Summary Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhoodcognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitivefunction in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhoodcognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitivefunction in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60–64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30 min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhoodcognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhoodcognition, educational attainment and cognitivefunction in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhoodcognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhoodcognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhoodcognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p = .002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhoodcognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitivefunction. PMID:25001968
Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P.; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav
While it is known that children of schizophrenia parents perform more poorly on tests of cognitivefunctioning than children of normal parents, less certain is the degree to which such deficits predict schizophrenia outcome, whether cognitivefunctioning deteriorates during childhood in preschizophrenia individuals, and whether nongenetic etiologic factors (such as obstetric complications) contribute to these deficits. In the present study,
Tyrone D. Cannon; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Isabelle M. Rosso; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley
Eighty-five Icelandic children (41 girls and 44 boys) participated in a study on the relations among attachment representations, self-confidence, and cognitivefunctioning in childhood and adolescence. Attachment representations and self-confidence were assessed at age 7 on the basis of children’s responses to a separation story and observations made by independent observers. Cognitivefunctioning was measured at ages 7, 9, 12,
Teresa Jacobsen; Wolfgang Edelstein; Volker Hofmann
In the human brain, myelination of axons continues until early adulthood and is thought to be important for the development of cognitivefunctions during childhood. We used diffusion tensor MR imaging and calculated fractional anisotropy, an indicator of myelination and axonal thickness, in children aged between 8 and 18 years. Development of working memory capacity was positively correlated with fractional
Rationale: To provide a better understanding of cognitivefunctioning, motor outcome, behavior and quality of life after childhood stroke and to study the relationship between variables expected to influence rehabilitation and outcome (age at stroke, time elapsed since stroke, lateralization, location and size of lesion).Methods: Children who suffered from stroke between birth and their eighteenth year of life underwent an
Regula Everts; Julia Pavlovic; Franz Kaufmann; Birgit Uhlenberg; Ulrich Seidel; Krassen Nedeltchev; Walter Perrig; Maja Steinlin
Background Animal and human studies suggest that stress experienced early in life has detrimental consequences on brain development, including brain regions involved in cognitivefunction. Cognitive changes are cardinal features of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Early-life trauma is a major risk factor for these disorders. Only few studies have measured the long-term consequences of childhood trauma on cognitivefunction in healthy adults. Methods In this pilot study, we investigated the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and cognitivefunction in 47 healthy adults, who were identified as part of a larger study from the general population in Wichita, KS. We used the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and the Wide-Range-Achievement-Test (WRAT-3) to examine cognitivefunction and individual achievement. Type and severity of childhood trauma was assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression on CANTAB measures with primary predictors (CTQ scales) and potential confounders (age, sex, education, income). Results Specific CTQ scales were significantly associated with measures of cognitivefunction. Emotional abuse was associated with impaired spatial working memory performance. Physical neglect correlated with impaired spatial working memory and pattern recognition memory. Sexual abuse and physical neglect were negatively associated with WRAT-3 scores. However, the association did not reach the significance level of p < 0.01. Conclusions Our results suggest that physical neglect and emotional abuse might be associated with memory deficits in adulthood, which in turn might pose a risk factor for the development of psychopathology. PMID:20630071
Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitivefunction in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204
Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne
Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood. PMID:24602446
Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitivefunctioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitivefunctioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitivefunctioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.
Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))
Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences. PMID:22970320
Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.
and cognition in bipolar disorder of a gene-environment interaction implicating genes known to exert and consequent cognitive disorder. The persistence of this association in late-life is examined. Methods a significant detrimental effect on cognitivefunctioning. Clinical studies show that children subject to abuse
This study examined cognitivefunction in young adults who had epilepsy surgery in childhood. Thirty-seven individuals with medically intractable epilepsy with onset at 16 years or younger who had resective epilepsy surgery at least two years in the past (mean follow-up duration of 8.5 years) were assessed; of these, 13 had seizures within the year prior to the study, and the remainder had none. A comparison group of 16 individuals with childhood-onset intractable epilepsy who had not had surgery, all of whom had experienced at least one seizure in the past 12 months, was also included. The cognitive tests included measures of vocabulary, visuoconstructive ability, memory, and concept formation. Group differences were found only for the vocabulary and verbal memory tests, with the surgical group with seizures having the lowest performance. A subset of the surgical patients had preoperative data available on comparable tests, allowing for an examination of performance over time. Vocabulary scores were higher at follow-up, a finding which was present irrespective of seizure status. The results suggest that after epilepsy surgery in childhood or adolescence, few improvements in cognitive skills related to surgery or seizure outcome are to be expected. PMID:24508594
Background The influence of disease severity on cognitive and adaptive functioning in perinatally infected youth with (PHIV+/C) and without (PHIV+/NoC) a previous AIDS-defining illness (CDC Class C event), compared to perinatally exposed but uninfected youth (PHEU) is not well understood. Methods This was a cross-sectional analysis of cognitive and adaptive functioning in PHIV+/C (n=88), PHIV+/NoC (n=270), and PHEU (n=200) youth aged 7 to 16 years, from a multi-site prospective cohort study. Youth and caregivers completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV) and the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System (ABAS-II) respectively. We compared means and rates of impairment between groups, and examined associations with other psychosocial factors. Results Overall mean scores on measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning were in the low average range for all three groups. After adjustment for covariates, mean full scale IQ (FSIQ) scores were significantly lower for the PHIV+/C group than the PHIV+/NoC and PHEU groups (mean=77.8 vs 83.4 and 83.3, respectively), while no significant differences were observed between the PHEU and PHIV+/NoC groups in any domain. Lower cognitive performance for the PHIV+/C group was primarily attributable to a prior diagnosis of encephalopathy. No significant differences between groups were observed in adaptive functioning. Conclusion For long-term survivors, youth with HIV infection and a prior CDC class C event have higher risk for cognitive but not adaptive impairment regardless of current health status; this finding appears attributable to a previous diagnosis of encephalopathy. Early preventive therapy may be critical in reducing risk of later neurodevelopmental impairments. PMID:22592486
Objectives Few studies have explored the impact of different types of neglect on children’s development. Measures of cognition, language, behavior, and parenting stress were used to explore differences between children experiencing various forms of neglect, as well as to compare children with and without a history of early neglect. Methods Children, ages 3 to 10 years with a history of familial neglect (USN), were compared to children with a history of institutional rearing (IA) and children without a history of neglect using the Differential Abilities Scale, Test of Early Language Development, Child Behavior Checklist, and Parenting Stress Index. Factors predicting child functioning were also explored. Results Compared with youth that were not neglected, children with a history of USN and IA demonstrated lower cognitive and language scores and more behavioral problems. Both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were most common in the USN group. Externalizing behavior problems predicted parenting stress. Higher IQ could be predicted by language scores and an absence of externalizing behavior problems. When comparing the two neglect groups, shorter time spent in a stable environment, lower scores on language skills, and the presence of externalizing behavior predicted lower IQ. Conclusion These findings emphasize the importance of early stable, permanent placement of children who have been in neglectful and pre-adoptive international settings. While an enriching environment may promote resilience, children who have experienced early neglect are vulnerable to cognitive, language and behavioral deficits and neurodevelopmental and behavioral evaluations are required to identify those in need of intervention. PMID:23678396
Spratt, Eve G.; Friedenberg, Samantha L.; Swenson, Cynthia C.; LaRosa, Angela; De Bellis, Michael D.; Macias, Michelle M.; Summer, Andrea P.; Hulsey, Thomas C.; Runyan, Des K.; Brady, Kathleen T.
To determine potential, long-term deficits associated with early childhood diarrhea and parasitic infec- tions, we studied the physical fitness (by the Harvard Step Test) and cognitivefunction (by standardized tests noted below) of 26 children who had complete surveillance for diarrhea in their first 2 years of life and who had continued surveillance until 6-9 years of age in a
DAVID I. GUERRANT; SEAN R. MOORE; ALDO A. M. LIMA; PETER D. PATRICK; JOHN B. SCHORLING; RICHARD L. GUERRANT
Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has…
Gale, Catharine R.; Martyn, Christopher N.; Marriott, Lynne D.; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M.
Study Objectives: (1) to determine the associations of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with behavioral functioning, cognitive test scores, and school grades during middle- to late-childhood, an under-researched developmental period in the SDB literature, and (2) to clarify whether associations between SDB and school grades are mediated by deficits in cognitive or behavioral functioning. Design: Cross-sectional correlative study. Setting: Office/hospital, plus reported functioning at home and at school. Participants: 163 overweight subjects aged 10-16.9 years were divided into 4 groups based upon their obstructive apnea+hypopnea index (AHI) during overnight polysomnography and parent report of snoring: Moderate-Severe OSA (AHI > 5, n = 42), Mild OSA (AHI = 1-5, n = 58), Snorers (AHI < 1 + snoring, n = 26), and No SDB (AHI < 1 and nonsnoring, n = 37). Measurements: Inpatient overnight polysomnography, parent- and self-report of school grades and sleep, parent- and teacher-report of daytime behaviors, and office-based neuropsychological testing. Results: The 4 groups significantly differed in academic grades and parent- and teacher-reported behaviors, particularly inattention and learning problems. These findings remained significant after adjusting for subject sex, race, socioeconomic status, and school night sleep duration. Associations with SDB were confined to reports of behavioral difficulties in real-world situations, and did not extend to office-based neuropsychological tests. Findings from secondary analyses were consistent with, but could not definitively confirm, a causal model in which SDB affects school grades via its impact on behavioral functioning. Conclusions: SDB during middle- to late-childhood is related to important aspects of behavioral functioning, especially inattention and learning difficulties, that may result in significant functional impairment at school. Citation: Beebe DW; Ris MD; Kramer ME; Long E; Amin R. The association between sleep disordered breathing, academic grades, and cognitive and behavioral functioning among overweight subjects during middle to late childhood. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1447-1456. PMID:21102986
Beebe, Dean W.; Ris, M. Douglas; Kramer, Megan E.; Long, Elizabeth; Amin, Raouf
There is considerable interest in the assessment of executive function (EF) in pediatric clinical populations but only a few well-standardized measures exist. We examined EF in 53 children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (31 males, 22 females) and 50 control children (23 males, 27 females) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of…
Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitivefunctions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitivefunction in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157
Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.
There is limited research on the association between participation in cognitively stimulating activity and cognitivefunction in older Hispanics. The main purpose of the present study was to explore whether frequency of cognitive activity and its association with cognitivefunction in Hispanics is comparable to that of non-Hispanics. In a multiethnic cohort of 1571 non-demented older adults, we assessed past and current cognitive activity, availability of cognitive resources in the home in childhood and middle age, and five domains of cognitivefunction. The measures of cognitive activity and cognitive resources had adequate reliability and validity in our subset of Hispanic participants (n = 81). Hispanics reported lower levels of education, lower frequency of cognitive activity and less cognitive resources than non-Hispanic White (n = 1102) and non-Hispanic Black (n = 388) participants. Despite these differences the strength of the association between cognitive activity and cognitivefunction was comparable across ethnic groups. Because Hispanics have lower frequency of cognitive activity, the benefit of cognitive activity to late life cognitivefunction may be potentially larger in this segment of the population. Thus, interventions aimed at increasing frequency of participation in cognitively stimulating activity may offer a potential target to reduce cognitive impairment in Hispanics. PMID:22676914
Marquine, Maria J.; Segawa, Eisuke; Wilson, Robert S.; Bennett, David A.; Barnes, Lisa L.
AimSeveral studies have suggested a beneficial effect of infant breastfeeding on childhoodcognitivefunction. The main objective was to examine whether duration of breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods are related to cognitive performance in 9- to 10-year-old school-aged children in South India.MethodsThe authors examined 514 children from the Mysore Parthenon birth cohort for whom breastfeeding duration (six
Sargoor R Veena; Ghattu V Krishnaveni; Krishnamachari Srinivasan; Andrew K Wills; Jacqueline C Hill; Anura V Kurpad; Sumithra Muthayya; Samuel C Karat; Mahadevu Nalinakshi; Caroline H D Fall
There is growing evidence for the role of negative implicit cognitions in eating disorders as well as other forms of psychopathology.\\u000a What is less well understood are the potential developmental correlates of these biases and whether there is any preferential\\u000a relation between the type of childhood experiences and implicit cognitions for one disorder versus another. This study examined\\u000a the relations
Dense-array (128-channel) electroencephalography (EEG) was used to record event-related potentials (ERPs) from 33 participants between 7 and 16 years of age while they performed a Go\\/Nogo task. The frontal (Nogo) N2 component of the ERP was taken as an index of cognitive control, and examined in relation to both age and independent assessments of executive function (EF), including the Iowa
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…
Recent research suggests that how information is organized in the mind may be important for determining one’s vulnerability to depression. The purpose of the\\u000a current study was to examine potential developmental precursors to a depressotypic cognitive organization (i.e., tightly-connected\\u000a negative schemas and loosely-connected positive schemas) in a sample of young adult men and women (N = 91). The relation between childhood maltreatment
Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with fronto-striatal functional abnormalities during tasks of inhibitory control. In adults with ADHD, however, hardly any functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neurofunctional correlates of the most compromised cognitivefunctions of motor response inhibition and no study has investigated cognitive flexibility. In this study we used fMRI to compare brain function and task-relevant inter-regional functional connectivity between 11 medication-naïve adults with persistent inattentive/hyperactive behaviours, followed up from childhood when they had been diagnosed with ADHD, and 14 age-matched healthy controls during a Stop and a cognitive Switch tasks. Whole-brain regression MR analyses were conducted within patients to correlate symptoms with brain activation. Despite comparable task performance, adults with childhood ADHD showed reduced activation compared to controls in bilateral inferior prefrontal cortex, caudate and thalamus during both tasks, as well as in left parietal lobe during the Switch task. Within patients, the severity of the behavioural symptoms was negatively correlated with more extensive activation of similar regions in fronto-striatal, parietal and cerebellar brain areas. In the Stop task, patients showed reduced inter-regional functional connectivity between right inferior fronto-frontal, fronto-striatal and fronto-parietal neural networks. The findings demonstrate that adults with childhood ADHD and persisting behavioural symptoms show strikingly similar patterns of fronto-striatal and parietal dysfunction to those observed in childhood ADHD during the same tasks of inhibitory control. This suggests that neuro-functional abnormalities in ADHD patients are likely to continue between childhood and early adulthood. PMID:20060129
Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…
Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitivefunctioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…
Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory, inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility). A group of 5-month-olds (n = 201) were classified as short or long lookers. At 24, 36, and 48 months of age, children completed age-appropriate EF tasks. Infant short lookers (i.e., more efficient information processors) exhibited higher EF throughout early childhood as compared to infant long lookers, even after controlling for verbal ability (a potential indicator of intelligence). These findings are discussed in relation to the emergence of executive attention. PMID:23711103
Executive functioning is an umbrella term for several related cognitivefunctions like selective- and sustained attention, working memory, and inhibition. Little is known about the stability of executive functioning during childhood. In this study the longitudinal stability of executive functioning was examined in young twins. The twin design enables to investigate genetic and environmental contributions to (the stability of) executive
Tinca J. C. Polderman; Danielle Posthuma; Leo M. J. De Sonneville; John F. Stins; Frank C. Verhulst; Dorret I. Boomsma
Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitivefunction in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81?924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitivefunction can be useful to take into consideration. PMID:23732878
Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Munoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdes Hernandez, MdelC; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-E; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J
Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.
each of these domains. However, development was shown to keep pace with that exhibited by healthy controls, suggesting no deterioration in function with time since illness. While prediagnosis symptom duration and acute neurologic complications were not predictors of 12-year outcome, meningitis before 12 months of age was significantly related to poorer performance on tasks requiring language and executive skills. Conclusions
Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…
Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood…
This document is the fourth in a series of six annotated bibliographies relevant to early childhood education. Its general subject is cognition, and i t includes seven subdivisions: intelligence, higher mental processes, cognitive style, experimental studies of learning, concept development, perception and recognition, and motivation. Each of the…
Illinois Univ., Urbana, National Lab. on Early Childhood Education.
Cognitivefunction is markedly impaired in most patients with schizophrenia. Antecedents of this impairment are evident in childhood. The cognitive disability is nearly fully developed at the first episode of psychosis in most patients. The contribution of cognitive impairment to outcome in schizophrenia, especially work function, has been established. Preliminary results indicate that cognitivefunction, along with disorganization symptoms, discriminate
This study investigated the relationship between severe childhood abuse and cognitivefunctions in first-episode psychosis patients and geographically-matched controls. Reports of any abuse were associated with lower scores in the executive function domain in the control group. However, in contrast with our hypothesis, no relationships were found amongst cases. PMID:23764407
Sideli, L; Fisher, H L; Russo, M; Murray, R M; Stilo, S A; Wiffen, B D R; O'Connor, J A; Aurora Falcone, M; Pintore, S M; Ferraro, L; Mule', A; La Barbera, D; Morgan, C; Di Forti, M
Chewing does not only crush food to aid swallowing and digestion; it also helps to relieve stress and regulate cognitivefunctions, including alertness and executive function. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving. In addition, it has been shown in the elderly that a decrease in the number of residual teeth is related to dementia onset. These findings suggest a link between chewing and maintaining memory and attention. Recently, many studies regarding the effects of chewing on memory and attention were conducted using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG). When a working memory task was used, the middle frontal gyrus in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activation in addition to producing higher alertness after chewing. Furthermore, using an attentional network test, reaction time shortened, and the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus were both activated for the executive network. From these results, it is suggested that chewing elevates alertness, consequently leading to improvements in cognitive performance. In this review, we introduce findings concerning the effects of chewing on cognitive performance, and discuss the neuronal mechanisms underlying these effects. PMID:24371128
Reports the results of cognitive test performance and early childhood activities in individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, an autosomal recessive disorder associated with elevated prenatal adrenal androgen levels, demonstrating the effects of early exposure to excess androgenizing hormones on sexually dimorphic cognitivefunctioning.…
Improvements in survival for patients who had childhood brain tumors has led to an increasing emphasis on the quality of life for these long-term survivors. Initial survival studies relied on global descriptions of functional abilities to assess cognitive deficits and reported that from 20% to 40% of long-term survivors had obvious partial disability and <10% were severely disabled. Formal neuropsychological
Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD. PMID:24918067
Schulz, Kurt P.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.
Survivors of childhood cancer frequently experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, commonly months to years after treatment for pediatric brain tumors, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or tumors involving the head and neck. Risk factors for cancer-related cognitive dysfunction include young age at diagnosis, treatment with cranial irradiation, use of parenteral or intrathecal methotrexate, female sex, and pre-existing comorbidities. Limiting use and reducing doses and volume of cranial irradiation while intensifying chemotherapy have improved survival and reduced the severity of cognitive dysfunction, especially in leukemia. Nonetheless, problems in core functional domains of attention, processing speed, working memory and visual-motor integration continue to compromise quality of life and performance. We review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and assessment of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, the impact of treatment changes for prevention, and the broad strategies for educational and pharmacological interventions to remediate established cognitive dysfunction following childhood cancer. The increased years of life saved after childhood cancer warrants continued study toward the prevention and remediation of cancer-related cognitive dysfunction, using uniform assessments anchored in functional outcomes. PMID:25080574
Objective Both child maltreatment and childhood injuries affect large numbers of children each year. In a seminal paper, Peterson and Brown (1994) drew parallels in the antecedents of both forms of harm and suggested a more unified approach in research efforts and intervention development. This article provides a unified cognitive model that would both guide research and inform interventions directed
Sleep problems are very prevalent during childhood and may have adverse developmental impact. The efficacy of a number of cognitive–behavioral interventions for the most prevalent problems such as difficulty falling asleep and night-wakings has been repeatedly demonstrated with relatively rapid outcomes and high success rates. Preventive interventions in infancy have shown some promise in lowering the rates of sleep problems
Although animal evidence indicates that early life trauma results in pervasive hippocampal deficits underlying spatial and cognitive impairment, visuo-spatial data from adult humans with early childhood adversity are lacking. We administered 4 tests of visuo-spatial ability from the Cambridge Neuorpsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to adults with a history of childhood trauma (measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and a matched sample of healthy controls (trauma/control?=?27/28). We observed a significant effect of trauma history on spatial/pattern learning. These effects could not be accounted for by adverse adult experiences, and were sex-specific, with prior adversity improving performance in men but worsening performance in women, relative to controls. Limitations include the small sample size and reliance of our study design on a retrospective, self report measure. Our results suggest that early adversity can lead to specific and pervasive deficits in adult cognitivefunction. PMID:24553877
Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Thomas, Kevin G F; van der Honk, Jack; Stein, Dan J
Complicated grief (CG) is increasingly recognized as a debilitating outcome of bereavement. Given the intensity of the stressor, its chronicity, and its association with depression, it is important to know the impact CG may have on cognitivefunctioning. This exploratory and descriptive study examined global and domain-specific cognitivefunctioning in a help-seeking sample of individuals with CG (n = 335) compared to a separately ascertained control sample (n = 250). Cognitivefunctioning was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Controlling for age, sex and education effects, CG participants had lower total MoCA, visuospatial and attention scores relative to control participants. The two groups did not differ significantly in the domains of executive function, language, memory or orientation. Age, sex, and education accounted for much of the variance in MoCA scores, while CG severity and chronicity accounted for a very small percentage of MoCA score variance. Major depression was not a significant predictor of MoCA scores. This study is consistent with previous work demonstrating lower attention and global cognitive performance in individuals with CG compared to control participants. This study newly identifies the visuospatial domain as a target for future studies investigating cognitivefunctioning in CG. PMID:25088285
Hall, Charles A; Reynolds, Charles F; Butters, Meryl; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Lebowitz, Barry D; Begley, Amy; Mauro, Christine; Shear, M Katherine
Increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive remediation is needed to facilitate development of intervention strategies for childhood cancer survivors experiencing cognitive late effects. Accordingly, a pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with 14 cancer survivors (12.02 ± 0.09 years old), who participated in a cognitive remediation clinical trial, and 28 healthy children (12.7 ± 0.6 years old). The ventral visual areas, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, and left inferior frontal cortex were significantly activated in the healthy participants during a continuous performance task. In survivors, brain activation in these regions was diminished at baseline, and increased upon completion of remediation and at a 6-month follow-up. The fMRI activation index for each region of interest was inversely associated with the Conners' Clinical Competence Index (p<.01). The pilot study suggests that fMRI is useful in evaluating neural responses to cognitive remediation. PMID:23079152
Zou, Ping; Li, Yimei; Conklin, Heather M.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Butler, Robert W.; Ogg, Robert J.
Micronutrient deficiencies, especially those related to iodine and iron, are linked to different cognitive impairments, as well as to potential long-term behavioral changes. Among the cognitive impairments caused by iron deficiency, those referring to attention span, intelligence, and sensory perception functions are mainly cited, as well as those associated with emotions and behavior, often directly related to the presence of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, iron deficiency without anemia may cause cognitive disturbances. At present, the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia is 2%–6% among European children. Given the importance of iron deficiency relative to proper cognitive development and the alterations that can persist through adulthood as a result of this deficiency, the objective of this study was to review the current state of knowledge about this health problem. The relevance of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, the distinction between the cognitive consequences of iron deficiency and those affecting specifically cognitive development, and the debate about the utility of iron supplements are the most relevant and controversial topics. Despite there being methodological differences among studies, there is some evidence that iron supplementation improves cognitivefunctions. Nevertheless, this must be confirmed by means of adequate follow-up studies among different groups.
Childhood obesity is a devastating chronic disease with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Successful prevention and treatment of child- hood obesity is dependent on increasing the physical activity of obese youth; however, motivating the obese child to participate in physical activity is difficult. Structured and vigorous, aerobic-type activities are often prescribed, but obese children are often noncompliant. Obese and non-obese children
Melinda S. Sothern; J. Mark Loftin; Robert M. Suskind; John N. Udall; Uwe Blecker
The NIH Toolbox CognitiveFunction Battery (CFB) includes 7 tests covering 8 cognitive abilities considered to be important in adaptive functioning across the lifespan (from early childhood to late adulthood). Here we present data on psychometric characteristics in children (N = 208; ages 3–15 years) of a total summary score and composite scores reflecting two major types of cognitive abilities: “crystallized” (more dependent upon past learning experiences) and “fluid” (capacity for new learning and information processing in novel situations). Both types of cognition are considered important in everyday functioning, but are thought to be differently affected by brain health status throughout life, from early childhood through older adulthood. All three Toolbox composite scores showed excellent test-retest reliability, robust developmental effects across the childhood age range considered here, and strong correlations with established, “gold standard” measures of similar abilities. Additional preliminary evidence of validity includes significant associations between all three Toolbox composite scores and maternal reports of children’s health status and school performance. PMID:23952206
Akshoomoff, Natacha; Beaumont, Jennifer L.; Bauer, Patricia J.; Dikmen, Sureyya; Gershon, Richard; Mungas, Dan; Slotkin, Jerry; Tulsky, David; Weintraub, Sandra; Zelazzo, Philip; Heaton, Robert K.
of research investigating the sequelae of early childhood neglect underscores that such adverse experiences about the mechanisms through which early experience influences later cog- nitive functioning in humans, 2012; Hanson et al., 2010). Some evidence for the effects of early childhood neglect on cognitive
In this study, we used surface-based morphometry to examine whether age-related changes in gray matter tissue thickness and depth of sulcal regions at high spatial resolution across the cortex differed in children with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) compared to healthy control subjects. In addition, the possibility of variable brain-cognition relationships in the CAE compared to the control group was investigated. The main findings of this study are as follows: (1) From the developmental perspective, children with CAE did not demonstrate the normal regional age-related changes involving a decrease in cortical thickness and increase in sulcal depth. (2) None of the seizure variables, including age of onset, seizure frequency, and AEDs had a significant effect on the association between age and cortical morphometry measures in the CAE population. (3) Even though the CAE group had mean VIQ and PIQ scores in the average range, our findings suggest that they use different brain regions to perform these cognitivefunctions compared to healthy controls. This first study on brain morphometry and cognition in children with childhood absence seizures has important implications for advancing our understanding of brain development and cognitive comorbidity in CAE, as well as for revisiting the clinical notion that CAE is a benign disorder. PMID:21391248
Tosun, Duygu; Siddarth, Prabha; Toga, Arthur W.; Hermann, Bruce; Caplan, Rochelle
Abstract Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitivefunction were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation. PMID:23025803
The current study tests if the type of children's daily main meal (slow versus fast food) mediates the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with cognitive ability and cognitive growth in childhood. A Scottish birth cohort (Growing Up in Scotland) was assessed at ages 3 (N = 4512) and 5 years (N = 3833) on cognitive ability (i.e. vocabulary…
In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitivefunctioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478
Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S
BackgroundChildhood neuromotor dysfunction is a risk factor for schizophrenia, a disorder in which cognitive deficits are prominent. The relationship between early neurodevelopment and adult cognition in schizophrenia remains unclear.
G. K. Murray; P. B. Jones; K. Moilanen; J. Veijola; J. Miettunen; T. D. Cannon; M. Isohanni
Deficits in cognitivefunction may impact one's ability to attend to stimuli, think clearly, reason, and remember. Impaired cognitivefunction is a common complaint among older women presenting for treatment in both mental health and medical care settings, and differential diagnosis of type and extent of cognitive impairment is important for appropriate treatment planning and prognosis. Although overall gender differences
ObjectiveTo evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).
Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…
BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ?65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause. PMID:19468050
The interaction of genetic and environmental factors may affect the course and development of psychotic disorders. We examined whether the effects of childhood trauma on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia were moderated by the Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val(158)Met polymorphism, a common genetic variant known to affect cognition and prefrontal dopamine levels. Participants were 429 schizophrenia/schizoaffective cases from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank (ASRB). Cognitive performance was assessed using the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), Letter Number Sequencing (LNS) test, and the Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR). Hierarchical regression was used to test the main effects and additive interaction effects of genotype and childhood trauma in the domains of physical abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect, on cognition and symptom profiles of clinical cases. Consistent with previous findings, COMT Val homozygotes performed worse on cognitive measures in the absence of childhood adversity. In addition, a significant interaction between COMT genotype and physical abuse was associated with better executive function in Val homozygotes, relative to those of the same genotype with no history of abuse. Finally, the severity of positive symptoms was greater in Met carriers who had experienced physical abuse, and the severity of negative symptoms in Met carriers was greater in the presence of emotional neglect. These results suggest that the possible epigenetic modulation of the expression of the COMT Val(158)Met polymorphism and consequent effects on cognition and symptoms in schizophrenia, with worse outcomes associated with adverse childhood experiences in Met carriers. PMID:24252819
This study examined the dynamics of cognitive abilities and academic achievement from childhood to early adulthood. Predictions about time-dependent "coupling" relations between cognition and achievement based on R. B. Cattell's (1971, 1987) investment hypothesis were evaluated using linear dynamic models applied to longitudinal data (N=672).…
Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was
Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell
The aim of the present paper is to summarize the research during the past decade regarding cognitivefunctioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness has been frequently reported. The findings are shown in different cognitive domains, such as executive functions, attention, memory and psychomotor speed. Fewer reports have investigated cognitivefunctioning in MDD in longitudinal studies. Some longitudinal reports show that the impairment observed in the acute phase of illness may be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. However, findings regarding cognitivefunctioning in depression are divergent. Factors that might contribute to the divergent findings, such as depression subtype, severity and comorbidity are discussed. Clinical implications and focus of future research directions is highlighted.In conclusion, depression is associated with cognitive impairment in the acute phase of illness, and some reports indicate that this impairment might be long lasting despite symptom reduction and recovery. PMID:19826496
Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitivefunction. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies. PMID:20140271
Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927
Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927
Romero-Martinez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Catala-Minana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis
The global epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity may have detrimental implications for young people’s cognitivefunction and academic achievement. This prospective study investigated whether childhood motor function predicts later academic achievement via physical activity, fitness, and obesity. The study sample included 8,061 children from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, which contains data about parent-reported motor function at age 8 y and self-reported physical activity, predicted cardiorespiratory fitness (cycle ergometer test), obesity (body weight and height), and academic achievement (grades) at age 16 y. Structural equation models with unstandardized (B) and standardized (?) coefficients were used to test whether, and to what extent, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity at age 16 mediated the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Physical activity was associated with a higher grade-point average, and obesity was associated with a lower grade-point average in adolescence. Furthermore, compromised motor function in childhood had a negative indirect effect on adolescents’ academic achievement via physical inactivity (B = –0.023, 95% confidence interval = –0.031, –0.015) and obesity (B = –0.025, 95% confidence interval = –0.039, –0.011), but not via cardiorespiratory fitness. These results suggest that physical activity and obesity may mediate the association between childhood motor function and adolescents’ academic achievement. Compromised motor function in childhood may represent an important factor driving the effects of obesity and physical inactivity on academic underachievement. PMID:23277558
In summary, we have reviewed rCBF data in humans that suggest that mesoprefrontal dopaminergic activity is involved in human cognition. In patients with Parkinson's disease and possibly in patients with schizophrenia, prefrontal physiological activation during a cognitive task that appears to depend on prefrontal neural systems correlates positively with cognitive performance on the task and with clinical signs of dopaminergic function. It may be possible in the future to examine prefrontal dopamine metabolism directly during prefrontal cognition using positron emission tomography and tracers such as F-18 DOPA. 21 references.
Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitivefunctioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and
Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitivefunctioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according
Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli
Theorists have long suggested that joint caregiver-child reminiscence is functional, in that it is useful, adaptive, and can be utilised to achieve a variety of goals in everyday life. In the present study we investigated caregiver reports of the functions of joint reminiscence across early childhood. Participants were 203 parents or other guardians of 2-6-year-old children. Caregivers completed the Caregiver-child Reminiscence Scale (CRS) designed to tap functions of joint reminiscence. Our results indicated that caregivers reported frequently talking about past experiences with their children. Exploratory factor analysis revealed seven functions of joint reminiscence: Emotion Regulation, Directive, Positive Emotionality, Individual Self in Relation to Others, Conversation, Cognitive Skills, and Peer Relationships. Although some of these functions map directly onto adult-like functions outlined in the theoretical literature, others are unique to the context of joint reminiscence and reflect developmental goals of the early childhood period. PMID:19253157
Recent data suggests that a history of childhood maltreatment is associated with reductions in hippocampal volume in healthy adults. Because this association is also evident in adults with psychiatric illness, it has been suggested that reductions in hippocampal volume associated with childhood maltreatment may be a risk factor for psychiatric illness. Such an interpretation suggests that healthy adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more resilient to the effects of maltreatment. Current models of resilience suggest, however, that resiliency should be measured across multiple domains of functioning. The present study sought to investigate childhood maltreatment in relationship to hippocampal volumes in healthy adults and to address the question of whether the putative resiliency extends to other domains of functioning. Sixty-seven healthy Caucasian adults were assessed for a history of childhood emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical abuse and received high resolution structural MR imaging scans. Participants with and without histories of abuse or neglect were compared on measures of total hippocampal volume, general cognitive ability and subclinical psychopathology. Our results suggest that childhood emotional abuse is associated with reduced hippocampus volume in males, but not in females. However, emotional abuse was associated with higher levels of subclinical psychopathology in both males and females. These data suggest that while females may be more resilient to the neurological effects of childhood maltreatment, they are not more resilient to the psychiatric symptoms associated with childhood maltreatment. Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these different levels of resilience. PMID:23726669
This study tested the hypothesis that treatment of childhood memories is an effective way to change personality disorder related schemas and psychopathology in cognitive therapy for personality disorders. To test this hypothesis, a crossover design was used to compare the effectiveness of methods focusing on the present and methods focusing on childhood memories. After the exploration period, the therapist focused
A study was conducted to compare the relative usefulness of family-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) against family-based relaxation treatment for children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Results showed that children with early childhood-onset OCD benefited from the CBT program as it effectively decreased OCD symptoms and helped…
Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.; Coyne, Lisa; Ale, Chelsea; Prezeworski, Amy; Himle, Michael; Compton, Scott; Leonard, Henrietta L.
The increase in the prevalence of overweight children (ages 6–13 years) in the United States over the past two decades is likely to result in adverse public health consequences. We use data from the children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort to investigate an additional consequence of childhood overweight – its effect on relative cognitive development. To
Childhood depressive conditions have been explored from multiple theoretical approaches but with few empirical attempts to address the interrelationships among these different domains and their combined effects. In the present study, the authors examined different pathways through which social, cognitive, and genetic risk factors may be expressed…
Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Gregory, Alice M.; McGuffin, Peter; Eley, Thalia C.
Objective: To evaluate the relative efficacy of (1) individual cognitive-behavioral family-based therapy (CBFT); (2) group CBFT; and (3) a waitlist control group in the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Method: This study, conducted at a university clinic in Brisbane, Australia, involved 77 children and adolescents with…
Barrett, Paula; Healy-Farrell, Lara; March, John S.
Childhood autism has been reclassified in the DSM-III. This reclassification is seen as the result of significant advances in the conceptualization of the disorder that have accrued over the last 20 yrs. It is argued, from a historical viewpoint, that experimental research focused on perceptual, cognitive, and language development has contributed to the transformation of autism from a psychosis to
This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…
MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John
Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…
We examined whether childhoodcognitive ability was associated with two mental health outcomes at age 53 years: the 28 item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) as a measure of internalising symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the CAGE screen for potential alcohol abuse as an externalising disorder. A total of 1875 participants were included from the Medical Research Council National Survey
Stephani L. Hatch; Peter B. Jones; Diana Kuh; Rebecca Hardy; Michael E. J. Wadsworth; Marcus Richards
Research examining the development of social cognition has largely been divided into two areas: infant perception of intentional agents, and preschoolers' understanding of others' mental states and beliefs (theory of mind). Many researchers have suggested that there is continuity in social cognitive development such that the abilities observed in…
Cognitive assessment of young children contributes to high-stakes decisions because results are often used to determine eligibility for early intervention and special education. Previous reviews of cognitive measures for young children highlighted concerns regarding adequacy of standardization samples, steep item gradients, and insufficient floors…
Williams, Marian E.; Sando, Lara; Soles, Tamara Glen
OBJECTIVES. To explore the relationship between cognitivefunctions, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to the ICD-10 criteria, were enrolled from the Department of Psychiatry of 2 postgraduate hospitals in Kolkata, India. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index, and a cognitive test battery were administered. RESULTS. Regarding the 100 patients recruited into the study, 4 subtests (self-care, occupational role, social role, and family role) of the social functioning were found to be significantly correlated with cognitivefunctions. Cognitivefunction battery performance scores were more inversely correlated with negative symptoms than with positive symptoms. CONCLUSION. Positive and negative symptoms along with verbal fluency were able to predict social functioning. PMID:23807631
Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466
This course is an introduction to cognitive development focusing on children's understanding of objects, agents, and causality. Students develop a critical understanding of experimental design and how developmental research ...
Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitivefunctioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194
Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C
Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191
Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078.) PMID:18974308
Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.
Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments. PMID:22356180
Survivors of childhood cancer whose malignancy and/or treatment involved the central nervous system may demonstrate a consistent pattern of neurocognitive deficits. The present study evaluated a randomized clinical trial of the Cognitive Remediation Program (CRP). Participants were 6- to 17-year-old survivors of childhood cancer (N = 161; 35%…
Butler, Robert W.; Copeland, Donna R.; Fairclough, Diane L.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Katz, Ernest R.; Kazak, Anne E.; Noll, Robert B.; Patel, Sunita K.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.
Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been\\u000a proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitivefunction through behavioral interventions\\u000a or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive\\u000a and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning
Giuseppe Pichierri; Peter Wolf; Kurt Murer; Eling D de Bruin
Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and ado- lescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake in- hibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis
John T. Walkup; Anne Marie Albano; John Piacentini; Boris Birmaher; Scott N. Compton; Joel T. Sherrill; Golda S. Ginsburg; Moira A. Rynn; James McCracken; Bruce Waslick; Satish Iyengar; John S. March; Philip C. Kendall
A path model of genetic and family environmental transmission was fitted to published twin correlations and to general cognitive ability data from adoptive and nonadoptive families in which children were tested yearly through the fourth year. Longitudinal genetic correlations from infancy to adulthood were modeled explicitly, as were effects of…
Military interest in the effects of nutritional factors on cognitivefunction has stimulated considerable research on a variety of food constituents. This paper will review the research on the amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine, caffeine and carbohydrate. It will focus on research that addresses the potential utility of these compounds in military applications, particularly the acute, as opposed to chronic,
Summary Consequences of obesity for mental health and cognitive development are not established to the same degree as those for chronic diseases. This study aims to document the interrelationships between body weight, self-esteem and school performance in childhood. Height and weight measurements and self-report of self-esteem, diet quality and physical activity of 4945 grade 5 students were linked with standardized
A childhood history of maltreatment is a distal risk factor for depression, although less research has examined the proximal\\u000a mechanisms for this relation. To address this question, three theoretically derived mechanisms were tested as mediators: an\\u000a insecure attachment style, a negative cognitive style, and negative life events. These mediating processes were examined in\\u000a two prospective studies. In the first, young
The global epidemic of childhood obesity has become a major public health concern. Yet, evidence regarding the association between childhood obesity and cognitive health has remained scarce. This study examined the relationship between obesity and cognitive control using neuroelectric and behavioral measures of action monitoring in preadolescent children. Healthy weight and obese children performed compatible and incompatible stimulus-response conditions of a modified flanker task, while task performance and the error-related negativity (ERN) were assessed. Analyses revealed that obese children exhibited a longer reaction time (RT) relative to healthy weight children for the incompatible condition, whereas no such difference was observed for the compatible condition. Further, obese children had smaller ERN amplitude relative to healthy weight children with lower post-error response accuracy. In addition, healthy weight children maintained post-error response accuracy between the compatible and incompatible conditions with decreased ERN amplitude in the incompatible condition, whereas obese children exhibited lower post-error response accuracy for the incompatible relative to the compatible condition with no change in ERN amplitude between the compatibility conditions. These results suggest that childhood obesity is associated with a decreased ability to modulate the cognitive control network, involving the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, which supports action monitoring. PMID:23146965
Kamijo, Keita; Pontifex, Matthew B; Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Scudder, Mark R; Drollette, Eric S; Evans, Ellen M; Castelli, Darla M; Hillman, Charles H
Neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogen compounds (found in soy) have been demonstrated in animal research and cell culture studies. In particular, phytoestrogens have been shown to reduce Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related pathology, potentially alleviating risk of AD progression. In addition to their antioxidant properties, soy products also have the ability to affect cognition via interaction with estrogen receptors. However, observational studies and randomised controlled trials in humans have resulted in inconclusive findings within this domain. There are several possible reasons for these discrepant data. Studies which report no effect of phytoestrogens on cognition have mainly been carried out in European cohorts, with an average low dietary consumption. In contrast, investigation of Asian populations, with a higher general intake of tofu (a non-fermented soy product) have shown negative associations with cognitivefunction in those over the age of 65. Consideration of type of soy product is important, as in the latter sample, protective effects of tempe (fermented soy) were also observed. Limited data provide evidence that effects of phytoestrogens on cognition may be modified by dosage, duration of consumption and cognitive test used. Additionally, characteristics of the study population including age, gender, ethnicity and menopausal status appear to be mediating variables. Phytoestrogen treatment interventions have also shown time-limited positive effects on cognition. These findings are consistent with estrogen treatment studies, where initial positive short-term cognitive effects may occur, which reverse with long-term continuous use in elderly women. Well controlled, large scale studies are needed to assess the effects of phytoestrogens on the aging brain and provide further understanding of this association. PMID:24486046
Objective: To determine the neurocognitive deficits associated with newly diagnosed untreated childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), develop a model describing the factorial structure of items measuring academic achievement and 3 neuropsychological constructs, and determine short-term differential neuropsychological effects on attention among ethosuximide, valproic acid, and lamotrigine. Methods: Subjects with newly diagnosed CAE entering a double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial had neuropsychological testing including assessments of general intellectual functioning, attention, memory, executive function, and achievement. Attention was reassessed at the week 16–20 visit. Results: At study entry, 36% of the cohort exhibited attention deficits despite otherwise intact neurocognitive functioning. Structural equation modeling of baseline neuropsychological data revealed a direct sequential effect among attention, memory, executive function, and academic achievement. At the week 16–20 visit, attention deficits persisted even if seizure freedom was attained. More subjects receiving valproic acid (49%) had attention deficits than subjects receiving ethosuximide (32%) or lamotrigine (24%) (p = 0.0006). Parental assessment did not reliably detect attention deficits before or after treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Children with CAE have a high rate of pretreatment attentional deficits that persist despite seizure freedom. Rates are disproportionately higher for valproic acid treatment compared with ethosuximide or lamotrigine. Parents do not recognize these attentional deficits. These deficits present a threat to academic achievement. Vigilant cognitive and behavioral assessment of these children is warranted. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that valproic acid is associated with more significant attentional dysfunction than ethosuximide or lamotrigine in children with newly diagnosed CAE. PMID:24089388
The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitivefunctions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645
The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitivefunctions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645
Background More than 2.9 million serum vitamin B12 tests were performed in 2010 in Ontario at a cost of $40 million. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been associated with a few neurocognitive disorders. Objective To determine the clinical utility of B12 testing in patients with suspected dementia or cognitive decline. Methods Three questions were addressed: Is there an association between vitamin B12 deficiency and the onset of dementia or cognitive decline? Does treatment with vitamin B12 supplementation improve cognitivefunction in patients with dementia or cognitive decline and vitamin B12 deficiency? What is the effectiveness of oral versus parenteral vitamin B12 supplementation in those with confirmed vitamin B12 deficiency? A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, Embase, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, from January 2002 until August 2012. Results Eighteen studies (7 systematic reviews and 11 observational studies) were identified to address the question of the association between B12 and the onset of dementia. Four systematic reviews were identified to address the question of the treatment of B12 on cognitivefunction. Finally, 3 randomized controlled trials were identified that compared oral B12 to intramuscular B12. Conclusions Based on very low quality evidence, there does appear to be an association between elevated plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamins) and the onset of dementia. Based on moderate quality evidence, but with less than optimal duration of follow-up, treatment with B12 supplementation does not appreciably change cognitivefunction. Based on low to moderate quality of evidence, treatment with vitamin B12 and folate in patients with mild cognitive impairment seems to slow the rate of brain atrophy. Based on moderate quality evidence, oral vitamin B12 is as effective as parenteral vitamin B12 in patients with confirmed B12 deficiency. Plain Language Summary Low levels of vitamin B12 have been associated with neurocognitive disorders. This evidence-based analysis assessed the usefulness of serum vitamin B12 testing as it relates to brain function. This review found very low quality evidence that suggests a connection between high plasma homocysteine levels (a by-product of B vitamin metabolism in the body) and the onset of dementia. Moderate quality of evidence indicates treatment with vitamin B12 does not improve brain function. Moderate quality of evidence also indicates treatment using oral vitamin B12 supplements is as effective as injections of vitamin B12. PMID:24379897
Recent research on recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse has shown that there are at least two types of recovered memory experiences: those that are gradually recovered within the context of suggestive therapy and those that are spontaneously recovered, without extensive prompting or explicit attempts to reconstruct the past. These recovered memory experiences have different origins, with people who recover memories through suggestive therapy being more prone to forming false memories, and with people who report spontaneously recovered memories being more prone to forgetting prior instances of remembering. Additionally, the two types of recovered memory experiences are linked to differences in corroborative evidence, implying that memories recovered spontaneously, outside of suggestive therapy, are more likely to correspond to genuine abuse events. This chapter highlights the background of the recovered memory debate, summarizes recent studies with individuals reporting recovered memory experiences and points towards applications in the justice system and in clinical practice. PMID:22303767
The present study explored South Korean prospective early childhood educators' situation-specific meta-cognitive knowledge about five problem-solving strategies, investigating whether situated strategic knowledge contributed to teacher self-efficacy domains. Overall, pre-service teachers with higher meta-cognitive knowledge were found to have…
from early childhood into midadolescence) with ADHDfrom childhood ADHD status through early adulthood. Still,ADHD (diagnosed in childhood) function academically as they move from childhood into late adolescence/early
We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional…
We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing
Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…
By middle childhood, the same genetic factors are largely responsible for individual differences in verbal and nonverbal abilities, suggesting a genetic basis for general cognitive ability ("g"). Our previous work on verbal and nonverbal abilities throughout the normal range of variation during infancy and early childhood suggests that genetic influences show domain-specific as well as domain-general effects, implying that the switch to nearly complete domain-general effects occurs later in development. Much less is known about the genetic structure of low cognitive performance, although our previous work has shown that a composite measure of low "g" is highly heritable at 2, 3 and 4 years of age. We report the first multivariate, longitudinal analyses of low verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities (defined as the lowest 10% of the distribution) at 2, 3 and 4 years of age using data from 9026 pairs of UK twins assessed by their parents as part of the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Domain-general genetic influences increased significantly from 2 to 3 to 4 years. Although the phenotypic polychoric correlation between low verbal and low nonverbal ability was similar at 2, 3 and 4 years (.36,.43,.35), the genetic contribution to the phenotypic correlation increased dramatically (.37,.47,.76), with a corresponding decrease in the comorbid influence of shared environment (.61,.44,.35). We conclude that for low ability, as well as for normal variation in ability, genetic "g" emerges during early childhood but is not fully developed until middle childhood. PMID:15169599
Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:
Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball
Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder which can result in renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular disease. Patients are at increased risk of stroke and neuroimaging studies note cerebrovascular pathology. This study provides a cognitive profile of a cohort of individuals with Fabry disease and investigates the impact of pain, age, renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular functioning on cognition and psychological functioning. Seventeen Fabry patients (12 males) with ages ranging 25 to 60 years (M = 46.6+11.8), and 15 age-matched healthy controls (M = 46.2+12.7) were administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Fabry males demonstrated slower speed of information processing, reduced performance on measures of executive functions (verbal generation, reasoning, problem solving, perseveration), were more likely to show clinically significant reductions, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conversely, Fabry females performed at a similar level to controls. Correlational analyses indicated a link between cognitive and clinical measures of disease severity. PMID:25319043
Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Tchan, Michel C; Knopman, Alex A; Menzies, Graham C; Batchelor, Jennifer; Sillence, David O
Several approaches to the treatment of cognitive impairments and their functional consequences for persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder have been developed in recent years. This article focuses on the use of Cognitive adaptation training (CAT), a psychosocial intervention that seeks to bypass cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcomes. CAT relies on the use
Overall cognitive status can vary across an individual's life span in response to factors that promote either positive or negative neuroplasticity. Positive neuroplasticity refers to he physiological ability of the brain to form and strengthen dendritic connections, produce beneficial morphological changes, and increase cognitive reserve. Negative neuroplasticity refers to the same physiological ability of t he brain to atrophy and weaken dendritic connections, produce detrimental morphological changes, and decrease cognitive reserve. Factors that promote positive neuroplasticity include physical activity, education, social interaction, intellectual pursuits, and cognitive remediation. Factors that promote negative neuroplasticity include poor health, poor sleep hygiene, poor nutrition, substance abuse, and depression and anxiety. Implications for promoting positive neuroplasticity and avoiding negative neuroplasticity across the life span are emphasized to facilitate optimal cognitive health and ensure successful cognitive aging. PMID:20349891
Vance, David E; Roberson, Anthony J; McGuinness, Teena M; Fazeli, Pariya L
Background Polymorphisms in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and exposure to early childhood adversities (CA) are independently associated with individual differences in cognitive and emotional processing. Whether these two factors interact to influence cognitive and emotional processing is not known. Methodology and Principal Findings We used a sample of 238 adolescents from a community study characterised by the presence of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR (LL, LS, SS) and the presence or absence of exposure to CA before 6 years of age. We measured cognitive and emotional processing using a set of neuropsychological tasks selected predominantly from the CANTAB® battery. We found that adolescents homozygous for the short allele (SS) of 5-HTTLPR and exposed to CA were worse at classifying negative and neutral stimuli and made more errors in response to ambiguous negative feedback. In addition, cognitive and emotional processing deficits were associated with diagnoses of anxiety and/or depressions. Conclusion and Significance Cognitive and emotional processing deficits may act as a transdiagnostic intermediate marker for anxiety and depressive disorders in genetically susceptible individuals exposed to CA. PMID:23209555
Owens, Matthew; Goodyer, Ian M.; Wilkinson, Paul; Bhardwaj, Anupam; Abbott, Rosemary; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie; Jones, Peter B.; Walsh, Nicholas D.; Ban, Maria; Sahakian, Barbara J.
Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive
Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger
Background. While many studies have investigated cognitive impairments in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, very few have closely evaluated presurgical cognitivefunctioning of bypass candidates. Methods. A battery of neuropsychologic tests was ad- ministered to a consecutive series of patients listed for bypass surgery (n 109). Cognitivefunction of bypass candidates was compared with that of a healthy
Christine S. Ernest; Barbara M. Murphy; Marian U. C. Worcester; Rosemary O. Higgins; Peter C. Elliott; Alan J. Goble; Michael R. Le Grande; James Tatoulis
Background\\/Aim: The current knowledge of how self-appraised memory and cognitivefunction relates to informant reports and neuropsychological performances in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is limited. Methods: Sixty-nine older community-dwelling subjects with MCI and 86 adults with normal cognition (NC) were evaluated on self-appraised (Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire) and objective performance of memory and cognitivefunction (Mini-Mental State Examination, Fuld Object Memory
It is widely accepted that the rapid rate of growth of the brain during the last third of gestation and the early postnatal\\u000a stage makes it vulnerable to an inadequate diet, although brain development continues into adulthood and micronutrient status\\u000a can influence functioning beyond infancy. A deficiency of various micro-nutrients in developing countries has been found to\\u000a have long-term implication
Aims: To determine cognitive and educational attainment in adults with end stage renal disease (ESRD) since childhood. Methods: All Dutch patients with onset of ESRD at age 0–14 years between 1972 and 1992, who were born before 1979, were asked to perform the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Educational attainment was assessed by a questionnaire. Determinants of cognitive performance were measured by reviewing medical charts in 37 hospitals. Data on cognition were compared to those of age matched controls who cooperated in the revision of the Dutch WAIS. National Dutch Statistics data were used to compare educational attainment. Results: Data on intelligence and schooling were acquired in 126 of 187 patients (67%) and data on determinants of outcome in all patients. Clinical characteristics of participants and non-participants were comparable. Educational attainment of patients was low compared to the Dutch standard. Patient mean full scale IQ, performal IQ, and verbal IQ were 10.4, 9.2, and 9.7 points lower, respectively, compared to those of 36 controls. The lowest scores were observed in tasks which require concentration, memory, and general knowledge. Patients currently on dialysis and transplanted patients had similar IQ scores. Cumulative dialysis duration of more than four years was associated with a 3.4 times higher chance of having a full scale IQ of 1 SD below the mean. Conclusion: ESRD of childhood is associated with an impaired cognitive and educational attainment in adulthood. Long duration of dialysis may enhance intellectual impairment, which may not be reversible after renal transplantation. PMID:12390905
Groothoff, J; Grootenhuis, M; Dommerholt, A; Gruppen, M; Offringa, M; Heymans, H
We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict…
Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Executive cognitivefunctions (ECFs) seem important for motivating change and self-regulation of problem drinking. Evidence for executive cognitive deficits have been found among heavy-drinking college students. Although college students who abuse alcohol often experience a variety of negative consequences related to their drinking behavior, executive cognitive dysfunction may interfere with recognizing consequences and responding skillfully to avoid future harm. Fifty
Arthur W. Blume; G. Alan Marlatt; Karen B. Schmaling
Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitivefunction observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries. PMID:24598045
Once a child is diagnosed with epilepsy, a primary concern is whether or not the child's behavior and cognitive abilities will be affected by the disease, by the drug prescribed for seizure control, or both. Direct cognitive effects by the epileptic condition have been described. On the other hand, cognitive effects in epilepsy have been attributed to antiepileptic drug therapy. Valproate is an antiepileptic drug of choice in managing the commonest childhood epilepsy syndromes. Although frequently prescribed in pediatric neurology practice, there have been relatively few studies investigating the cognitive effects of valproate therapy in children. Cognitive effects of valproate reported in normal adult volunteers and in adults with epilepsy cannot be generalized to the pediatric population. The results of investigations on children are less conclusive. Guidelines for antiepileptic drug trials in children have recently been formulated. Carefully designed studies are required in determining the cognitive effects of valproate in the pediatric population. Neuropsychological measures that are likely to assess subtle changes in higher brain functions crucial to learning in children should be employed. We propose a test battery to assess for cognitive changes associated with anticonvulsant therapy in children. PMID:8807423
Legarda, S B; Booth, M P; Fennell, E B; Maria, B L
Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…
Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their inter-relationships in predicting variations in the proficiency of executive attention, a core element of cognitive control and self-regulation. Participants were an ethnic-racially, socio-economically diverse sample of 249 children followed from birth in the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods. We obtained histories of prenatal exposure to alcohol, cigarettes, and other drugs, and we assessed socio-economic status and learning stimulation during a home visit when the participants were infants. In childhood we utilized the Attention Networks Test to assess the proficiency of executive attention during two home visits, one year apart. Accounting for age, SES, prenatal alcohol exposure, and baseline performance, we found that prenatal cigarette exposure impaired the speed of executive attention. Infant learning stimulation mitigated these effects, and predicted better accuracy of executive attention as well, suggestive of both protective and health promoting effects. Effect sizes for these relations, whether examined independently or by their inter-relationships, were comparable if not greater in magnitude to the effects of age on speed and accuracy, highlighting the importance of these very early experiences in shaping the proficiency of self-regulation. Since executive attention is central to cognitive control and self-regulation, previously described relations between prenatal cigarette exposure, parenting practices, and some forms of childhood psychopathology, may be contingent on how early learning stimulation contributes to the proficiency of executive attention through direct and indirect effects. Furthermore, considering the prolonged developmental trajectory of executive attention, interventions to support provision of learning stimulation may mitigate poor outcomes for some at-risk children by promoting development of more proficient executive attention. PMID:21676107
Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton
Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitivefunctioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries' industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitivefunctioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241
Comparing the burden of aging across countries hinges on the availability of valid and comparable indicators. The Old Age Dependency Ratio allows only a limited assessment of the challenges of aging, because it does not include information on any individual characteristics except age itself. Existing alternative indicators based on health or economic activity suffer from measurement and comparability problems. We propose an indicator based on age variation in cognitivefunctioning. We use newly released data from standardized tests of seniors' cognitive abilities for countries from different world regions. In the wake of long-term advances in countries’ industrial composition, and technological advances, the ability to handle new job procedures is now of high and growing importance, which increases the importance of cognition for work performance over time. In several countries with older populations, we find better cognitive performance on the part of populations aged 50+ than in countries with chronologically younger populations. This variation in cognitivefunctioning levels may be explained by the fact that seniors in some regions of the world experienced better conditions during childhood and adult life, including nutrition, duration and quality of schooling, lower exposure to disease, and physical and social activity patterns. Because of the slow process of cohort replacement, those countries whose seniors already have higher cognitive levels today are likely to continue to be at an advantage for several decades to come. PMID:22184241
Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitivefunction through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account. PMID:21651800
There is overwhelming evidence for the existence of substantial genetic influences on individ- ual differences in general and specific cognitive abilities, especially in adults. The actual local- ization and identification of genes underlying variation in cognitive abilities and intelligence has only just started, however. Successes are currently limited to neurological mutations with rather severe cognitive effects. The current approaches to
Geus de E. J. C; Margaret J. Wright; Nicholas G. Martin; Dorret I. Boomsma
This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…
This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…
The creative reuse of existing neural components may have played a significant role in the evolutionary development of cognition. There are obvious evolutionary advantages to such redeployment, and the data presented here confirm three important empirical predictions of this account of the development of cognition: 1) A typical brain area will be used by many cognitivefunctions in diverse task categories, (2) evolutionarily older brain areas will be deployed in more cognitivefunctions, and (3) more recent cognitivefunctions will use more, and more widely scattered, brain areas. These findings have implications not just for our understanding of the evolutionary origins of cognitivefunction but also for the practice of both clinical and experimental neuroscience. PMID:17229971
Background Research on the physical and psychological late effects of treatment of childhood cancer has led to the identification of significant long-term neurocognitive deficits experienced by some survivors, particularly in the areas of memory and executive functioning. Despite indications of deficits based on cognitive assessment, the identification of specific mechanisms of neurocognitive deficits using neuroimaging techniques has yet to be adequately considered. Procedure This study used functional neuroimaging techniques to examine working memory and executive functioning deficits of survivors of childhood Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL), as compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Results There was a trend for ALL survivors to perform more poorly on a working memory task in terms of overall accuracy. Additionally, survivors displayed significantly greater activation in areas underlying working memory (dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) and error monitoring (dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate cortex). Conclusions These results support the theory of compensatory activation in necessary brain regions in order to complete tasks in pediatric ALL survivors, similar to that observed in multiple sclerosis patients. Concurrent examination of testing and brain imaging enables the connection of behavioral observations with underlying neurological characteristics of deficits in survivors and may help provide insight into mechanisms through which deficits appear. PMID:19953649
Robinson, Kristen E.; Livesay, Katherine L.; Campbell, Laura K.; Scaduto, Mary; Cannistraci, Christopher J.; Anderson, Adam W.; Whitlock, James A.; Compas, Bruce E.
Numerous factors related to health and diseases have been studied in relation to cognitivefunction. It has been shown that across the life span, systemic medical diseases can negatively impact cognitivefunction. Factors that influence the development of medical diseases, such as poor health habits, biological risk factors, hormones, genetic factors, exposure to environmental toxins, and certain treatments for disease,
This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitivefunctioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitivefunctioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…
Computational Modeling of High-Level Cognition and Brain Function Marcel Adam Just,* Patricia A. Carpenter, and Sashank Varma Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. Hum. Brain Mapping 8
Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitivefunctioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitivefunctioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.
Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham
The term childhood traumatic grief (CTG) is being increasingly used to refer to the particular reaction in children that may follow the death of a loved one during a traumatic event. The goal of this case study is to describe the theoretical argument and framework for, as well as a clinical example of, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for CTG. We present a case of a five-year-old boy whose father, a firefighter, died in the line of duty at the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. This specific case will highlight the steps of CBT for CTG, the value of assessment during the therapeutic process, and the need to consider developmental and family factors in treatment. PMID:15371061
Brown, Elissa J; Pearlman, Michelle Y; Goodman, Robin F
This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885
Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y
Previous functional gene group analyses implicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heterotrimeric G protein coding genes as being associated with differences in human intelligence. Here, we sought to replicate this finding using five independent cohorts of older adults including current IQ and childhood IQ, and using both gene- and SNP-based analytic strategies. No significant associations were found between variation in heterotrimeric G protein genes and intelligence in any cohort at either of the two time points. These results indicate that, whereas G protein systems are important in cognition, common genetic variation in these genes is unlikely to be a substantial influence on human intelligence differences. PMID:24626473
Davies, Gail; Liewald, David Cherry McLachlan; Payton, Anthony; Craig, Leone C. A.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Horan, Mike; Ollier, William; Starr, John M.; Pendleton, Neil; Posthuma, Danielle; Bates, Timothy C.; Deary, Ian J.
Background Cognitivefunction, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitivefunctioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age. PMID:24754844
Strong evidence supports cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of childhood anxiety. Many studies suggest that parents play an etiological role in the development and maintenance of child anxiety. This pilot study examined the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention delivered to the parents of 31 anxious children (ages 7-13). Parents were randomly assigned to an individual parent-only CBT intervention (PCBT, n = 18) or wait-list control (WL, n = 13). PCBT demonstrated significant reductions in children's number of anxiety disorder diagnoses, parent-rated interference and clinician-rated severity of anxiety, and maternal protective behaviors at post-treatment, which were maintained at 3-months. WL did not demonstrate significant changes. There were no significant differences between conditions in child self-reported or parent-report of child anxiety symptoms. Findings were replicated in a combined sample of treated participants, as well as in an intent-to-treat sample. Parent-only CBT may be an effective treatment modality for child anxiety, though future research is warranted. PMID:25217169
Smith, Allison M; Flannery-Schroeder, Ellen C; Gorman, Kathleen S; Cook, Nathan
This article describes a computational modeling architecture, 4CAPS, which is consistent with key properties of cortical function and makes good contact with functional neuroimaging results. Like earlier cognitive models such as SOAR, ACT-R, 3CAPS, and EPIC, the proposed cognitive model is implemented in a computer simulation that predicts observable variables such as human response times and error patterns. In addition, the proposed 4CAPS model accounts for the functional decomposition of the cognitive system and predicts fMRI activation levels and their localization within specific cortical regions, by incorporating key properties of cortical function into the design of the modeling system. PMID:10524604
Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitivefunction, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitivefunction is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…
One of the hallmarks of human cognition is cognitive flexibility, the ability to adapt thoughts and behaviors according to changing task demands. Previous research has suggested that the number of different exemplars that must be processed within a task (the set size) can influence an individual's ability to switch flexibly between different tasks. This paper provides evidence that when tasks have a small set size, children's cognitive flexibility is impaired compared to when tasks have a large set size. This paper also offers insights into the mechanism by which this effect comes about. Understanding how set size interacts with task-switching informs the debate regarding the relative contributions of bottom-up priming and top-down control processes in the development of cognitive flexibility. We tested two accounts for the relationship between set size and cognitive flexibility: the (bottom-up) Stimulus-Task Priming account and the (top-down) Rule Representation account. Our findings offered support for the Stimulus-Task Priming account, but not for the Rule Representation account. They suggest that children are susceptible to bottom-up priming caused by stimulus repetition, and that this priming can impair their ability to switch between tasks. These findings make important theoretical and practical contributions to the executive function literature: theoretically, they show that the basic features of a task exert a significant influence on children's ability to flexibly shift between tasks through bottom-up priming effects. Practically, they suggest that children's cognitive flexibility may have been underestimated relative to adults', as paradigms used with children typically have a smaller set size than those used with adults. These findings also have applications in education, where they have the potential to inform teaching in key areas where cognitive flexibility is required, such as mathematics and literacy. PMID:24575074
Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitivefunctioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitivefunction in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area. PMID:24991166
Donepezil, an acetycholinesterase inhibitor, or a placebo were given to 29 subjects with Down syndrome and no dementia. Measures of cognitivefunctioning and caregiver ratings indicated no improvement in any cognitive subtests (with the exception of language), behavioral scores, or caregiver ratings. Results suggest donepezil may improve language…
Johnson, N.; Fahey, C.; Chicoine, B.; Chong, G.; Gitelman, D.
The Effect of CognitiveFunctioning, Age, and Molecular Variables on Brain Structure Among Carriers. Neurocognitive phenotype in fragile X premutation carriers (fXPCs) 2. Deformation based morphometry analysis 3 and female fXPCs Results might provide a bases for the aforementioned cognitive impairments and
Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitivefunctioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…
Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.
Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitivefunctioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials. PMID:24653952
Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S
Impaired cognitivefunction, along with positive and negative symptoms, is a core clinical feature of schizophrenia. Earlier studies suggest that impaired cognitivefunctioning should be assessed from the perspective of brain networks. The recently developed brainnetome approach to evaluating brain networks—an approach that was initially developed by Chinese scientists—provides a new methodology for studying this issue. In this paper we first introduce the concept of brainnetome. We then review recent progress in developing a brainnetome of impaired cognitivefunction in people with schizophrenia. The models of the relevant brain networks considered were created using data obtained from functional and anatomical brain imaging technologies at different levels of analysis: networks centered on regions of interest, networks related to specific cognitivefunctions, whole brain networks, and the attributes of brain networks. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and potential new directions for research about brainnetome.
This paper aims to highlight ways in which basic research findings in the field of childhood and adolescent depression can help to inform and refine preventive intervention efforts. We selectively review basic research evidence from community, clinical, and high-risk populations that identifies cognitive mechanisms (thought processes and reactions to negative affect) and emotional regulation as key processes involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. We focus on cognitive and emotional mechanisms in order to allow comparability with the majority of current preventive interventions. A range of basic research strategies and studies are then suggested that could be employed to help the development and refinement of prevention strategies. These include the need for prospective longitudinal studies to identify causal risk and protective factors, an integration of research approaches and methods, and a focus on understanding potential aetiological heterogeneity between childhood and adolescent depression. PMID:21197099
Antioxidant compounds, contained in fruit, vegetables and tea, have been postulated to have a protective effect against age-related cognitive decline by combating oxidative stress. However, recent research on this subject has been conflicting. The aim of this systematic review was to consider current epidemiological and longitudinal evidence for an association between habitual dietary intake of antioxidants and cognition, with consideration given to both cognitivefunctioning and risk for dementia and its subtypes, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Searches of electronic databases were undertaken to identify peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on associations between antioxidant intakes (vitamins C, E, flavonoids, carotenoids) and cognitivefunction or risk for dementia. Eight cross-sectional and 13 longitudinal studies were identified and included in the review. There were mixed findings for the association between antioxidant intake, cognition and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Large heterogeneity in study design, differential control of confounders, insufficient measures of cognitive performance, and difficulties associated with dietary assessment may contribute to the inconsistent findings. Overall, findings do not consistently show habitual intakes of dietary antioxidants are associated with better cognitive performance or a reduced risk for dementia. Future intervention trials are warranted to elucidate the effects of a high intake of dietary antioxidants on cognitivefunctioning, and to explore effects within a whole dietary pattern. PMID:23881465
Background Studies of sexuality or sexual behavior in childhood cancer survivors tend to examine relationships or achievement of developmental milestones but not physiological response to cancer or treatment. The purpose of this study is to (1) identify prevalence and risk factors for sexual dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors, and (2) examine the extent to which sexual dysfunction may be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Five hundred ninety-nine survivors age 18-39 years completed standardized measures of sexual functioning, HRQOL, psychological distress and life satisfaction. Descriptive statistics assessed prevalence of sexual symptoms. Bivariate analyses identified correlates of sexual symptoms and examined associations between symptoms and HRQOL/psychosocial outcomes. Results Most survivors appear to be doing well, although 52% of female survivors and 32% of male survivors reported at least “a little of a problem” in one or more areas of sexual functioning. Mean symptom score for females was more than twice that of males. Sexual symptoms were associated with reporting health problems. Significant associations between sexual functioning and HRQOL outcomes were observed, with gender differences in strengths of association suggesting that males find sexual symptoms more distressing than do females. Conclusions While most survivors appear to be doing well in this important life domain, some young adult survivors report sexual concerns. While female survivors may report more sexual symptoms than male survivors, males may experience more distress associated with sexual difficulties. Better specified measures of sexual function, behavior and outcomes are needed for this young adult population. PMID:19862693
It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitivefunction in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104
Chronic sleep problems can lead to the development of Behavioural Insomnia of Childhood – a sleep disorder involving problematic sleep-onset associations (i.e., parental presence), and resulting in impairments for children and family members. The aim of the present paper was to perform a controlled evaluation of cognitive-behaviour therapy (CBT) for Behavioural Insomnia. 42 children (M = 9.3 ± 1.9 yrs, range 7–13 yrs, 18f, 24m) were
Past research on the role of cognitive distraction in sexual dysfunction typically has focused on males and has been conducted in the laboratory using artificial stimuli. In the current study, young adult women (N = 74) with coital experience completed questionnaires regarding cognitive distraction and their sexuality. Those women who reported greater cognitive distraction during sexual activity with a partner also reported relatively lower sexual esteem, less sexual satisfaction, less consistent orgasms, and higher incidence of pretending orgasm even after the women's general affect, sexual desire, general self-focus, general sexual attitudes, and body dissatisfaction were statistically controlled. Results are discussed with regard to directions for future research and implications for sex therapy. PMID:10693117
In this paper we argue that previous models of cognitive abilities (e.g. memory, analogy) have been constructed to satisfy functional requirements of implicit commonsense psychological theories held by researchers and nonresearchers alike. Rather than wor...
The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitivefunction of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83 children
Catherine E. Draper; Masturah Achmat; Jared Forbes; Estelle V. Lambert
The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitivefunction of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development?2, and in study 2, 83 children
Catherine E. Draper; Masturah Achmat; Jared Forbes; Estelle V. Lambert
Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. PMID:24639411
Objectives: The effect of testosterone (T) on sexual function in men is well established. However, less is known about its effects on cognitivefunction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between T levels and sex-typed cognitive abilities in both eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Design: A single-blind placebo-controlled design was employed in this study. Methods: Thirty healthy
Daryl B. O'Connor; John Archer; W. Morton Hair; Frederick C. W. Wu
The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and cognitivefunction in a United Kingdom cohort study (4,272 men, 1,761 women) with median follow-up of 11 years. Measures of alcohol consumption were obtained at baseline (1985-1988) and four subsequent phases of data collection. Cognitivefunction (memory test, AH4, Mill-Hill, phonemic and semantic fluency) was assessed at phase 5 (1997-1999), when
Annie Britton; Archana Singh-Manoux; Michael Marmot
Background: Childhood obesity has become a global epidemic. It is related to several chronic diseases such as essential hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and renal disease. The relationship between the degree of obesity and lung functions is well defined in adults, but limited information is available about the childhood period. Aims: This study aims to determine the impact of the degree of obesity on the pulmonary functions of school children and adolescents. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Methods: Included in the study were a total of 170 school children and adolescents (9–17 years old) referred to our paediatric outpatient clinic. Of these subjects, 42 were lean and non-obese (BMI % <85), 30 subjects were overweight (BMI % >85, <95), 34 subjects were obese (BMI % >95, <97), and 64 subjects were morbidly obese (BMI % >97). Anthropometric measurements were taken and spirometry was performed on all subjects. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity 25–75 (FEV25–75) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were used to measure the ventilatory functions for all the subjects. Results: The groups showed no significant differences in age or gender. Despite no statistically significant differences in FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, there were significant reductions in PEF (p<0.001) and FEV25–75 (p<0.001) in the overweight, obese and morbidly obese subjects, when compared with those who were non-obese. Conclusion: Overweight, obese and morbidly obese children have no obstructive abnormalities compared with healthy lean subjects. PMID:25337419
Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitivefunctioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitivefunctioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitivefunctioning in bipolar disorder. PMID:22108398
Stange, Jonathan P; Eisner, Lori R; Hölzel, Britta K; Peckham, Andrew D; Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo
The effect of regular exercise on cognitivefunctioning and personality was investigated in 32 subjects representing 4 discrete groups based on sex and age. Before and after a 10 week exercise programme of jogging, calisthenics, and recreational activities, a test battery was administered to assess functioning in a number of domains: intelligence (WAIS Digit Symbol and Block Design); brain function
Background Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has included the use of prophylactic cranial irradiation in up to 20% of children with high-risk disease despite known cognitive risks of this treatment modality. Methods Patients enrolled on the St Jude ALL Total Therapy Study XV, which omitted prophylactic cranial irradiation in all patients, were assessed 120 weeks after completion of consolidation therapy (n = 243) using a comprehensive cognitive battery. ?2 analysis was used to compare the percentage of below-average performers among the entire ALL patient group to the expected rate based on the normative sample. Univariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of intensity of chemotherapy (treatment arm), age at diagnosis, and sex on the probability of below-average performance. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Overall, the ALL group had a statistically significantly higher risk for below-average performance on a measure of sustained attention (67.31% more than 1 SD below the normative mean for omission errors, P < .001) but not on measures of intellectual functioning, academic skills, or memory. Patients given higher intensity chemotherapy were at greater risk for below-average performance compared with those given lower intensity therapy on measures of processing speed (27.14% vs 6.25%, P = .009) and academic abilities (Math Reasoning: 18.60% vs 3.90%, P = .008; Word Reading: 20.00% vs 2.60%, P = .007; Spelling: 27.91% vs 3.90%, P = .001) and had higher parent-reported hyperactivity (23.00% vs 9.84%, P = .018) and learning problems (35.00% vs 16.39%, P = .005). Neither age at diagnosis nor sex was associated with risk for below-average cognitive performance. Conclusions Omitting cranial irradiation may help preserve global cognitive abilities, but treatment with chemotherapy alone is not without risks. Caregiver education and development of interventions should address both early attention deficits and cognitive late effects. PMID:22927505
Background: Studies have reported declines with age in cognitive or physical functioning, but rarely identify whether these are parallel or linked events in the same study. Furthermore, most research in this area has focused on persons in late life rather than midlife. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine (1) if cognitivefunctioning was related to physical functioning
Kathleen Ford; MaryFran Sowers; Theresa E Seeman; Gail A. Greendale; Barbara Sternfeld; Susan A. Everson-Rose
Growing evidence has shown that psychometrically identified schizotypes among student populations have subtle cognitive impairments in several domains such as attention, working memory and executive function, but the possible association between psychometric schizotypy in adult populations and cognitivefunction has not been well documented. Here we examined the association between schizotypal traits as assessed by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) and cognitivefunction including memory, attention, executive function, and general intelligence in 124 healthy adults. Cognitivefunctioning was assessed with the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). SPQ scores showed a significant inverse correlation with verbal IQ and the information, comprehension and similarities subtests. No correlation was found between SPQ scores and memory, attention, performance IQ, or executive functioning. These results indicate that schizotypal traits in healthy adults are associated with verbal IQ decrements, suggesting that schizotypal traits themselves, even at a non-clinical level, may play unfavorable roles in cognitivefunctioning, which is in line with the viewpoint that schizotypy is on a continuum with normality, with its extreme form being clinically expressed as schizophrenia. PMID:18849081
Cognitive impairment is common in severe obesity. Lack of physical activity is a likely contributor to impairment in this population, as many obese persons are inactive and physical activity has been positively and independently associated with cognitivefunction in healthy and medically-ill samples. This study investigated whether physical activity, measured by self-report of aerobic physical activity in 85 bariatric surgery candidates, was associated with cognitivefunction. A subset of 31 participants also completed objective activity monitoring. Steps/d and high-cadence min/week, representative of ambulatory moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), were calculated. Approximately one quarter of participants self-reported at least 30 min/d of aerobic MVPA, at least 5 d/week. Median steps/d was 7949 (IQR = 4572) and median MVPA min/week was 105 (IQR = 123). Cognitive deficits were found in 32% of participants (29% memory, 10% executive function, 13% language, 10% attention). Controlling for demographic and medical factors, self-reported aerobic physical activity was weakly correlated with lower attention (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) and executive function (r = -0.27, p < 0.01) and both self-reported aerobic physical activity and objectively-determined MVPA min/week were negatively correlated with memory (r = -0.20, p = 0.04; r = -0.46; p = 0.02, respectively). No other correlations between physical activity measures and cognitivefunction were significant. Contrary to expectations, greater levels of physical activity were not associated with better cognitivefunctioning. Such findings encourage future studies to clarify the association among cognitivefunction and physical activity in obese persons. PMID:24547736
Galioto, Rachel; King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Strain, Gladys; Devlin, Michael; Cohen, Ronald; Crosby, Ross D; Mitchell, James E; Gunstad, John
Deficits in social/communications skills have been documented in schizophrenia, but it is unclear how these deficits relate to cognitive deficits and to everyday functioning. In the current study, social/communication skills performance was measured in 29 schizophrenia patients with a history of good vocational functioning (GVF) and 26 with a history of poor vocational functioning (PVF) using a role-play–based social skills assessment, the Maryland Assessment of Social Competence (MASC). A battery of standard cognitive tasks was also administered. MASC-indexed social skills were significantly impaired in PVF relative to GVF patients (odds ratio = 3.61, P < .001). Although MASC social skills performance was significantly associated with cognitive performance in domains of verbal ability, processing speed, and memory, the MASC nevertheless remained an independent predictor of vocational functioning even after controlling for cognitive performance. Social/communications skills predict vocational functioning history independently of cognitive performance, and social skills measures should be considered for inclusion in test batteries designed to predict everyday functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:17164469
Dickinson, Dwight; Bellack, Alan S.; Gold, James M.
The relations between mild cognitive impairment without dementia (MCI\\/CIND) and everyday functional abilities were examined using data from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Individuals were identified with MCI\\/CIND if both caregiver report and clinician judgment agreed on the presence of cognitive impairment in the absence of dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons indicated that individuals with MCI\\/CIND demonstrated
In clinical samples, patients with severe psychiatric disorders are found to have cognitive impairments. Less is known whether\\u000a this applies to samples derived from the general population. We aimed to study cognitivefunctioning in a population-based\\u000a sample comprising individuals with schizophrenia, other non-affective psychoses, bipolar disorders, major depressive disorder,\\u000a and controls derived from the same population. The current analysis was
Annamari Tuulio-HenrikssonJonna; Jonna Perälä; Samuli I. Saarni; Erkki Isometsä; Seppo Koskinen; Jouko Lönnqvist; Jaana Suvisaari
The relationship between cognitivefunctioning and a performance-based measure of everyday problem-solving, the Everyday Problems Test (EPT), thought to index instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), was examined in 291 community-dwelling non-demented older adults. Performance on the EPT was found to vary according to age, cognitive status, and education. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, after adjusting for demographic and health
Catherine L. Burton; Esther Strauss; David F. Hultsch; Michael A. Hunter
The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LIS-REL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models (“Inhibition”: Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; “Shifting”: Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D’Elia et al., 1996]; and “Updating”: Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53–90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836
de Frias, Cindy M.; Dixon, Roger A.; Strauss, Esther
The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia. PMID:24037621
Sheffield, Julia M; Gold, James M; Strauss, Milton E; Carter, Cameron S; MacDonald, Angus W; Ragland, J Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M; Barch, Deanna M
Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament associated with heightened vigilance and fear of novelty in early childhood, and social reticence and increased risk for anxiety problems later in development. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children develop signs of anxiety. One mechanism that might contribute to the variability in developmental trajectories is the recruitment of cognitive-control resources. The current study measured N2 activation, an ERP (event-related potential) associated with cognitive control, and modeled source-space activation (LORETA; Low Resolution Brain Electromagnetic Tomography) at 7 years of age while children performed a go/no-go task. Activation was estimated for the entire cortex and then exported for four regions of interest: ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dorsal ACC), and dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). BI was measured in early childhood (ages 2 and 3 years). Anxiety problems and social reticence were measured at 7 years of age to ascertain stability of temperamental style. Results revealed that BI was associated with increased performance accuracy, longer reaction times, greater (more negative) N2 activation, and higher estimated dorsal ACC and DLPFC activation. Furthermore, early BI was only associated with social reticence at age 7 at higher (more negative) levels of N2 activation or higher estimated dorsal ACC or DLPFC activation. Results are discussed in the context of overcontrolled behavior contributing to social reticence and signs of anxiety in middle childhood. PMID:24754610
Lamm, Connie; Walker, Olga L; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Pine, Daniel S; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fox, Nathan A
Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitivefunction in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitivefunction changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults. PMID:24244332
de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien
This study examined the relationships among the childhood discipline styles experienced by 116 female college students, their perceptions of their parents, and their current functioning. Results of this study indicated that female college students’ report of childhood discipline, their perceptions of their parents, and their outcomes were related uniquely when examining responses for mothers and fathers. Further, regression analyses suggested
Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…
Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.
Objective: This study aimed to examine the long-term correlates of childhood trauma in regard to interpersonal functioning in adulthood. Method: One hundred and nineteen (N=119) subjects from the Austen Riggs Follow-along Study were included in the study. The Traumatic Antecedent Interview scoring method was used to assess 10 types of childhood…
University counseling center clients self-reporting childhood physical, sexual, or emotional abuse (n=30) or no childhood abuse (n=54) completed measures of psychological functioning. Abused clients were more depressed, had more symptomatology, and scored higher on Borderline Personality scale of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory. (Author/NB)
We describe six psychomotor, language, and neuropsychological sequential developmental evaluations in a boy who sustained a severe bifrontal traumatic brain injury (TBI) at 19 months of age. Visuospatial, drawing, and writing skills failed to develop normally. Gradually increasing difficulties were noted in language leading to reading and spontaneous speech difficulties. The last two evaluations showed executive deficits in inhibition, flexibility, and working memory. Those executive abnormalities seemed to be involved in the other impairments. In conclusion, early frontal brain injury disorganizes the development of cognitivefunctions, and interactions exist between executive function and other cognitivefunctions during development. PMID:21188227
There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…
This paper describes the cognitivefunctioning of a community cohort of individuals presenting with a first episode of a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. Data were obtained for 107 patients (mean age 25 years) following stabilization of acute psychotic symptoms, mostly with the use of novel antipsychotics, on measures of intellectual, memory, attentional and executive functioning using a standardized battery of cognitive measures, including WAIS III and WMS III. While patients generally performed in the average range across the majority of measures, deficits (Z-scores >1.0 S.D.) were observed on measures of speed of information processing (PASAT, WAIS III) and executive functions (Stroop Test and Trails B), with the greatest deficits observed on tests of processing speed (PASAT). Discrepancy scores between the NART and the WAIS suggest subtle but statistically significant declines in full scale and performance IQ following onset of psychosis. Differences in cognitivefunctioning between diagnostic groups were not supported. Comparison of the highest and lowest functioning patients with respect to the cognitive measures also did not support any demographic or clinical differences between these two subgroups. Our results suggest a relatively benign cognitive profile in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis, regardless of diagnosis, when most potential incidence cases in the community are included. The most severe deficits reported were on measures of speeded information processing, and level of performance did not distinguish between patients demographically or clinically. PMID:11711166
There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitivefunctions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…
In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…
Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitivefunctioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,
Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall
The association of parents' recollections of childhood parental acceptance and current sense of love worthiness with children's socioemotional functioning was evaluated in a sample of 736- to 7-year-olds. A multimethod approach to assessing children's peer functioning was used: Observers rated children's peer competence in a play and problem-solving laboratory procedure, mothers reported on their children's behaviors and peer relationships, and
Why do more intelligent people live healthier and longer lives? One possibility is that intelligence tests assess health of the brain, but psychological science has lacked technology to evaluate this hypothesis. Digital retinal imaging, a new non-invasive method to visualize microcirculation in the eye, may reflect vascular conditions in the brain. We studied the association between retinal vessel caliber and neuropsychological functioning in the representative Dunedin birth cohort. Wider venular caliber was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning at midlife, independent of potentially confounding factors. This association was not limited to any specific test domain, and extended to informant-reports of cognitive difficulties in everyday life. Moreover, wider venular caliber was associated with lower childhood IQ tested 25 years earlier. The finding indicates that retinal venular caliber may be an indicator of neuropsychological health years before dementing diseases’ onset, and suggests digital retinal imaging as an investigative tool for psychological science. PMID:23678508
Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Wong, Tien Y.; Meier, Madeline H.; Houts, Renate M.; Ding, Jie; Cheung, Carol YL; Ikram, M. Kamram; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie
Arterial stiffness may be associated with cognitivefunction. In this study, pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured from the carotid to femoral (CF-PWV) and from the carotid to radial (CR-PWV) with the Complior SP System. Cognitivefunction was measured by 6 tests of executive function, psychomotor speed, memory, and language fluency. A total of 1433 participants were included (mean age 75 y, 43% men). Adjusting for age, sex, education, pulse rate, hemoglobin A1C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, cardiovascular disease history, smoking, drinking, and depression symptoms, a CF-PWV>12 m/s was associated with a lower Mini-Mental State Examination score (coefficient: -0.31, SE: 0.11, P=0.005), fewer words recalled on Auditory Verbal Learning Test (coefficient: -1.10, SE: 0.43, P=0.01), and lower score on the composite cognition score (coefficient: -0.10, SE: 0.05, P=0.04) and marginally significantly associated with longer time to complete Trail Making Test-part B (coefficient: 6.30, SE: 3.41, P=0.06), CF-PWV was not associated with Trail Making Test-part A, Digit Symbol Substation Test, or Verbal Fluency Test. No associations were found between CR-PWV and cognitive performance measures. Higher large artery stiffness was associated with worse cognitivefunction, and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these associations. PMID:23632267
Zhong, Wenjun; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Schubert, Carla R; Carlsson, Cynthia M; Chappell, Richard J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Acher, Charles W
By revealing how brain activity during cognitive performance changes as a function of aging, studies using positron emission tomography (PET) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are contributing to the development of a new discipline of Cognitive Neuroscience of Aging. This article reviews functional neuroimaging studies of cognitive aging in the domains of visual perception, episodic memory encoding and semantic memory retrieval, episodic memory retrieval, implicit memory, and working memory. The most consistent finding of these studies was that brain activity tends to be less lateralized in older adults than in younger adults. This finding is conceptualized in terms of a model called Hemispheric Asymmetry Reduction in Old Adults (HAROLD). According to a compensation hypothesis, bihemispheric involvement could help counteract age-related neurocognitive decline, whereas, according to a dedifferentiation hypothesis, it reflects a difficulty in recruiting specialized neural mechanisms. PMID:11501741
The study tested the effect of aerobic exercise training on executive function in overweight children. Ninety-four sedentary, overweight but otherwise healthy children (mean age = 9.2 years, body mass index ? 85th percentile) were randomized to a low-dose (20 min/day exercise), high-dose (40 min/day exercise), or control condition. Exercise sessions met 5 day/wk for 15 weeks. The Cognitive Assessment System (CAS), a standardized test of cognitive processes, was administered individually before and following intervention. Analysis of covariance on posttest scores revealed effects on executive function. Group differences emerged for the CAS Planning scale (p = .03). Planning scores for the high-dose group were significantly greater than those of the control group. Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing aspects of children’s mental functioning that are central to cognitive and social development. PMID:18274222
Davis, Catherine L.; Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Boyle, Colleen A.; Waller, Jennifer L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.; Gregoski, Mathew
As part of an ongoing clinical service program for children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analyzed the cognitive attributes of 362 Taiwanese children (average age 48.5 plus or minus 12.9 month-old) with uneven/delayed cognitive development as they were assessed repeatedly with average duration of 39.7 plus or…
The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:22659109
Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.
Testicular function was studied in 40 males treated in childhood for Hodgkin's disease at St Bartholomew's Hospital, and the Hospital for Sick Children, London, between 1971-1985. All patients were 16 years or over at evaluation, and off treatment more than 6 years. Basal FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured. Testicular size was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and all patients were offered a seminal analysis. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy, usually ChlVPP. Twenty-one also had radiotherapy, five below the diaphragm. Twelve patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (five below the diaphragm). Twenty-six of 28 patients treated with chemotherapy and three of five patients treated with radiotherapy alone below the diaphragm have elevated basal FSH levels, and 18 of these also have elevated basal LH levels. Median testicular volume is 11 ml (range 5-25 ml). Eleven of 13 patients investigated are azoospermic. All patients have normal testosterone levels, and normal secondary sexual characteristics. There is no biochemical evidence of healing of the damaged germinal epithelium with elevated FSH levels persisting up to 17 years from the end of therapy. These results indicate a high incidence of damage to the germinal epithelium in patients treated with ChlVPP chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy below the diaphragm. Appropriate counselling of these patients with regard to their reproductive capabilities is essential. PMID:8260374
Shafford, E. A.; Kingston, J. E.; Malpas, J. S.; Plowman, P. N.; Pritchard, J.; Savage, M. O.; Eden, O. B.
The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitivefunctioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitivefunctioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitivefunctioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.
Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitivefunction in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed. PMID:20088735
Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William
Cognitive content and complexity were studied as functions of depression as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory in three groups of college students (N = 73): nondepressed, mildly depressed, and highly depressed. Subjects were administered six verions of Bieri's (Bieri, Atkins, Briar, Leaman, Miller, & Tripodi, 1966) Repertory Grid Test, on which they rated the three domains of persons in
To investigate the characteristics of PCBs that are linked to cognitivefunctioning, those congeners that were concurrently found in 271 Mohawk adolescents were grouped according to structure (dioxin-like or non-dioxin-like) and persistence (persistent or low-persistent). After the effects of the congener groups were orthogonalized, regression analyses (controlling for a number of variables found to be related to the cognitive outcomes) examined the relationship of each congener group to scores on three cognitive tests (the non-verbal Ravens Progressive Matrices, the Test of Memory and Learning, and the Woodcock Johnson – Revised). Five subtests from these cognitive tests were found to be associated with one or more PCB congener groups, most often at a moderate level. Two measures of long term memory (Delayed Recall and Long Term Retrieval) were associated with all four congener groups. Nevertheless, examination of the role of individual congeners in the significantly related congener groups revealed that almost all congeners associated with cognitive outcomes were non-dioxin-like and ortho-substituted. A notable exception was the Ravens test where scores were associated only with dioxin-like congeners. This finding adds to the limited evidence of neurotoxic effects of dioxin-like congeners. Auditory Processing was related only to the persistent congener group. The association of the non-persistent congener group with three cognitive test scores (Delayed Recall, Long Term Retrieval and Comprehension-knowledge) suggests that the Mohawk adolescents have experienced continuing or recent environmental exposure to PCBs that is sufficient to result in detectable cognitive decrements. Comparison of our findings with those of other human studies was limited by the relative lack of specificity of both PCB measures and cognitive outcome measures in much previous work. PMID:19465051
Newman, Joan; Gallo, Mia V.; Schell, Lawrence M.; DeCaprio, Anthony P.; Denham, Melinda; Deane, Glenn D.
Light regulates multiple non-visual circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, and conveys a strong stimulating signal for alert-ness and cognition. This review summarizes a series of neuroimaging studies investigating the brain mechanisms underlying the latter stimulating impact of light. Results of these studies are compatible with a scenario where light would first hit subcortical areas involved in arousal regulation before affecting cortical areas involved in the ongoing non-visual cognitive process, and then cognitive performance. Recent data demonstrated that the non-visual impact of light is most likely triggered via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGC) expressing the photopigment melanopsin, which are maximally sensitive to blue light. In addition, the stimulating impact of light is intimately related to wakefulness regulation as it changes with circadian phase and sleep pressure. Finally, markers of inter-individual difference have also been described: age, PERIOD3 genotype, and psychiatric status. This review emphasizes the importance of light for human brain cognitivefunction and for cognition in general. PMID:25311026
Human cognitive ability shows consistent, positive associations with fitness components across the life-course. Underlying genetic variation should therefore be depleted by selection, which is not observed. Genetic variation in general cognitive ability (intelligence) could be maintained by a mutation–selection balance, with rare variants contributing to its genetic architecture. This study examines the association between the total number of rare stop-gain/loss, splice and missense exonic variants and cognitive ability in childhood and old age in the same individuals. Exome array data were obtained in the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936 (combined N = 1596). General cognitive ability was assessed at age 11 years and in late life (79 and 70 years, respectively) and was modelled against the total number of stop-gain/loss, splice, and missense exonic variants, with minor allele frequency less than or equal to 0.01, using linear regression adjusted for age and sex. In both cohorts and in both the childhood and late-life models, there were no significant associations between rare variant burden in the exome and cognitive ability that survived correction for multiple testing. Contrary to our a priori hypothesis, we observed no evidence for an association between the total number of rare exonic variants and either childhoodcognitive ability or late-life cognitive ability. PMID:24573858
Marioni, Riccardo E.; Penke, Lars; Davies, Gail; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Hayward, Caroline; Deary, Ian J.
Histories of violence and of hyperactivity are both characterized by poor cognitive-neuropsychological function. However, researchers do not know whether these histories combine in additive or interactive ways. The authors tested 303 male young adults from a community sample whose trajectories of teacher-rated physical aggression and motoric hyperactivity from kindergarten to age 15 were well defined. No significant interaction was found.
Jean R. Séguin; Daniel Nagin; Jean-Marc Assaad; Richard E. Tremblay
A historical group of 45 children (4–18 years) and adults (18–39 years) with classical galactosemia had deficits of cognitivefunction that were variable and not related to the age at diagnosis or to severity of illness at presentation. There was a trend for patients to score highest on visual processing tasks. The standardized tests of speech and memory skills fell
Francine Ratner Kaufman; Cammie McBride-Chang; Franklin R. Manis; Jon A. Wolff; Marvin D. Nelson
This study investigated cognitive control of social and nonsocial information in autism using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and a neurotypical control group completed an oddball target detection task where target stimuli were either faces or nonsocial objects previously shown to be related…
Sabatino, Antoinette; Rittenberg, Alison; Sasson, Noah J.; Turner-Brown, Lauren; Bodfish, James W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.
Neuron Review Cognitive and Perceptual Functions of the Visual Thalamus Yuri B. Saalmann1 10.1016/j.neuron.2011.06.027 The thalamus is classically viewed as passively relaying information to the cortex. However, there is growing evidence that the thalamus actively regulates information transmission
Selenium is a trace element associated with antioxidant activity and is considered to be a protective agent against free radicals through enhanced enzyme activity. Studies on selenium and cognitivefunction or Alzheimer's disease have yielded inconsistent results. A cross-sectional survey of 2,000 rural Chinese aged 65 years or older from two provinces in the People's Republic of China was conducted
Sujuan Gao; Yinlong Jin; Kathleen S. Hall; Chaoke Liang; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Rongdi Ji; Jill R. Murrell; Jingxiang Cao; Jianzhao Shen; Feng Ma; Janetta Matesan; Bo Ying; Yibin Cheng; Jianchao Bian; Ping Li; Hugh C. Hendrie
The V.E.Ne.Re. Project (Virtual Executive NEuropsychological REhabilitation) consists in the constuction and validation of artificial environments based on Virtual Reality (VR) technologies, aimed for cognitive rehabilitation of executive functions (frontal lobe dysfunction; dysexecutive syndrome). Damasio (1994) pointed at the discrepancy between non immersive artificial lab tests and real life situations to explain the frequent diagnostic and therapeutic failures that occur
Several studies have suggested gender differences in cognitivefunction, but data on the association between sex hormones and cognitivefunction are contradictory. The aim of our randomized double-blind study was to explore the possible relations between cognitivefunction and serum levels of sex hormones, oxytocin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in postmenopausal women. Two-hundred healthy postmenopausal women were randomly assigned to receive estrogen, testosterone or placebo treatment for 1 month. The associations of spatial ability, verbal fluency and verbal memory with serum levels of estradiol, testosterone, estradiol/testosterone ratio, androstanediol, oxytocin and IGF-I were analyzed. Spatial ability showed a negative correlation with serum estradiol, estradiol/testosterone ratio, oxytocin levels and a positive association with androstanediol levels. Verbal fluency displayed a negative relationship with serum levels of testosterone, IGF-I and a positive with estradiol/testosterone ratio. Verbal memory displayed a positive correlation to androstanediol. Data suggest that not only absolute levels of sex hormones but also the balance between estrogen and testosterone and their metabolites may be important for cognitivefunction in women. PMID:22967437
The Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized assessment system has been in use in worldwide clinical trials for over 20 years. It is a computer based system which assesses core aspects of human cognitivefunction including attention, information, working memory and long-term memory. It has been extensively validated and can be performed by a wide range of clinical populations including patients with various types of dementia. It is currently in worldwide use in clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, as well as a variety of programs involving the effects of age, stressors illnesses and trauma upon human cognitivefunction. Besides being highly sensitive to drugs which will impair or improve function, its utility has been maintained over the last two decades by constantly increasing the number of platforms upon which it can operate. Besides notebook versions, the system can be used on a wrist worn device, PDA, via tht telephone and over the internet. It is the most widely used automated cognitivefunction assessment system in worldwide clinical research. It has dozens of parallel forms and requires little training to use or administer. The basic development of the system wil be identified, and the huge databases (normative, patient population, drug effects) which have been built up from hundreds of clinical trials will be described. The system is available for use in virtually any environment or type of trial.
Extant research findings allow several conclusions regarding the relationship between estrogen and cognitivefunctioning across the female life span. First, performance on tests of verbal memory fluctuates in concert with physiological changes in ovarian hormone production during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Estrogen therapy (ET) prevents the decrease in verbal memory when administered immediately following
Emotion Responsivity, Social Cognition, and Functional Outcome in Schizophrenia Jennifer R. Mathews been a defining feature in schizophrenia, but relatively little research has examined how emotion in schizophrenia. Participants were 40 outpatients with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 40
Background: Repeated experience of withdrawal from alcohol results in a kindling-like process leading to increased likelihood and severity of convulsions during detoxification. The aim of this study was to determine whether repeated withdrawals affect cognitivefunction. Methods: We investigated alcoholic patients undergoing detoxification in an inpatient setting, using tasks sensitive to dysfunction of prefrontal areas. The tasks applied were two
Theodora Duka; Julia M. Townshend; Kirsty Collier; David N. Stephens
Negative cognitive biases as well as stressful childhood events are well-known risk factors for depression. Few studies have compared the association of different types of biases and events with depression. The current study examined whether different cognitive biases and stressful childhood events variables were associated with depression and recurrence. Three types of childhood events were assessed in 83 never-depressed and 337 formerly depressed individuals: trauma within the family, trauma outside the family, and adverse events. Furthermore, after a sad mood induction procedure, participants executed a Dot Probe task (selective attentional bias), an Emotional Stroop task (attentional interference bias) and an incidental learning task (memory bias). The association of these measures with case status and recurrence status (one or multiple past episodes) was examined. Negative memory bias and traumatic childhood events within the family were associated with case status, whereas none of the bias measures or childhood events variables were associated with recurrence status. The results indicate that memory bias as well as the experience of aggression and/or abuse within the family during childhood are independently associated with depression. Biases and stressful childhood events did not offer differentiation between individuals with one or multiple past episodes. PMID:24726815
Vrijsen, Janna N; Becker, Eni S; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; van Dijk, Maarten K; Speckens, Anne; Oostrom, Iris van
Although motivational reinforcers are often used to enhance the attractiveness of trainings of cognitive control in children, little is known about how such motivational manipulations of the setting contribute to separate gains in motivation and cognitive-control performance. Here we provide a framework for systematically investigating the impact of a motivational video-game setting on the training motivation, the task performance, and the transfer success in a task-switching training in middle-aged children (8–11 years of age). We manipulated both the type of training (low-demanding/single-task training vs. high-demanding/task-switching training) as well as the motivational setting (low-motivational/without video-game elements vs. high-motivational/with video-game elements) separately from another. The results indicated that the addition of game elements to a training setting enhanced the intrinsic interest in task practice, independently of the cognitive demands placed by the training type. In the task-switching group, the high-motivational training setting led to an additional enhancement of task and switching performance during the training phase right from the outset. These motivation-induced benefits projected onto the switching performance in a switching situation different from the trained one (near-transfer measurement). However, in structurally dissimilar cognitive tasks (far-transfer measurement), the motivational gains only transferred to the response dynamics (speed of processing). Hence, the motivational setting clearly had a positive impact on the training motivation and on the paradigm-specific task-switching abilities; it did not, however, consistently generalize on broad cognitive processes. These findings shed new light on the conflation of motivation and cognition in childhood and may help to refine guidelines for designing adequate training interventions.
Dörrenbächer, Sandra; Müller, Philipp M.; Tröger, Johannes; Kray, Jutta
Image quality of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain currently approximate gross anatomy as would be viewed at autopsy. During the first decade of the 21st Century incredible advances in image processing and quantification have occurred permitting more refined methods for studying brain-behavior-cognitivefunctioning. The current presentation overviews the current status of MRI methods for routine clinical assessment of brain pathology, how these techniques identify neuropathology and how pathological findings are quantified. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI), and resting state fMRI are all reviewed, emphasizing how these techniques permit an examination of brain function and connectivity. General regional relationships of brain function associated with cognitive control will be highlighted. PMID:24920351
Purpose Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at risk for physical disability. The aim of this investigation was to characterize and compare physical performance among CCSs and a group of siblings age < 18 years and determine if diagnosis, treatment, and physical activity levels were associated with lower performance scores. Methods CCSs ? 5 years from diagnosis and a sibling comparison group were recruited and evaluated for strength, mobility, and fitness. Physical performance measures were compared in regression models between survivors and siblings by diagnosis and among survivors by treatment exposures and physical activity levels. Results CCSs (n = 183; mean age ± standard deviation [SD], 13.5 ± 2.5 years; 53% male) scored lower than siblings (n = 147; mean age ± SD, 13.4 ± 2.4 years; 50% male) on lower-extremity strength testing, the timed up-and-go (TUG) test, and the 6-minute walk (6MW) test, despite reporting similar levels and types of habitual physical activity. The lowest scores were prevalent among survivors of CNS tumors and bone and soft tissue sarcomas on strength testing (score ± SD: CNS tumors, 76.5 ± 4.7; sarcoma 67.1 ± 7.2 v siblings, 87.3 ± 2.4 Newton-meters quadricep strength at 90° per second; P = .04 and .01, respectively) and among CNS tumor survivors on the TUG (score ± SD: 5.1 ± 0.1 v siblings, 4.4 ± 0.1 seconds; P < .001) and 6MW tests (score ± SD: 533.3 ± 15.6 v siblings, 594.1 ± 8.3 m; P < .001). Conclusion CCSs may have underlying physiologic deficits that interfere with function that cannot be completely overcome by participation in regular physical activity. These survivors may need referral for specialized exercise interventions in addition to usual counseling to remain physically active. PMID:23796992
Hoffman, Megan C.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Steinberger, Julia; Lee, Jill; Baker, K. Scott; Ness, Kirsten K.
Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitivefunctioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitivefunction in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334
This study examined the influence of cognitivedistortion (e.g., catastrophizing, overgeneralization)on functional impairment among coronary heart disease(CHD) patients undergoing outpatient cardiacrehabilitation. Forty-two CHD patients completed a versionofthe Cognitive Errors Questionnaire (CEQ; Lefebvre,1981) shortly after hospital discharge at the initiationof the rehabilitation program. Functional impairmentwas assessed both pre- and postrehabilitation usingscales from the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP; Bergner etal., 1981) and a
Alan J. Christensen; Dawn L. Edwards; Patricia J. Moran; Rachael Burke; Patricia Lounsbury; Ellen E. I. Gordon
Abstract Objective. To evaluate the association between the number of teeth and cognitivefunctions adjusted for age and education level in a cohort of older adults living in Sweden. Materials and methods. The study employed a cross-sectional design in which 1147 individuals between 60-96 years underwent a clinical oral examination. The cognitivefunctions were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clock-test. The level of education was obtained from a questionnaire. Data were subjected to Chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed, grouping the different variables into pre-determined categories. Results. The co-variables age and education were significantly associated with the number of teeth (p < 0.05). The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the association between the number of teeth and the cognitivefunctions persisted even after adjusting for age and level of education. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the presence of teeth may be of importance for cognitive abilities in older adults. PMID:24479559
Exposure to organic solvents has been linked repeatedly to alterations in both personality and cognitivefunctioning. To assess the nature and extent of these changes more thoroughly, 32 workers with a history of exposure to mixtures of organic solvents and 32 age- and education-matched blue-collar workers with no history of exposure were assessed with a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. Although both groups were comparable on measures of general intelligence, significant differences were found in virtually all other cognitive domains tested (Learning and Memory, Visuospatial, Attention and Mental Flexibility, Psychomotor Speed). In addition, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories of exposed workers indicated clinically significant levels of depression, anxiety, somatic concerns and disturbances in thinking. The reported psychological distress was unrelated to degree of cognitive deficit. Finally, several exposure-related variables were associated with poorer performance on tests of memory and visuospatial ability.
Morrow, L.A.; Ryan, C.M.; Hodgson, M.J.; Robin, N. (Univ. of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, PA (USA))
In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitivefunction. PMID:24324413
Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitivefunctioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitivefunctioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.” PMID:18194973
Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.
Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitivefunction (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V?O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Results: Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitivefunction, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Conclusions: Cognitivefunction in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study. PMID:21048898
Eskes, Gail A.; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D.; McMorris, Carly A.; Langdon, Kristopher D.; Hogan, David B.; Poulin, Marc
Background Few studies have applied multiple imaging modalities to examine cognitive correlates of white matter. We examined the utility of T2-weighted MRI-derived white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) to predict cognitivefunctioning among older adults. Methods Quantitative MRI and neuropsychological evaluations were performed in 112 older participants from an ongoing study of the genetics of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in African Americans. Regional WMH volumes and FA were measured in multiple regions of interest. We examined the association of regional WMH and an FA summary score with cognitive test performance. Differences in WMH and FA were compared across diagnostic groups (i.e., normal controls, mild cognitive impairment, and probable AD). Results Increased WMH volume in frontal lobes was associated with poorer delayed memory performance. FA did not emerge as a significant predictor of cognition. White matter hyperintensity volume in the frontal and parietal lobes was increased in MCI participants and more so in AD patients relative to controls. Discussion These results highlight the importance of regionally-distributed small vessel cerebrovascular disease in memory performance and AD among African American older adults. White matter microstructural changes, quantified with DTI, appear to play a lesser role in our sample. PMID:22390883
Meier, Irene B.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Provenzano, Frank A.; Louie, Karmen S.; Wasserman, Ben T.; Griffith, Erica Y.; Hector, Josina T.; Allocco, Elizabeth; Brickman, Adam M.
Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitivefunctioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitivefunction in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation
Synopsis During the past few decades, studies using multiple research designs have examined whether sleep during childhood and adolescence is related to cognition, behavior, and other aspects of daytime functioning. This paper summarizes recent correlational, case-control, quasi-experimental, and experimental studies, highlighting how the strengths and limitations of each research design are complementary, thereby allowing one to more confidently draw conclusions when viewing the research literature as a whole. Viewed in this manner, published findings suggest that inadequate sleep quality and/or quantity can cause sleepiness, inattention and, very likely, other cognitive and behavioral deficits that significantly impact children and adolescents in important functional settings (e.g., school). This paper then integrates findings from longitudinal studies within a developmental psychopathology model. In this model, inadequate sleep is viewed as a noxious exposure that can, over time, fundamentally alter a child or adolescent's development, resulting in poorer long-term outcomes. Important research questions remain, but the available evidence supports the integration of sleep screening and interventions into routine clinical care and also supports advocacy for public policy changes to improve the sleep of children and adolescents. PMID:21600347
The argument presented in this monograph stresses that, as concerns early childhood education, Jamaican parents must not only know and understand what is being done for and with their children but must also be active contributors to their educational development. It is further stressed that disadvantaged parents need special training and help if…
Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal…
The elevation of kynurenic acid (KYNA) observed in schizophrenic patients may contribute to core symptoms arising from glutamate hypofunction, including cognitive impairments. Although increased KYNA levels reduce excitatory neurotransmission, KYNA has been proposed to act as an endogenous antagonist at the glycine site of the glutamate NMDA receptor (NMDAR) and as a negative allosteric modulator at the ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Levels of KYNA are elevated in CSF and the postmortem brain of schizophrenia patients, and these elevated levels of KYNA could contribute to NMDAR hypofunction and the cognitive deficits and negative symptoms associated with this disease. However, the impact of endogenously produced KYNA on brain function and behavior is less well understood due to a paucity of pharmacological tools. To address this issue, we identified PF-04859989, a brain-penetrable inhibitor of kynurenine aminotransferase II (KAT II), the enzyme responsible for most brain KYNA synthesis. In rats, systemic administration of PF-04859989 dose-dependently reduced brain KYNA to as little as 28% of basal levels, and prevented amphetamine- and ketamine-induced disruption of auditory gating and improved performance in a sustained attention task. It also prevented ketamine-induced disruption of performance in a working memory task and a spatial memory task in rodents and nonhuman primates, respectively. Together, these findings support the hypotheses that endogenous KYNA impacts cognitivefunction and that inhibition of KAT II, and consequent lowering of endogenous brain KYNA levels, improves cognitive performance under conditions considered relevant for schizophrenia. PMID:25100593
Kozak, Rouba; Campbell, Brian M; Strick, Christine A; Horner, Weldon; Hoffmann, William E; Kiss, Tamas; Chapin, Douglas S; McGinnis, Dina; Abbott, Amanda L; Roberts, Brooke M; Fonseca, Kari; Guanowsky, Victor; Young, Damon A; Seymour, Patricia A; Dounay, Amy; Hajos, Mihaly; Williams, Graham V; Castner, Stacy A
This article discusses the relationship between parent behaviors, parenting style, and how a family functions with respect to the development of childhood overweight. Parents can influence a child's weight through specific feeding and activity practices and perhaps more broadly through their parenting style and management of family functioning. These more global influences of parenting style and family functioning provide a
The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitivefunction. Cognitivefunction was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population
Intrinsic Motivation in Schizophrenia: Relationships to CognitiveFunction, Depression, Anxiety and their relationship to cognitivefunction, mood, and personality in schizophrenia. The authors used the Motivational were 66 individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 44 healthy controls. Self
A body of research indicates the efficacy of cognitive–behavioral interventions for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) subsequent to sexual assault in adulthood. The generalizability of these treatments to women who present with trauma symptoms associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has yet to be shown, however. A number of characteristics and dynamics of CSA that make it unique
A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.
Background Cognitivefunctioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitivefunctioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitivefunctioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitivefunctioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitivefunctioning. PMID:24386185
Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Marklund, Petter; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Theorell, Tores; Nilsson, Lars-Goran
This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI. PMID:21796272
An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication nonadherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM
Saurabh Gupta; Steven Paul Woods; Erica Weber; Matthew S. Dawson; Igor Grant
This study investigated the pattern of acute cognitivefunction of an ecologically valid sample of 58 consecutively admitted\\u000a adults completing a 24 day residential\\/day substance use disorder treatment program at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center and\\u000a its change over the 24 days of monitored abstinence. Participants were assessed at entry with the Repeatable Battery for the\\u000a Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Form
This study was designed to examine the effect of different kinds of adult mediation on the cognitive performance of young children who used computers. The study sample included 150 kindergarten children aged 5-6. The findings indicate that children who engaged in adult-mediated computer activity improved the level of their cognitive performance on…
This article about the discourse of pedagogy as related to child cognition in mathematics addresses the issue of what constitutes the main disciplinary content and the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of foundation-phase teachers. I argue that, unless child cognition itself is the primary disciplinary content of foundation-phase teacher's…
This prospective, longitudinal study examines individual differences in two conceptu- ally related but empirically distinct domains of social-cognitive competence (cognitive interpretive understanding and interpersonal perspective co-ordination) as modera- tors of the relation between peer rejection and neglect and behavioral and emotional problems in grades 2 and 3. As expected, peer rejection and neglect increased risks for behavioral and emotional problems
Wendy L. G. Hoglund; Christopher E. Lalonde; Bonnie J. Leadbeater
Many prominent studies of infant cognition over the past two decades have relied on the fact that infants habituate to repeated stimuli – i.e. that their looking times tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon had been exploited to reveal a great deal about the minds of preverbal infants. Many prominent studies of the neural bases of adult cognition over the past decade have relied on the fact that brain regions habituate to repeated stimuli – i.e. that the hemodynamic responses observed in fMRI tend to decline upon repeated stimulus presentations. This phenomenon has been exploited to reveal a great deal about the neural mechanisms of perception and cognition. Similarities in the mechanics of these two forms of habituation suggest that it may be useful to relate them to each other. Here we outline this analogy, explore its nuances, and highlight some ways in which the study of habituation in functional neuroimaging could yield novel insights into the nature of habituation in infant cognition – and vice versa. PMID:19104669
Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Scholl, Brian J.; Chun, Marvin M.
Objectives Adverse work-related exposures have been linked with decreased physical and mental functioning in later life, however, whether childhood factors explain the associations between work exposures and functioning is unknown. Our aim was to investigate if job demand and control in mid-life were related to self-reported physical and mental functioning in early old age and whether childhood factors explained these associations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting England, Scotland and Wales. Participants and outcome measures Data come from the UK Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, a cohort with follow-up since birth in 1946. 1485 occupationally active study members had data available on job demand and control in mid-life and on physical and mental functioning assessed using the Short Form-36 questionnaire at 60–64?years. Results Those with higher job control in mid-life had better physical functioning than those who reported lower job control (? 0.51, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.01, p=0.04 adjusted for adult confounders). Those with higher job demand in mid-life had poorer mental functioning (? ?0.82, 95% CI ?1.14 to ?0.51, p<0.001). Associations between job control and mental functioning were similar but less pronounced. Adjustment for childhood factors (father's and mother's educational attainment, parents’ interest in school at age 7 and cognitive ability at age 8) partially explained the association between job control and physical functioning, but did not explain the association between job demand and mental functioning. Conclusions Job demand and control in mid-life are differentially associated with mental and physical functioning in early old age and some of these associations may be partially explained by childhood factors. PMID:25319998
von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Cooper, Rachel; Kuh, Diana
Background/Aims To examine the cognitive reserve hypothesis by comparing the contribution of early childhood and life-course factors related to cognitivefunctioning in a nationally representative sample of older Americans. Methods We examined a prospective, nationally probability cohort study (Health and Retirement Study HRS; 1998-2010) of older adults (N=8,833) in the contiguous 48 United States. The main cognitivefunctioning outcome was a 35-point composite of memory (recall), mental status, and working memory tests. The main predictors were childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and health, and individual-level adult achievement and health. Results Individual-level achievement indicators (i.e., education, income, and wealth) were positively and significantly associated with baseline cognitivefunction, while adult health was negatively associated with cognitivefunction. Controlling for individual-level adult achievement and other model covariates, childhood health presented a relatively small negative, but statistically significant association with initial cognitivefunction. Neither individual achievement nor childhood SEP was statistically linked to decline over time. Conclusions Cognitive reserve purportedly acquired through learning and mental stimulation across the life-course was associated with higher initial global cognitivefunctioning over the twelve-year period in this nationally representative study of older Americans. We found little supporting evidence that childhood economic conditions were negatively associated with cognitivefunction and change, particularly when individual-level achievement is considered. PMID:23860477
Gonzalez, Hector M.; Tarraf, Wassim; Bowen, Mary E.; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D.; Fisher, Gwenith G.
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are expressed in specific regions of the central nervous system during early human development. They may consequently influence aspects of cognition, or emotional and behavioural adjustment from childhood to adulthood, in conditions associated with abnormalities of the somatotropic axis. GH receptors are relatively common within hippocampal and perihippocampal regions that are
The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…
Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from
Matthew C. Hocking; Wendy L. Hobbie; Janet A. Deatrick; Matthew S. Lucas; Margo M. Szabo; Ellen M. Volpe; Lamia P. Barakat
The relation of observed emotional reactivity and regulation in infancy to executive function in early childhood was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children from predominantly low-income and rural communities. Children participated in a fear eliciting task at ages 7, 15, and 24 months and completed an executive function…
Theories of cognitive vulnerability to depression (CVD) imply that CVD is early-emerging and trait-like; however, little longitudinal work has tested this premise in middle childhood, or examined theoretically relevant predictors of child CVD. We examined test–retest correlations of self-referent encoding task performance and self-reported attributional styles and their associations with parental characteristics in 205 seven-year-olds. At baseline, child CVD was assessed, structured clinical interviews were conducted with parents, and ratings of observed maternal affective styles were made. Children’s CVD was re-assessed approximately one and two years later. Both measures of children’s CVD were prospectively and concurrently associated with children’s depressive symptoms and showed modest stability. Multilevel modeling indicated that maternal criticism and paternal depression were related to children’s CVD. Findings indicate that even early-emerging CVD is a valid marker of children’s depression risk.
Hayden, Elizabeth P.; Olino, Thomas M.; Mackrell, Sarah V.M.; Jordan, Patricia L.; Desjardins, Jasmine; Katsiroumbas, Patrice
Breast cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy, yet the effects of these deficits on functional outcomes have not been systematically evaluated. This study assessed the relationships between postchemotherapy cognitive difficulties and functional outcomes. Forty-six women with breast cancer were seen at 1-month postchemotherapy; data were collected on cognitivefunctioning, psychological variables, and physical symptoms. Wilcoxon signed-rank analyses revealed cognitive
Stephanie A. Reid-Arndt; Albert Yee; Michael C. Perry; Catherine Hsieh
Although imaging studies suggest activation of cortical areas by vestibular input, there is little evidence of an adverse effect of non-veridical vestibular input on cognitivefunction. To test the hypothesis that degraded vestibular afferent input adversely affects cognition, we compared performance on a cognitive test battery in a group undergoing suprathreshold bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with a control group receiving no GVS or subthreshold stimulation. The battery consisted of six cognitive tests as follows: reaction time, dual tasking, Stroop, mental rotation, perspective-taking and matching-to-sample, as well as a simple visuomotor (manual tracking) task. Subjects performed the test battery before, during and after suprathreshold GVS exposure or subthreshold stimulation. Suprathreshold GVS significantly increased error rate for the match-to-sample and perspective-taking tasks relative to the subthreshold group, demonstrating a negative effect of non-veridical vestibular input in these specific cognitive tasks. Reaction time, dual tasking, mental rotation and manual tracking were unaffected by GVS exposure. The adverse effect of suprathreshold GVS on perspective taking but not mental rotation is consistent with imaging studies, which have demonstrated that egocentric mental transformations (perspective taking) occur primarily in cortical areas that receive vestibular input (the parietal-temporal junction and superior parietal lobule), whereas object-based transformations (mental rotation) occur in the frontoparietal region. The increased error rate during the match-to-sample task is likely due to interference with hippocampal processing related to spatial memory, as suggested by imaging studies on vestibular patients. PMID:22076407
Dilda, Valentina; MacDougall, Hamish G; Curthoys, Ian S; Moore, Steven T
Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…
van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.
Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitivefunctioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings. PMID:24904500
Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.
Background Gait ability and cognitivefunction are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitivefunctions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitivefunction were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitivefunctions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?.05). Gait speed during DTW was also significantly associated with working memory (p?.001). Visual memory was associated during NW and DTW, particularly for amnestic MCI participants (p?.05). Conclusions Our findings support the idea that the association between gait speed and cognitivefunction depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI. PMID:24694100
Vitamin C is a pivotal antioxidant in the brain and has been reported to have numerous functions, including reactive oxygen species scavenging, neuromodulation, and involvement in angiogenesis. Absence of vitamin C in the brain has been shown to be detrimental to survival in newborn SVCT2(?/?) mice and perinatal deficiency have shown to reduce hippocampal volume and neuron number and cause decreased spatial cognition in guinea pigs, suggesting that maternal vitamin C deficiency could have severe consequences for the offspring. Furthermore, vitamin C deficiency has been proposed to play a role in age-related cognitive decline and in stroke risk and severity. The present review discusses the available literature on effects of vitamin C deficiency on the developing and aging brain with particular focus on in vivo experimentation and clinical studies. PMID:25244370
We analyzed national survey and linked Medicare enrollment data from 2004–2007 to examine the effects of expanded choice and benefits in Medicare Advantage on enrollment in Medicare Advantage or traditional Medicare. The availability of more plans was associated with increased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number of options was small but decreased Medicare Advantage enrollment when the number became sufficiently high. Beneficiaries with low cognitivefunctioning were less responsive to the generosity of Medicare Advantage benefits in their decisions. Simplifying choice in Medicare Advantage and guiding beneficiaries to valuable options could improve enrollment decisions, strengthen value-based competition among plans, and extend the benefits of choice to seniors with impaired cognition. PMID:21852301
McWilliams, J. Michael; Afendulis, Christopher C.; McGuire, Thomas G.; Landon, Bruce E.
Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty?health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty. PMID:24145409
Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W.; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S. Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S.; Swain, James E.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan
Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitivefunctioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.
Background: To investigate endothelial dysfunction and morphological vascular changes in childhood obesity.Methods: 93 overweight\\/obese children (body mass index 26 ± 5 kg\\/m2; median 26 kg\\/m2; interquartile range 22–28 kg\\/m2), mean age 10.9 ± 2.7 years, underwent a check-up of total, high-density lipoprotein- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and white blood cell count, together with ultrasound measures
Marco Matteo Ciccone; Vito Miniello; Roberto Marchioli; Pietro Scicchitano; Francesca Cortese; Vincenzo Palumbo; Stefano Giuseppe Primitivo; Marco Sassara; Gabriella Ricci; Santa Carbonara; Michele Gesualdo; Lucia Diaferio; Giuseppe Mercuro; Giovanni De Pergola; Paola Giordano; Stefano Favale
Considerable evidence indicates that cognitive dysfunction and impairments in everyday life activities are common in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the relationship between these cognitive and functional deficits has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of cognitive dysfunction in the functional status of individuals with MS. Participants were 74 adults with MS and
Jessica H. Kalmar; Elizabeth A. Gaudino; Nancy B. Moore; June Halper; John DeLuca
There is evidence that the cognitive effects of Alzheimer's disease can be seen decades before disease diagnosis. If this is the case, then the apolipoprotein E (APOE)*E4 allele might be expected to have effects on cognitivefunctioning earlier in the life span. To assess such effects, the authors examined data on the *E4 allele and cognitivefunctioning from a population
Anthony F. Jorm; Karen A. Mather; Peter Butterworth; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Simon Easteal
Stressful or traumatic events have been shown to impair cognitivefunctioning on laboratory-based tasks due to stress-related intrusive thoughts and avoidance. However, research on the effects of stress on everyday cognitivefunctioning has been lacking. A sample of 909 undergraduates completed measures of perceived stress, PTSD symptoms, and everyday cognitive failures. The results revealed that both perceived stress and PTSD
Cognition has been studied extensively in schizophrenia in Western countries. Far less research is devoted, however, to cognitivefunctioning in brief psychotic disorder and schizophreniform disorder. Moreover, few studies have been performed in third world countries. In this study, we want to fill this gap by comparing the cognitivefunctioning of three groups of ambulant, first-episode patients with a non-affective
Malanda Ngoma; Kristof Vansteelandt; Philippe Delespaul; Lydia Krabbendam; Samuel Mampunza Ma Miezi; Joseph Peuskens
Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and cognition in healthy older adults, though no study has directly examined possible cognitive benefits of formal exercise programs in persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) living in structured facilities. Thirty one participants completed neuropsychological testing and measures of cardiovascular fitness at baseline and after 6 months of a structured exercise program that included aerobic and resistance training. While exercise improved cardiovascular fitness in persons with mild cognitive impairment, there was no improvement in cognitivefunction. Rather, mild cognitive impairment patients in this sample declined in performance on several tests sensitive to Alzheimer’s disease. Examined in the context of past work, it appears exercise may be beneficial prior to the onset of MCI, though less helpful after its onset. PMID:21244306
Miller, Lindsay A.; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Busko, Susan; Potter, Vanessa; Juvancic-Heltzel, Judi; Istenes, Nancy; Glickman, Ellen; Gunstad, John
Sucrose is not present in the internal milieu as such, so it is physically impossible that it may have a direct influence on cognitivefunctions, behaviour and knowledge. However, during the digestive process, disaccharides are released into monosaccharides, in the case of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which reach the liver via the portal vein. Finally, they go into bloodstream in the form of glucose and in some cases as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Brain needs almost exclusively a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream. Adult brain requires about 140 g of glucose per day, which represents up to a 50% of total carbohydrates consumed daily in the diet. The consumption of a food or beverage enriched with sucrose has been associated with improved mental alertness, memory, reaction time, attention and ability to solve mathematical problems, as well as a reduction in the feeling of fatigue, both in healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease. An adequate nutrition of brain contributes to structural and functional integrity of neurons. It has been shown that in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, nutritional deficiencies at cellular level are implicated. At present, several studies highlight the need to improve understanding of the processes involved in the deterioration of cognitivefunctions and mechanisms through which, the nutritive components of the diet, particularly the sucrose, may modulate such functions. PMID:23834099
Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitivefunctions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitivefunctions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning. PMID:23015802
of cognitive disorders, such as neurofibromatosis type I. Mechanisms underlying long- term changes in synaptic associated with neurofi- bromatosis type I. Connecting Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms with LearningMolecular and Cellular Mechanisms of CognitiveFunction: Implications for Psychiatric Disorders
Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitivefunctioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitivefunctioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults
Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish
The relation of childhood personality to the development of friendship understanding and moral judgment in adolescence was considered in a longitudinal study. Personality at age 7, assessed with the California Child Q-Set, was characterized in terms of ego-resiliency and ego-control. IQ and social class were also measured. Friendship understanding was assessed when the participants were ages 7, 9, 12, 15,
Daniel Hart; Monika Keller; Wolfgang Edelstein; Volker Hofmann
Extant research findings allow several conclusions regarding the relationship between estrogen and cognitivefunctioning across the female life span. First, performance on tests of verbal memory fluctuates in concert with physiological changes in ovarian hormone production during the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Estrogen therapy (ET) prevents the decrease in verbal memory when administered immediately following the surgical removal of both ovaries in premenopausal women. Some, but relatively little evidence is available to support the idea that ET, initiated at the time of a natural or a surgical menopause for a few years, may protect against cognitive decline 30 years later and more research in this area is urgently needed. Finally, the evidence to date strongly suggests that the initiation of ET decades after the menopause has occurred does not protect against cognitive decline or dementia. Taken together, these findings support the so-called "window of opportunity" hypothesis which holds that ET will be neuroprotective only when administered closely in time to a natural or surgical menopause. PMID:22004260
-reaching influences on aca- demic and social functioning throughout childhood development. fMRI has been used contribute to poorer cogni- tive outcomes in middle childhood. Thus far, how- ever, no direct in vivo studies
Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ? 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ?5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146
In multiple sclerosis (MS) functional changes in connectivity due to cortical reorganization could lead to cognitive impairment (CI), or reflect a re-adjustment to reduce the clinical effects of widespread tissue damage. Such alterations in connectivity could result in changes in neural activation as assayed by executive function tasks. We examined cognitivefunction in MS patients with mild to moderate CI and age-matched controls. We evaluated brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the successful performance of the Wisconsin card sorting (WCS) task by MS patients, showing compensatory maintenance of normal function, as measured by response latency and error rate. To assess changes in functional connectivity throughout the brain, we performed a global functional brain network analysis by computing voxel-by-voxel correlations on the fMRI time series data and carrying out a hierarchical cluster analysis. We found that during the WCS task there is a significant reduction in the number of smaller size brain functional networks, and a change in the brain areas representing the nodes of these networks in MS patients compared to age-matched controls. There is also a concomitant increase in the strength of functional connections between brain loci separated at intermediate-scale distances in these patients. These functional alterations might reflect compensatory neuroplastic reorganization underlying maintenance of relatively normal cognitivefunction in the face of white matter lesions and cortical atrophy produced by MS. PMID:21152340
Helekar, Santosh A.; Shin, Jae C.; Mattson, Brandi J.; Bartley, Krystle; Stosic, Milena; Saldana-King, Toni; Montague, P. Read; Hutton, George J.
Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitivefunctions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks. PMID:21954388
OBJECTIVE: Medication non-adherence has been a persistent problem over the past 3 decades; forgetting and being distracted from regular routines are the barriers most frequently cited by patients. Prior research on cognitivefunction and medication adherence has yielded mixed results. This report compares findings of 3 studies. DESIGN: All were longitudinal; two were randomized controlled intervention trials, one was descriptive. Samples of adult patients taking once daily lipid-lowering medication, diabetic patients with co-morbid conditions on complex regimens, and early-stage breast cancer patients on hormonal therapy completed similar batteries of standardized, valid neuropsychological tests at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to medication regimens, over time, was tracked with electronic event monitors. RESULTS: Medication non-adherence was prevalent in all studies. Deficits in attention/mental flexibility and/or working memory predicted non-adherence in all studies; impaired executive function was related to poor adherence in 1 study. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that better mental efficiency may be the key to better medication adherence with any regimen and that targeted cognitivefunctions, which can be easily and quickly assessed, may identify patients at risk of poor adherence regardless of diagnosis or regimen. PMID:20063935
Stilley, Carol S.; Bender, Catherine M.; Dunbar-Jacob, Jacqueline; Sereika, Susan; Ryan, Christopher M.
Cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia is an important target for novel therapies. Effectively measuring the cognitive effects of compounds in clinical trials of schizophrenia could be a major barrier to drug development. The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) programme produced a consensus cognitive battery which is now widely used, however alternative assessments have advantages and disadvantages
Jennifer H. Barnett; Trevor W. Robbins; Verity C. Leeson; Barbara J. Sahakian; Eileen M. Joyce; Andrew D. Blackwell
Low carotenoid status (especially of the xanthophylls, lutein [L], and zeaxanthin [Z]) is common in older adults and has been associated with a number of degenerative diseases of the central nervous system ranging from retina (e.g., macular degeneration) to brain (e.g., Alzheimer's disease). In this study, we tested whether retinal measures of L + Z (macular pigment optical density [MPOD]), used as a surrogate for brain L + Z levels, were related to cognitivefunction when comparing healthy older adults with mildly cognitively impaired older adults. Twenty-four subjects with mild cognitive impairment were compared with 24 matched controls. Subjects were matched with respect to age, body mass index, ethnicity, sex, and smoking status. Degree of cognitive impairment and cognitive ability was determined via structured clinical interview. MPOD was measured psychophysically. In healthy older adults, MPOD was only related to visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04). For subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), however, MPOD was broadly related to cognition including the composite score on the mini-mental state examination (p = 0.02), visual-spatial and constructional abilities (p = 0.04), language ability (p = 0.05), attention (p = 0.03), and the total scale on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (p = 0.03). It is possible that L/Z status may be more strongly related to cognition when individuals are considered with established onset of cognitive decline. PMID:24508218
Renzi, Lisa M; Dengler, Melissa J; Puente, Antonio; Miller, L Stephen; Hammond, Billy R
This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…
Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.
This study demonstrates the merits of evaluating a newly developed battery of executive function tasks, designed for use in early childhood, from the perspective of item response theory (IRT). The battery was included in the 48-month assessment of the Family Life Project, a prospective longitudinal study of 1292 children oversampled from…
Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.
Objective: Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early-childhood-onset MDD. Method: A total of 51 children 7 through 11 years of age who had…
Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.
This study was designed to examine the association between childhood experiences, current psychological and relationship factors and female sexual dysfunction. In total, 404 adult women (n = 164 functional, n = 240 dysfunctional) who were currently engaged in a heterosexual relationship completed an on-line questionnaire. Women with sexual dysfunction demonstrated more problems in early life experiences, current psychological adjustment and
Histories of child neglect or child physical abuse were correlated with psychological functioning in 236 male and 276 female undergraduates. Childhood neglect was more predictive of psychological problems and anxious attachment styles than was physical abuse. Results suggest neglect and physical abuse are potentially separate moderators of…
The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…
Objective: Coping strategies of men who were sexually abused in childhood were examined to ascertain their relationship to clinical diagnoses. Time elapsed since the abuse occurred was examined for its relationship to psychological functioning. Clinical psychopathology of this primary sample of sexually abused men was compared to a community…
Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…
Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitivefunctions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitivefunctions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly. PMID:25035618
Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…
Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton
The authors applied linear dynamic models to longitudinal data to examine the dynamics of reading and cognition from 1st to 12th grade. They used longitudinal data (N=445) from the Connecticut Longitudinal Study (S. E. Shaywitz, B. A. Shaywitz, J. M. Fletcher, & M. D. Escobar, 1990) to map the dynamic interrelations of various scales of the…
Ferrer, Emilio; McArdle, John J.; Shaywitz, Bennett A.; Holahan, John M.; Marchione, Karen; Shaywitz, Sally E.
We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third
A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar
With a longer life expectancy and an increased prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases, investigations on trajectories of cognitive aging have become exciting and promising. This study aimed to estimate the patterns of age-related cognitive decline and the potential associated factors of cognitivefunction in community-dwelling residents of Beijing, China. In this study, 1248 older adults aged 52-88 years [including 175 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects] completed a battery of neuropsychological scales. The personal information, including demographic information, medical history, eating habits, lifestyle regularity and leisure activities, was also collected. All cognitivefunction exhibited an agerelated decline in normal volunteers. Piece-wise linear fitting results suggested that performance on the Auditory Verbal Learning Test remained stable until 58 years of age and continued to decline thereafter. The decline in processing speed and executive function began during the early 50's. Scores on visual-spatial and language tests declined after 66 years of age. The decline stage of the general mental status ranged from 63 to 70 years of age. However, the MCI group did not exhibit an obvious age-related decline in most cognitive tests. Multivariate linear regression analyses indicated that education, gender, leisure activities, diabetes and eating habits were associated with cognitive abilities. These results indicated various trajectories of age-related decline across multiple cognitive domains. We also found different patterns of agerelated cognitive decline between MCI and normal elderly. These findings could help improve the guidance of cognitive intervention program and have implications for public policy issues. PMID:25212920
OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitivefunction and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitivefunction or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitivefunction (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research. PMID:24890517
Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.
The objective of the present study was to assess the performance of lithium treated euthymic bipolar patients in tests measuring spatial working memory (SWM), planning, and verbal fluency and to delineate the influence of gender on cognitivefunctioning. Fifty-nine euthymic bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for at least 5?yr, were studied. Patients and controls underwent a neuropsychological assessment. Bipolar patients had significantly worse results than the healthy controls in the spatial memory and planning as well as verbal fluency tests. We detected a gender-related imbalance in the SWM results. Deficits in SWM were observed in male-only comparisons but not in female-only comparisons. The SWM scores were significantly poorer in male patients than in male controls. In female-only comparisons, female patients did not have significantly poorer SWM results in any category than their controls. Bipolar women scored worse in some other tests. The present study points to the different patterns of neuropsychological disturbances in female and male patients and suggests that sex-dependent differences should be taken into account in order to tailor the therapeutic intervention aimed at the improvement of cognitivefunctions. PMID:24616627
Impairment in executive cognition (EC) is now recognized as relatively common among older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and may be predictive of the development of dementia. However, both MCI and executive functioning are broad and heterogeneous constructs. The present study sought to determine whether impairments in specific domains of EC are associated with specific subtypes of MCI. 124 MCI patients were divided into four subgroups (amnestic versus nonamnestic, and single- versus multiple-domain) based on their performance of widely-used neuropsychological screening tests. These patients and 68 normal elderly were administered 18 clinical and experimental tests of executive function. Principal components analysis suggested two highly reliable EC components, planning/problem-solving and working memory, and a less reliable third component, judgment. Planning/problem-solving and working memory, but not judgment, were impaired among the MCI patients. This was true even among those with Apure amnestic@ MCI, the least impaired group overall. Multiple-domain MCI patients had more severe impairments in planning/problem-solving and working memory than single-domain patients, leading to the supposition that they, not pure amnestic MCIs, are at highest risk of imminent dementia. PMID:19702414
Biological rhythms are essential for the regulation of many life processes. Disturbances of the circadian rhythm are known to affect human health, performance and well-being and the negative consequences are numerous and widespread. Cognitive dysfunction, fatigue, pain, sleep disturbances and mood disorders, such as anxiety and depression, are common problems arising around the time of surgery or in the course of a cancer diagnosis and subsequent treatment period. The importance of investigating prevention or treatment possibilities in these populations is significant due to the extent of the problems and the derived consequences on morbidity and mortality. Genetic predisposition to these problems is also an issue in focus. In this thesis we initially investigated whether the specific clock gene genotype PER(5/5) was associated with the development of postoperative cognitive dysfunction one week after non-cardiac surgery. We did not find any association, although this could have been due to the size of the study. Yet, if PER3(5/5) is associated with a higher incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction, the risk seems to be only modestly increased and by less than 10%. Melatonin is a hormone with well-known chronobiotic and hypnotic effects. In addition, exogenous melatonin is also known to have anxiolytic, analgesic, antidepressant and positive cognitive effects. Based on the lack of studies investigating these effects of melatonin, we conducted the MELODY trial in which we investigated the effect of 6 mg oral melatonin on depressive symptoms, anxiety, sleep, cognitivefunction and fatigue in patients with breast cancer in a three month time period after surgery. Melatonin had an effect on reducing the risk of developing depressive symptoms and also increased sleep efficiency perioperatively and total sleep time postoperatively. No effect was found on anxiety, sleep quality, sleepiness, general well-being or pain, however melatonin seemed to positively influence the ability to complete trial participation compared to placebo. Postoperative cognitive dysfunction was not a problem in this limited population. With regard to safety in our study, melatonin treatment for three months did not cause any serious adverse effects. Finally, we systematically reviewed the literature on the prophylactic or therapeutic effect of melatonin for depression or depressive symptoms in adult patients and assessed the safety of melatonin in these studies. The quantity, size and quality of trials investigating this question were not high and there was no clear evidence of an effect, although some studies were positive. In conclusion, further research is warranted with regard to the prophylactic effect and treatment effect of melatonin in depression, depressive symptoms, cognitive disturbances and symptom clusters of cancer patients in general. In addition, more hypothesis-generating studies with regard to the genetic heritability of POCD are needed. PMID:25186550
Objectives: Blood pressure is an indicator of vascular health that has been associated with cognition and quality of life in older age. Few studies have examined blood pressure across everyday cognitive tasks, which may have superior predictive functional utility than traditional cognitive measures. We explored blood pressure as a predictor of everyday problem solving (EPS) performance in middle-aged and older
Computational modeling/cognitive robotics complements functional modeling/experimental psychology to the science of psychology from insights obtained by building and experimenting with cognitive robots. First to the science of psychology. Finally, the reciprocal interactions between computational modeling/cognitive
Functional Analysis of Genes Implicated in Down Syndrome: 1. Cognitive Abilities in Mice be involved in specific cognitive func- tions. KEY WORDS: Chromosome 21; cognition; DCR-1; Down syndrome; fear Transpolygenic for Down Syndrome Chromosomal Region-1 (DCR-1) Caroline Chabert,1,5 Marc Jamon,2 Ameziane Cherfouh
Baseline cognitivefunction was established for a study of pre- symptomatic cognitive decline in 1870 men from the general population aged 55–69 years as part of the third examination of the Caerphilly Study. Cognitive assessment included the AH4, a four choice serial reaction time task, a modified CAMCOG, MMSE, NART and various memory tests. Distributions and relationships with age, social
John E. J. Gallacher; Peter C. Elwood; Carole Hopkinson; Patrick M. A. Rabbitt; Brian T. Stollery; Peter M. Sweetnam; Carol Brayne; Felicia A. Huppert
Caffeine has been consumed since ancient times due to its beneficial effects on attention, psychomotor function, and memory. Caffeine exerts its action mainly through an antagonism of cerebral adenosine receptors, although there are important secondary effects on other neurotransmitter systems. Recently, functional MRI (fMRI) entered the field of neuropharmacology to explore the intracerebral sites and mechanisms of action of pharmacological agents. However, as caffeine possesses vasoconstrictive properties it may interfere with the mechanisms underlying the functional contrast in fMRI. Yet, only a limited number of studies dealt with the effect of caffeine on measures in fMRI. Even fewer neuroimaging studies examined the effects that caffeine exerts on cognition: Portas and colleagues used fMRI in an attentional task under different levels of arousal (sleep deprivation or caffeine administration), concluding that the thalamus is involved in mediating the interaction of attention and arousal. Bendlin and colleagues found caffeine to stabilize the extent of neuronal activation in repetitive word stem completion, counteracting the general task practice effect. Recently, Koppelstaetter and colleagues assessed the effect of caffeine on verbal working memory demonstrating a modulatory effect of caffeine on brain regions (medial frontopolar and anterior cingulate cortex) that have been associated with attentional and executive functions. This review surveys and discusses neuroimaging findings on 1) how caffeine affects the contrast underlying fMRI techniques, particularly the blood oxygen level dependent contrast (BOLD fMRI), and 2) how caffeine operates on neuronal activity underlying cognition, to understand the effect of caffeine on behavior and its neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:20182040
Koppelstaetter, Florian; Poeppel, Thorsten D; Siedentopf, Christian M; Ischebeck, Anja; Kolbitsch, Christian; Mottaghy, Felix M; Felber, Stephan R; Jaschke, Werner R; Krause, Bernd J
Objective Neuroimaging studies of healthy individuals inform us about the normative maturation of the frontostriatal circuits that subserve self-regulatory control processes. Findings from these studies can be used as a reference frame against which to compare the aberrant development of these processes in individuals across a wide range of childhood psychopathologies. Method The authors reviewed extensive neuroimaging evidence for the presence of abnormalities in frontostriatal circuits in children and adults with Tourette’s syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) as well as a more limited number of imaging studies of adolescents and adults with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa that, together, implicate dysregulation of frontostriatal control systems in the pathogenesis of these eating disorders. Results The presence of an impaired capacity for self-regulatory control that derives from abnormal development of frontostriatal circuits likely interacts in similar ways with normally occurring somatic sensations and motor urges, intrusive thoughts, sensations of hunger, and preoccupation with body shape and weight to contribute, respectively, to the development of the tics of Tourette’s syndrome, the obsessions of OCD, the binge eating behaviors of bulimia, and the self-starvation of anorexia. Conclusions Analogous brain mechanisms in parallel frontostriatal circuits, or even in differing portions of the same frontostriatal circuit, may underlie the differing behavioral disturbances in these multiple disorders, although further research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:19448188
Marsh, Rachel; Maia, Tiago V.; Peterson, Bradley S.
Presents an integrated view of contributions made by various sections within cognitive psychology in which problems of consciousness are addressed. Implications concerning the relationship between cognition and behavior are pointed out. (Author/RH)
in the Elderly (IQCODE; Jorm & Korten, 1988) relates to cognition and structural neuroimaging in a large as between the imaging variables and the IQCODE, did not differ across language-ethnic groups. (JINS, 2004 to understand the factors associated with decline of everyday functioning. There is a growing body of research
Occupational injuries are common among firefighters who perform strenuous physical exertion in extreme heat. The thermal protective clothing (TPC) worn by firefighters inhibits normal thermoregulation, placing the firefighter at risk of hypohydration and hyperthermia that may result in cognitive decline. We tested whether cognitivefunction changes after treadmill exercise in TPC. In an initial study (Cog 1), ten healthy volunteers performed up to 50 min of treadmill exercise while wearing TPC in a heated room. A battery of neurocognitive tests evaluating short-term memory, sustained and divided attention, and reaction time was administered immediately before and after exercise. In a follow-up study (Cog 2), 19 healthy volunteers performed a similar exercise protocol with the battery of cognitive tests administered pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise, and serially up to 120 min after exercise. Subjects performed 46.4 ± 4.6 and 48.1 ± 3.6 min of exercise in the Cog 1 and Cog 2, respectively. In both studies heart rate approached age predicted maximum, body mass was reduced 1.0-1.5 kg, and body core temperature increased to levels similar to what is seen after fire suppression. Neurocognitive test scores did not change immediately after exercise. Recall on a memory test was reduced 60 and 120 min after exercise. The mean of the 10 slowest reaction times increased in the 120 min after exercise. Fifty minutes of treadmill exercise in TPC resulted in near maximal physiologic strain but alterations in neurocognitive performance were not noted until an hour or more following exercise in TPC. PMID:21892644
Morley, Julia; Beauchamp, Gillian; Suyama, Joe; Guyette, Francis X; Reis, Steven E; Callaway, Clifton W; Hostler, David
This study investigated the extent to which children’s negative information processing biases are pervasive across the cognitive modalities of attention, judgment, and memory and, further, whether such biases are specifically associated with anxiety, depression, and\\/or aggression. 133 children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were assessed on an attention allocation task, a vignette interpretation measure, and a memory recall
and animal cognition utilizing the ontology. The IDA (Intelligent Distribution Agent) model of cognition of intelligence in animals is the search for cognitive processes in the animal mind. Such an approach For Intelligent Systems1 and Department of Biology2 The University of Memphis Memphis, TN 38152 USA The authors
Background\\/Aims: Previously we have shown that functional declines in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) correlate to global measures of cognitive decline. We now determine if the correlation between cognitive impairment and functional ability in PD is similar to that in AD using individual cognitive measures. Methods: 93 PD subjects and 124 AD\\/MCI subjects underwent the Functional Assessment Staging
M. N. Sabbagh; T. Lahti; D. J. Connor; J. N. Caviness; H. Shill; L. Vedders; P. Mahant; J. Samanta; R. S. Burns; V. G. H. Evidente; E. Driver-Dunckley; B. Reisberg; S. Bircea; C. H. Adler
Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitivefunctioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. PMID:24585433
Objective: This retrospective survey study explored the hypothesis that multiple maltreatment and loss experiences in early childhood would interfere with the formation of secure attachments, creating (1) an increased vulnerability to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and (2) adult problems in self-and social functioning.Method: Data were collected from 687 undergraduates on an urban, commuter campus. They were analyzed by means of
This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma and the psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning of adults with severe mental health problems. Participants (n?=?31) were recruited from the caseloads of community mental health services in Northern Ireland and assessed at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. More than half had a history of childhood trauma (n?=?17). There were no differences
Gavin Davidson; Ciaran Shannon; Ciaran Mulholland; Jim Campbell
Sleep disorders are associated with impaired cognition in the general population, but little attention has been given to the potential association between sleep and cognitivefunction in the dialysis population. This study investigated reported sleep difficulty and cognitivefunction scores in a national cohort of patients who initiated maintenance hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis. The cognitivefunction scale of the Kidney
Nancy G. Kutner; Rebecca Zhang; Yijian Huang; Donald L. Bliwise
Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability. PMID:24250828
This thesis explores genetic algorithm and rule-based optimization techniques used by cognitive radios to make operating parameter decisions. Cognitive radios take advantage of intelligent control methods by using sensed ...
??These studies determined the effects of sodium chloride supplementation on serum and sweat sodium concentration, cardiovascular function, and physical and cognitive performance. Sweat sodium losses,… (more)
The present study examined the association of cognitive–executive abilities to two risk factors for alcoholism, i.e., antisocial behaviors and a family history (FH+) of alcohol dependence. A sample of 91 right-handed, non-substance-dependent, young male adults recruited from the community were classified into three groups: (1) a control group of n=32 men with no history of DSM-III-R childhood conduct disorder (CD)
Michael C. Stevens; Richard F. Kaplan; Victor M. Hesselbrock
Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. PMID:22251311
Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.
Background It has been reported that oral health is poor in elderly populations and is associated with poor cognition and dementia. The objective of this study was to examine the association between tooth loss and cognitivefunction in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Methods We examined the association between tooth loss and cognitivefunction in 462 Japanese community-dwelling individuals. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was employed to measure global cognitive status. A multiple logistic regression analysis, with both crude and adjusted conditions for confounding factors, was used to assess the relationship between poor cognition and the number of remaining teeth. Results The overall prevalence of poor cognition (MMSE ? 23) in this study population was 5.6%. Subjects with poor cognition were significantly older, less educated, scored lower in intellectual activity, and had fewer remaining teeth than those with normal cognition. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis, a lower number of teeth (0–10) was found to be a significant independent risk factor (OR = 20.21, 95% confidence interval = 2.20 to 185.47) of cognitive impairment. Conclusions This cross-sectional study on a Japanese community-dwelling population revealed relationships between tooth loss and cognitivefunction. However, the interpretation of our results was hampered by a lack of data, including socioeconomic status and longitudinal observations. Future research exploring tooth loss and cognitivefunction is warranted. PMID:23800274
Background Dysregulated emotional functioning has been linked with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among adults. Early life experiences may influence the development of adulthood CVD, but few studies have examined whether potential damaging effects of dysregulated emotional function begin earlier in life. Therefore, we examined associations of child emotional functioning and the 10-year risk of developing CVD in midlife. Methods We studied 377 adult offspring (mean age=42.2) of Collaborative Perinatal Project participants, a U.S. cohort of pregnant women enrolled in 1959–1966. Three measures of child emotional functioning derived from psychologist ratings of behavior at 7 years of age were examined: distress proneness, attention, and inappropriate self-regulation. Adulthood 10-year CVD risk was calculated with the validated Framingham general CVD risk algorithm. Gender-specific multiple regression models assessed associations of childhood emotion and adulthood CVD risk independent of covariates measured across the life course. Potential mediators of the associations were also examined. Results Women had 31% higher CVD risk per standard deviation increase in childhood distress proneness (p=0.03), and 8% reduced risk per standard deviation increase in attention (p=0.09). For men, each standard deviation increase in childhood distress proneness was associated with 17% higher CVD risk (p=0.02). Associations were partly explained by adulthood body mass index and depressive symptoms in women but not in men. Inappropriate self-regulation was not associated with CVD risk. Conclusion Several aspects of childhood emotional functioning was associated with adulthood CVD risk, particularly for women. As such, primary prevention of CVD may be associated with addressing early life emotional functioning. PMID:23322856
Appleton, Allison A.; Loucks, Eric B.; Buka, Stephen L.; Rimm, Eric; Kubzansky, Laura D.
The delineation of the interrelationships between cognitive and physical functioning in older adults is critical to determining pathways to disability. By using longitudinal data from 395 initially high-functioning, community-dwelling older women in Baltimore, Maryland, from the Women's Health and Aging Study II (from 1994 to 2006), we simultaneously assessed associations of cognition with later physical functioning and associations of physical functioning with later cognition. The analysis included measures of global cognition and 2 cognitive domains (executive functioning and memory), as well as 2 measures of physical functioning (a Short Physical Performance Battery and a 4-meter test of usual walking speed). We found the strongest bidirectional associations of memory with physical functioning and less evidence of associations of physical functioning with executive functioning and global cognition. For a 1-standard deviation increase in walking speed, subsequent memory increased by 0.08 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: (0.03, 0.13)). For a 1-standard deviation increase in memory, subsequent walking speed increased by 0.07 standard deviations (95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.10). Associations were similar in magnitude for models using a Short Physical Performance Battery. We did not find evidence that associations between cognitive and physical functioning varied over time. Our results suggest that cognition, and particularly memory, is associated with subsequent physical functioning and vice versa. PMID:25205829
Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5–3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1–3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100–300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301
Ample evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillatory activity is linked to a broad variety of perceptual, sensorimotor, and cognitive operations. However, few studies have investigated the delta band (0.5-3.5 Hz) during different cognitive processes. The aim of this review is to present data and propose the hypothesis that sustained delta oscillations inhibit interferences that may affect the performance of mental tasks, possibly by modulating the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. It is clear that two functionally distinct and potentially competing brain networks can be broadly distinguished by their contrasting roles in attention to the external world vs. the internally directed mentation or concentration. During concentration, EEG delta (1-3.5 Hz) activity increases mainly in frontal leads in different tasks: mental calculation, semantic tasks, and the Sternberg paradigm. This last task is considered a working memory task, but in neural, as well as phenomenological, terms, working memory can be best understood as attention focused on an internal representation. In the Sternberg task, increases in power in the frequencies from 1 to 3.90 Hz in frontal regions are reported. In a Go/No-Go task, power increases at 1 Hz in both conditions were observed during 100-300 ms in central, parietal and temporal regions. However, in the No-Go condition, power increases were also observed in frontal regions, suggesting its participation in the inhibition of the motor response. Increases in delta power were also reported during semantic tasks in children. In conclusion, the results suggest that power increases of delta frequencies during mental tasks are associated with functional cortical deafferentation, or inhibition of the sensory afferences that interfere with internal concentration. These inhibitory oscillations would modulate the activity of those networks that should be inactive to accomplish the task. PMID:24367301
1 Socioeconomic position in childhood and in adulthood and functional limitations in midlife: data trajectory from childhood to adulthood and functional limitations in midlife in France. We used data from estimated using indirect age standardisation. Overall, the socioeconomic trajectory from childhood
Pulmonary function is important in neuromuscular weakness. In chil- dren, height determines normal values. Height measurement is unre- liable when neuromuscular weakness or spinal deformity is present. The aim of this study was to accurately predict pulmonary function from a limb segment measurement that is precise and reproducible. Normal males (n 1,144) and females (n 1,199), 5.3 to 19.6 years
Leanne M. Gauld; Johanna Kappers; John B. Carlin; Colin F. Robertson
Plasticity of language function after brain damage can depend on maturation of the brain. Children with left-hemisphere perinatal (n = 7) or childhood stroke (n = 5) and 12 controls were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The verb generation and the sentence comprehension tasks were employed to activate the expressive and receptive language areas, respectively. Weighted laterality indices were calculated and correlated with results assessed by neuropsychological test battery. Compared to controls, children with childhood stroke showed significantly lower mean scores for the expressive (P < .05) and receptive (P = .05) language tests. On functional magnetic resonance imaging they showed left-side cortical activation, as did controls. Perinatal stroke patients showed atypical right-side or bilateral language lateralization during both tasks. Negative correlation for stroke patients was found between scores for expressive language tests and laterality index during the verb generation task. (Re)organization of language function differs in children with perinatal and childhood stroke and correlates with neurocognitive performance. PMID:23748202
The CognitiveFunction Analysis is a methodology supported by a mediating tool for the human-centered automation of safety-critical systems (4). It is based on a socio-cognitive model linking the artifact being designed, the user's activity, the task to be performed, and the organizational environment. Cognitivefunctions can be allocated to humans or machines. They are characterized by their role, context
Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment. PMID:23625064
Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplicio; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandao
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of recalled childhood sexual and physical abuse with current sexual functioning in mid-life. The sample was participants in the longitudinal population-based cohort of mid-aged women, The Melbourne Women's Midlife Health Project. Three hundred sixty two of the women (92% of the available cohort) were administered the Violence Questionnaire in the
LORRAINE DENNERSTEIN; JANET R. GUTHRIE; SIMONE ALFORD
Objective: To retrospectively examine the long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT) on attention functioning. Methods: Fifty-six survivors of childhood leukemia who had been randomly assigned to a treatment regi- men of chemotherapy with or without 1,800 cGy CRT were administered a neuropsychological test battery. Results: Significant differences were found between the irradiated and nonirradiated groups on three of four
Kathryn A. Lockwood; Terece S. Bell; Robert W. Colegrove
BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been an increasing attention to thyroid function in paediatric obese patients. In the present study we aimed 1) to determine the prevalence of abnormally elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in Italian obese children and adolescents 2) to investigate whether hyperthyrotropinemia in obese children cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors 3) to verify if TSH elevation
Anna Grandone; Nicola Santoro; Filomena Coppola; Paolo Calabrò; Laura Perrone; Emanuele del Giudice
Aim: To examine the cognitivefunctioning of young people with pantothenate-kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) after pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS). PKAN is characterized by progressive generalized dystonia and has historically been associated with cognitive decline. With growing evidence that DBS can improve motor function in…
Objective Findings in the literature are inconsistent on the impact of congenital heart disease (CHD) on the psychological and cognitivefunctioning of children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to systematically review this empirical body of literature. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to review studies on behavior problems and cognitivefunctioning in CHD. Results Only older children
Petra A. Karsdorp; Walter Everaerd; Merel Kindt; Barbara J. M. Mulder
AIMSTo examine the relation between birth weight and cognitivefunction at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.METHODSRetrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitivefunction measured while at school at age 11 in 1932. Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital
S D Shenkin; J M Starr; A Pattie; M A Rush; L J Whalley; I J Deary
The heterozygote reeler mouse (HRM) shows many neuroanatomical and biochemical features that are also present in some human cognitive disorders, such as schizophrenia. In the present study, hippocampal dependent plasticity and cognitivefunction of the HRM were characterized in detail in an attempt to reveal phenotypic functional differences that result from Reelin haploinsufficiency. The HRM and wild type mice show
Shenfeng Qiu; Kimberly M. Korwek; Adeola R. Pratt-Davis; Melinda Peters; Mica Yael Bergman; Edwin J. Weeber
BACKGROUND: Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitivefunctions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitivefunctions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. METHODS: The study group consisted of 134 elementary
Individual differences in cognitive performance increase from early to late adulthood, likely reflecting influences of a multitude of factors. We hypothesize that losses in neurochemical and anatomical brain resources in normal aging modulate the effects of common genetic variations on cognitivefunctioning. Our hypothesis is based on the assumption that the function relating brain resources to cognition is nonlinear, so that genetic differences exert increasingly large effects on cognition as resources recede from high to medium levels in the course of aging. Direct empirical support for this hypothesis comes from a study by Nagel et al. (2008), who reported that the effects of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) gene on cognitive performance are magnified in old age and interacted with the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) gene. We conclude that common genetic polymorphisms contribute to the increasing heterogeneity of cognitivefunctioning in old age. Extensions of the hypothesis to other polymorphisms are discussed. (150 of 150 words) PMID:19225597
Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitivefunction and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitivefunction merit further study. PMID:23676264
Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.
The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187
Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir
The assessment of mental health consumers' functional independence is a core duty of occupational therapists. Despite the clear impact of cognition on functional outcomes, it is not always routinely assessed. We sought to explore the relationship between cognition and functional independence as well as to describe which areas of performance were most challenging for the sample. Two hundred and twenty-five assessment reports were analysed. These included a "skills summary table" rating independence in a variety of basic and instrumental activities of daily living and a measure of cognition (using the Allen Cognitive Level test (ACL)). Rasch analysis was used to evaluate the internal validity of the "skills summary table" instrument and to construct person measures of functional independence. Correlational and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to explore relationships between functional independence, cognition, diagnosis, age and gender. Functionalcognition explained 30% of the variance in functional independence. The most challenging areas of performance included medication management, money management, housework and cooking. This project confirms the importance of including routine assessment of functionalcognition as a key element of functional independence and provides further evidence for the validity of observational assessment of basic and instrumental activities of daily living. PMID:23521900
In the development of psychotic symptoms, environmental and genetic factors may both play a role. The reported association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms could therefore be moderated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the stress response, such as FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Recent studies investigating childhood trauma by SNP interactions have inconsistently found the hippocampus to be a potential target underlying these interactions. Therefore, more detailed modelling of these effects, using appropriate covariates, is required. We examined whether BDNF/FKBP5 and childhood trauma interactions affected two proxies of hippocampal integrity: (i) hippocampal volume and (ii) cognitive performance on a block design (BD) and delayed auditory verbal task (AVLT). We also investigated whether the putative interaction was different for patients with a psychotic disorder (n?=?89) compared to their non-psychotic siblings (n?=?95), in order to elicit possible group-specific protective/vulnerability effects. SNPs were rs9296158, rs4713916, rs992105, rs3800373 (FKBP5) and rs6265 (BDNF). In the combined sample, no BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were apparent for either outcome, and BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were not different for patients and siblings. The omission of drug use and alcohol consumption sometimes yielded false positives, greatly affected explained error and influenced p-values. The consistent absence of any significant BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions on assessments of hippocampal integrity suggests that the effect of these interactions on psychotic symptoms is not mediated by hippocampal integrity. The importance of appropriate statistical designs and inclusion of relevant covariates should be carefully considered. PMID:24658422
Hernaus, Dennis; van Winkel, Ruud; Gronenschild, Ed; Habets, Petra; Kenis, Gunter; Marcelis, Machteld; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Collip, Dina
The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitivefunctions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitivefunction assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitivefunction, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitivefunction than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitivefunction differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed.
Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitivefunction or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitivefunction and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitivefunction tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI. PMID:24782766
This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…
Introduction Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitivefunction have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores. Results There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0.0478). In participants with normal homocysteine levels, an inverse U-shaped relationship between total cholesterol level and cognitive score was found, indicating that both low and high cholesterol levels were associated with lower cognitive scores. In participants with high homocysteine levels, no significant association between cholesterol and cognition was found. Conclusion The relationship between cholesterol levels and cognitivefunction depends upon homocysteine levels, suggesting an interactive role between cholesterol and homocysteine on cognitivefunction in the elderly population. Additional research is required to confirm our findings in other populations, and to explore potential mechanisms underlying the lipid–homocysteine interaction. PMID:25364240
Cheng, Yibin; Jin, Yinlong; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Su, Liqin; Yang, Lili; Ma, Feng; Hake, Ann M; Kettler, Carla; Chen, Chen; Liu, Jingyi; Bian, Jianchao; Li, Ping; Murrell, Jill R; Hendrie, Hugh C; Gao, Sujuan
In this paper we construct an atlas that captures functional characteristics of a cognitive process from a population of individuals. The functional connectivity is encoded in a low-dimensional embedding space derived from ...
This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context predict expectations of racial discrimination in cross-race social interactions (social expectations). Expectations of racial discrimination were assessed using vignettes of cross-race social situations involving an African American child in a social interaction with European Americans. There were 3 major findings. First, expectations for discrimination declined slightly from 3rd to 5th grade. Second, although racial composition of children's classrooms, number of European American friends, gender, and family poverty status were largely unrelated to social expectations, having more African American friends was associated with expecting more discrimination in cross-racial interactions from 3rd to 5th grade. Third, increases in racial centrality were related to increases in discrimination expectations, and increases in public regard were associated with decreases in discrimination expectations. These data suggest that as early as 3rd grade, children are forming attitudes about their racial group that have implications for their cross-race social interactions. PMID:18999320
Rowley, Stephanie J; Burchinal, Margaret R; Roberts, Joanne E; Zeisel, Susan A
Objective: To explore factors throughout the lifespan that influence cognition in midlife to late life. Methods: We conducted a retrospective birth cohort study of 2,062 individuals born during 1921-1954 in Beijing, China. In 2003-2005, birth records were abstracted, and participants then 50-82 years old received standardized examinations for health, cognition, and socio-environmental measures. Using cumulative logit models, we assessed adjusted relative effects of prenatal, early life, and adult factors on mid- to late-life cognition. Results: Most prenatal factors were associated with mid- to late-life cognition in the unadjusted models. However, when childhood and adult factors were sequentially added to the models, the impact of prenatal factors showed successive attenuation in effect size, and became insignificant. In contrast, early life factors remained significantly associated with mid- to late-life cognition even after full life-course adjustments. Specifically, those whose fathers had laborer vs professional occupations (odds ratio [OR]Laborer 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25-2.42) had poorer cognitive outcomes, while individuals who drank milk daily in childhood (OR 0.65; 95% CI: 0.54-0.80), had more years of education (OR10-12 years 0.60; 95% CI: 0.45-0.81; OR13+ yrs 0.29; 95% CI: 0.23-0.38), and were taller adults (ORheight ? SD 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.86) had better cognition. The high prenatal risk infants had similar patterns with a trend toward a stronger association between cognition and socioenvironmental factors. Conclusion: Mid- to late-life cognition is influenced by factors over the entire lifespan with the greatest impact coming from early life exposures. Nutrition, education, social, and family environment in early life may have a long-term impact on cognition in developing countries. GLOSSARY CI = confidence interval; HDL = high-density lipoprotein; LDL = low-density lipoprotein; OR = odds ratio; PUMCH = Peking Union Medical College Hospital; WAIS-R = Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised; WISC-R = Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. PMID:19620606
Zhang, Z X.; Plassman, B L.; Xu, Q; Zahner, G E.P.; Wu, B; Gai, M Y.; Wen, H B.; Chen, X; Gao, S; Hu, D; Xiao, X H.; Shen, Y; Liu, A M.; Xu, T
The aim of our study was to explore whether or not different types of learners in a sensorimotor task possess characteristically different cognitive representations. Participants' sensorimotor adaptation performance was measured with a pointing paradigm which used a distortion of the visual feedback in terms of a left-right reversal. The structure of cognitive representations was assessed using a newly established experimental method, the Cognitive Measurement of Represented Directions. A post hoc analysis revealed inter-individual differences in participants' adaptation performance, and three different skill levels (skilled, average, and poor adapters) have been defined. These differences in performance were correlated with the structure of participants' cognitive representations of movement directions. Analysis of these cognitive representations revealed performance advantages for participants possessing a global cognitive representation of movement directions (aligned to cardinal movement axes), rather than a local representation (aligned to each neighboring direction). Our findings are evidence that cognitive representation structures play a functional role in adaptation performance. PMID:23007723
Lex, Heiko; Weigelt, Matthias; Knoblauch, Andreas; Schack, Thomas
Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…
The present study investigated the influence of cognitive, motor, and Karate (accordingly the guidelines of the German-Karate-Federation, DKV) training on the cognitivefunctioning and mental state of older people between 67 and 93?years of age. The three training groups each consisted of 12 elderly participants; the waiting control group included 9 participants. Before the training, participants were evaluated with cognitive measurements (cognitive speed: number-connection test, number–symbol test; memory performance: digit-span test, blocking-tapping test, figure test) and a measurement of emotional well-being. After this pre-testing they participated the specific training in on average sixteen 1-h training sessions. The cognitive training exercised inductive thinking ability, the motor training worked on easy stretching and mobilization techniques, and the Karate training taught tasks of self-defense, partner training, and Katas. After completion of the training sessions, all tests were applied again. The results show no significant difference in cognitive improvement dependent on group between the three training conditions. However a significant improvement was found in the emotional mental state measurement for the Karate group compared to the waiting control group. This result suggests that the integrated involvement in Karate leads to a feeling of self-worth and that, even in elderly people, integration of new sports helps to improve quality of life. PMID:22363311
Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions. PMID:24367325
Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.
This review summarizes some important principles of human brain development. Special emphasis is placed on the role of psychosocial stress during childhood on the developing brain. Depending on the degree of cognitive, behavioral and socio-emotional maturation, previous experiences and actual context, psychosocial stressors may be perceived by children as being either controllable (challenge) or uncontrollable (disaster). Controllable stress experiences are associated with a preferential activation of the central and peripheral noradrenergic system, i.e., of a system endowed with the gating of cortical information processing and the facilitation and stabilization of neuronal pathways and synaptic connections involved in behavioral responding. Uncontrollable stress responses are elicited if all previously acquired behavioral or cognitive strategies are inadequate or fail to overcome the stressor. The resulting severe and long-lasting activation of the central stress responsive systems will finally lead to a full activation of the HPA system, accompanied by adrenocortical cortisol release. The major central effect of this response is the destabilization of previously established neuronal circuits and synaptic connections. Thus, severe uncontrollable psychosocial stress may act as an important trigger of and a prerequisite for the reorganization of neuronal connectivity. It may, above a certain threshold, threaten the mental and affective stability, integrity, and the future development of a child. The long-term consequences of psychosocial stress on the structural and functional maturation of the brain are documented by findings from animal research and by results in the field of developmental psychopathology in children. The role of risk and protective factors during different phases of child development is briefly summarized and the need for a biopsychosocial model concerning the relationship between human brain development and behavior is emphasized. PMID:9478077
Aging is related to cognitive decline, and it has been reported that aging disrupts some resting state brain networks. However, most studies have focused on the default mode network and ignored other resting state networks. In this study, we measured resting state activity using fMRI and explored whether cognitive decline with aging is related to disrupted resting state networks. Independent
Using measures of EEG power and coherence with a longitudinal sample, the goal of this study was to examine developmental changes in brain electrical activity during higher order cognitive processing at infancy and early childhood. Infants were recruited at 8 months of age and performed an infant working-memory task based on a looking version of the A-not-B task. At age
Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them. PMID:24966818
Children with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) commonly present with socioemotional difficulties, as well as accompanying multiple cognitive impairments. Often difficulties worsen at around 10 years old. This change is associated with frontal system changes, and tests of executive function (EF) predict outcome. However, children with TBI sometimes present with socioemotional difficulties despite apparent cognitive recovery. Our aims were to explore
James Tonks; W. Huw Williams; Phil Yates; Alan Slater
This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates the impact of cognitive training and general mental stimulation on the cognitive and everyday functioning of older adults without known cognitive impairment. We examine transfer and maintenance of intervention effects, and the impact of training in group versus individual settings. Thirty-one randomised controlled trials were included, with 1806 participants in cognitive training groups and 386 in general mental stimulation groups. Meta-analysis results revealed that compared to active controls, cognitive training improved performance on measures of executive function (working memory, p=0.04; processing speed, p<0.0001) and composite measures of cognitivefunction (p=0.001). Compared to no intervention, cognitive training improved performance on measures of memory (face-name recall, p=0.02; immediate recall, p=0.02; paired associates, p=0.001) and subjective cognitivefunction (p=0.01). The impact of cognitive training on everyday functioning is largely under investigated. More research is required to determine if general mental stimulation can benefit cognitive and everyday functioning. Transfer and maintenance of intervention effects are most commonly reported when training is adaptive, with at least ten intervention sessions and a long-term follow-up. Memory and subjective cognitive performance might be improved by training in group versus individual settings. PMID:24607830
Kelly, Michelle E; Loughrey, David; Lawlor, Brian A; Robertson, Ian H; Walsh, Cathal; Brennan, Sabina
The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561
Our objectives for this report were to identify trajectories of youth gambling behavior, and to examine their relation to executive cognitivefunction (ECF) and associated problem behaviors. Philadelphia school children, enrolled at ages 10-12 years (n = 387; 49% male), completed three annual assessments of risk behaviors, ECF, impulsivity, problem behaviors and demographics. Across ages 10-15 years, using methods from Nagin et al., two groups were identified: Early Gamblers (n = 111) initiated early and continued in later assessments, and Later Gamblers (n = 276) initiated at later ages and gambled less. Betting money on cards and sports were the most frequently reported gambling behaviors. Using gambling group as outcome, final backward selection logistic regression model showed Early Gamblers are more likely male (P = 0.001), report more active coping (P = 0.042), impulsive behaviors (P ? 0.008), and have friends who gamble (P = 0.001). Groups were similar in ECF, parental monitoring, marital status, SES, and race. Early Gamblers had higher incidence of problem behaviors and drug use (all P ? 0.006). Two gambling groups were identified in early adolescence with Early Gamblers showing higher levels of impulsivity and comorbid problems but similar levels of ECF compared to Late Gamblers. As more gambling groups are identified through later adolescence, ECF may emerge as a relevant precursor of problem gambling at this later time. PMID:21698342
Betancourt, Laura M; Brodsky, Nancy L; Brown, Caitlin A; McKenna, Kathleen A; Giannetta, Joan M; Yang, Wei; Romer, Daniel; Hurt, Hallam
The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance. PMID:20958334
Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D
Objective: Although cognitive deficits have been carefully studied in both schizophrenia disorders and alcohol use disorders, comparatively little is known about cognitive deficits in patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders. The main objectives of this paper are: 1) to review the literature on cognitivefunctioning in patients with dual diagnoses of schizophrenia and alcohol use disorders,
Elizabeth Ralevski; Mayumi O. Gianoli; Melanie Russo; Rita Dwan; Rajiv Radhakrishnan
Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion. PMID:23544083
Recent studies have demonstrated a clear association between changes in the microbiota and cognitive behavior. Intestinal dysbiosis, as modeled using GF mice (containing no microbiota), bacterial infection with an enteric pathogen, and administration of probiotics, can modulate cognitive behavior including learning and memory. This chapter will highlight recent findings in both human and animal studies indicating how changes in the composition and diversity of the microbiota can impact behavior and brain physiology in both disease states and in health. Cognitive behavior can not only be affected in cases of intestinal disease, but also manifests changes in extra-intestinal disease conditions. PMID:24997042
Background: Cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a common adverse consequence of heart failure. Both Heart failure and cognitive impairment are associated with frequent hospitalization and increased mortality, particularly when they occur simultaneously. Objectives: To determine cognitivefunction and related factors in patients with heart failure. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we assessed 239 patients with heart failure. Data were collected by Mini Mental status Examination, Charlson comorbidity index and NYHA classification system. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean score of cognitivefunction was 21.68 ± 4.51. In total, 155 patients (64.9%) had cognitive impairment. Significant associations were found between the status of cognitive impairment and gender (P < 0.002), education level (P < 0.000), living location (P < 0.000), marital status (P < 0.03), living arrangement (P < 0.001 ), employment status (P < 0.000), income (P < 0.02), being the head of family (P < 0.03), the family size (P < 0.02), having a supplemental insurance (P < 0.003) and the patient’s comorbidities (P < 0.02). However, in logistic regression analysis, only education and supplementary insurance could predict cognitive status which indicates that patients with supplementary insurance and higher education levels were more likely to maintain optimal cognitivefunction. Conclusions: More than a half of the subjects had cognitive impairment. As the level of patients cognitivefunctioning affects their behaviors and daily living activities, it is recommended that patients with heart failure should be assessed for their cognitivefunctioning.
The shift from childhood to adolescence is characterized by rapid remodeling of the brain and increased risk-taking behaviors. Current theories hypothesize that developmental enhancements in sensitivity to affective environmental cues in adolescence may undermine executive function (EF) and increase the likelihood of problematic behaviors. In the current study, we examined the extent to which EF in childhood predicts EF in early adolescence. We also tested whether individual differences in neural responses to affective cues (rewards/punishments) in childhood serve as a biological marker for EF, sensation-seeking, academic performance, and social skills in early adolescence. At age 8, 84 children completed a gambling task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. We examined the extent to which selections resulting in rewards or losses in this task elicited (i) the P300, a post-stimulus waveform reflecting the allocation of attentional resources toward a stimulus, and (ii) the SPN, a pre-stimulus anticipatory waveform reflecting a neural representation of a “hunch” about an outcome that originates in insula and ventromedial PFC. Children also completed a Dimensional Change Card-Sort (DCCS) and Flanker task to measure EF. At age 12, 78 children repeated the DCCS and Flanker and completed a battery of questionnaires. Flanker and DCCS accuracy at age 8 predicted Flanker and DCCS performance at age 12, respectively. Individual differences in the magnitude of P300 (to losses vs. rewards) and SPN (preceding outcomes with a high probability of punishment) at age 8 predicted self-reported sensation seeking (lower) and teacher-rated academic performance (higher) at age 12. We suggest there is stability in EF from age 8 to 12, and that childhood neural sensitivity to reward and punishment predicts individual differences in sensation seeking and adaptive behaviors in children entering adolescence. PMID:24795680
Harms, Madeline B.; Zayas, Vivian; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Carlson, Stephanie M.
This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and
Caroline Di Bernardi Luft; Emílio Takase; David Darby
OBJECTIVE--To examine whether birth weight, infant weight, and childhood respiratory infection are associated with adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. DESIGN--Follow up study of men born during 1911-30 whose birth weights, weights at 1 year, and childhood illnesses were recorded at the time by health visitors. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5718 men born in the county during 1911-30
D J Barker; K M Godfrey; C Fall; C Osmond; P D Winter; S O Shaheen
The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…
Background. Tamoxifen is an anti-estrogen used in the treatment of breast cancer and to reduce the incidence of breast cancer in high risk women. Although the brain is an estrogen target organ and several studies have found a beneficial effect of estrogen on cognitivefunction, the effect of tamoxifen on cognition has not been reported. Therefore, we initiated a follow-up
Gulf War (GW) deployed veterans have reported health symptoms since returning from the war that suggest dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS). These symptoms include memory and concentration difficulties, fatigue, and headaches. Leading hypotheses for the etiology of these cognitive complaints include psychological factors and\\/or exposures to chemicals with neurotoxic properties. In this study, cognitivefunctioning was compared in
Kimberly Sullivan; Maxine Krengel; Susan P. Proctor; Sherral Devine; Timothy Heeren; Roberta F. White
Recent research has shown that performing approach versus avoidance behaviors (arm flexion vs. extension) effectively influences cognitivefunctioning. In another area, lateralized peripheral activations (left vs. right side) of the motivational systems of approach versus avoidance were linked to various performances in cognitive tasks. By…
While research on social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia is quickly growing, relatively little is still known about the severity and correlates of these impairments. The few studies that have examined this issue suggest that social cognitive impairments may be positively related to psychiatric symptoms and negatively related to functioning. In the current analyses of 119 stable outpatients with schizophrenia spectrum diagnoses, we sought to further characterize the nature of social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Specifically, we examined 1) social cognitive impairments on four different social cognitive tasks including measures of emotional processing and Theory of Mind and 2) the demographic, symptom and functional correlates of these impairments. For three of the four social cognitive tasks examined, the majority of participants performed 1 or more SD worse than healthy controls, with variability in the degree of impairment across tasks. Contrary to expectation, correlations between social cognitive performance on each of the four tasks and clinical and functional features were few and weak, and for the most part did not replicate the previously reported relationship of social cognition to severity of symptoms or current functional status. PMID:23017655
Fiszdon, Joanna M.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Johannesen, Jason K.; Bell, Morris D.
The Relationship between Diffusion Tensor Tractography and CognitiveFunctioning in Parkinson Institute Introduction Cognitive impairment is a common non-motor manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD score 0.700 0.725 0.750 0.775 0.800 ADCRightPosteriorInternalCapsule W W W WWW W W W W W W Â· Parkinson
We investigated the influence of the level of cognitivefunctioning on sequence-specific learning in Parkinson's disease (PD). This was done by examining the relationship between the scales for outcomes in Parkinson's disease-cognition [SCOPA-COG, Marinus, J., Visser, M., Verwey, N. A., Verhey, F. R. J., Middelkoop, H. A. M.,Stiggelbout, A., et…
Vandenbossche, Jochen; Deroost, Natacha; Soetens, Eric; Kerckhofs, Eric
Diabetes mellitus and depressive disorders are both common chronic diseases that increase functional disability and social burden. Cognitive impairment is a potentially debilitating feature of depression. Previous evidence indicates that the antidiabetic drug metformin could be suitable for diabetic patients with cognitive impairment. However, there is no direct evidence from clinical studies that metformin treatment improves cognitivefunction in diabetic patients suffering from depression. In the present study, 58 participants diagnosed with depression and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were recruited and divided into two groups, one treated with metformin and the other treated with placebo for 24 weeks. Cognitivefunction, depressive behaviour and diabetes improvement were evaluated. Chronic treatment with metformin for 24 weeks improved cognitive performance, as assessed by the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised, in depressed patients with T2DM. In addition, metformin significantly improved depressive performance and changed the glucose metabolism in depressed patients with diabetes. Depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with cognitive performance in metformin-treated participants. Furthermore, associations were observed between the parameters of blood glucose metabolism and the depression phenotype. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with metformin has antidepressant behavioural effects and that improved cognitivefunction is involved in the therapeutic outcome of metformin. The results of the present study also raise the possibility that supplementary administration of antidiabetic medications may enhance the recovery of depression, comorbid with T2DM, through improvements in cognitive performance. PMID:24862430
Despite significant gains in the fields of pediatric neuroimaging and developmental neurobiology, surprisingly little is known about the developing human brain or the neural bases of cognitive development. This paper addresses MRI studies of structural and functional changes in the developing human brain and their relation to changes in cognitive processes over the first few decades of human life. Based
Background: Pulmonary function has been associated with some measures of cognitive performance, mostly in late adulthood. This study investigated whether this association is present for a range of cognitive measures, at three stages of adulthood, and whether it remains after controlling for demographic, health and lifestyle factors. Method: The relationship between forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1), a measure
Kaarin J. Anstey; Timothy D. Windsor; Anthony F. Jorm; Helen Christensen; Bryan Rodgers
Although evidence seems to indicate favorable effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on cognitivefunctions and mood in elderly healthy and demented women, some questions remain. For instance, the nature of the long term effect of HRT, e.g. in preventing cognitive decline is still unclear. In this respect, the addition of progestagens in combined HRT has been mentioned to oppose
Ritchie 1 CAFFEINE, COGNITIVEFUNCTIONING AND WHITE MATTER LESIONS IN THE ELDERLY: ESTABLISHING of interest. Running title : caffeine and white matter lesions inserm-00457699,version1-19Feb2010 Author for a causal relationship between caffeine consumption and cognitive deterioration in the elderly. Methods
This study investigated alterations in heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive performance before and after physical effort, for 30 high-level track and field athletes (23 males and 7 females). Interbeat intervals were assessed at the baseline and during each task of a CogState cognitive battery (simple reaction time, choice reaction time, working memory, short-term memory and sustained attention). Time and frequency domain measures of HRV were compared between conditions and between tasks. The results indicated differences in HRV between executive and non-executive tasks. There was a significant increase in sympathetic-modulation-related indices after physical effort. The differences between executive and non-executive tasks were the same in post-test. Correlations were found between HRV and cognitive performance, which differed by speed and accuracy. We conclude that HRV is related to cognitive demand and that the correlation between HRV and cognitive performance seems to be stronger after physical exercise. The results raise questions about the psychophysiological meaning of different HRV signals and this has implications for future research about the relationship between HRV and cognition. PMID:19632295
Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Takase, Emílio; Darby, David
Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitivefunction. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitivefunction in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitivefunction. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitivefunction in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitivefunction and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitivefunction and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784
Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J
Background/ Objectives The relationship between late-life blood pressure (BP) and cognitivefunction in the elderly is poorly understood. Inconsistent results have been reported from existing studies. We report the results from a prospective cohort study on the association between BP and cognitivefunction in elderly African Americans. Design Prospective cohort study conducted from 1997 to 2009. Setting Community-based study in Indianapolis. Participants 3145 African Americans aged 65 years or older. Measurements At each assessment, participants’ cognitivefunction was measured by the Community Screening Interview for Dementia score. Other measurements included BP, height, weight, education level, antihypertensive medication use, alcohol use, smoking and histories of chronic medical conditions. Results 5995 longitudinal assessments contributed by 2721 participants with complete independent variables were analyzed using a semiparametric mixed effects model. Systolic BP around 135 mmHg and diastolic BP around 80 mmHg were associated with optimal cognitivefunction after adjusting for other variables (P = 0.019). Weight loss with body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 was significantly related to poorer cognitive performance (P < 0.001). Older age at first assessment, lower education level, smoking, histories of depression, stroke and diabetes mellitus were related to worse cognitivefunction, while taking antihypertensive medication and drinking alcohol were associated with higher cognitive scores. Conclusion Both high and low BP levels were associated with poorer cognitive performance. A joint optimal region of systolic and diastolic BP for cognitivefunction has been identified, which may provide useful clinical information on optimal BP control in cognitive health and lead to improved quality of life for the elderly. PMID:23647314
Liu, Hai; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S.; Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Lane, Kathleen A.; Callahan, Christopher M.; Hendrie, Hugh C.
The majority of clinical trials of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for schizophrenia have used individual therapy to target positive symptoms. Promising results have been found, however, for group CBT interventions and other treatment targets like psychosocial functioning. CBT for functioning in schizophrenia is based on a cognitive model of functional outcome in schizophrenia that incorporates dysfunctional attitudes (eg, social disinterest, defeatist performance beliefs) as mediators between neurocognitive impairment and functional outcome. In this report, 18 clinical trials of CBT for schizophrenia that included measures of psychosocial functioning were reviewed, and two-thirds showed improvements in functioning in CBT. The cognitive model of functional outcome was also tested by examining the relationship between social disinterest attitudes and functional outcome in 79 people with schizophrenia randomized to either group cognitive-behavioral social skills training or a goal-focused supportive contact intervention. Consistent with the cognitive model, lower social disinterest attitudes at baseline and greater reduction in social disinterest during group therapy predicted better functional outcome at end of treatment for both groups. However, the groups did not differ significantly with regard to overall change in social disinterest attitudes during treatment, suggesting that nonspecific social interactions during group therapy can lead to changes in social disinterest, regardless of whether these attitudes are directly targeted by cognitive therapy interventions. PMID:19628761
Background/Aims Neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) can affect cognitivefunction. We assessed cognitivefunction and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling elderly in a multi-ethnic urban low-SES Asian neighborhood and compared them with a higher-SES neighborhood. Methods The study population involved all residents aged ?60 years in two housing estates comprising owner-occupied housing (higher SES) and rental flats (low SES) in Singapore in 2012. Cognitive impairment was defined as <24 on the Mini Mental State Examination. Demographic/clinical details were collected via questionnaire. Multilevel linear regression was used to evaluate factors associated with cognitivefunction, while multilevel logistic regression determined predictors of cognitive impairment. Results Participation was 61.4% (558/909). Cognitive impairment was found in 26.2% (104/397) of residents in the low-SES community and in 16.1% (26/161) of residents in the higher-SES community. After adjusting for other sociodemographic variables, living in a low-SES community was independently associated with poorer cognitivefunction (? = ?1.41, SD = 0.58, p < 0.01) and cognitive impairment (adjusted odds ratio 5.13, 95% CI 1.98–13.34). Among cognitively impaired elderly in the low-SES community, 96.2% (100/104) were newly detected. Conclusion Living in a low-SES community is independently associated with cognitive impairment in an urban Asian society. PMID:23277785
Wee, Liang En; Yeo, Wei Xin; Yang, Gui Rong; Hannan, Nazirul; Lim, Kenny; Chua, Christopher; Tan, Mae Yue; Fong, Nikki; Yeap, Amelia; Chen, Lionel; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat; Shen, Han Ming
Background Impairment of cognitivefunctioning has been reported in several studies in patients treated with chemotherapy. So far, no studies have been published on the effects of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitors on cognitivefunctioning. We investigated the objective and subjective cognitivefunction of patients during treatment with VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKI). Methods Three groups of participants, matched on age, sex and education, were enrolled; 1. metastatic renal cell cancer (mRCC) or GIST patients treated with sunitinib or sorafenib (VEGFR TKI patients n?=?30); 2. patients with mRCC not receiving systemic treatment (patient controls n?=?20); 3. healthy controls (n?=?30). Sixteen neuropsychological tests examining the main cognitive domains (intelligence, memory, attention and concentration, executive functions and abstract reasoning) were administered by a neuropsychologist. Four questionnaires were used to assess subjective cognitive complaints, mood, fatigue and psychological wellbeing. Results No significant differences in mean age, sex distribution, education level or IQ were found between the three groups. Both patient groups performed significantly worse on the cognitive domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions (Response Generation and Problem Solving) compared to healthy controls. However only the VEGFR TKI patients showed impairments on the Executive subdomain Response Generation. Effect sizes of cognitive dysfunction in patients using VEGFR TKI were larger on the domains Learning & Memory and Executive Functions, compared to patient controls. Both patients groups performed on the domain Attention & Concentration the same as the healthy controls. Longer duration of treatment on VEGFR TKI was associated with a worse score on Working Memory tasks. Conclusions Our data suggest that treatment with VEGFR TKI has a negative impact on cognitivefunctioning, specifically on Learning & Memory, and Executive Functioning. We propose that patients who are treated with VEGFR TKI are monitored and informed for possible signs or symptoms associated with cognitive impairment. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01246843. PMID:24661373
Few evidence-based social interventions exist for young adults with high-functioning autism, many of whom encounter significant challenges during the transition into adulthood. The current study investigated the feasibility of an engaging Virtual Reality Social Cognition Training intervention focused on enhancing social skills, social cognition, and social functioning. Eight young adults diagnosed with high-functioning autism completed 10 sessions across 5 weeks. Significant increases on social cognitive measures of theory of mind and emotion recognition, as well as in real life social and occupational functioning were found post-training. These findings suggest that the virtual reality platform is a promising tool for improving social skills, cognition, and functioning in autism. PMID:22570145
Kandalaft, Michelle R; Didehbani, Nyaz; Krawczyk, Daniel C; Allen, Tandra T; Chapman, Sandra B
Executive functions (EFs; e.g. working memory, inhibitory control) are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and associated with optimal cognitive and socio-emotional development. This study provides the first concurrent analysis of the relative contributions of maternal EF and caregiving to child EF. A group of children and their mothers (n = 62) completed age-appropriate interaction (10, 24, 36 months) and EF tasks (child: 24, 36, and 48 months). Regression analyses revealed that by 36 months of age, maternal EF and negative caregiving behaviors accounted for unique variance in child EF, above and beyond maternal education and child verbal ability. These findings were confirmed when using an early child EF composite-our most reliable measure of EF - and a similar pattern was found when controlling for stability in child EF. Furthermore, there was evidence that maternal EF had significant indirect effects on changes in child EF through maternal caregiving. At 24 months, EF was associated with maternal EF, but not negative caregiving behaviors. Taken together, these findings suggest that links between negative caregiving and child EF are increasingly manifested during early childhood. Although maternal EF and negative caregiving are related, they provide unique information about the development of child EF. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NPKXFbbrkps. PMID:24410963
Childhood adversity represents a major risk factor for drug addiction and other mental disorders. However, the specific mechanisms by which childhood adversity impacts human brain organization to confer greater vulnerability for negative outcomes in adulthood is largely unknown. As an impaired process in drug addiction, inhibitory control of behavior was investigated as a target of childhood maltreatment (abuse and neglect). Forty adults without Axis-I psychiatric disorders (21 females) completed a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and underwent functional MRI (fMRI) while performing a stop-signal task. A group independent component analysis identified a putative brain inhibitory control network. Graph theoretical analyses and structural equation modeling investigated the impact of childhood maltreatment on the functional organization of this neural processing network. Graph theory outcomes revealed sex differences in the relationship between network functional connectivity and inhibitory control which were dependent on the severity of childhood maltreatment exposure. A network effective connectivity analysis indicated that a maltreatment dose-related negative modulation of dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) activity by the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC) predicted better response inhibition and lesser attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in females, but poorer response inhibition and greater ADHD symptoms in males. Less inhibition of the right IFC by dACC in males with higher CTQ scores improved inhibitory control ability. The childhood maltreatment-related reorganization of a brain inhibitory control network provides sex-dependent mechanisms by which childhood adversity may confer greater risk for drug use and related disorders and by which adaptive brain responses protect individuals from this risk factor. PMID:23616424
Elton, Amanda; Tripathi, Shanti P; Mletzko, Tanja; Young, Jonathan; Cisler, Josh M; James, G Andrew; Kilts, Clinton D
Measures of functional competence have been introduced to supplement standard cognitive and neuropsychological evaluations in schizophrenia research and practice. Functional competence comprises skills and abilities that are more relevant to daily life and community adjustment. However, it is unclear whether relevance translates into significantly enhanced prediction of real-world outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the specific contribution of functional competence in predicting a key aspect of real-world outcome in schizophrenia: community independence. Demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional competence data were obtained from 127 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and used to predict community independence concurrently and longitudinally after 10 months. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that demographic, clinical, and cognitive predictors accounted jointly for 35%–38% of the variance in community independence across assessment points. Functional competence data failed to add significantly to this validity. Considered separately from demographic and clinical predictors, cognitive and functional competence data accounted for significant amounts of outcome variance. However, the addition of functional competence to standard cognitive test data yielded a significant increase in validity only for concurrent and not for longitudinal prediction of community independence. The specific real-world validity of functional competence is modest, yielding information that is largely redundant with standard cognitive performance. PMID:18667392
Purpose To examine how different activities performed during employment gaps are associated with later cognitivefunction and change. Method Five cognitive measures were used to indicate cognitive impairment of 18,259 respondents to the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (age 50-73) in 2004/5 or 2006/7. Using complete employment histories, employment gaps of six months or more between ages 25 and 65 were identified. Results Controlling for early-life socioeconomic status, school performance, and education, higher risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as unemployment (Odds Ratio [OR] = 1.18, 95 % Confidence Interval [CI] 1.04, 1.35) and sickness (OR = 1.78, 95 % CI 1.52, 2.09). In contrast, lower risk of cognitive impairment was associated with employment gaps described as training (OR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.52, 1.01) or maternity (OR = 0.65, 95 % CI 0.57, 0.79). In longitudinal mixed effects models, training and maternity spells were associated with lower two-year aging-related cognitive decline. Discussion Periods away from work described as unemployment or sickness are associated with lower cognitivefunction, whereas maternity and training spells are associated with better late-life cognitivefunction. Both causation and selection mechanisms may explain these findings. PMID:23889855
Leist, Anja K.; Glymour, M Maria; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J; Avendano, Mauricio
Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P < .05) to alertness functions. Eight patients displayed behavioral problems: emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310
Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe
This study was an attempt to integrate cognitive development (i.e., cognitive control) and emotional development (i.e., emotion regulation) in the first years of life. The construct of temperament was used to unify cognition and emotion because of its focus on attentional and regulatory behaviors. Children were seen at 8 months and 4 1/2-years of…
White matter lesions are often seen in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). Evidence points to specific impairment of attentional, visuospatial, and executive functions; although both attention and executive functions are relatively unexplored in spastic CP. The few recent studies on language functions in mild or moderate CP point to well-functioning language. The presence of specific cognitive impairments may, in
Zwecker M, Levenkrohn S, Fleisig Y, Zeilig G, Ohry A, Adunsky A. Mini-Mental State Examination, cognitive FIM instrument, and the Loewenstein Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment: relation to functional outcome of stroke patients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:342-5. Objectives: To compare 3 cognitive tests, used on admission, for predicting discharge functional outcome and to assess the efficacy of these tests in
Manuel Zwecker; Shalom Levenkrohn; Yudit Fleisig; Gabi Zeilig; Avi Ohry; Abraham Adunsky
Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from three case reports of young adult survivors and their mothers are analyzed according to the theoretical model and presented in this paper to illustrate the importance of key factors presented in the model. The influence of age at brain tumor diagnosis, family functioning, and family adaptation to illness on survivor quality of life and family outcomes are highlighted. Future directions for research and clinical care for this vulnerable group of survivors are discussed. PMID:21722062
Hocking, Matthew C.; Hobbie, Wendy L.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Lucas, Matthew S.; Szabo, Margo M.; Volpe, Ellen M.; Barakat, Lamia P.
Developmental cascade models linking childhood peer victimization, internalizing and externalizing problems, and academic functioning were examined in a sample of 695 children assessed in Grade 3 (academic only) and Grades 5, 6, 7, and 8. Results revealed several complex patterns of associations in which poorer functioning in one domain influenced poorer outcomes in other areas. For example, a symptom driven pathway was consistently found with internalizing problems predicting future peer victimization. Support for an academic incompetence model was also found-- lower GPA in Grade 5, 6, and 7 was associated with more externalizing issues in the following year, and poor writing performance in Grade 3 predicted lower grades in Grade 5, which in turn predicted more externalizing problems in Grade 6. Results highlight the need to examine bidirectional influences and multifarious transactions that exist between peer victimization, mental health, and academic functioning over time. PMID:23907699
Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the distribution of cognitivefunction in elderly people and to assess the impact of clinical manifestations of atherosclerotic disease on this distribution. DESIGN--Single centre population based cross sectional door to door study. SETTING--Ommoord, a suburb of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. SUBJECTS--4971 subjects aged 55 to 94 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Cognitivefunction as measured by the mini mental state examination. RESULTS--The overall participation rate in the study was 80%. Cognitive test data were available for 90% of the participants. Increasing age and lower educational level were associated with poorer cognitivefunction. Previous vascular events, presence of plaques in the carotid arteries, and presence of peripheral arterial atherosclerotic disease were associated with worse cognitive performance independent of the effects of age and education. On average the differences were moderate; however, they reflected the net result of a shift of the total population distribution of cognitivefunction towards lower values. Thereby, they resulted in a considerable increase in the proportion of subjects with scores indicative of dementia. CONCLUSIONS--These findings are compatible with the view that atherosclerotic disease accounts for considerable cognitive impairment in the general population. PMID:8025427
Breteler, M. M.; Claus, J. J.; Grobbee, D. E.; Hofman, A.
Recent interest in the early course of schizophrenia accentuated altered cognition prior to the onset. Ultrahigh risk (UHR) individuals with attenuated positive symptoms and transient psychotic episodes demonstrate neurocognitive deficits across multiple domains such as memory, executive functioning, and processing speed which are consistent with similar disturbances identified in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation (CR) approaches representing a broad set of activities are aimed to restore or improve cognitivefunctioning. CR proved to be effective in modulating the cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia but is rarely used in ultrahigh risk individuals. From the clinical prospective, a better understanding of cognitivefunctioning in at-risk states is essential for the development of optimal early intervention models. In the review, we highlight the intervention targets, notably the specific cognitive deficits in at risk individuals which preceed the transition to psychosis and emphasize the need of the additional studies using CR approaches in UHR group aiming to enhance cognition and therefore mediate functional improvement. PMID:24089689
Estrogen and serotonin play vital roles in the mechanism of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Cognitive deficit in the premenstrual phase contributes to impaired life function among women with PMDD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties in cognitive control and working memory (WM) in PMDD and to explore the effects of gonadotropic hormone and polymorphism of serotonin 1A receptor (HTR1A; rs6295) on cognitive deficit in PMDD. Women with PMDD completed diagnostic interviewing, questionnaire assessment, the Go/Nogo task, 2-back and 3-back tasks, and gonadotropic hormone analysis in the premenstrual and follicular phases. Further, they were followed up for two menstrual cycles to confirm two consecutive symptomatic cycles. A total of 59 subjects with PMDD and 74 controls completed all evaluation, fulfilled the criteria, and entered into the final analysis. The results demonstrated cognitive control and WM decline in the premenstrual among women with PMDD. The G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) was found to be associated with impaired WM in the premenstrual phase and premenstrual decline of cognitivefunction. It also contributed to the vulnerability of cognitivefunction to the menstrual cycle effect and PMDD effect. As the G/G genotype of HTR1A (rs6295) involves in reducing serotonin neurotransmission, our results provide insight into the serotonin mechanism of cognitivefunction among women with PMDD. PMID:24158751
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection results in a chronic course of disease progression and eventual death. With this disease progression comes decreases in health-related quality of life and cognitivefunction in many patients. We evaluated the construct and discriminant validity of the Medical Outcomes Study four-item and six-item cognitivefunction scale in a sample of 162 patients with HIV disease.
Few studies have examined the association of race with change in cognitivefunction in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We studied the rate of decline in global and specific measures of cognitivefunction in a cohort of 410 older African-Americans and whites with clinically diagnosed AD. Persons were examined annually for an average of 3.5 years, and follow-up participation among survivors exceeded
Lisa L. Barnes; Robert S. Wilson; Yan Li; David W. Gilley; David A. Bennett; Denis A. Evans
Background\\/Aims: Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by variability in the onset and progression of cognitive, functional and behavioral symptoms. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic correlates of symptom variability in persons with moderate-to-advanced AD. Methods: Repeated measures of cognition, function and behavior were collected from institutionalized persons with AD over 12 months. Candidate genes were assayed. Results:
Debra L. Schutte; David Reed; Susan DeCrane; Anne L. Ersig
Objectives: To examine the association of cognitivefunction with use of non-prescribed therapies for managing acute and chronic conditions, and to determine whether use of non-prescribed therapies changes over time in relation to baseline cognitivefunction.Methods: 200 community-dwelling adults aged 65 and older were recruited from three counties in south central North Carolina. Repeated measures of daily symptoms and treatment
Ha T. Nguyen; Joseph G. Grzywacz; Sara A. Quandt; Rebecca H. Neiberg; Wei Lang; Kathryn Altizer; Eleanor P. Stoller; Ronny A. Bell; Thomas A. Arcury
Background: Little is known about the association between physical fitness and cognitivefunction in very elderly people (over 80 years of age). Objectives: To evaluate that relationship in 85-year-old community-dwelling individuals. Methods: Out of 207 participants (90 males, 117 females) who were 85 years old and community-dwelling, 205 completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for evaluating cognitivefunction. The numbers
Y. Takata; T. Ansai; I. Soh; Y. Kimura; Y. Yoshitake; K. Sonoki; S. Awano; S. Kagiyama; A. Yoshida; I. Nakamichi; T. Hamasaki; T. Torisu; K. Toyoshima; T. Takehara
Background\\/Objectives:Data from human studies that have investigated the association between vitamin D status and cognitivefunction in elderly adults are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess vitamin D status (reflected by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)) in older European subjects (n=387; aged 55–87 years) and examine its association with measures of cognitivefunction.Subjects\\/Methods:Serum 25(OH)D was assessed using enzyme-linked
K M Seamans; T R Hill; L Scully; N Meunier; M Andrillo-Sanchez; A Polito; I Hininger-Favier; D Ciarapica; E E A Simpson; B J Stewart-Knox; J M O'Connor; C Coudray; K D Cashman
Cognitive impairment and cannabis use are common among patients with schizophrenia. However, the moderating role of cannabis on cognition remains unclear. We sought to examine cognitive performance as a function of cannabis use patterns in schizophrenia. A secondary aim was to determine the effects of cumulative cannabis exposure on cognition. Cognition was assessed in male outpatients with current cannabis dependence (n=18) and no current cannabis use disorders (n=29). We then parsed non-current users into patients with lifetime cannabis dependence (n=21) and no lifetime cannabis dependence (n=8). Finally, as an exploratory analysis, we examined relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition in lifetime dependent patients. Cross-sectional comparisons suggest that lifetime cannabis users demonstrate better processing speed than patients with no lifetime dependence. Exploratory analyses indicated that patients with current dependence exhibited robust negative relationships between cumulative cannabis exposure and cognition; these associations were absent in former users. Cannabis status has minimal effects on cognition in males with schizophrenia. However, cumulative cannabis exposure significantly impairs cognition in current, but not former users, suggesting that the state dependent negative effects of cannabis may be reversed with sustained abstinence. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:23246245
Rabin, Rachel A; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P
Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitivefunctioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitivefunctioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence. PMID:18647794
Executive function mediated by prefrontally driven distributed networks is frequently impaired by traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a result of diffuse axonal injury and focal lesions. In addition to executive cognitivefunctions such as planning and working memory, the effects of TBI impact social cognition and motivation processes. To encourage application of cognitive neuroscience methods to studying recovery from TBI,
Keith Cicerone; Harvey Levin; James Malec; Donald Stuss; John Whyte
Methods: We conducted longitudinal surveys and clini- cal assessment of cognitivefunction in a random sample of 2212 community-dwelling African Americans 65 years and older. We identified 1900 participants without evi- dence of cognitive impairment at baseline, 1617 of whom had subsequent follow-up information, and 946 of whom had blood pressure measurements. Cognitivefunction was measured at baseline and at
Michael D. Murray; Sujuan Gao; Rebecca M. Evans; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Kathleen S. Hall; Hugh Hendrie
Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition.
This study sought to determine the relative contribution of problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal functioning compared to PTSD symptoms in predicting functional impairment among women with childhood abuse histories. One hundred sixty-four treatment-seeking women completed measures of emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, PTSD…
Cloitre, Marylene; Miranda, Regina; Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Han, Hyemee
The authors of the "Childhood Autism Rating Scale" (CARS) state in the manual that the best cutoff score for distinguishing low functioning autism (LFA) from intellectual disability is 30 for children and 28 for adolescents and adults. This study determined that a cutoff score of 25.5 was most accurate in differentiating between high functioning…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Morrow, Jill D.; Yurich, Kirsten K. L.; Cothren, Shiyoko; Purichia, Heather; Mahr, Fauzia; Bouder, James N.; Petersen, Christopher
Objective: To examine attachment style and coping strategies as potential mediating variables between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and psychological and interpersonal functioning, in an attempt to explain variability in extent of disorder and level of functioning.Method: Eighty adolescent females, aged 14–16 years, answered questions regarding abuse history, attachment style, coping with an interpersonal stressor, depression and trauma symptomatology, and conflict
The field of memory and sleep is controversial and extremely interesting, and the relationships between thought processes, i.e. cognition and sleep, have recently been examined in a variety of clinical and basic research settings, as well as being the object of intense interest by the general public. For example, there are data which demonstrate that insomnia, as well as specific