received Inverted Y irradiation were azoospermic and 1 was severely oligospermic. Treatment damage to the testis involves tubular germinal elements. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy combinations that included nitrogen mustard or cyclophosphamide were associated with high rates of oligospermia and azoospermia. MOPP/ABVD combination did not have a significant better outcome of sperm counts compared to MOPP alone. Age at chemotherapy did not correlate with the sperm count; hence a prepubertal state did not protect the gonad from the late effects of treatment. PMID:10779990

  2. Cumulative childhood risk and adult functioning in abused and neglected children grown up.

    PubMed

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the relationship between childhood exposure to cumulative risk and three indicators of psychosocial adjustment in adulthood (educational attainment, mental health, and criminal behavior) and tests three different models (linear, quadratic, and interaction). Data were collected over several time points from individuals who were part of a prospective cohort design study that matched children with documented cases of abuse and/or neglect with children without such histories and followed them into adulthood. Hierarchical multiple regressions compared linear and quadratic models and then examined potential moderating effects of child abuse/neglect and gender. Exposure to a greater number of childhood risk factors was significantly related to fewer years of education, more anxiety and depression symptomatology, and more criminal arrests in adulthood. The relationship between cumulative risk and years of education demonstrated a curvilinear pattern, whereas the relationship between cumulative risk and both mental health and criminal arrests was linear. Child abuse/neglect did not moderate these relationships, although there were direct effects for both child abuse/neglect and gender on criminal arrests, with more arrests for abused/neglected individuals than controls and more for males than females. Gender interacted with cumulative risk to impact educational attainment and criminal behavior, suggesting that interventions may be more effective if tailored differently for males and females. Interventions may need to be multifaceted and designed to address these different domains of functioning. PMID:25196178

  3. A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766

  4. Substance use and mental health characteristics associated with cognitive functioning among adults who use methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Diane M; Brecht, Mary-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This study describes cognitive functioning and its relation to psychiatric and substance use severity among adults with long duration methamphetamine use. Study participants (N = 405) completed a battery of tests from the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics that examined cognitive accuracy, processing speed, and efficiency. Multivariate analyses indicate that lower accuracy but faster speed on learning, spatial memory and delayed memory were correlated with more days of past-month methamphetamine use. Lifetime months of methamphetamine use was not related to cognitive functioning. Poorer cognitive efficiency was related to other problems, including crack/cocaine use, symptoms of depression, and poorer emotional state. PMID:23480244

  5. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    PubMed Central

    Germine, Laura; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in childhood (particularly physical abuse) were the most broadly and robustly associated with adult variations in theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Adult variations in face discrimination and face memory, on the other hand, were not significantly associated with exposure to childhood adversity. Our findings indicate domains of social cognition that may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of adverse childhood environments, and suggest mechanisms whereby environmental factors might influence the development of social abilities. PMID:26068107

  6. A quantitative review of cognitive functioning in homeless adults.

    PubMed

    Depp, Colin A; Vella, Lea; Orff, Henry J; Twamley, Elizabeth W

    2015-02-01

    Homeless people experience elevated rates of risk factors for cognitive impairment. We reviewed available peer-reviewed studies reporting data from objective measures of cognition in samples identified as homeless. Pooled sample-weighted estimates of global cognitive screening measures, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ), and premorbid IQ were calculated, in addition to pooled sample characteristics, to understand the representativeness of available studies. A total of 24 unique studies were identified, with 2969 subjects. The pooled estimate for the frequency of cognitive impairment was 25%, and the mean full-scale IQ score was 85, 1 standard deviation below the mean of the normal population. Cognitive impairment was found to be common among homeless adults and may be a transdiagnostic problem that impedes rehabilitative efforts in this population. Comparatively little data are available about cognition in homeless women and unsheltered persons. PMID:25594792

  7. Mental Health Risk Factors Associated with Childhood Language Brokering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Vanessa R.; Flores, Valerie; Morrison, Robert G.; David, E. J. R.; Silton, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Serving as a language translator (broker) for family members during childhood can affect cognitive and emotional functions in both beneficial and detrimental ways. Child language brokers translate in a variety of contexts including conversations between their parents and financial, legal and medical professionals. Pressure to be involved in these…

  8. The childhood executive functioning inventory (CHEXI): a new rating instrument for parents and teachers.

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Nyberg, Lilianne

    2008-01-01

    Poor executive functioning has been shown to be of central importance in disruptive behavior disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and a large number of laboratory measures of executive functioning have been developed. There are, however, few available questionnaires tapping executive functioning and those that exist also include items focused directly on the symptom criteria for ADHD, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions regarding executive functioning per se. In the present study, a new rating instrument, the Childhood Executive Functioning Inventory (CHEXI) was therefore introduced. This instrument was shown to have good test-retest reliability. Using factor analysis, two factors tapping working memory and inhibition emerged using parent ratings and these two factors were replicated using teacher ratings. Modest, yet mostly significant, relations to laboratory measures of working memory and inhibition were found. Ratings on the CHEXI were also found to be significantly related to ADHD symptoms as well as early academic achievement. Interestingly, ratings on the CHEXI and laboratory measures of working memory and inhibition were shown to explain independent variance in ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, which point to the importance of using a multi-assessment strategy when studying executive functioning. PMID:18568903

  9. The impact of sleep quality on cognitive functioning in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stavitsky, Karina; Neargarder, Sandy; Bogdanova, Yelena; McNamara, Patrick; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In healthy individuals and those with insomnia, poor sleep quality is associated with decrements in performance on tests of cognition, especially executive function. Sleep disturbances and cognitive deficits are both prevalent in Parkinson's disease (PD). Sleep problems occur in over 75% of patients, with sleep fragmentation and decreased sleep efficiency being the most common sleep complaints, but their relation to cognition is unknown. We examined the association between sleep quality and cognition in PD. In 35 non-demented individuals with PD and 18 normal control adults (NC), sleep was measured using 24-hr wrist actigraphy over 7 days. Cognitive domains tested included attention and executive function, memory and psychomotor function. In both groups, poor sleep was associated with worse performance on tests of attention/executive function but not memory or psychomotor function. In the PD group, attention/executive function was predicted by sleep efficiency, whereas memory and psychomotor function were not predicted by sleep quality. Psychomotor and memory function were predicted by motor symptom severity. This study is the first to demonstrate that sleep quality in PD is significantly correlated with cognition and that it differentially impacts attention and executive function, thereby furthering our understanding of the link between sleep and cognition. PMID:22152279

  10. Involuntary Cognitions in Everyday Life: Exploration of Type, Quality, Content, and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  11. Involuntary cognitions in everyday life: exploration of type, quality, content, and function.

    PubMed

    Krans, Julie; de Bree, June; Moulds, Michelle L

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research into spontaneous or intrusive cognitions has typically focused on cognitions in one predefined domain, such as obsessional thoughts in OCD, intrusive memories in posttraumatic stress disorder and depression, or involuntary autobiographical memories and daydreaming in everyday life. Such studies have resulted in a wealth of knowledge about these specific cognitions. However, by focusing on a predefined type of cognition, other subtypes of cognition that may co-occur can be missed. In this exploratory study, we aimed to assess involuntary cognitions in everyday life without a pre-determined focus on any specific subtype of cognition. Seventy unselected undergraduate student participants were administered a questionnaire that assessed the presence of any involuntary cognitions in the past month, their quality, type, content, and potential function. In addition, participants provided self-descriptions and completed measures of psychopathology. Content analyses showed that involuntary cognitions were common, predominantly visual in nature, emotional, often about social relationships, and often related to a hypothetical function of emotional processing. About two-thirds of the cognitions that participants reported were memories. Non-memories included daydreams, imaginary worst case scenarios, imaginary future events, hypothetical reconstructions, and ruminations. Memories and non-memories were strikingly similar in their subjective experience of content and emotionality. Negative (but not positive) self-descriptions were associated with negative involuntary cognitions and psychopathology, suggesting a link between involuntary cognitions and the self. Overall, the findings suggest that people experience a wide variety of subtypes of involuntary cognitions in everyday life. Moreover, the specific subtype of involuntary cognition appears to be less important than its valence or content, at least to the subjective experience of the individual. PMID:25698979

  12. Social cognition and functional outcome in schizophrenia: The moderating role of cardiac vagal tone.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Holly K; Sun, Jane C; Green, Michael F; Kee, Kimmy S; Lee, Junghee; Sergi, Mark; Sholty, Gretchen L; Mathis, Kristopher I; Jetton, Christopher; Williams, Terrance J; Kern, Robert; Horan, William; Fiske, Alan; Subotnik, Kenneth L; Ventura, Joseph; Hellemann, Gerhard; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Yee, Cindy M

    2014-11-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia face significant challenges in daily functioning, and although social cognition predicts how well patients respond to these challenges, associated physiological mechanisms remain unspecified. The present study draws from polyvagal theory and tested the hypothesis that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), an established indicator of the capacity to self-regulate and adapt to environmental demands, combines with social cognition to predict functional outcome. Using data from 41 schizophrenia patients and 36 healthy comparison subjects, we replicated group differences in RSA and social cognition and also demonstrated that RSA and social cognition interact to predict how effectively patients manage work and independent living activities. Specifically, RSA did not enhance functional outcomes when social cognition was already strong, but higher levels of RSA enabled effective role functioning when social-cognitive performance was impaired. Jointly, RSA and social cognition accounted for 40% of the variance in outcome success, compared with 21% when evaluating social cognition alone. As polyvagal theory suggests, physiological flexibility and self-regulatory capacity may compensate for poorer social-cognitive skills among schizophrenia patients. PMID:25314266

  13. Cognition and functional outcome among deaf and hearing people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horton, Heather K; Silverstein, Steven M

    2007-08-01

    Recent research has highlighted the relationships between impairments in cognitive functioning and poorer functional outcomes among people with schizophrenia (PWS). The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend this work by testing the relationships between cognition and functional outcome among deaf adults with schizophrenia. Empirical findings from deafness-oriented research reveals enhanced abilities in certain aspects of visual-spatial processing compared to hearing people. Sixty-five PWS (34 deaf, 31 hearing) were assessed using measures of verbal and visual memory, attention, and visual processing. The first hypothesis tested whether cognition predicted functional outcome in a similar fashion for both deaf and hearing subjects (n=63). For all subjects, higher levels of cognitive ability were associated with higher levels of functional outcome, and the strongest predictors of outcome were verbal memory and visual-spatial memory (recall condition) (VSM recall). However, the deaf and hearing groups did show different patterns of relationships between cognition and functioning when all cognitive variables were examined. The second hypothesis was that deaf subjects would display superior performance in early visual processing, visual-spatial memory (copy condition) (VSM copy), and VSM recall. Deaf subjects displayed superior performance on each task; however, no significant differences emerged. Deaf subjects outperformed hearing subjects in an unexpected domain (word memory/recognition). This study extends prior work in the area of cognition and schizophrenia and indicates that deaf and hearing subjects may benefit from interventions that address different domains of cognition. PMID:17560083

  14. Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Papo, David

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818

  15. Cognitive functioning and psychiatric symptomatology in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Hilsabeck, Robin C; Hassanein, Tarek I; Carlson, Meghan D; Ziegler, Elizabeth A; Perry, William

    2003-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public-health-care problem, with over 170 million infected worldwide. Patients with chronic HCV infection often complain of various cognitive problems as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, and fatigue. Relatively little is known, however, about the specific cognitive deficits that are common among HCV patients, and the influence of psychiatric symptomatology on cognitive functioning. In the current study of 21 chronically infected HCV patients, we assessed subjective cognitive dysfunction, depression, anxiety, and fatigue and compared these symptom areas to cognitive tests assessing visuoconstruction, learning, memory, visual attention, psychomotor speed, and mental flexibility. Results revealed that cognitive impairment ranged from 9% of patients on a visuoconstruction task to 38% of patients on a measure of complex attention, visual scanning and tracking, and psychomotor speed, and greater HCV disease severity as indicated by liver fibrosis was associated with greater cognitive dysfunction. Objective cognitive impairment was not related to subjective cognitive complaints or psychiatric symptomatology. These findings suggest that a significant portion of patients with chronic HCV experience cognitive difficulties that may interfere with activities of daily living and quality of life. Future research using cognitive measures with HCV-infected patients may assist researchers in identifying if there is a direct effect of HCV infection on the brain and which patients may be more likely to progress to cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:14632243

  16. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Zhifeng; Yin, Junjie; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2015-01-01

    The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS) damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), (ii) language, (iii) processing speed, (iv) verbal learning and memory, (v) visual learning and memory, (vi) attention span, (vii) response fluency, and (viii) motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory), and motor performance) of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. PMID:26019407

  17. Association between myasthenia gravis and cognitive function: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhifeng; Yin, Junjie; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2015-01-01

    The course of myasthenia gravis (MG) is complicated by increased reports of cognitive defects in both human and animal models, which suggests potential central nervous system (CNS) damage. We conducted a systematic review of the relationships between MG and cognitive function. This systematic review followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Major databases were searched to examine the neuropsychological studies of adults with MG. Weighted effect sizes were pooled by cognitive domain. Eight studies representing 300 subjects were included. Eight cognitive domain categories were identified: (i) Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), (ii) language, (iii) processing speed, (iv) verbal learning and memory, (v) visual learning and memory, (vi) attention span, (vii) response fluency, and (viii) motor performance. Nine (cognitive domain categories, MMSE, language, processing speed, verbal learning and memory (except for delayed recall memory), and motor performance) of 16 cognitive tasks revealed significant moderate effect sizes. Verbal logical-delayed memory, finger tapping with the preferred hand, and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test showed a greater magnitude relationship to cognitive function than did other specific cognitive domains. Verbal learning and memory seems to be the most significant affected according to cognitive domain categories. For MG, the ability of attention, response fluency, visual learning, and memory seems to be reserved. The MG patients seem to perform significantly worse than the non-MG controls in a range of cognitive domains. Our findings should be interpreted with caution because of the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of included studies. PMID:26019407

  18. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  19. The illiterate brain. Learning to read and write during childhood influences the functional organization of the adult brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Castro-Caldas; K. M. Petersson; A. Reis; S. Stone-Elander; M. Ingvar

    1998-01-01

    Summary Learning a specific skill during childhood may partly determine the functional organization of the adult brain. This hypothesis led us to study oral language processing in illiterate subjects who, for social reasons, had never entered school and had no knowledge of reading or writing. In a brain activation study using PET and statistical parametric mapping, we compared word and

  20. Design of cognitive engine for cognitive radio based on the rough sets and radial basis function neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yanchao; Jiang, Hong; Liu, Congbin; Lan, Zhongli

    2013-03-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) is an intelligent wireless communication system which can dynamically adjust the parameters to improve system performance depending on the environmental change and quality of service. The core technology for CR is the design of cognitive engine, which introduces reasoning and learning methods in the field of artificial intelligence, to achieve the perception, adaptation and learning capability. Considering the dynamical wireless environment and demands, this paper proposes a design of cognitive engine based on the rough sets (RS) and radial basis function neural network (RBF_NN). The method uses experienced knowledge and environment information processed by RS module to train the RBF_NN, and then the learning model is used to reconfigure communication parameters to allocate resources rationally and improve system performance. After training learning model, the performance is evaluated according to two benchmark functions. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the proposed cognitive engine can effectively achieve the goal of learning and reconfiguration in cognitive radio.

  1. Childhood craniopharyngioma: survival, local control, endocrine and neurologic function following radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Danoff, B.F.; Cowchock, F.S.; Kramer, S.

    1983-02-01

    Between 1961 and 1978, 19 patients with a diagnosis of childhood or teenage craniopharyngioma received supervoltage radiotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either partial surgical resection (10 patients), total gross resection (3 patients), or aspiration and biopsy (6 patients). Fourteen patients were treated primarily and five were treated for recurrence. The five-year survival was 73% with a 10-year survival of 64%. Sixteen percent developed a recurrence following radiotherapy. Long term effects were assesed in terms of neurologic, intellectual, psychological and endocrine function. Seventy-nine percent had none or minimal neurologic disability. The mean full scale IQ for the group was 90. There were no additional endocrine deficiencies that could be directly attributed to radiation. Behavioral disorders occurred in 50%. These results are at least comparable, if not superior, to those of surgery.

  2. From Early Childhood to Adolescence: Linking Family Functioning and School Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Vanessa K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study uses observational assessment of 66 two-parent families working and playing together when their eldest child is in kindergarten and again in 9th grade to identify distinct patterns of family functioning derived from structural family systems theory. Whereas concurrent assessment of the relationship between family type and adolescents' school behavior were not significant, significant prospective longitudinal relationships between family type assessed in early childhood and 9th grade school behavior were indicated. Kindergarteners whose families were primarily characterized by a strong mother-child alliance were less academically competent, more aggressive/inattentive, and more anxious/depressed/withdrawn at school nine years later when they were in 9th grade, than their peers in more cohesive or father-child allied families. PMID:21258653

  3. Preserving cognitive function for patients with overactive bladder: evidence for a differential effect with darifenacin

    PubMed Central

    Kay, G G; Ebinger, U

    2008-01-01

    Background: Antimuscarinic agents used in the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) differ in their potential to impair cognitive function. It is hypothesised that low brain concentrations and relatively low selectivity for the M1 muscarinic receptor may reduce the potential for adverse central nervous system (CNS) effects with darifenacin, compared with other antimuscarinics, particularly oxybutynin. Methods: Cognitive function studies evaluating darifenacin, oxybutynin, tolterodine, solifenacin and/or trospium were identified from publications databases (Medline, Biosis and Embase) and congress abstracts. Preclinical studies and randomised controlled trials in adults were reviewed. Results: Five randomised, double-blind, multiple-dose studies of cognitive function were identified. Oxybutynin was consistently associated with cognitive deficit (four studies), whereas darifenacin did not impair cognition (three studies). These findings were supported by data from sleep/attention and EEG studies. Tolterodine data were limited to one small study with each formulation. For solifenacin and trospium, there were no human studies evaluating memory, the cognitive function most vulnerable to CNS anticholinergics. Conclusions: There is compelling evidence of cognitive impairment with oxybutynin, whereas darifenacin stands out by demonstrating no impairment of memory or other cognitive functions in three randomised, controlled trials. This may be attributed to the differences in physicochemical properties, efflux mechanisms and relative M1 muscarinic receptor sparing. The risk of CNS impairment is of particular concern for vulnerable populations such as the elderly (a substantial proportion of the OAB population), and CNS-compromised neurogenic bladder patients such as those with multiple sclerosis or Parkinson’s disease. PMID:18699842

  4. Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

    Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

  5. Decreased Functional Connectivity by Aging Is Associated with Cognitive Decline

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichi Onoda; Masaki Ishihara; Shuhei Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent

  6. Sex-Role Orientation and Cognitive Functioning in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ronald L.; Bornhoeft, Doris M.

    1983-01-01

    Data concerning 24 male and 24 female subjects (ages three and five years) on measures of sex-role orientation and cognitive ability indicated significant sex differences on the Toy Preference Test. While the relationship between Toy Preference Test scores and cognitive measures was not found to be significant, expected age differences were…

  7. The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

  8. Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirstin Daalman; Martine van Zandvoort; Florian Bootsman; Marco Boks; René Kahn; Iris Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute

  9. TITLE: Diffusion-tensor imaging in vascular cognitive impairment and mild cognitive impairment: relationship with executive functioning

    E-print Network

    Laidlaw, David

    -disciplinary consensus diagnosis including neurological exam, MRI, and neuropsychological testing. Normal controls of cognitive tests. DTI parameters [trace (Tr) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] were measured in regions) with performance on tests of executive function and psychomotor processing speed. Conclusions: Patients with VCI

  10. Exploring Predictors of Well-Being after Exposure to Inter-Caregiver Aggression in Childhood: Examining the Role of Emotional Support and Emotional and Cognitive Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cara Fuchs

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing interest in the factors that predict positive functioning, life satisfaction, and well-being following exposure to adverse, stressful, and\\/or traumatic experiences, exposure to inter-caregiver aggression in childhood has received relatively less attention. While the negative effects that exposure to inter-caregiver aggression can have on child development are well documented, the capacity for growth and resilience following these experiences

  11. Can We Understand Why Cognitive Function Predicts Mortality? Results from the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, John; Bayer, Anthony; Dunstan, Frank; Yarnell, John; Elwood, Peter; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2009-01-01

    The association between cognitive function and mortality is of increasing interest. We followed 1870 men aged 55-69 years at cognitive assessment for 16 years to establish associations with all case and cause specific mortality. Cognitive assessment included AH4, 4 choice reaction time (used as estimates of mid-life cognition) and the National…

  12. Social support, physical functioning, and cognitive functioning among older African American adults.

    PubMed

    Ayotte, Brian J; Allaire, Jason C; Whitfield, Keith E

    2013-03-01

    ABSTRACT Social support and functional ability are related to a number of outcomes in later life among African Americans, including cognitive performance. This study examined how providing and receiving social support was related to fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities among aging African American adults after accounting for functional limitations, age, education, sex, income, and self-reported health. Data from 602 African American adults (M?=?69.08, SD?=?9.74; 25% male) were analyzed using latent variable modeling. Fluid ability was a second-order factor indicated by measures that assessed verbal memory, working memory, perceptual speed, and inductive reasoning. Crystallized ability was a first-order factor indicated by three measures that assessed vocabulary (Shipley Verbal Meaning Test and parts A and B of the ETS Vocabulary Test). Results indicated that the receipt of social support was negatively related to both fluid and crystallized abilities, while the provision of support was positively related to fluid and crystallized ability. Follow-up tests found that the receipt of support was more strongly related to fluid ability than crystallized ability. There was no significant difference regarding the relationship of provision of support with fluid ability compared to crystallized ability. Results discuss the importance of considering the social context of older adults when examining cognitive ability. PMID:23458286

  13. Effects of Endurance Training Combined With Cognitive Remediation on Everyday Functioning, Symptoms, and Cognition in Multiepisode Schizophrenia Patients.

    PubMed

    Malchow, Berend; Keller, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Dörfler, Sebastian; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Honer, William G; Schulze, Thomas G; Niklas, Andree; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Falkai, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve symptoms in multiepisode schizophrenia, including cognitive impairments, but results are inconsistent. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of an enriched environment paradigm consisting of bicycle ergometer training and add-on computer-assisted cognitive remediation (CACR) training. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate such an enriched environment paradigm in multiepisode schizophrenia. Twenty-two multiepisode schizophrenia patients and 22 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent 3 months of endurance training (30min, 3 times/wk); CACR training (30min, 2 times/wk) was added from week 6. Twenty-one additionally recruited schizophrenia patients played table soccer (known as "foosball" in the United States) over the same period and also received the same CACR training. At baseline and after 6 weeks and 3 months, we measured the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), Social Adjustment Scale-II (SAS-II), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and cognitive domains (Verbal Learning Memory Test [VLMT], Wisconsin Card Sorting Test [WCST], and Trail Making Test). After 3 months, we observed a significant improvement in GAF and in SAS-II social/leisure activities and household functioning adaptation in the endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation, but not in the table soccer augmented with cognitive remediation group. The severity of negative symptoms and performance in the VLMT and WCST improved significantly in the schizophrenia endurance training augmented with cognitive remediation group from week 6 to the end of the 3-month training period. Future studies should investigate longer intervention periods to show whether endurance training induces stable improvements in everyday functioning. PMID:25782770

  14. Cognition and Adaptive Skills in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1: A Study of 55 Individuals with Congenital and Childhood Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekstrom, Anne-Berit; Hakenas-Plate, Louise; Tulinius, Mar; Wentz, Elisabet

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To investigate cognitive abilities and adaptive skills in children and adolescents with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and correlate the findings to the cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG) repeat expansion size. Method: Cognitive level was assessed in 55 children and adolescents with DM1 (31 males, 24 females; mean age 12y 1mo, SD 5y 1mo; range…

  15. Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…

  16. A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean A. Spence; Mike D. Hunter; Tom F. D. Farrow; Russell D. Green; David H. Leung; Catherine J. Hughes; Venkatasubramanian Ganesan

    2004-01-01

    An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the

  17. Cognitive fitness.

    PubMed

    Gilkey, Roderick; Kilts, Clint

    2007-11-01

    Recent neuroscientific research shows that the health of your brain isn't, as experts once thought, just the product of childhood experiences and genetics; it reflects your adult choices and experiences as well. Professors Gilkey and Kilts of Emory University's medical and business schools explain how you can strengthen your brain's anatomy, neural networks, and cognitive abilities, and prevent functions such as memory from deteriorating as you age. The brain's alertness is the result of what the authors call cognitive fitness -a state of optimized ability to reason, remember, learn, plan, and adapt. Certain attitudes, lifestyle choices, and exercises enhance cognitive fitness. Mental workouts are the key. Brain-imaging studies indicate that acquiring expertise in areas as diverse as playing a cello, juggling, speaking a foreign language, and driving a taxicab expands your neural systems and makes them more communicative. In other words, you can alter the physical makeup of your brain by learning new skills. The more cognitively fit you are, the better equipped you are to make decisions, solve problems, and deal with stress and change. Cognitive fitness will help you be more open to new ideas and alternative perspectives. It will give you the capacity to change your behavior and realize your goals. You can delay senescence for years and even enjoy a second career. Drawing from the rapidly expanding body of neuroscience research as well as from well-established research in psychology and other mental health fields, the authors have identified four steps you can take to become cognitively fit: understand how experience makes the brain grow, work hard at play, search for patterns, and seek novelty and innovation. Together these steps capture some of the key opportunities for maintaining an engaged, creative brain. PMID:18159786

  18. Artificial gravity as a multi-system countermeasure: effects on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Kimberly A; Slack, Kelley J; Sipes, Walter; Bowie, Kendra

    2007-07-01

    The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is used on the International Space Station to evaluate cognitive functioning after physical insult or trauma. The current study uses WinSCAT to assess cognitive functioning in a space flight analog (bed rest) environment where intermittent artificial gravity (AG) is being tested as a countermeasure. Fifteen male subjects (8 treatment, 7 control), who participated in 21 days of 6 degree head-down tilt bed rest, were assessed during the acclimatization phase, bed rest phase, and recovery phase. Individual differences were found within both the treatment and control groups. The treatment group accounted for more off-nominal WinSCAT scores than the control group. The length of time spent in bed rest was not associated with a change in cognitive function. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are other possible explanations for the current findings. PMID:18372688

  19. Impaired sociability and cognitive function in Nrcam-null mice.

    PubMed

    Moy, Sheryl S; Nonneman, Randal J; Young, Nancy B; Demyanenko, Galina P; Maness, Patricia F

    2009-12-14

    NRCAM (Neuronal Cell Adhesion Molecule) has an important role in axonal guidance and the organization of neural circuitry during brain development. Association analyses in human populations have identified NRCAM as a candidate gene for autism susceptibility. In the present study, we evaluated Nrcam-null mice for sociability, social novelty preference, and reversal learning as a model for the social deficits, repetitive behavior, and cognitive rigidity characteristic of autism. Prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses was also measured, to reflect sensorimotor-gating deficits in autism spectrum disorders. Assays for anxiety-like behavior in an elevated plus maze and open field, motor coordination, and olfactory ability in a buried food test were conducted to provide control measures for the interpretation of results. Overall, the loss of Nrcam led to behavioral alterations in sociability, acquisition of a spatial task, and reversal learning, dependent on sex. In comparison to male wild type mice, male Nrcam-null mutants had significantly decreased sociability in a three-chambered choice task. Low sociability in the male null mutants was not associated with changes in anxiety-like behavior, activity, or motor coordination. Male, but not female, Nrcam-null mice had small decreases in prepulse inhibition. Nrcam deficiency in female mice led to impaired acquisition of spatial learning in the Morris water maze task. Reversal learning deficits were observed in both male and female Nrcam-null mice. These results provide evidence that NRCAM mediates domains of function relevant to symptoms observed in autism. PMID:19540269

  20. Is Executive Cognitive Function Associated with Youth Gambling?

    PubMed Central

    Brodsky, Nancy L.; Brown, Caitlin A.; McKenna, Kathleen A.; Giannetta, Joan M.; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam

    2011-01-01

    Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitive function (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10–12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10–15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342

  1. Assessment of cognitive functioning in men who batter.

    PubMed

    Teichner, G; Golden, C J; Van Hasselt, V B; Peterson, A

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation examined neuropsychological functioning in 50 male batterers court-ordered into treatment and 23 nonpatient controls. Subjects were administered a neuropsychological screening battery consisting of the Screening Test for the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery, the Stroop Color and Word Test, two memory subtests from the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery-III (Figural Memory and Delayed Figural Memory), and two subtests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Battery (Trails A & B). Subjects were categorized as having neuropsychological dysfunction if their scores exceeded the statistical cut offs on two or more subtests. Results indicated that 24 (48%) of the male batterers exhibited cognitive dysfunction, as compared to only 1 (4.3%) of the nonpatient controls. Inspection of individual neuropsychological measures indicated poorer performance across all subtests for impaired male batterers as compared to both nonimpaired batterers and normal controls. In contrast, no significant differences on any of these measures emerged between nonimpaired male batterers and normal controls. Implications for the appropriate screening and treatment of male batterers are discussed. PMID:11912679

  2. PERFORMANCE OF A COMPUTER-BASED ASSESSMENT OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION MEASURES IN TWO COHORTS OF SENIORS

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Katula, Jeffrey A.; Rushing, Julia; Kramer, Arthur F.; Jennings, Janine M.; Sink, Kaycee M.; Nadkarni, Neelesh K.; Reid, Kieran F.; Castro, Cynthia M.; Church, Timothy; Kerwin, Diana R.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Marottoli, Richard A.; Rushing, Scott; Marsiske, Michael; Rapp, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Computer-administered assessment of cognitive function is being increasingly incorporated in clinical trials, however its performance in these settings has not been systematically evaluated. Design The Seniors Health and Activity Research Program (SHARP) pilot trial (N=73) developed a computer-based tool for assessing memory performance and executive functioning. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Seniors (LIFE) investigators incorporated this battery in a full scale multicenter clinical trial (N=1635). We describe relationships that test scores have with those from interviewer-administered cognitive function tests and risk factors for cognitive deficits and describe performance measures (completeness, intra-class correlations). Results Computer-based assessments of cognitive function had consistent relationships across the pilot and full scale trial cohorts with interviewer-administered assessments of cognitive function, age, and a measure of physical function. In the LIFE cohort, their external validity was further demonstrated by associations with other risk factors for cognitive dysfunction: education, hypertension, diabetes, and physical function. Acceptable levels of data completeness (>83%) were achieved on all computer-based measures, however rates of missing data were higher among older participants (odds ratio=1.06 for each additional year; p<0.001) and those who reported no current computer use (odds ratio=2.71; p<0.001). Intra-class correlations among clinics were at least as low (ICC?0.013) as for interviewer measures (ICC?0.023), reflecting good standardization. All cognitive measures loaded onto the first principal component (global cognitive function), which accounted for 40% of the overall variance. Conclusion Our results support the use of computer-based tools for assessing cognitive function in multicenter clinical trials of older individuals. PMID:23589390

  3. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  4. Cerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    of the cerebellum have a significant role in cognition and learning (1­7). Still, relatively little is known aboutCerebellar Volume and Cognitive Functioning in Children Who Experienced Early Deprivation Patrick M: The cerebellum is a brain region recognized primarily in the coordination of movement and related accessory motor

  5. Relationships among Age, Exercise, Health, and Cognitive Function in a British Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Charles F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Evaluates the association of age, self-rated health, and walking activity with 4 measures of cognitive functioning in 6,979 randomly selected people ranging in age from 18 to 94. Assessments included a face-to-face interview regarding health and health beliefs as well as cognitive testing. Analyses indicated that faster reaction time speed was…

  6. Cognitive control for language switching in bilinguals: A quantitative meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gigi Luk; David W. Green; Jubin Abutalebi; Cheryl Grady

    2011-01-01

    In a quantitative meta-analysis, using the activation likelihood estimation method, we examined the neural regions involved in bilingual cognitive control, particularly when engaging in switching between languages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilingual cognitive control model originally proposed as a qualitative analysis of functional neuroimaging studies. After reviewing 128 peer-reviewed articles, 10 neuroimaging studies met our

  7. Does Preinjury Alcohol Use or Blood Alcohol Level Influence Cognitive Functioning After Traumatic Brain Injury?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aaron P. Turner; Daniel R. Kivlahan; Carl T. Rimmele; Charles H. Bombardier

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations among preinjury alcohol use patterns and admission blood alcohol level (BAL) and postinjury cognitive functioning among individuals with recent TBI. Design: Cohort survey with chart review and follow-up cognitive assessment. Setting: Acute inpatient rehabilitation program in a Level I trauma center. Participants: 124 consecutive initial admissions meeting inclusion criteria. Measures: Admission BAL, preinjury alcohol consumption,

  8. Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training for Young Adults with High-Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandalaft, Michelle R.; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C.; Allen, Tandra T.; Chapman, Sandra B.

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition,…

  9. Cognitive functioning of adults with Noonan syndrome: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wingbermühle, E; Roelofs, R L; van der Burgt, I; Souren, P M; Verhoeven, W M A; Kessels, R P C; Egger, J I M

    2012-10-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is a genetic disorder characterised by short stature, facial dysmorphia, congenital heart defects and mildly lowered intellectual abilities. Research has mainly focused on genetic and somatic aspects, while intellectual and cognitive functioning has been documented scarcely. Also, to date studies have been primarily performed in children. This is the first study in which functioning within the major cognitive domains is systematically evaluated in a group of adults with NS and compared with a control group. Extensive neuropsychological assessment, including the domains intelligence, speed of information processing, memory (working memory, immediate recall and delayed recall), executive function and visuoconstruction, was performed in a sample of 42 patients with NS and 42 healthy controls, matched on age, sex and education level. In addition, subjective cognitive complaints were assessed with self-report questionnaires. On the domain speed of information processing patients performed worse than controls (P?cognitive domains showed between-group differences. On the questionnaires, patients reported substantially more complaints about their own cognitive abilities than controls (P?functioning in other cognitive domains characterises the cognitive profile of adult patients, in contrast to previous findings in children with NS, who seem to have more generalised cognitive deficits. PMID:22783933

  10. Cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning in fragile X and non-fragile X retarded men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elisabeth Dykens; James Leckman; Rhea Paul; Michael Watson

    1988-01-01

    The cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive functioning of 12 men with fragile X syndrome (aged 23 to 62 years) was systematically assessed and compared to two matched groups of retarded men without fragile X syndrome residing at the same institution. The fragile X group was largely indistinguishable from the camparison groups on the cognitive, behavioral, and adaptive measures. Fragile X patients

  11. The Effects of Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure on Hispanic Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia Sanchez Lizardi; Mary Kay O'Rourke; Richard J. Morris

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the effects of Organophosphate (OP) pesticides exposure on the cognitive and behavioral functioning of Hispanic children living in an agricultural community. Methods Forty-eight children were administered a battery of cognitive measures, and their parents and teachers completed behavior rating scales. Children provided a urine sample for analysis of OP pesticides metabolites. Results All children had a

  12. Cognitive Functioning in Children With Sickle Cell Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey Schatz; Robert L. Finke; Julie M. Kellett; Joel H. Kramer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To establish whether sickle cell disease (SCD) affects cognitive functioning in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of cognition in SCD to determine the size of any statis- tical difference between children with SCD and controls. Methodological factors were evaluated according to the size and frequency of group differences. Results: There

  13. Performance of psychopaths on cognitive tasks related to frontal lobe function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hare

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of their performance on several cognitive tasks, including the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), the Necker Cube, and a sequential matching memory task (SMMT), E. E. Gorenstein concluded that psychopaths have specific deficits in cognitive processes associated with frontal-lobe functioning. However, it is argued that his diagnostic procedures were inadequate and his results confounded by group differences

  14. Structural and functional brain development and its relation to cognitive development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. J. Casey; Jay N. Giedd; Kathleen M. Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based

  15. CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING CAUSALITY FROM EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood Is Associated with Cognitive Test Profiles in the Geriatric Population but Not with Mild Cognitive Impairment or Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ivanchak, N.; Abner, E. L.; Carr, S. A.; Freeman, S. J.; Seybert, A.; Ranseen, J.; Jicha, G. A.

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of ADHD in the aging population and its relationship to late-life cognitive decline has not been studied previously. To address this gap in our understanding, the Wender-Utah ADHD Rating scale (WURS) was administered to 310 geriatric subjects with cognitive status ranging from normal cognition to mild cognitive impairment to overt dementia. The frequency of WURS-positive ADHD in this sample was 4.4%. WURS scores were not related to cognitive diagnoses, but did show nonlinear associations with tasks requiring sustained attention. The frequency of ADHD appears stable across generations and does not appear to be associated with MCI or dementia diagnoses. The association of attentional processing deficits and WURS scores in geriatric subjects could suggest that such traits remain stable throughout life. Caution should be considered when interpreting cognitive test profiles in the aging population that exhibit signs and symptoms of ADHD, as attentional deficits may not necessarily imply the existence of an underlying neurodegenerative disease state. PMID:21822493

  17. Impact of Early Childhood Care and Education on Children's Preschool Cognitive Development: Canadian Results from a Large Quasi-experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan; Matthieu Verstraete

    2006-01-01

    On September 1st 1997, a new early childhood care and education policy was initiated by the provincial government of Québec, the second most populous province in Canada. Providers of childcare services licensed by the Department of the Family began offering daycare spaces at the reduced parental contribution of $5 per day per child for children aged 4. In successive years,

  18. A Modularized Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention for Water Phobia in an Adolescent with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Brad J.; Schiffman, Jason; Lam, Cecilia W.; Becker, Kimberly D.; Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effectiveness of a modularized treatment of a specific fear of water for a 14-year-old youth with childhood onset schizophrenia using a multiple-baseline across behaviors design. Treatment included gradual exposure to a hierarchy of feared water-related situations with rewards for successful approximations ranging…

  19. Modular Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders. Guides to Individualized Evidence-Based Treatment Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorpita, Bruce F.

    2006-01-01

    This clinically wise and pragmatic book presents a systematic approach for treating any form of childhood anxiety using proven exposure-based techniques. What makes this rigorously tested modular treatment unique is that it is explicitly designed with flexibility and individualization in mind. Developed in a real-world, highly diverse community…

  20. Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion. PMID:23544083

  1. Anatomical Correlates of Cognitive Functions in Early Parkinson's Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Biundo, Roberta; Calabrese, Massimiliano; Weis, Luca; Facchini, Silvia; Ricchieri, Gianluigi; Gallo, Paolo; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive deficits may occur early in Parkinson's disease (PD) but the extent of cortical involvement associated with cognitive dysfunction needs additional investigations. The aim of our study is to identify the anatomical pattern of cortical thickness alterations in patients with early stage PD and its relationship with cognitive disability. Methods We recruited 29 PD patients and 21 healthy controls. All PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological examination and 14 were diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI). Surface-based cortical thickness analysis was applied to investigate the topographical distribution of cortical and subcortical alterations in early PD compared with controls and to assess the relationship between cognition and regional cortical changes in PD-MCI. Results Overall PD patients showed focal cortical (occipital-parietal areas, orbito-frontal and olfactory areas) and subcortical thinning when compared with controls. PD-MCI showed a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits and related significant regional thickening in the right parietal-frontal as well as in the left temporal-occipital areas. Conclusion Our results confirm the presence of changes in grey matter thickness at relatively early PD stage and support previous studies showing thinning and atrophy in the neocortex and subcortical regions. Relative cortical thickening in PD-MCI may instead express compensatory neuroplasticity. Brain reserve mechanisms might first modulate cognitive decline during the initial stages of PD. PMID:23717572

  2. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder after childhood sexual or physical abuse: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matulis, Simone; Resick, Patricia A; Rosner, Rita; Steil, Regina

    2014-06-01

    Although childhood sexual abuse and childhood physical abuse (CSA and CPA) have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence supporting psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents who have experienced CSA or CPA. To provide a treatment tailored to the specific needs of adolescents suffering from abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we modified Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) by adding new treatment modules and changing the therapy setting. To evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of Developmentally Adapted CPT (D-CPT), we treated 12 adolescents suffering from PTSD secondary to CSA or CPA. Patients were assessed prior to treatment (t0), post-treatment (t1), and 6 weeks after treatment (t2). Assessments included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the UCLA PTSD Index (UCLA), the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES), and the Borderline Symptom List (BSL-23). MANOVAs revealed that posttraumatic stress measurements and associated symptom measurements significantly differed across time points. When comparing t0 with t2, Cohen's d was large with respect to the CAPS scores (d = 1.45, p < .001) and the UCLA scores (d = 1.91, p < .001). Cohen's d had a medium magnitude with respect to the CDI scores (d = .78, p < .001), the A-DES scores (d = 0.64, p < .05), and the BSL-23 scores (d = 0.74, p < .01). D-CPT has the potential to reduce PTSD symptoms and comorbid psychopathology in adolescents with histories of CSA or CPA. PMID:24101403

  3. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Air Pollutants (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) on Development of Brain White Matter, Cognition, and Behavior in Later Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Bradley S.; Rauh, Virginia A.; Bansal, Ravi; Hao, Xuejun; Toth, Zachary; Nati, Giancarlo; Walsh, Kirwan; Miller, Rachel; Arias, Franchesca; Semanek, David; Perera, Frederica

    2015-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous and neurotoxic environmental contaminants. Prenatal PAH exposure is associated with subsequent cognitive and behavioral disturbances in childhood. Objective To identify the effects of prenatal PAH exposure on brain structure, and to assess the cognitive and behavioral correlates of those abnormalities, in school-age children. Design Cross-sectional imaging study in a representative, community-based cohort followed prospectively from the fetal period to 7–9 years of age. Setting Urban community residences and an academic imaging center Participants A community-based sample of 40 minority urban youth born to Latina (Dominican) or African-America women and followed prospectively from gestation to early school age. Main Outcome Measures Morphological measures that index local volumes of the surface of the brain and of the white matter surface after cortical gray matter was removed Results We detected a powerful dose-response relationship between increased prenatal PAH exposure (measured in the 3rd trimester, but thought to index exposure for all of gestation) and reductions of the white matter surface in later childhood that were confined almost exclusively to the left hemisphere of the brain, and that involved nearly its entire surface. Reduced left hemisphere white matter was associated with slower information processing speed during intelligence testing and more severe externalizing behavioral problems, including ADHD symptoms and conduct disorder problems. The magnitude of left hemisphere white matter disturbances mediated the significant association of PAH exposure with slower processing speed. Measures of postnatal PAH exposure correlated with white matter surface measures in dorsal prefrontal regions bilaterally while controlling for prenatal PAH exposure. Conclusions and Relevance Our findings suggest that prenatal exposure to PAH air pollutants contributes to slower processing speed, ADHD symptoms, and externalizing problems in urban youth by disrupting development of left hemisphere white matter, whereas postnatal PAH exposure contributes to additional disturbances in development of white matter in dorsal prefrontal regions. PMID:25807066

  4. Verbal Deception From Late Childhood to Middle Adolescence and Its Relation to Executive Functioning Skills

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined 8- to 16-year-olds’ tendency to lie, the sophistication of their lies, and related cognitive factors. Participants were left alone and asked not to look at the answers to a test, but the majority peeked. The researcher then asked a series of questions to examine whether the participants would lie about their cheating and, if they did lie, evaluate the sophistication of their lies. Additionally, participants completed measures of working memory, inhibitory control, and planning skills. Results revealed that the sophistication of 8- to 16-year-olds’ lies, but not their decision to lie, was significantly related to executive functioning skills. PMID:21553958

  5. Impairment of cognitive functioning during Sunitinib or Sorafenib treatment in cancer patients: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Impairment of cognitive functioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitive functioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitive function of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitive functioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373

  6. Virtual reality social cognition training for young adults with high-functioning autism.

    PubMed

    Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B

    2013-01-01

    Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145

  7. Brain Injury in Very Preterm Children and Neurosensory and Cognitive Disabilities during Childhood: The EPIPAGE Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Marret, Stéphane; Marchand-Martin, Laetitia; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Hascoët, Jean-Michel; Arnaud, Catherine; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Truffert, Patrick; Larroque, Béatrice; Kaminski, Monique; Ancel, Pierre-Yves; for the EPIPAGE Study Group

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of motor and cognitive/learning deficiencies and overall disabilities in very preterm (VPT) children and their relations to gestational age (GA) and brain lesions. Design, Setting, and Participants EPIPAGE is a longitudinal population-based cohort study of children born before 33 weeks’ gestation (WG) in 9 French regions in 1997–1998. Cumulating data from all follow up stages, neurodevelopmental outcomes were available for 90% of the 2480 VPT survivors at 8 years. Main outcomes were association of motor and cognitive deficiencies and existence of at least one deficiency (motor, cognitive, behavioral/psychiatric, epileptic, visual, and/or hearing deficiencies) in three GA groups (24–26, 27–28, and 29–32WG) and four groups of brain lesions (none, minor, moderate, or severe). Results VPT had high rates of motor (14%) and cognitive (31%) deficiencies. Only 6% had an isolated motor deficiency, 23% an isolated cognitive one and 8% both types. This rate reached 20% among extremely preterm. Psychiatric disorders and epilepsy were observed in 6% and 2% of children, respectively. The risks of at least one severe or moderate deficiency were 11 and 29%. These risks increased as GA decreased; only 36% of children born extremely preterm had no reported deficiency. Among children with major white matter injury (WMI), deficiency rates reached 71% at 24–26WG, 88% at 27–28WG, and 80% at 29–32WG; more than 40% had associated motor and cognitive deficiencies. By contrast, isolated cognitive deficiency was the most frequent problem among children without major lesions. Conclusions In VPT, the lower the GA, the higher the neurodisability rate. Cerebral palsy is common. Impaired cognitive development is more frequent. Its occurrence in case without WMI or early motor disorders makes long-term follow up necessary. The strong association between motor impairments, when they exist, and later cognitive dysfunction supports the hypothesis of a common origin of these difficulties. PMID:23658763

  8. Temperamental exuberance and executive function predict propensity for risk-taking in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Lahat, Ayelet; Degnan, Kathryn A.; White, Lauren K.; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Henderson, Heather A.; Lejuez, C. W.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study takes a multilevel approach to examine developmental trajectories in risk-taking propensity. We examined the moderating role of specific executive function components, attention shifting and inhibitory control, on the link between exuberant temperament in infancy and propensity for risk-taking in childhood. Risk-taking was assessed using a task previously associated with sensation seeking and antisocial behaviors. Two hundred and ninety one infants were brought into the lab and behaviors reflecting exuberance were observed at 4, 9, 24, and 36 months of age. Executive function was assessed at 48 months of age. Risk-taking propensity was measured when children were 60 months of age. The results indicate that exuberance and attention shifting, but not inhibitory control, significantly interact to predict propensity for risk-taking. Exuberance was positively associated with risk-taking propensity among children relatively low in attention shifting but unrelated for children high in attention shifting. These findings illustrate the multifinality of developmental outcomes for temperamentally exuberant young children and point to the distinct regulatory influences of different executive functions for children of differing temperaments. Attention shifting likely affords a child the ability to consider both positive and negative consequences, and moderates the relation between early exuberance and risk-taking propensity. PMID:22781858

  9. Poor Cognitive Function and Risk of Severe Hypoglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Punthakee, Zubin; Miller, Michael E.; Launer, Lenore J.; Williamson, Jeff D.; Lazar, Ronald M.; Cukierman-Yaffee, Tali; Seaquist, Elizabeth R.; Ismail-Beigi, Faramarz; Sullivan, Mark D.; Lovato, Laura C.; Bergenstal, Richard M.; Gerstein, Hertzel C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Self-management of type 2 diabetes including avoidance of hypoglycemia is complex, but the impact of cognition on safe self-management is not well understood. This study aimed to assess the effect of baseline cognitive function and cognitive decline on subsequent risk of severe hypoglycemia and to assess the effect of different glycemic strategies on these relationships. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort analysis of data from the ACCORD trial included 2,956 adults aged ?55 years with type 2 diabetes and additional cardiovascular risk factors. Cognitive tests (Digit Symbol Substitution Test [DSST], Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Stroop Test, and Mini Mental Status Examination) were conducted at baseline and 20 months. Study outcomes were incident confirmed severe hypoglycemia requiring medical assistance (HMA) and hypoglycemia requiring any assistance (HAA). RESULTS After a median 3.25-year follow-up, a 5-point-poorer baseline score on the DSST was predictive of a first episode of HMA (hazard ratio 1.13 [95% CI 1.08–1.18]). Analyses of the other cognitive tests and of HAA were consistent with the DSST results. Cognitive decline over 20 months increased the risk of subsequent hypoglycemia to a greater extent in those with lower baseline cognitive function (Pinteraction = 0.037). Randomization to an intensive versus standard glycemic strategy had no impact on the relationship between cognitive function and the risk of severe hypoglycemia. CONCLUSIONS Poor cognitive function increases the risk of severe hypoglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Clinicians should consider cognitive function in assessing and guiding their patients regarding safe diabetes self-management regardless of their glycemic targets. PMID:22374637

  10. Bowel function in adults who have sustained spinal cord injury in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kannisto, M; Rintala, R

    1995-12-01

    The impact of neuropathic bowel dysfunction on bowel habits was studied in 35 adult spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, who had sustained their injury in childhood. The methods used in the study were clinical interview and examination, quantitative scoring of bowel function (BCS) and estimation of bowel transit time with radiopaque markers. Thirty five healthy subjects without previous anorectal disease or surgery and with similar age and sex distribution as the patients served as controls. Most of the SCI patients were content with their bowel function. Nine (26%) out of 35 of the SCI patients were completely satisfied with their bowel function and reported no limitations in social life. The majority (69%) of the patients considered their bowel function to be significantly altered, causing only mild problems in their social life. Two of the patients had major problems of bowel function, which caused severe limitations in their social life. The majority (77%) of the patients declared that they had a low frequency of bowel evacuation. Eight out of 35 patients were using laxatives to promote bowel emptying. The quantitative BCS of the patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (P < 0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between the scores of patients with complete high (C2-T6) and complete low (T7-S4-5) lesions. The difference between the BCS and overall satisfaction with bowel function can be explained by good habilitation to SCI and by the prolonged transit times which enables relatively rare and controlled bowel movements and firm consistency of stools. PMID:8927408

  11. The dynamic relationship between cognitive function and walking speed: the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Gale, Catharine R; Allerhand, Michael; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies show that older people with better cognition tend to walk faster. Whether this association reflects an influence of fluid cognition upon walking speed, vice versa, a bidirectional relationship or the effect of common causes is unclear. We used linear mixed effects models to examine the dynamic relationship between usual walking speed and fluid cognition, as measured by executive function, verbal memory and processing speed, in 2,654 men and women aged 60 to over 90 years from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. There was a bidirectional relationship between walking speed and fluid cognition. After adjusting for age and sex, better performance on executive function, memory and processing speed was associated with less yearly decline in walking speed over the 6-year follow-up period; faster walking speed was associated with less yearly decline in each cognitive domain; and less yearly decline in each cognitive domain was associated with less yearly decline in walking speed. Effect sizes were small. After further adjustment for other covariates, effect sizes were attenuated but most remained statistically significant. We found some evidence that walking speed and the fluid cognitive domains of executive function and processing speed may change in parallel with increasing age. Investigation of the association between walking speed and cognition earlier in life is needed to better understand the origins of this relation and inform the development and timing of interventions. PMID:24997019

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD (PB) CHANGES AND IN HIPPOCAMPAL FUNCTION.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Childhood lead (Pb) exposure has long been associated with reduced IQ, impaired cognitive function, and more recently increases in violence and aggression. We have studied the disruptive effects of developmental Pb exposure on an electrophysiological model of memory, hippocampal...

  13. Dietary intake and cognitive function in a group of elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosa M Ortega; Ana M Requejo; Pedro Andr; Ana M Ldpez-Sobaler; M Elena Quintas; M Rosario Redondo; Beatriz Navia; Trinidad Rivas

    Associations between dietary intake and cog- nitive performance were examined in 260 elderly people aged 65-90 y who were free of significant cognitive impairment. Di- etary intake was monitored with a weighed-food record for 7 consecutive days. The subjects' cognitive capacity was tested by using Folstein et al's Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Pfeiffer's Mental Status Questionnaire (PMSQ). Subjects with

  14. Sex-Role Orientation and Cognitive Functioning in Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald L. Mullis; Doris M. Bornhoeft

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether sex-role orientation of preschool-aged children influences measures of cognitive ability, data were gathered for 48 subjects (24 males and 24 females) aged 3 and 5 years chosen nonrandomly from university child care centers on measures of sex-role orientation (Toy Preference Test) and cognitive ability (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Preschool Embedded Figures Test, Piagetian classification task).

  15. Pulmonary Function Impairment May be An Early Risk Factor for Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Aspelund, Thor; Jonsdottir, Maria K.; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Harris, Tamara B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Launer, Lenore J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Low pulmonary function (PF) is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia. There are few studies of change in PF in mid-life and late-life cognitive status. Design and Participants We studied this is 3,665 subjects from AGES-Reykjavik Study who had at least one measure of forced expiratory volume/ 1 sec (FEV1) and were cognitively tested on average 23 years later. A subset of 1,281 subjects had two or three measures of FEV1 acquired over a 7.8 year period. PF was estimated as FEV1/Height2. Rate of PF decline was estimated as the slope of decline over time. Cognitive status was measured with continuous scores of memory, speed of processing, and executive function, and as the dichotomous outcomes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Results Lower PF measured in mid-life predicted lower memory, speed of processing, executive function, and higher likelihood of MCI and dementia 23 years later. Decrease of PF over a 7.8-year period in mid-life was not associated with lower cognitive function or dementia. Conclusion Reduced PF measured in mid-life may be an early marker of later cognitive problems. Additional studies characterizing early and late PF changes are needed. PMID:23311554

  16. Combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention induces reorganization of intrinsic functional brain architecture in older adults.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Wang, Baoxi; Niu, Yanan; Huang, Xin; Li, Rui; Li, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults. The intervention was composed of a 6-week program of combined activities including cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling. The results showed improved cognitive performance and reorganized regional homogeneity of spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and the posterior lobe of the cerebellum, in the participants who attended the intervention. Intriguingly, the intervention-induced changes in the coherence of local spontaneous activity correlated with the improvements in individual cognitive performance. Taken together with our previous findings of enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe regions following a combined intervention program in older adults, we conclude that the functional plasticity of the aging brain is a rather complex process, and an effective cognitive-psychological-physical intervention is helpful for maintaining a healthy brain and comprehensive cognition during old age. PMID:25810927

  17. Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677C.T and Methionine Synthase 2756A.G Mutations: No Impact on Survival, Cognitive Functioning, or Cognitive Decline in Nonagenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise Bathum; Jacob von Bornemann Hjelmborg; Lene Christiansen; Matt McGue; Bernard Jeune; Kaare Christensen

    Background. Several reports have shown an association between homocysteine, cognitive functioning, and survival among the oldest-old. Two common polymorphisms in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C.T) and methionine synthase (MTR 2756A.G) have an impact on plasma homocysteine level. Methods. We examined the effect of the MTHFR 677C.T and MTR 2756A.G genotypes on baseline cognitive functioning, cognitive decline over

  18. The relationship between hearing impairment and cognitive function: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wallhagen, Margaret I; Strawbridge, William J; Shema, Sarah J

    2008-04-01

    Maximizing patients' cognitive functioning and quality of life is a key concern for nurses. Some data suggest that hearing loss may be associated with cognitive decline. To further assess this association, a 5-year longitudinal study was conducted using a community sample of 2,002 men and women ages 50 to 94. A relatively strong relationship between baseline hearing impairment and subsequent poorer cognitive function was found in both existing and new cases of cognitive impairment. These findings raise questions for nursing practice and support the need for increased dialogue and collaborative studies across specialties to both refine the understanding of the factors involved and develop clinical strategies to minimize sensory and cognitive loss. PMID:20078020

  19. Cognitive Performance in a Subclinical Obsessive-Compulsive Sample 1: Cognitive Functions

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Thomas; Dittrich, Winand H.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals who are not clinically diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but still display obsessive-compulsive (OC) tendencies may show cognitive impairments. The present study investigated whether there are subgroups within a healthy group showing characteristic cognitive and emotional performance levels similar to those found in OCD patients and whether they differ from OCD subgroups regarding performance levels. Of interest are those cases showing subclinical symptomatology. The results revealed no impairments in the subclinical OC participants on the neuropsychological tasks, while evidence suggests that there exist high and low scores on two standardised clinical instruments (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Cognitive Assessment Instrument of Obsessions and Compulsions) in a healthy sample. OC symptoms may diminish the quality of life and prolong sustainable return to work. It may be that occupational rehabilitation programmes are more effective in rectifying subclinical OC tendencies compared to the often complex symptoms of diagnosed OCD patients. The relationship between cognitive style and subclinical OC symptoms is discussed in terms of how materials and information might be processed. Although subclinical OC tendencies would not seem to constitute a diagnosis of OCD, the quality of treatment programmes such as cognitive behavioural therapy can be improved based on the current investigation. PMID:24236282

  20. Parental Factors That Detract From the Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety: Recommendations for Practitioners

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry V. Walker III

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the recent empirical literature on the various parental factors that detract from the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment for children with anxiety. Interventions such as treating parental anxiety and increasing parental involvement in the therapeutic process may combat these factors. Newer strategies such as parent-training techniques and family cognitive-behavioral therapy offer some promise, though the combined outcomes of

  1. Association between binge eating disorder and changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Paul, Robert; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Gunstad, John

    2014-12-01

    Evidence suggests that both obesity and binge eating disorder (BED) may be associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The purpose of this study was to examine whether a lifetime history of BED would be associated with changes in several domains of cognitive functioning (attention, executive function, language, and memory) following bariatric surgery. Participants were 68 bariatric surgery patients who completed a computerized battery of cognitive tests within 30 days prior to undergoing surgery and again at a 12-Month postoperative follow-up. Results revealed that on the whole, participants displayed improvements from baseline to follow-up in attention, executive function, and memory, even after controlling for diagnostic history of depression; no changes were observed for language. However, individuals with and without a history of BED did not differ in changes in body mass index or in the degree of improvement in cognitive functioning from baseline to follow-up. Such results suggest that a history of BED does not influence changes in cognitive functioning following bariatric surgery. Future research will be needed to further clarify the role of BED in predicting cognitive function over time. PMID:25201638

  2. Social Cognition in Psychosis: Multidimensional Structure, Clinical Correlates, and Relationship With Functional Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Francesco; Horan, William P.; Kern, Robert S.; Green, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Social cognitive impairments are common, detectable across a wide range of tasks, and appear to play a key role in explaining poor outcome in schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. However, little is known about the underlying factor structure of social cognition in people with psychotic disorders due to a lack of exploratory factor analyses using a relatively comprehensive social cognitive assessment battery. In a sample of 85 outpatients with psychosis, we examined the factor structure and clinical/functional correlates of eight indexes derived from five social cognition tasks that span the domains of emotional processing, social perception, attributional style, and Theory of Mind. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors with relatively low inter-correlations that explained a total of 54% of the variance: (1) Hostile attributional style, (2) Lower-level social cue detection, and (3) Higher-level inferential and regulatory processes. None of the factors showed significant correlations with negative symptoms. Factor 1 significantly correlated with clinical symptoms (positive, depression-anxiety, agitation) but not functional outcome, whereas Factors 2 and 3 significantly correlated with functional outcome (functional capacity and real-world social and work functioning) but not clinical symptoms. Furthermore, Factor 2 accounted for unique incremental variance in functional capacity, above and beyond non-social neurocognition (measured with MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery) and negative symptoms. Results suggest that multiple separable dimensions of social cognition can be identified in psychosis, and these factors show distinct patterns of correlation with clinical features and functional outcome. PMID:21112743

  3. Odor Identification and Cognitive Function in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study

    PubMed Central

    Schubert, Carla R.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Fischer, Mary E.; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Ronald; Pankratz, Nathan; Zhong, Wenjun; Nondahl, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Olfactory impairment is associated with cognitive impairment in older adults but less is known about the association of olfactory impairment and cognitive function in middle-aged adults. The association between olfactory impairment and cognitive function tests of attention, processing speed and executive and psychomotor function was explored in 2837 participants (21–84 years; mean age 49 years) in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study. Among middle-aged participants (aged 35–64 years), those with impairment on an odor identification test took significantly longer to complete the Trail Making Test (TMT-A and TMT-B) and the Grooved Peg Board (GPB) test, than those without olfactory impairment in regression models adjusted for multiple factors. Similar results were found for the TMT-A and TMT-B, but not the GPB, in the whole cohort. Olfactory impairment was associated with poorer performance on cognitive function tests in a primarily middle-aged cohort. PMID:23789858

  4. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 

    E-print Network

    Shenkin, S D; Starr, John M; Pattie, Alison; Rush, M A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Deary, Ian J

    2001-01-01

    AIMS---To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class. METHODS---Retrospective cohort study based on birth records ...

  5. ZINC AND OTHER MINERAL NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND BEHAVIOR IN MILITARY PERSONNEL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review examines the possible role of zinc, magnesium, selenium, copper and phosphorus in sustaining cognitive function and behavior of military personnel operating under multiple metabolic, physical, psychological and environmental stressors. There are no studies relating zinc intake or status ...

  6. Cognitive Functions, Personality Traits, and Social Values in Heavy Marihuana Smokers and Nonsmoker Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weckowicz, Thaddeus E.; Janssen, Doug V.

    1973-01-01

    To determine the effect of chronic marihuana smoking on cognitive functions, personality traits, and social values, a group of heavy marihuana smokers was compared with a matched control group. (Author)

  7. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  8. Applying distributed cognition theory to the redesign of the 'Copy and Paste' function in order to promote appropriate learning outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Morgan; Gwyn Brickell; Barry Harper

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the application of distributed cognition theory to educational contexts by examining a common learning interaction, the ‘Copy and Paste’ function. After a discussion of distributed cognition and the role of mediating artefacts in real world cognitions, the ‘Copy and Paste’ function is redesigned to embed an effective interaction strategy, based on encoding strategies, into the interface. The

  9. Cognitive and motor function are associated following mild traumatic brain injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob J. Sosnoff; Steven P. Broglio; Michael S. Ferrara

    2008-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) causes deficits in motor and cognitive function. There is a dearth of research examining\\u000a the association between these deficits. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of mTBI on the association\\u000a between cognitive and motor function. Thirty-six individuals completed a neurocognitive test battery and postural control\\u000a assessment at baseline and were retested

  10. The cumulative effects of Transcendental Meditation on cognitive function — a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter H. Canter; Edzard Ernst

    2003-01-01

    Summary  It is claimed that regular practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM) improves cognitive function and increases intelligence.\\u000a This systematic review assesses the evidence from randomised controlled trials for cumulative effects of TM on cognitive function.\\u000a Searches were made of electronic databases and the collected papers and official websites of the TM organisation. Only randomised\\u000a controlled trials with objective outcome measures of

  11. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    PubMed

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups. PMID:19381995

  12. Altered executive function in obesity. Exploration of the role of affective states on cognitive abilities.

    PubMed

    Cserjési, Renáta; Luminet, Olivier; Poncelet, Anne-Sophie; Lénárd, László

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing evidence that obesity is not only a weight problem, but it is linked to adverse neurocognitive outcomes. Besides obesity, frontal lobe based cognitive deficits in depressed patients are confirmed, and interactions between depression and obesity are known. In our study we investigated the relationship between cognitive functioning, mood and female obesity. Our findings revealed reduced mental flexibility and sustained attention capacity in obesity together with the presence of depressive mood. The mediating role of depression is confirmed. Positive emotion was associated with cognitive functions independently from BMI. Positive affectivity in obesity treatment is discussed. PMID:19260167

  13. Longevity assurance Gene 1's (LASS1) relationship with cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela May

    2011-01-01

    LASS1 is a candidate longevity gene in humans. It was hypothesized that the distribution of LASS1 allelic combinations would differ between young controls and centenarians. Further, we hypothesized that LASS1 would influence centenarian functioning across multiple domains, including cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation. We examined these possible associations in the whole centenarian sample and after stratifying this

  14. Longevity assurance gene 1's (lass1) relationship with cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation in centenarians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela Emily May

    2011-01-01

    LASS1 is a candidate longevity gene in humans. It was hypothesized that the distribution of LASS1 allelic combinations would differ between young controls and centenarians. Further, we hypothesized that LASS1 would influence centenarian functioning across multiple domains, including cognitive and physical functioning, functional capacity, and inflammation. We examined these possible associations in the whole centenarian sample and after stratifying this

  15. Cognitive and Functional Impairment in Stroke Survivors with Basilar Artery Occlusive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Campanholo, Kenia Repiso; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Rimkus, Carolina Medeiros; Miotto, Eliane Correa

    2015-01-01

    Background. Despite growing literature on posterior vascular disease, specific information about the cognitive and functional profiles of patients with basilar artery occlusion disease (BAOD) is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the cognitive statuses of BAOD survivors versus healthy controls and (2) to correlate the functional capacity outcomes with the cognitive profiles of BAOD patients. Methods. Comprehensive cognitive and functional assessments were carried out in 28 patients with BAOD and 27 age- and education level-matched healthy controls. Results. Compared to matched controls, patients presented impairments in selective, sustained, and set-shifting attention, processing speed, visuospatial skills, mental flexibility, and monitoring rules. There were significant deficits in verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall) and visuospatial episodic memory (immediate and delayed recall and recognition). Functional capacity outcomes were significantly related to the cognitive test results. Seventy-five percent of patients had a Modified Rankin Scale score of 0 or 1. Conclusions. Our results indicate good functional outcomes in a selected group of BAOD survivors, despite the presence of subnormal performance on some cognitive tests, including tests of attention, executive function, and long-term memory. PMID:26146461

  16. Depression, Cognition, and Self-Appraisal of Functional Abilities in HIV: An Examination of Subjective Appraisal Versus Objective Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thames, April D.; Becker, Brian W.; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Hines, Lindsay J.; Foley, Jessica M.; Ramezani, Amir; Singer, Elyse J.; Castellon, Steven A.; Heaton, Robert K.; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2013-01-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with HIV infection and can result in self-reported overestimates of cognitive deficits. Conversely, genuine cognitive dysfunction can lead to an under-appreciation of cognitive deficits. The degree to which depression and cognition influence self-report of capacity for instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) requires further investigation. This study examined the effects of depression and cognitive deficits on self-appraisal of functional competence among 107 HIV-infected adults. As hypothesized, higher levels of depression were found among those who over-reported problems in medication management, driving, and cognition when compared to those who under-reported or provided accurate self-assessments. In contrast, genuine cognitive dysfunction was predictive of under-reporting of functional deficits. Together, these results suggest that over-reliance on self-reported functional status poses risk for error when diagnoses require documentation of both cognitive impairment and associated functional disability in everyday life. PMID:21331979

  17. Adaptive Functioning of Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors following Conformal Radiation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ashford, Jason M.; Netson, Kelli L.; Clark, Kellie N.; Merchant, Thomas E.; Santana, Victor M.; Wu, Shengjie; Conklin, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adaptive functioning is not often examined in childhood brain tumor (BT) survivors, with the few existing investigations relying on examiner interviews. Parent questionnaires may provide similar information with decreased burden. The purpose of this study was: (1) to examine adaptive behaviors in BT survivors relative to healthy peer and cancer survivor groups, and (2) to explore the validity of a parent questionnaire in relation to an examiner administered interview. Procedure Participants (age 13.11±2.98 years) were BT survivors treated with conformal radiation therapy (n=50), healthy siblings of BT survivors (n=39) and solid tumor (ST) survivors who did not receive CNS-directed therapy (n=40). Parents completed the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System–2nd Edition (ABAS-II). For a subset of the BT cohort (n=32), examiners interviewed the parents using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) within 12 months. Results Groups differed significantly on each of the ABAS-II indices and the general adaptive composite, with the BT group scoring lower than the sibling and ST groups across indices. Executive functioning, but not IQ, was associated with adaptive skills; no clear pattern of clinical and demographic predictors was established. VABS scores were correlated with ABAS-II scores on nearly all indices. Conclusions BT survivors showed significantly lower adaptive functioning when compared to healthy and cancer controls. The ABAS-II proved sensitive to these behavioral limitations and was consistent with scores on the VABS. The use of a parent questionnaire to assess adaptive functioning enhances survivorship investigations by increasing flexibility of assessment and decreasing examiner burden. PMID:24658934

  18. Cognitive Functioning Predicts Driver Safety On Road-Tests 1 and 2 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Aksan, Nazan; Anderson, Steven W.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Johnson, Amy M.; Uc, Ergun Y.; Rizzo, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Our ability to predict aging related declines in driving performance from off-road assessments have clinical practice and social policy implications. OBJECTIVES 1) To describe longitudinal changes in mean-level and evaluate rank-order stability in potential predictors of driving safety (visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning) and safety errors during an 18-mile on-road-drive-test among older adults. 2) To evaluate the relative predictive power of earlier visual sensory, motor, visual attention, and cognitive functioning on future safety errors controlling for earlier driving capacity. DESIGN A three-year longitudinal observational study; SETTING A large teaching hospital in the Mid-West; PARTICIPANTS 111 neurologically normal older adults (60 to 89 years at baseline); MEASUREMENTS Safety errors based on video review of a standard 18-mile on-road driving test served as the outcome measure. Comprehensive battery of tests on the predictor side included visual sensory functioning, motor functioning, cognitive functioning, and a measure of Useful Field of View. RESULTS Longitudinal changes in mean-levels of safety errors and cognitive functioning were small from year-to-year. Relative rank-order stability between consecutive assessments was moderate in overall safety errors, it was moderate to strong in visual attention and cognitive functioning. While prospective bivariate correlations ranged from fair to moderate between safety errors and predictors, only functioning in the cognitive domain predicted future driver performance one and two-years later in multivariate analyses. CONCLUSION Normative aging related declines in driver performance as assessed by on-road tests emerge slowly. The findings clearly demonstrated that even in the presence conservative controls, such as previous driving ability, age, visual sensory and motor functioning, cognitive functioning predicted future driving performance on-road one and two-years later. PMID:22091535

  19. Association of Lung Function with Cognitive Decline and Dementia: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Sajidkhan S.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Knopman, David S.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Alonso, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported a higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia among individuals with impaired lung function. However, many did not adjust for important confounders or did not include women and nonwhites. Methods We studied 10,975 men and women aged 47–70 (23% African-Americans), enrolled in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Pulmonary function tests and a cognitive assessment, including the Delayed Word Recall, the Digit Symbol Substitution, and the World Fluency Tests, were done in 1990–92. Repeated cognitive assessments were performed in 1996–98 for the entire cohort, and in 1993–95 and 2004–06 in 904 eligible individuals. Dementia hospitalization was ascertained through 2005. Results In analysis adjusted for lifestyles, APOE genotype, and cardiovascular risk factors, impaired lung function was associated with worse cognitive function at baseline. No association was found between lung function and cognitive decline over time. Impaired lung function at baseline was associated with higher risk of dementia hospitalization during follow-up, particularly among younger individuals. The hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of dementia hospitalization were 1.6 (0.9, 2.8) and 2.1 (1.2, 3.7) comparing the lowest to the highest quartile of forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity, respectively. Presence of a restrictive ventilatory pattern, but not of an obstructive pattern, was associated with reduced cognitive scores and higher dementia risk. Conclusion Reduced lung function was associated with worse performance in cognitive assessments and with an increased risk of dementia hospitalization. Future research should determine whether maintaining optimal pulmonary health might prevent cognitive impairment and dementia. PMID:21244584

  20. Cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri Gullickson; Mary M. Hayhoe; Polly K. Pook; Rajesh P. N. Rao

    1995-01-01

    To describe phenomena that occur at different time scales, computational models of the brain must incorporate different levels of abstraction. At time scales of approximately 1 ?3 of a second, orienting movements of the body play a crucial role in cognition and form a useful computational level - more abstract than that used to capture natural phenomena but less abstract

  1. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. PMID:25395854

  2. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, P?nar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Ayd?n, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Be?iro?lu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. PMID:24176594

  3. Hospitalization and Psychosis: Influences on the Course of Cognition and Everyday Functioning in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Philip D.; Loewenstein, David A.; Czaja, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Long term institutional stay has decreased markedly in people with schizophrenia, although there are still many individuals with a history of long-term institutional stay residing in the community. In addition, although the average duration of acute admissions for schizophrenia is also decreasing, there are indications that psychotic episodes leading to acute admissions are associated with risk for cognitive and functional declines and changes in brain structure. In this paper we review the literature on cognitive changes with aging and institutionalization in schizophrenia, reaching the conclusion that the reasons for chronic institutionalization in the current include largely include severe psychosis and aggressive behavior. Thus, these factors may be the operative factor in the age-related declines in cognition and functioning reported in this population. We also present evidence to suggest that these changes may be similar to those seen in younger patients who experience repeated psychotic episodes leading to hospitalization. Our conclusion is that there is minimal evidence that hospitalization, long or short, leads to cognitive and functional changes, but rather that the reason for these hospitalizations may underlie cognitive and functional declines. Prevention of relapse and discovering treatments to assist patients with resistant symptoms may reduce the risk of cognitive and functional decline across the lifespan in people with schizophrenia. PMID:23123218

  4. Association between insulin-like growth factor-1 and cognitive functions in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Changwoo; Kim, Dai Jin; Bae, Hwallip; Won, Sung-Doo; Lee, Hae Kook

    2014-11-01

    Studies in alcohol-dependent patients show that cognitive function can be influenced by chronic use of alcohol. Alcohol is a known neurotoxin that induces neurodegeneration in the brain. Although there are various causes of cognitive deficiency in alcohol-dependent patients, in this study we focus on the role of corticosteroids. The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal system (i.e., the HPA axis) plays a part in the control of corticosteroids. Recent studies show that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) reflects the status of growth hormones under the action of the HPA axis. Therefore, IGF-1 is a potential indicator that reflects activity of the HPA axis, and a biomarker that may reflect the decline of cognitive function associated with alcohol-induced hypercortisolism. The purposes of this study are to identify an association between cognitive function and IGF-1, and to investigate IGF as the biological marker of cognitive decline in alcohol-dependent patients. Forty alcohol-dependent patients were selected as the subjects of this study. IGF-1 was measured through an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Clinical features were examined using the Korean version of the alcohol dependence scale (ADS-K). Cognitive functions were measured using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD). Comparative analysis was utilized to identify an association between CERAD measurement items and IGF-1. Alcohol-dependent patients demonstrated stable performance of most of the CERAD measures. Among the measures of the CERAD, only trail making test A showed a correlation to IGF-1. Compared to trail making test B, trail making test A is assumed to reflect basic cognitive functions including psychomotor speed, visual search and sequencing in alcohol-dependent patients, regardless of demographic characteristics such as the level of education of patients. Therefore, IGF-1 seems to play an important role in detecting the decline of basic cognitive functions in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25283991

  5. Pulmonary Function, Cognitive Impairment and Brain Atrophy in a Middle-Aged Community Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Sachdev; K. J. Anstey; R. A. Parslow; W. Wen; J. Maller; R. Kumar; H. Christensen; A. F. Jorm

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship of lung function to brain anatomical parameters and cognitive function and to examine the mediating factors for any relationships. Methods: A random sub-sample of 469 persons (men = 252) aged 60–64 years from a larger community sample underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging scans and pulmonary function tests (forced vital capacity, FVC, forced expiratory volume in

  6. Urinary function in elderly people with and without leukoaraiosis: relation to cognitive and gait function

    PubMed Central

    Sakakibara, R.; Hattori, T.; Uchiyama, T.; Yamanishi, T.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate urinary function in the elderly with and without white matter lesion (leukoaraiosis) in relation to cognitive and gait function.?METHODS—Sixty three subjects were examined, with mean age 73 (range 62 to 86 years). Subjects with brainstem stroke or with large hemispheric lesions were excluded. Spin echo 1.5 T MRI images were graded from 0 to 4 for severity of white matter lesions. Urinary function was assessed by detailed questionnaire and urodynamic studies were performed in 33 of the subjects, including measurement of postmicturition residuals, water cystometry, and sphincter EMG. A mini mental state examination (MMSE) and examination of gait was also performed and compared with urinary function.?RESULTS—Urodynamic studies showed subjects with grade 1-4 white matter lesions to have detrusor hyperreflexia more commonly (82%) than those with grade 0 white matter lesions (9%) (p<0.05), indicating that leukoaraiosis was a factor associated with geriatric urinary dysfunction. Postmicturition residuals, low compliance, detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, and uninhibited sphincter relaxation were also more common in grade 1-4 than in grade 0 white matter lesions, though the difference was not significant. In grade 1 white matter lesions urinary dysfunction (urge urinary incontinence) was more common than cognitive (MMSE<19) (p<0.05) and gait disorders (slowness, short step/festination, and loss of postural reflex) (p<0.05), which increased together with the grade of white matter lesions (p<0.05).?CONCLUSIONS—Urinary dysfunction is common and probably the early sign in elderly people with leukoaraiosis on MRI.?? PMID:10519875

  7. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

    2015-08-18

    The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:24732404

  8. Left ventricular function in long-term survivors of childhood lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Jon R; Hamre, Hanne; Massey, Richard; Dalen, Håvard; Beitnes, Jan O; Fosså, Sophie D; Kiserud, Cecilie E; Aakhus, Svend

    2014-08-01

    Survivors of childhood lymphoma (CL) have markedly increased risk of developing heart failure. Echocardiographic studies after cardiotoxic treatment have primarily demonstrated left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. In the present study, we hypothesized that longer follow-up and a more comprehensive echocardiographic examination would reveal more cardiac abnormalities. We conducted a cross-sectional study with echocardiography 20.4 ± 8.6 years after diagnosis in 125 survivors of CL, grouped according to treatment methods, and compared with matched controls. Treatment included mediastinal radiotherapy (median 40.0 Gy) in 66 and anthracyclines (median dose 160 mg/m(2)) in 92 survivors of CL. Abnormal LV function, left-sided valve dysfunction, or both occurred in 62 patients (50%). Diastolic dysfunction occurred in 29%. Compared with control subjects, mitral annular early diastolic velocities (e') were reduced in patients (septal e' 0.09 ± 0.03 vs 0.12 ± 0.03 m/s, p <0.001), and the E/e' ratio was increased, particularly after mediastinal radiotherapy (10.6 ± 6.4 vs 5.6 ± 1.3, p <0.001). Survivors of CL had lower fractional shortening than control subjects (32 ± 6 vs 36 ± 7, p <0.001), but mean ejection fraction was equal and overt systolic dysfunction was infrequent. After mediastinal radiotherapy alone, global longitudinal myocardial strain was lower (p <0.05) compared with other treatment groups. Left-sided valvular dysfunction occurred in 55% of patients after mediastinal radiotherapy. In conclusion, survivors of CL had reduced LV diastolic function assessed by tissue Doppler imaging. This was more pronounced after mediastinal radiotherapy, which also frequently led to valvular disease. Systolic function was normal in most survivors of CL. PMID:24948492

  9. Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Siobhan T; Burton, Nicola W; Pachana, Nancy A; Brown, Wendy J

    2007-01-01

    Background Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. Methods/Design Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults, aged between 65 and 75 years, are randomly allocated to one of three groups for 16 weeks. The exercise-only group do three 60-minute exercise sessions per week. The exercise and cognitive training group do two 60-minute exercise sessions and one 60-minute cognitive training session per week. A no-training control group is contacted every 4 weeks. Measures of cognitive functioning, physical fitness and psychological well-being are taken at baseline (0 weeks), post-test (16 weeks) and 6-month follop (40 weeks). Qualitative responses to the program are taken at post-test. Discussion With an increasingly aged population, interventions to improve the functioning and quality of life of older adults are particularly important. Exercise training, either alone or in combination with cognitive training, may be an effective means of optimizing cognitive functioning in older adults. This study will add to the growing evidence base on the effectiveness of these interventions. Trial Registration Australian Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN012607000151437 PMID:17915035

  10. Effects of different forms of central nervous system prophylaxis on neuropsychologic function in childhood leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Rowland, J.H.; Glidewell, O.J.; Sibley, R.F.; Holland, J.C.; Tull, R.; Berman, A.; Brecher, M.L.; Harris, M.; Glicksman, A.S.; Forman, E.

    1984-12-01

    A comparison of the late effects on intellectual and neuropsychologic function of three different CNS prophylaxis regimens was conducted in 104 patients treated for childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Of the children studied, 33 were randomized to treatment with intrathecal (IT) methotrexate alone, 36 to IT methotrexate plus 2,400 rad cranial irradiation, and 35 to IT methotrexate plus intravenous intermediate dose methotrexate. All patients were in their first (complete) continuous remission, were a minimum of one year post-CNS prophylaxis and had no evidence of CNS disease at the time of evaluation. In contrast to the other two treatment groups, children whose CNS prophylaxis included cranial irradiation attained significantly lower mean Full Scale IQs, performed more poorly on the Wide Range Achievement Test, a measure of school abilities, and exhibited a greater number of difficulties on a variety of other neuropsychologic measures. The poorer performance of the irradiated group was independent of sex of the patient, time since treatment and age at diagnosis. These data suggest that the addition of 2,400 rad cranial irradiation to CNS prophylaxis in ALL puts these children at greater risk for mild global loss in intellectual and neuropsychologic ability.

  11. Cerebral Involvement in the Cognitive Functioning of Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaid, Jyotsna; Lambert, Wallace E.

    The cognitive processing strategies of two groups of French-English bilinguals were studied by means of an auditory Stroop test designed to evaluate cerebral hemispheric involvement. An "early bilingual" group were bilingual before the age of five, and a "late bilingual" group were bilingual after the age of ten. Stimuli were words uttered in…

  12. Resistance to Cognitive Interference as a Function of MMPI Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Charles J.; Golden, Ellen E.

    1975-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that resistance to interference as measured by Stroop Color and Word Test is related to psychopathology. College student subjects were classified into three groups on the basis of their Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) profile high points. Subjects' cognitive interference scores significantly…

  13. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  14. The Function of Cognitive Imaging in a Developing Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Lars G.

    Cognitive imaging was investigated as one factor associated with the development of the University of New Mexico from an undergraduate teaching institution toward becoming a nationally-ranked graduate research university. A longitudinal, ethnohistorical study was undertaken for the 1967-1978 period. The qualitative research methodology involved an…

  15. COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING AND TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ZIMILES, HERBERT

    TWO EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A CHILD'S TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION AND HIS ABILITY TO CONSERVE NUMBER AND PICTURES. OTHER MEASURES OF COGNITION ALSO WERE USED. TOLERANCE FOR DELAY OF GRATIFICATION WAS MEASURED BY THE CHILD'S DECISION TO RECEIVE A PACK OF CANDY AND A TOY ON THE DAY OF TESTING OR TO…

  16. Handedness and cognitive functions in Pervasive Developmental disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah Fein; Lynn Waterhouse; Dorothy Lucci; Bruce Pennington; Margaret Humes

    1985-01-01

    This paper is concerned with what abnormal handedness in Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDD) reveals about the presence, lateralization, and severity of cerebral dysfunction in this population. From previous work, it was predicted that left-handedness would be elevated in the sample and that mixed-handedness subjects should be more impaired than those with established hand dominance. A battery of cognitive and motor

  17. The Status of Childhood Blindness and Functional Low Vision in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in 2012

    PubMed Central

    Khandekar, Rajiv; Kishore, H.; Mansu, Rabiu M.; Awan, Haroon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood blindness and visual impairment (CBVI) are major disabilities that compromise the normal development of children. Health resources and practices to prevent CBVI are suboptimal in most countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We reviewed the magnitude and the etiologies of childhood visual disabilities based on the estimates using socioeconomic proxy indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and <5-year mortality rates. The result of these findings will facilitate novel concepts in addressing and developing services to effectively reduce CBVI in this region. The current study determined the rates of bilateral blindness (defined as? Best corrected visual acuity(BCVA)) less than 3/60 in the better eye or a visual field of 10° surrounding central fixation) and functional low vision (FLV) (visual impairment for which no treatment or refractive correction can improve the vision up to >6/18 in a better eye) in children <15 years old. We used the 2011 population projections, <5-year mortality rates and GDP per capita of 23 countries (collectively grouped as EMR). Based on the GDP, we divided the countries into three groups; high, middle- and low-income nations. By applying the bilateral blindness and FLV rates to high, middle- and low-income countries from the global literature to the population of children <15 years, we estimated that there could be 238,500 children with bilateral blindness (rate 1.2/1,000) in the region. In addition, there could be approximately 417,725 children with FLV (rate of 2.1/1,000) in the region. The causes of visual disability in the three groups are also discussed based on the available data. As our estimates are based on hospital and blind school studies in the past, they could have serious limitations for projecting the present magnitude and causes of visual disabilities in children of EMR. An effective approach to eye health care and screening for children within primary health care and with the available resources are discussed. The objectives, strategies, and operating procedures for child eye-care are presented. Variables impacting proper screening are discussed. To reach the targets, we recommend urgent implementation of new approaches to low vision and rehabilitation of children. PMID:25371641

  18. The Effect of Childhood Infection on Hearing Function at Age 61 to 63 Years in the Newcastle Thousand Families Study

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Fiona; Mann, Kay D.; Rees, Adrian; Davis, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is known that childhood hearing function can become impaired after the occurrence of specific infections. However, evidence on the effect of common childhood infections on adult hearing function is limited. The objective of the study was to identify whether associations exist between the occurrence of common childhood infections in a UK birth cohort and hearing function across different frequencies at age 61 to 63 years. Design: The Newcastle Thousand Families study is a birth cohort of all individuals born in May and June 1947 to mothers resident in Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Of the original cohort members who had an audiometry test at age 61 to 63 years, 333 had data available on infections during their first year of life and 296 on infections up to their fifth year of life. These data were analyzed using linear regression in relation to adult hearing function across differing frequencies in isolation. Results: After adjustment for sex, overcrowding in the first year, having had an ear operation, and having worked in a loud environment, significant negative associations were identified between adult hearing and tonsillitis at 250 Hz (p = 0.013), 1?kHz (p = 0.018), 6?kHz (p = 0.012), and 8?kHz (p = 0.033); otorrhea at 4?kHz (p = 0.005), 6?kHz (p = 0.003), and 8?kHz (p = 0.002); bronchitis (two or more episodes) at 2?kHz (p = 0.001), 3?kHz (p = 0.005), 4?kHz (p = 0.009), 6?kHz (p < 0.001), and 8?kHz (p < 0.001); and the total number of severe respiratory infections in the first year at 2?kHz (p = 0.037), 3?kHz (p = 0.049), 4?kHz (p = 0.030), 6?kHz (p < 0.001), and 8?kHz (p = 0.006). That is, individuals who had tonsillitis, bronchitis (twice or more), otorrhea, or a severe respiratory infection (twice or more) in their first year of life were more likely to have impaired adult hearing function than those who did not have any infections in early life. Conclusion: The occurrence of some, but not all, childhood infections appears to have an effect on adult hearing function across different frequencies. Reducing the incidence of infectious diseases in early life may reduce subsequent incidence of hearing impairment among adults. However, further research in modern cohorts is needed to clarify the links between infectious childhood diseases and adult hearing function. PMID:25225919

  19. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  20. Small-World Brain Network and Dynamic Functional Distribution in Patients with Subcortical Vascular Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongqiang; Zhou, Xia; Wang, Haibao; Hu, Xiaopeng; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Xu, Liyan; Zhang, Chao; Sun, Zhongwu

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the topological properties of the functional connectivity and their relationships with cognition impairment in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SVCI) patients, resting-state fMRI and graph theory approaches were employed in 23 SVCI patients and 20 healthy controls. Functional connectivity between 90 brain regions was estimated using bivariate correlation analysis and thresholded to construct a set of undirected graphs. Moreover, all of them were subjected to a battery of cognitive assessment, and the correlations between graph metrics and cognitive performance were further analyzed. Our results are as follows: functional brain networks of both SVCI patients and controls showed small-world attributes over a range of thresholds(0.15?sparsity?0.40). However, global topological organization of the functional brain networks in SVCI was significantly disrupted, as indicated by reduced global and local efficiency, clustering coefficients and increased characteristic path lengths relative to normal subjects. The decreased activity areas in SVCI predominantly targeted in the frontal-temporal lobes, while subcortical regions showed increased topological properties, which are suspected to compensate for the inefficiency of the functional network. We also demonstrated that altered brain network properties in SVCI are closely correlated with general cognitive and praxis dysfunction. The disruption of whole-brain topological organization of the functional connectome provides insight into the functional changes in the human brain in SVCI. PMID:26132397

  1. Childhood Anxiety and Memory Functioning: A Comparison of Systemic and Processing Accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric L. Daleiden

    1998-01-01

    Information-processing models of childhood anxiety highlight the centrality of memory processes in the maintenance and intensification of anxiety. Recent advances in memory research allow for an increasingly fine-grained analysis of the relation between anxiety and memory. The relation between childhood anxiety and memory was examined in a sample of 160 high- and low-trait-anxious sixth through eighth grade children. Results indicated

  2. Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: Long-Term Effects on Anxiety and Secondary Disorders in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saavedra, Lissette M.; Silverman, Wendy K.; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A.; Kurtines, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study's aim was to examine the long-term effects (8 to 13 years post-treatment; M = 9.83 years; SD = 1.71) of the most widely used treatment approaches of exposure-based cognitive behavioral treatment for phobic and anxiety disorders in children and adolescents (i.e., group treatment and two variants of individual…

  3. The Feasibility and Outcome of Clinic Plus Internet Delivery of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Childhood Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Susan H.; Holmes, Jane M.; March, Sonja; Lipp, Ottmar V.

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-two clinically anxious children, aged 7 to 14 years, were randomly allocated to clinic-based, cognitive-behavior therapy, the same treatment partially delivered via the Internet, or a wait-list control (WL). Children in the clinic and clinic-plus-Internet conditions showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety from pre-to…

  4. Preservice Teachers' Emotion-Related Regulation and Cognition: Associations with Teachers' Responses to Children's Emotions in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Rebecca Anne; McElwain, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The present research examines preservice teachers' (N = 24) self-reported emotion-related regulation and cognition as predictors of their observed responses to young children's positive and negative emotional displays. Correlation and regression analyses revealed that teachers reporting greater reappraisal strategies in…

  5. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the relationship between cognitive reserve and executive function

    PubMed Central

    Ward, D D; Summers, M J; Saunders, N L; Ritchie, K; Summers, J J; Vickers, J C

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been proposed to account for observed discrepancies between pathology and its clinical manifestation due to underlying differences in brain structure and function. In 433 healthy older adults participating in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project, we investigated whether common polymorphic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influenced the association between CR contributors and cognitive function in older adults. We show that BDNF Val66Met moderates the association between CR and executive function. CR accounted for 8.5% of the variance in executive function in BDNF Val homozygotes, but CR was a nonsignificant predictor in BDNF Met carriers. APOE polymorphisms were not linked to the influence of CR on cognitive function. This result implicates BDNF in having an important role in capacity for building or accessing CR. PMID:26125153

  6. The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the relationship between cognitive reserve and executive function.

    PubMed

    Ward, D D; Summers, M J; Saunders, N L; Ritchie, K; Summers, J J; Vickers, J C

    2015-01-01

    The concept of cognitive reserve (CR) has been proposed to account for observed discrepancies between pathology and its clinical manifestation due to underlying differences in brain structure and function. In 433 healthy older adults participating in the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project, we investigated whether common polymorphic variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) influenced the association between CR contributors and cognitive function in older adults. We show that BDNF Val66Met moderates the association between CR and executive function. CR accounted for 8.5% of the variance in executive function in BDNF Val homozygotes, but CR was a nonsignificant predictor in BDNF Met carriers. APOE polymorphisms were not linked to the influence of CR on cognitive function. This result implicates BDNF in having an important role in capacity for building or accessing CR. PMID:26125153

  7. Kynurenine metabolism predicts cognitive function in patients following cardiac bypass and thoracic surgery.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Caroline M; Mackay, Gillian M; Oxford, Lynn; Millar, Keith; Darlington, L Gail; Higgins, Michael J; Stone, Trevor W

    2011-10-01

    Cardiac surgery involving extra-corporeal circulation can lead to cognitive dysfunction. As such surgery is associated with signs of inflammation and pro-inflammatory mediators activate tryptophan oxidation to neuroactive kynurenines which modulate NMDA receptor function and oxidative stress, we have measured blood concentrations of kynurenines and inflammatory markers in 28 patients undergoing coronary arterial graft surgery and, for comparison, 28 patients undergoing non-bypass thoracic surgery. A battery of cognitive tests was completed before and after the operations. The results show increased levels of tryptophan with decreased levels of kynurenine, anthranilic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid associated with bypass, and a later increase in kynurenic acid. Levels of neopterin and lipid peroxidation products rose after surgery in non-bypass patients whereas tumour necrosis factor-? and S100B levels increased after bypass. Changes of neopterin levels were greater after non-bypass surgery. Cognitive testing showed that the levels of tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenic acid and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, correlated with aspects of post-surgery cognitive function, and were significant predictors of cognitive performance in tasks sensitive to frontal executive function and memory. Thus, anaesthesia and major surgery are associated with inflammatory changes and alterations in tryptophan oxidative metabolism which predict, and may play a role in, post-surgical cognitive function. PMID:21819405

  8. A protocol for a randomized clinical trial of interactive video dance: potential for effects on cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical exercise has the potential to affect cognitive function, but most evidence to date focuses on cognitive effects of fitness training. Cognitive exercise also may influence cognitive function, but many cognitive training paradigms have failed to provide carry-over to daily cognitive function. Video games provide a broader, more contextual approach to cognitive training that may induce cognitive gains and have carry over to daily function. Most video games do not involve physical exercise, but some novel forms of interactive video games combine physical activity and cognitive challenge. Methods/Design This paper describes a randomized clinical trial in 168 postmenopausal sedentary overweight women that compares an interactive video dance game with brisk walking and delayed entry controls. The primary endpoint is adherence to activity at six months. Additional endpoints include aspects of physical and mental health. We focus this report primarily on the rationale and plans for assessment of multiple cognitive functions. Discussion This randomized clinical trial may provide new information about the cognitive effects of interactive videodance. It is also the first trial to examine physical and cognitive effects in older women. Interactive video games may offer novel strategies to promote physical activity and health across the life span. The study is IRB approved and the number is: PRO08080012 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01443455 PMID:22672287

  9. The potential role of melatonin on sleep deprivation-induced cognitive impairments: Implication of FMRP on cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Kwon, K J; Lee, E J; Kim, M K; Jeon, S J; Choi, Y Y; Shin, C Y; Han, S-H

    2015-08-20

    While prolonged sleep deprivation (SD) could lead to profound negative health consequences, such as impairments in vital biological functions of immunity and cognition, melatonin possesses powerful ameliorating effects against those harmful insults. Melatonin has strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that help to restore body's immune and cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the possible role of melatonin in reversing cognitive dysfunction induced by SD in rats. Our experimental results revealed that sleep-deprived animals exhibited spatial memory impairment in the Morris water maze tasks compared with the control groups. Furthermore, there was an increased glial activation most prominent in the hippocampal region of the SD group compared to the normal control (NC) group. Additionally, markers of oxidative stress such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and 7,8-dihydro-8-oxo-deoxyguanine (8-oxo-dG) were significantly increased, while fragile X-mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression was decreased in the SD group. Interestingly, melatonin treatment normalized these events to control levels following SD. Our data demonstrate that SD induces oxidative stress through glial activation and decreases FMRP expression in the neurons. Furthermore, our results suggest the efficacy of melatonin for the treatment of sleep-related neuronal dysfunction, which occurs in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and autism. PMID:26047724

  10. Impaired cognitive control mediates the relationship between cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tully, Laura M; Lincoln, Sarah Hope; Liyanage-Don, Nadia; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-02-01

    Structural abnormalities in the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) are well-documented in schizophrenia and recent evidence suggests that these abnormalities relate to functional outcome. Cognitive control mechanisms, reliant on the LPFC, are impaired in schizophrenia and predict functional outcome, thus impaired cognitive control could mediate the relationship between neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC and functional outcome. We used surface-based morphometry to investigate relationships between cortical surface characteristics, cognitive control, and measures of social and role functioning in 26 individuals with schizophrenia and 29 healthy controls. Results demonstrate that schizophrenia participants had thinner cortex in a region of the superior frontal gyrus (BA10). Across all participants, decreased cortical thickness in this region related to decreased cognitive control and decreased role functioning. Moreover, cognitive control fully mediated the relationship between cortical thickness in the superior frontal gyrus and role functioning, indicating that neuroanatomical abnormalities in the LPFC adversely impact role functioning via impaired cognitive control processes. PMID:24388000

  11. Does Change in Cognitive Function Predict Change in Costs of Care for People With a Schizophrenia Diagnosis Following Cognitive Remediation Therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Reeder, Clare; Harris, Victoria; Pickles, Andrew; Patel, Anita; Cella, Matteo; Wykes, Til

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Schizophrenia leads to significant personal costs matched by high economic costs. Cognitive function is a strong predictor of disabilities in schizophrenia, which underpin these costs. This study of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT), which has been shown to improve cognition and reduce disability in schizophrenia, aims to investigate associations between improvements in cognition and cost changes. Methods: Eighty-five participants with schizophrenia were randomized to receive CRT or treatment as usual and were assessed at baseline, posttherapy, and 6 month follow-up. Four structural equation models investigated associations between changes in cognitive function and costs of care. Results: All 4 models provided a good fit. Improvement in 3 individual cognitive variables did not predict total cost changes (model 1). But improvement in a single latent cognition factor was associated with a reduction in depression, which in turn was associated with reduced subsequent total costs (model 2). No significant associations with constituent daycare and special accommodation cost changes were apparent with 3 individual cognitive change variables (model 3). But improvement in a single latent cognitive change variable was associated with subsequent reductions in both daycare and special accommodation costs (model 4). Conclusion: This study exemplifies a method of using cost changes to investigate the effects and mechanisms of CRT and suggests that executive function change may be an important target if we are to reduce disability and resultant health and social care costs. PMID:24682210

  12. The independent contributions of cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms to everyday function in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Rog, Lauren A.; Park, Lovingly Quitania; Harvey, Danielle J.; Huang, Chun-Jung; Mackin, Scott; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski

    2014-01-01

    The everyday functional capacities of older adults are determined by multiple factors. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate whether apathy and depression have unique influences on degree of functional impairment, independent of the effects of specific cognitive impairments. Participants included 344 older adults (199 normals, 87 with MCI, 58 with dementia). The Everyday Cognition (ECog) scales were used to measure both global and domain-specific functional abilities. Neuropsychiatric symptoms of depression and apathy were measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), and specific neuropsychological domains measured included episodic memory and executive functioning. Results indicated that worse memory and executive function, as well as greater depression and apathy, were all independent and additive determinants of poorer functional abilities. Apathy had a slightly more restricted effect than the other variables across the specific functional domains assessed. Secondary analysis suggested that neuropsychiatric symptoms may be more strongly associated with everyday function within cognitively normal and MCI groups, while cognitive impairment is more strongly associated with everyday function in dementia. Thus, a somewhat different set of factors may be associated with functional status across various clinical groups. PMID:24502686

  13. Cognitive functioning in idiopathic generalised epilepsies: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loughman, A; Bowden, S C; D'Souza, W

    2014-06-01

    Cognitive function in idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGE) is of increasing research attention. Current research seeks to understand phenotypic traits associated with this most common group of inherited epilepsies and evaluate educational and occupational trajectories. A specific deficit in executive function in a subgroup of IGE, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) has been a particular focus of recent research. This systematic review provides a quantitative synthesis of cognitive function outcomes in 26 peer-reviewed, case-control studies published since 1989. Univariate random-effects meta-analyses were conducted on seven cognitive factor-domains and separately on executive function. Patients with IGE demonstrated significantly lower scores on tests across all cognitive factor-domains except visual-spatial abilities. Effect sizes ranged from 0.42 to 0.88 pooled standard deviation units. The average reduction of scores on tests of executive function in IGE compared to controls was 0.72 standard deviation units. Contrary to current thinking, there was no specific deficit in executive function in JME samples, nor in other IGE syndromes. Of more concern, people with IGE are at risk of pervasive cognitive impairment. PMID:24631851

  14. Effects of treatment with simvastatin and pravastatin on cognitive function in patients with hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, N; Sramek, J; Veroff, A; Block, G; Stauffer, L; Lines, C

    1995-01-01

    The effects of equi-efficacious doses of the cholesterol-lowering drugs simvastatin (20 mg day-1) and pravastatin (40 mg day-1) on tests of cognitive function were investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period (4 weeks per period), incomplete block, crossover study of 36 patients (24 per treatment) with hypercholesterolaemia. After 4 weeks neither of the active treatments differed significantly from placebo on any cognitive measure. PMID:7619678

  15. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in High-Functioning Autism: Review and Recommendations for Treatment Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeffrey J. Wood; Cori Fujii; Patricia Renno

    \\u000a Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) who have acquired functional communication strategies – particularly more\\u000a cognitively able individuals at or beyond the elementary school age group – may be candidates for talk-based therapies similar\\u000a to those employed with children and adults with mental health disorders, such as anxiety (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy,\\u000a CBT). While talk-based therapies are widely used in

  16. Driving into the Sunset: Supporting Cognitive Functioning in Older Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark S.; Bunce, David

    2011-01-01

    The rise in the aging driver population presents society with a significant challenge—how to maintain safety and mobility on the roads. On the one hand, older drivers pose a higher risk of an at-fault accident on a mile-for-mile basis; on the other hand, independent mobility is a significant marker of quality of life in aging. In this paper, we review the respective literatures on cognitive neuropsychology and ergonomics to suggest a previously unexplored synergy between these two fields. We argue that this conceptual overlap can form the basis for future solutions to what has been called “the older driver problem.” Such solutions could be found in a range of emerging driver assistance technologies offered by vehicle manufacturers, which have the potential to compensate for the specific cognitive decrements associated with aging that are related to driving. PMID:21748014

  17. Differential improvement of cognitive functions in recovering alcoholic women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marjorie S. Fabian; Oscar A. Parsons

    1983-01-01

    In Study 1, 40 long-term sober alcoholics (mean age 42.15 yrs) performed at or near the level of 40 age-matched short-term sober alcoholics on several perceptuomotor speed tasks, at the level of 70 age-matched nonalcoholic controls on several complex problem-solving measures, and intermediate to the 2 groups on most measures, suggesting a differential improvement in cognitive abilities. In Study 2,

  18. Preprint of Visser, W. (1996). Two functions of analogical reasoning in design: A cognitive-psychology approach. Design Studies.

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1996-01-01

    Preprint of Visser, W. (1996). Two functions of analogical reasoning in design: A cognitive-psychology of analogical reasoning in design A cognitive-psychology approach Willemien Visser, Ergonomics Psychology of "ill- defined" problem solving, i.e. design. It examines the question from a cognitive-psychology

  19. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Activation of a Social Cognitive Neural Network and Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Pinkham, Amy E.; Hopfinger, Joseph B.; Ruparel, Kosha; Penn, David L.

    2008-01-01

    Previous work examining the neurobiological substrates of social cognition in healthy individuals has reported modulation of a social cognitive network such that increased activation of the amygdala, fusiform gyrus, and superior temporal sulcus are evident when individuals judge a face to be untrustworthy as compared with trustworthy. We examined whether this pattern would be present in individuals with schizophrenia who are known to show reduced activation within these same neural regions when processing faces. Additionally, we sought to determine how modulation of this social cognitive network may relate to social functioning. Neural activation was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging with blood oxygenation level dependent contrast in 3 groups of individuals—nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia, paranoid individuals with schizophrenia, and healthy controls—while they rated faces as either trustworthy or untrustworthy. Analyses of mean percent signal change extracted from a priori regions of interest demonstrated that both controls and nonparanoid individuals with schizophrenia showed greater activation of this social cognitive network when they rated a face as untrustworthy relative to trustworthy. In contrast, paranoid individuals did not show a significant difference in levels of activation based on how they rated faces. Further, greater activation of this social cognitive network to untrustworthy faces was significantly and positively correlated with social functioning. These findings indicate that impaired modulation of neural activity while processing social stimuli may underlie deficits in social cognition and social dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:18477583

  20. Cognitive and academic functioning of juvenile detainees: implications for correctional populations and public health.

    PubMed

    Lansing, Amy E; Washburn, Jason J; Abram, Karen M; Thomas, Ursula C; Welty, Leah J; Teplin, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive functioning affects health. This study assessed cognitive functioning among participants in the Northwestern Juvenile Project, a stratified random sample of 1,829 newly detained juveniles (10 to 18 years old) from Cook County, Illinois. The study examined receptive vocabulary, oral reading, arithmetic computation skills, and general intellectual abilities. The sample exhibited impaired overall intellectual functioning and deficits in all areas. Males performed more poorly than females. More than three quarters of males showed below average overall intellectual functioning, and 9 in 10 had below average receptive vocabulary skills. Hispanic and African American males performed more poorly than non-Hispanic White males. The multiple systems that serve delinquent youth--correctional, health, legal, and rehabilitative--must collaborate to tailor needed services to the cognitive level of youth in the juvenile justice system. PMID:24352405

  1. The Relation of Severity and Comorbidity to Treatment Outcome with Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juliette Margo Liber; Brigit M. van Widenfelt; Adelinde J. M. van der Leeden; Arnold W. Goedhart; Elisabeth M. W. J. Utens; Philip D. A. Treffers

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of comorbidity over and above the impact of symptom severity on treatment outcome\\u000a of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for children with anxiety disorders. Children (aged 8–12, n?=?124) diagnosed with an anxiety disorder were treated with a short-term CBT protocol. Severity was assessed with a composite\\u000a measure of parent-reported behavior problems. Two approaches to comorbidity were

  2. The Feasibility and Outcome of Clinic Plus Internet Delivery of Cognitive–Behavior Therapy for Childhood Anxiety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan H. Spence; Jane M. Holmes; Sonja March; Ottmar V. Lipp

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-two clinically anxious children, aged 7 to 14 years, were randomly allocated to clinic-based, cognitive–behavior therapy, the same treatment partially delivered via the Internet, or a wait-list control (WL). Children in the clinic and clinic-plus-Internet conditions showed significantly greater reductions in anxiety from pre- to posttreatment and were more likely to be free of their anxiety diagnoses, compared with the

  3. Manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder in childhood: A preliminary single case study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. March; Karen Mulle

    1995-01-01

    Using a within-subject multiple baseline design plus global ratings across treatment weeks, the authors conducted a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of manualized cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in an eight-year-old girl with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Eleven weeks of treatment produced complete resolution in OCD symptoms; treatment gains were maintained at six-month follow-up. Symptom reduction within each baseline was specific to the exposure

  4. Physiologic Dysfunction Scores and Cognitive Function Test Performance in United States Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kobrosly, Roni W; Seplaki, Christopher L; Jones, Courtney M; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between a measure of cumulative physiologic dysfunction and specific domains of cognitive function. Methods We examined a summary score measuring physiological dysfunction, a multisystem measure of the body’s ability to effectively adapt to physical and psychological demands, in relation to cognitive function deficits in a population of 4511 adults aged 20 to 59 who participated in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988–1994). Measures of cognitive function comprised three domains: working memory, visuomotor speed, and perceptual-motor speed. ‘Physiologic dysfunction’ scores summarizing measures of cardiovascular, immunologic, kidney, and liver function were explored. We used multiple linear regression models to estimate associations between cognitive function measures and physiological dysfunction scores, adjusting for socioeconomic factors, test conditions, and self-reported health factors. Results We noted a dose-response relationship between physiologic dysfunction and working memory (coefficient = 0.207, 95% CI = (0.066, 0.348), p < 0.0001) that persisted after adjustment for all covariates (p = 0.03). We did not observe any significant relationships between dysfunction scores and visuomotor (p = 0.37) or perceptual-motor ability (p = 0.33). Conclusions Our findings suggest that multisystem physiologic dysfunction is associated with working memory. Future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and explore the persistency of this association into later life. We suggest that such studies should incorporate physiologic data, neuroendocrine parameters, and a wide range of specific cognitive domains. PMID:22155941

  5. Application of social cognitive theory in predicting childhood obesity prevention behaviors in overweight and obese Iranian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bagherniya, Mohammad; Sharma, Manoj; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Keshavarz, Seyed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use social cognitive theory to predict overweight and obesity behaviors in adolescent girls in Iran. Valid and reliable questionnaires about nutritional and physical activity regarding social cognitive theory constructs (self-efficacy, social support, outcome expectations, and outcome expectancies), dietary habits, and physical activity were filled by 172 overweight and obese girl adolescents. The mean age and body mass index were 13.4?±?0.6 years and 28.2?±?3.6?kg/m(2), respectively. Body mass index was significantly related to hours of television viewing (p?=?.003) and grams of junk food (p?=?.001). None of the social cognitive theory constructs were found to be significant predictors for servings of fruits and vegetables, grams of junk foods, minutes of physical activity, and hours of sedentary behaviors. In future, more culturally appropriate models need to be developed in Iran that can explain and predict prevention behaviors of obesity in Iranian adolescents. PMID:25856805

  6. Cognitive Function, Habitual Gait Speed, and Late-Life Disability in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsu-Ko Kuo; Suzanne G. Leveille; Yau-Hua Yu; William P. Milberg

    2007-01-01

    Background: Both cognitive function and gait speed are important correlates of disability. However, little is known about the combined effect of cognitive function and gait speed on multiple domains of disability as well as about the role of gait speed in the association between cognitive function and late-life disability. Objective: To investigate (1) how cognition and habitual gait speed are

  7. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and Cognitive Function in a Cohort of Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Power, Melinda C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Alexeeff, Stacey E.; Coull, Brent A.; Spiro, Avron; Schwartz, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Background Traffic-related particles induce oxidative stress and may exert adverse effects on central nervous system function, which could manifest as cognitive impairment. Objective We assessed the association between black carbon (BC), a marker of traffic-related air pollution, and cognition in older men. Methods A total of 680 men (mean ± SD, 71 ± 7 years of age) from the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study completed a battery of seven cognitive tests at least once between 1996 and 2007. We assessed long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution using a validated spatiotemporal land-use regression model for BC. Results The association between BC and cognition was nonlinear, and we log-transformed BC estimates for all analyses [ln(BC)]. In a multivariable-adjusted model, for each doubling in BC on the natural scale, the odds of having a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ? 25 was 1.3 times higher [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1 to 1.6]. In a multivariable-adjusted model for global cognitive function, which combined scores from the remaining six tests, a doubling of BC was associated with a 0.054 SD lower test score (95% CI, ?0.103 to ?0.006), an effect size similar to that observed with a difference in age of 1.9 years in our data. We found no evidence of heterogeneity by cognitive test. In sensitivity analyses adjusting for past lead exposure, the association with MMSE scores was similar (odds ratio = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.7), but the association with global cognition was somewhat attenuated (?0.038 per doubling in BC; 95% CI, ?0.089 to 0.012). Conclusions Ambient traffic-related air pollution was associated with decreased cognitive function in older men. PMID:21172758

  8. Improved Serum Leptin and Ghrelin Following Bariatric Surgery Predict Better Postoperative Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Alosco, Michael L.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D.; Mitchell, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Bariatric surgery is associated with improved cognitive function, but the mechanisms underlying these gains remain poorly understood. Disturbed leptin and ghrelin systems are common in obese individuals and are associated with impaired cognitive function in other samples. Bariatric surgery has been shown to improve serum leptin and ghrelin levels, and these changes may underlie postoperative cognitive improvements. Methods Eighty-four patients completed a computerized cognitive test battery prior to bariatric surgery and at 12 months postoperatively. Participants also submitted to an 8-hour fasting blood draw to quantify serum leptin and ghrelin concentrations at these same time points. Results Baseline cognitive impairments and disturbed leptin and ghrelin levels improved at the 12-month follow-up compared to presurgery. Higher leptin levels were associated with worse attention/executive function at baseline; no such findings emerged for ghrelin. Regression analyses controlling for baseline factors and demographic characteristics showed that both decreased leptin and increased ghrelin following surgery was associated with better attention/executive function at the 12-month follow-up. These effects diminished after controlling for the postoperative change in body mass index (BMI); however, BMI change did not predict 12-month cognitive function. Conclusions Improvements in leptin and ghrelin levels following bariatric surgery appear to contribute to postoperative cognitive benefits. These gains may involve multiple mechanisms, such as reduced inflammation and improved glycemic control. Future studies that employ neuroimaging are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms and determine whether the effects of bariatric surgery on leptin and ghrelin levels can attenuate adverse brain changes and/or risk of dementia in severely obese individuals. PMID:25628737

  9. Psychosocial functioning in patients with treatment-resistant depression after group cognitive behavioral therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miki Matsunaga; Yasumasa Okamoto; Shin-ichi Suzuki; Akiko Kinoshita; Shinpei Yoshimura; Atsuo Yoshino; Yoshihiko Kunisato; Shigeto Yamawaki

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although patients with Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) often have impaired social functioning, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of psychosocial treatment for these patients. We examined whether adding group cognitive behavioral therapy (group-CBT) to medication would improve both the depressive symptoms and the social functioning of patient with mild TRD, and whether any improvements would be maintained over one

  10. Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: Can We Differentiate Their Cognitive Profiles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planche, Pascale; Lemonnier, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's syndrome (AS) can be differentiated from each other and from typically developing children on their cognitive profiles. The present study included a total of 45 participants: children with autism (high-functioning autism or Asperger's…

  11. Cognitive Deficits in Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder on Tests of Frontal–Striatal Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Purcell; Paul Maruff; Michael Kyrios; Christos Pantelis

    1998-01-01

    Background: Although neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) have implicated the frontal cortex and subcortical structures in the pathophysiology of the disorder, few studies have examined cognitive function in patients with OCD on tasks validated in the assessment of frontal lobe and subcortical dysfunction.Methods: The accuracy and latency of executive and visual memory function was assessed in 23

  12. The Role of Cognitive Functions in Communication: The Case of Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marina Zettin; Livia Colle; Bruno G. Bara

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions such as attention, working memory, long-term memory, planning, i.e. executive functions, theory of mind, and pragmatic deficits resulting as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Communicative disorders represent a typical outcome in TBI patients, even if their linguistic abilities remain virtually intact. We empirically investigated

  13. Characterization of Everyday Functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Direct Assessment Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tania Giovannetti; Brianne Magouirk Bettcher; Laura Brennan; David J. Libon; Marykate Burke; Katia Duey; Christine Nieves; Denene Wambach

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the degree and pattern of functional difficulties in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) via direct observation of everyday task performance. Methods: MCI (n = 25), mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD; n = 25), and control (n = 18) participants performed three everyday tasks of increasing complexity. Results: Although caregivers reported no functional difficulties in MCI, direct observation measures of

  14. Decomposing metaphor processing at the cognitive and neural level through functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valentina Bambini; Claudio Gentili; Emiliano Ricciardi; Pier Marco Bertinetto; Pietro Pietrini

    2011-01-01

    Prior neuroimaging studies on metaphor comprehension have tended to focus on the role of the right hemisphere, without reaching consensus and leaving aside the functional architecture of this process. The present work aimed to break down metaphor comprehension into its functional components. The study rationale is two-fold: on the one hand, the large-scale network model as emerging in cognitive neuroscience

  15. Physical exercise improves peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in mild cognitive impairment elderly with different bdnf Val66Met genotypes.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carla Manuela Crispim; Pereira, Jessica Rodrigues; Pires de Andrade, Larissa; Garuffi, Marcelo; Ayan, Carlos; Kerr, Daniel Shikanai; Talib, Leda Leme; Cominetti, Márcia Regina; Stella, Florindo

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of physical exercise on improvements in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels and cognitive functioning have been reported in the literature. However, the variability of individual responses may be linked to genetic differences. BDNF is considered one of the most plausible factors involved in the cognitive benefits associated with physical activity practice. A single nucleotide polymorphism localized in the gene that codes BDNF results in a missense mutation that promotes an amino acid substitution (Val66Met) in the protein. This process has been associated with decreased levels of BDNF secretion, with corresponding impairments in specific cognitive functions. Therefore, the objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a multimodal physical exercise program on peripheral BDNF levels and cognitive functions in elderly individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The participants were genotyped for the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism. Cognitive functions were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) prior to and after the intervention. Forty-five participants were assigned to the control and trained groups. The trained group participated in a multimodal physical training for a 16-week period. The results showed a significant between-subjects interaction (p < 0.05), which indicates the beneficial contribution of training on cognitive functions independent of the BDNF genotype. However, only participants with BDNF-Met genotypes exhibited significant improvements in peripheral BDNF levels. The BDNF genotype appears to modulate the effects of physical exercise on BDNF secretion, but it does not influence cognition. This is the first study that evaluated the influence of a BDNF polymorphism on physical activity and cognition performance in elderly MCI individuals. PMID:25062900

  16. Cognitive determinants of social functioning after a first-ever mild to moderate stroke at vocational age

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    ). An extensive neuropsychological tests battery explored general cognitive functioning, episodic memory the relationships between the neuropsychological tests and the scores of the WSAS. Predicting factors of WSAS were

  17. Cognitive Functioning in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: Association with Depressive Symptoms and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    van der Werf-Eldering, Marieke J.; Burger, Huibert; Holthausen, Esther A. E.; Aleman, André; Nolen, Willem A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Cognitive dysfunction is clearly recognized in bipolar patients, but the degree of impairment varies due to methodological factors as well as heterogeneity in patient populations. The goal of this study was to evaluate cognitive functioning in bipolar patients and to assess its association with depressive symptoms. Post hoc the relationship with lifetime alcohol use disorder was explored. Methodology/Principal Findings The study included 110 bipolar patients and 75 healthy controls. Patients with severe depressive symptoms, (hypo)manic symptoms and current severe alcohol use disorder were excluded. Diagnoses were evaluated via the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Cognitive functioning was measured in domains of psychomotor speed, speed of information processing, attentional switching, verbal memory, visual memory, executive functioning and an overall mean score. Severity of depression was assessed by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-self rating. Patients were euthymic (n?=?46) or with current mild (n?=?38) or moderate (n?=?26) depressive symptoms. Cognitive impairment was found in 26% (z-score 2 or more above reference control group for at least one domain) of patients, most prominent in executive functioning (effect size; ES 0.49) and speed of information processing (ES 0.47). Depressive symptoms were associated with dysfunction in psychomotor speed (adjusted beta 0.43; R2 7%), speed of information processing (adjusted beta 0.36; R2 20%), attentional switching (adjusted beta 0.24; R2 16%) and the mean score (adjusted beta 0.23; R2 24%), but not with verbal and visual memory and executive functioning. Depressive symptoms explained 24% of the variance in the mean z-score of all 6 cognitive domains. Comorbid lifetime alcohol use (n?=?21) was not associated with cognitive dysfunction. Conclusions/Significance Cognitive dysfunction in bipolar disorder is more severe in patients with depressive symptoms, especially regarding speed and attention. Therefore, interpretation of cognitive functioning in patients with depressive symptoms should be cautious. No association was found between cognitive functioning and lifetime comorbid alcohol use disorder. PMID:20927392

  18. A meta-analysis of cognitive functions in children and adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Stefanie; Müller, Carmen; Helmreich, Isabella; Huss, Michael; Tadi?, André

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative prevalence rates of major depressive disorders (MDD) in children and adolescents averages 9.5 %. The majority of adults with MDD suffer from significant cognitive deficits, but the available neuropsychological data on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents with MDD yielded mixed results. Meta-analytic methods were used to assess the severity of cognitive deficits in children and adolescents with MDD as compared to healthy children and adolescents. We identified 17 studies comparing the intelligence, executive functions, verbal memory and attention of 447 patients with DSM-IV MDD and 1,347 healthy children and adolescents. Children and adolescents with MDD performed 0.194-0.772 (p < 0.001) standard mean differences worse than healthy control subjects in neuropsychological test procedures. The most pronounced deficits of children and adolescents with MDD were seen in inhibition capacity (STD = 0.772; p = 0.002), phonemic verbal fluency (STD = 0.756; p = 0.0001), sustained attention (STD = 0.522; p = 0.000), verbal memory (STD = 0.516; p = 0.0009) and planning (STD = 0.513; p = 0.014). We revealed cognitive deficits of children and adolescents with MDD in various cognitive domains. Long-term studies should investigate how the cognitive deficits of depressed youth affect their academic and social functioning, and whether age, comorbidity and depression severity play a role in this process. PMID:24869711

  19. Effects of "diagnosis threat" on cognitive and affective functioning long after mild head injury.

    PubMed

    Ozen, Lana J; Fernandes, Myra A

    2011-03-01

    Persistent cognitive complaints are common following a mild head injury (MHI), but deficits are rarely detected on neuropsychological tests. Our objective was to examine the effect of symptom expectation on self-report and cognitive performance measures in MHI individuals. Prior research suggests that when MHI participants are informed they may experience cognitive difficulties, they perform worse on neuropsychological tests compared to MHI participants who are uninformed. In this study, undergraduate students with and without a prior MHI were either informed that the study's purpose was to investigate the effects of MHI on cognitive functioning ("diagnosis threat" condition) or merely informed that their cognitive functioning was being examined, with no mention of status ("neutral" condition). "Diagnosis threat" MHIs self-reported more attention failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls and "neutral" MHIs, and more memory failures compared to "diagnosis threat" controls. In the "neutral" condition, MHIs reported higher anxiety levels compared to controls and compared to "diagnosis threat" MHIs. Regardless of condition, MHIs performed worse on only one neuropsychological test of attention span. "Diagnosis threat" may contribute to the prevalence and persistence of cognitive complaints made by MHI individuals found in the literature, but may not have as strong of an effect on neuropsychological measures. PMID:21138607

  20. Interactions between default mode and control networks as a function of increasing cognitive reasoning complexity.

    PubMed

    Hearne, Luke; Cocchi, Luca; Zalesky, Andrew; Mattingley, Jason B

    2015-07-01

    Successful performance of challenging cognitive tasks depends on a consistent functional segregation of activity within the default-mode network, on the one hand, and control networks encompassing frontoparietal and cingulo-opercular areas on the other. Recent work, however, has suggested that in some cognitive control contexts nodes within the default-mode and control networks may actually cooperate to achieve optimal task performance. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine whether the ability to relate variables while solving a cognitive reasoning problem involves transient increases in connectivity between default-mode and control regions. Participants performed a modified version of the classic Wason selection task, in which the number of variables to be related is systematically varied across trials. As expected, areas within the default-mode network showed a parametric deactivation with increases in relational complexity, compared with neural activity in null trials. Critically, some of these areas also showed enhanced connectivity with task-positive control regions. Specifically, task-based connectivity between the striatum and the angular gyri, and between the thalamus and right temporal pole, increased as a function of relational complexity. These findings challenge the notion that functional segregation between regions within default-mode and control networks invariably support cognitive task performance, and reveal previously unknown roles for the striatum and thalamus in managing network dynamics during cognitive reasoning. Hum Brain Mapp 36:2719-2731, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25833189

  1. Cognitive and Kidney Function: Results from a British Birth Cohort Reaching Retirement Age

    PubMed Central

    Silverwood, Richard J.; Richards, Marcus; Pierce, Mary; Hardy, Rebecca; Sattar, Naveed; Ferro, Charles; Savage, Caroline; Kuh, Diana; Nitsch, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found associations between cognitive function and chronic kidney disease. We aimed to explore possible explanations for this association in the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a prospective birth cohort representative of the general British population. Methods Cognitive function at age 60–64 years was quantified using five measures (verbal memory, letter search speed and accuracy, simple and choice reaction times) and glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the same age was estimated using cystatin C. The cross-sectional association between cognitive function and eGFR was adjusted for background confounding factors (socioeconomic position, educational attainment), prior cognition, and potential explanations for any remaining association (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation, obesity). Results Data on all the analysis variables were available for 1306–1320 study members (depending on cognitive measure). Verbal memory and simple and choice reaction times were strongly associated with eGFR. For example, the lowest quartile of verbal memory corresponded to a 4.1 (95% confidence interval 2.0, 6.2) ml/min/1.73 m2 lower eGFR relative to the highest quartile. Some of this association was explained by confounding due to socioeconomic factors, but very little of it by prior cognition. Smoking, diabetes, hypertension, inflammation and obesity explained some but not all of the remaining association. Conclusions These analyses support the notion of a shared pathophysiology of impaired cognitive and kidney function at older age, which precedes clinical disease. The implications of these findings for clinical care and research are important and under-recognised, though further confirmatory studies are required. PMID:24482683

  2. Gastrodia elata modulates amyloid precursor protein cleavage and cognitive functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Manisha; Huang, Junjie; Lee, Yin Yeng; Chua, Doreen See Kin; Lin, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Heese, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Gastrodia elata (Tianma) is a traditional Chinese medicine often used for the treatment of headache, convulsions, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. The vasodilatory actions of Tianma led us to investigate its specific effects on memory and learning as well as on Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related signaling. We conducted a radial arm water maze analysis and the novel object recognition test to assess the cognitive functions of Tianma-treated mice. Our data show that Tianma enhances cognitive functions in mice. Further investigations revealed that Tianma enhances the ?-secretase-mediated proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (App) that precludes the amyloid-? peptide production and supports the non-amyloidogenic processing of App which is favorable in AD treatment. We hypothesize that Tianma promotes cognitive functions and neuronal survival by inhibiting ?-site App-cleaving enzyme 1 activity and promoting the neuroprotective ?-secretase activity. PMID:21788698

  3. Lipocalin-2 is involved in emotional behaviors and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Ana C.; Pinto, Vítor; Dá Mesquita, Sandro; Novais, Ashley; Sousa, João C.; Correia-Neves, Margarida; Sousa, Nuno; Palha, Joana A.; Marques, Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2), an iron-related protein well described to participate in the innate immune response, has been shown to modulate spine morphology and to regulate neuronal excitability. In accordance, LCN2-null mice are reported to have stress-induced anxiety. Here we show that, under standard housing conditions, LCN2-null mice display anxious and depressive-like behaviors, as well as cognitive impairment in spatial learning tasks. These behavioral alterations were associated with a hyperactivation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and with an altered brain cytoarchitecture in the hippocampus. More specifically, we found that the granular and pyramidal neurons of the ventral hippocampus, a region described to be associated with emotion, were hypertrophic, while neurons from the dorsal hippocampus, a region implicated in memory and cognition, were atrophic. In addition, LCN2-null mice presented synaptic impairment in hippocampal long-term potentiation. Whether the LCN2 effects are mediated through modulation of the level of corticosteroids or through a novel mechanism, the present observations bring further into light this immune-related protein as a player in the fine-tuning of behavior and of synaptic activity. PMID:23908604

  4. Neuroblastoma - Childhood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Neuroblastoma - Childhood Neuroblastoma - Childhood This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Neuroblastoma - Childhood. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to get started. ...

  5. Medulloblastoma -- Childhood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Medulloblastoma - Childhood Medulloblastoma - Childhood This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Medulloblastoma - Childhood. Use the menu below to choose the Overview section to get started. ...

  6. The COgnitive-Pulmonary Disease (COgnitive-PD) study: protocol of a longitudinal observational comparative study on neuropsychological functioning of patients with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Cleutjens, Fiona A H M; Wouters, Emiel F M; Dijkstra, Jeanette B; Spruit, Martijn A; Franssen, Frits M E; Vanfleteren, Lowie E G W; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Janssen, Daisy J A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intact cognitive functioning is necessary for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to understand the value of healthy lifestyle guidelines, to make informed decisions and subsequently act on it. Nevertheless, brain abnormalities and cognitive impairment have been found in patients with COPD. To date, it remains unknown which cognitive domains are affected and what the possible consequences are of cognitive impairment. Therefore, objectives of the study described are to determine neuropsychological functioning in patients with COPD, and its influence on health status, daily functioning and pulmonary rehabilitation outcome. Furthermore, structural and functional brain abnormalities and the relationship with cognitive and daily functioning will be explored. Methods and analysis A longitudinal observational comparative study will be performed in 183 patients with COPD referred for pulmonary rehabilitation and in 90 healthy control participants. Demographic and clinical characteristics, activities of daily living and knowledge about COPD will be assessed. Baseline cognitive functioning will be compared between patients and controls using a detailed neuropsychological testing battery. An MRI substudy will be performed to compare brain abnormalities between 35 patients with COPD with cognitive impairment and 35 patients with COPD without cognitive impairment. Patients will be recruited between November 2013 and November 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of the University Hospital Maastricht and Maastricht University (NL45127.068.13/METC 13-3-035) and is registered in the Dutch trial register. All participants will provide written informed consent and can withdraw from the study at any point in time. Assessment and home visit data material will be managed anonymously. The results obtained can be used to optimise patient-oriented treatment for cognitively impaired patients with COPD. The findings will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and through research conferences. PMID:24589828

  7. Regional functional connectivity predicts distinct cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Ranasinghe, Kamalini G.; Hinkley, Leighton B.; Beagle, Alexander J.; Mizuiri, Danielle; Dowling, Anne F.; Honma, Susanne M.; Finucane, Mariel M.; Scherling, Carole; Miller, Bruce L.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vossel, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding neural network dysfunction in neurodegenerative disease is imperative to effectively develop network-modulating therapies. In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognitive decline associates with deficits in resting-state functional connectivity of diffuse brain networks. The goal of the current study was to test whether specific cognitive impairments in AD spectrum correlate with reduced functional connectivity of distinct brain regions. We recorded resting-state functional connectivity of alpha-band activity in 27 patients with AD spectrum ? 22 patients with probable AD (5 logopenic variant primary progressive aphasia, 7 posterior cortical atrophy, and 10 early-onset amnestic/dysexecutive AD) and 5 patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD. We used magnetoencephalographic imaging (MEGI) to perform an unbiased search for regions where patterns of functional connectivity correlated with disease severity and cognitive performance. Functional connectivity measured the strength of coherence between a given region and the rest of the brain. Decreased neural connectivity of multiple brain regions including the right posterior perisylvian region and left middle frontal cortex correlated with a higher degree of disease severity. Deficits in executive control and episodic memory correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left frontal cortex, whereas visuospatial impairments correlated with reduced functional connectivity of the left inferior parietal cortex. Our findings indicate that reductions in region-specific alpha-band resting-state functional connectivity are strongly correlated with, and might contribute to, specific cognitive deficits in AD spectrum. In the future, MEGI functional connectivity could be an important biomarker to map and follow defective networks in the early stages of AD. PMID:25180158

  8. Age at natural menopause and cognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence J. Whalley; Helen C. Fox; John M. Starr; Ian J. Dear

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations between age at natural menopause, childhood IQ and cognition at age 65 years. To determine if lower age at menopause partly mediates the effect of childhood IQ on cognition at age 65 years. Methods: Data were provided by a sub-cohort of women participating in a longitudinal study of brain ageing and health. Main variables were childhood

  9. Cognitive Control Network Function in Alcohol Use Disorder Before and During Treatment With Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009–2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  10. Acute alcohol effects on cognitive function in social drinkers: their relationship to drinking habits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Weissenborn; Theodora Duka

    2003-01-01

      Abstract\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Rationale. Several studies suggest that cognitive deficits seen in late stages of alcoholism are related to executive function. However,\\u000a little is known about the acute effects of alcohol on cognitive executive functions.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aims. The present investigation examined the acute effects of a moderate alcohol dose on tests of planning and spatial working\\u000a memory as well as on tests of

  11. Effect of the G72 (DAOA) putative risk haplotype on cognitive functions in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Andreas; Krach, Sören; Krug, Axel; Markov, Valentin; Eggermann, Thomas; Zerres, Klaus; Thimm, Markus; Nöthen, Markus M; Treutlein, Jens; Rietschel, Marcella; Kircher, Tilo

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last years, several susceptibility genes for psychiatric disorders have been identified, among others G72 (also named D-amino acid oxidase activator, DAOA). Typically, the high-risk variant of a vulnerability gene is associated with decreased cognitive functions already in healthy individuals. In a recent study however, a positive effect of the high-risk variant of G72 on verbal working memory was reported. In the present study, we therefore examined the relationship between G72 genotype status and a broad range of cognitive functions in 423 healthy individuals. Methods The G72 carrier status was assessed by the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) M23 and M24. Subjects were divided into three risk groups (low, intermediate and high risk). Results G72 status influenced a number of cognitive functions, such as verbal working memory, attention, and, at a trend level, spatial working memory and executive functions. Interestingly, the high-risk allele carriers scored better than one or even both other groups. Conclusion Our data show that the putative high-risk haplotype (i.e. homozygote C/C-allele carriers in SNP M23 and homozygote T/T-allele carriers in SNP M24) is in healthy individuals not necessarily associated with worse performance in cognitive functions, but even with better performance in some domains. Further work is required to identify the mechanisms of G72 on brain functions. PMID:19778423

  12. A Brain-Based Account of the Development of Rule Use in Childhood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia A. Bunge; Philip David Zelazo

    2006-01-01

    The ability to follow explicit rules improves dramatically during the course of childhood, but relatively little is known about the changes in brain structure and function that underlie this behavioral improvement. Drawing from neuroscientific studies in human adults and other animals, as well as from an emerging literature in developmental cognitive neuroscience, we propose a brain-based account of the development

  13. Psychosocial Adjustment in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Medulloblastoma and Ependymoma Treated with Craniospinal Irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Seaver; Russell Geyer; Stephen Sulzbacher; Mary Warner; Lawrence Batzel; Jerrod Milstein; Mitchell Berger

    1994-01-01

    Improved prognosis for pediatric brain tumors has stimulated research into the quality of life of survivors. To assess cognitive function and psychosocial and family adjustment among this population, 18 long-term survivors of childhood medulloblastoma or posterior fossa ependymoma treated with surgical resection and craniospinal irradiation were interviewed and administered achievement tests and psychosocial questionnaires. A majority of parents reported significant

  14. Serum Phospholipid Docosahexaenonic Acid Is Associated with Cognitive Functioning during Middle Adulthood12

    PubMed Central

    Muldoon, Matthew F.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Sheu, Lei; Yao, Jeffrey K.; Conklin, Sarah M.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    Existing evidence links greater dietary intake of fish and (n-3) PUFA to better early brain development and lowered risk of cognitive disorders in late life. The mechanisms for these associations remain unclear and may be related to specific (n-3) fatty acids and may concern cognitive function generally rather than only early brain development and age-related cognitive dysfunction. In this investigation, we tested potential associations between (n-3) fatty acids in serum phospholipids and major dimensions of cognitive functioning in mid-life adults. Participants were 280 community volunteers between 35 and 54 y of age, free of major neuropsychiatric disorders, and not taking fish oil supplements. Dietary biomarkers were ?-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenonic acid (DHA) in serum phospholipids measured using GC. Five major dimensions of cognitive functioning were assessed with a 75-min battery of neuropsychological tests. In covariate adjusted regression models, higher DHA (mol %) was related to better performance on tests of nonverbal reasoning and mental flexibility, working memory, and vocabulary (P ? 0.05). These associations were generally linear. Associations between DHA and nonverbal reasoning and working memory persisted with additional adjustment for participant education and vocabulary scores (P ? 0.05). Neither EPA nor ALA was notably related to any of the 5 tested dimensions of cognitive performance. Among the 3 key (n-3) PUFA, only DHA is associated with major aspects of cognitive performance in nonpatient adults <55 y old. These findings suggest that DHA is related to brain health throughout the lifespan and may have implications for clinical trials of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:20181791

  15. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. PMID:25395058

  16. Impact of cognitive profile on social functioning in prepubescent females with Turner syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lepage, Jean-François; Dunkin, Bria; Hong, David S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2012-01-01

    Social deficits are prevalent in TS, however, the extent to which these difficulties are secondary to characteristic cognitive impairments is not well known. Here, we sought to establish the relative contribution of executive functions, visuospatial abilities and IQ to social difficulties in young girls with TS. Forty TS girls and 19 typically developing (TD) children were assessed with the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Motor-Free Visual Spatial test (MVPT-3), the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and an IQ test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted with the SRS subscales as outcome variables. In a first step, the cognitive factors were entered (verbal IQ, BRIEF global score, MVPT-3 and age), followed by the group variable in a second step. In comparison to TD, TS were significantly impaired on all main measures. All six regression models with the SRS subscales were significant and revealed that global executive functions explained the largest portion of the variance on all subscales and the total score. Even after controlling for cognitive elements, the group factor still explained a significant portion of the variance of the Social Cognition, Social Awareness, and Autistic Mannerisms subscales. In contrast, the group factor was not a significant predictor of Social Motivation and Social Communication scores. These results suggest that executive dysfunction play a role in social impairments encountered in TS, but also that some specific aspects of social behavior are altered beyond what can be attributed to cognitive difficulties in this population. PMID:22372383

  17. The influence of functional fitness and cognitive training of physical disabilities of institutions.

    PubMed

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  18. Interindividual differences in cognitive flexibility: influence of gray matter volume, functional connectivity and trait impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Müller, Veronika I; Langner, Robert; Cieslik, Edna C; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive flexibility, a core aspect of executive functioning, is required for the speeded shifting between different tasks and sets. Using an interindividual differences approach, we examined whether cognitive flexibility, as assessed by the Delis-Kaplan card-sorting test, is associated with gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) of regions of a core network of multiple cognitive demands as well as with different facets of trait impulsivity. The core multiple-demand network was derived from three large-scale neuroimaging meta-analyses and only included regions that showed consistent associations with sustained attention, working memory as well as inhibitory control. We tested to what extent self-reported impulsivity as well as GMV and resting-state FC in this core network predicted cognitive flexibility independently and incrementally. Our analyses revealed that card-sorting performance correlated positively with GMV of the right anterior insula, FC between bilateral anterior insula and midcingulate cortex/supplementary motor area as well as the impulsivity dimension "Premeditation." Importantly, GMV, FC and impulsivity together accounted for more variance of card-sorting performance than every parameter alone. Our results therefore indicate that various factors contribute individually to cognitive flexibility, underlining the need to search across multiple modalities when aiming to unveil the mechanisms behind executive functioning. PMID:24878823

  19. The Influence of Functional Fitness and Cognitive Training of Physical Disabilities of Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, I-Chen; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Ko-Chia; Hong, Wei-Chin; Lu, Yu-Hsiung

    2015-01-01

    According to an investigation done by Taiwan Ministry of the Interior in 2013, there was more than 90% of the disability care institutions mainly based on life care. Previous studies have shown that individuals can effectively improve physical and cognitive training, improved in independent living and everyday competence. The purpose of the study was to investigate influence of the intervention program applying functional fitness and cognitive training to disabled residents in the institution. The subjects were disabled persons of a care institution in southern Taiwan and were randomly divided into training and control groups, both having 17 subjects. The age of the subjects was between 56 and 98 years with a mean age of 79.08 ± 10.04 years; the subjects of training group implemented 12 weeks of training on physical and cognitive training, while the control group subjects did not have any training program. The results revealed that subjects of the training group have significantly improved their functional shoulder rotation flexibility of left and right anterior hip muscle group flexibility of right, sitting functional balance of left and right, naming, attention, delayed recall, orientation, and Montreal cognitive assessment (MOCA). The study suggested developing physical fitness programs and physical and cognitive prescriptions for the disabled people of the institutions. PMID:25756064

  20. Neuropsychological Functioning in Childhood-Onset Psychosis and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodsky, Kimberly; Willcutt, Erik G.; Davalos, Deana B.; Ross, Randal G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few…