Note: This page contains sample records for the topic childhood cognitive function from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Cortisol and cognitive function in midlife: The role of childhood cognition and educational attainment.  

PubMed

Adult cognition and age-related cognitive decline can be influenced by dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis with concomitant changes in cortisol levels. However, very little is known about the role of childhood cognition and educational attainment in this relationship. Using data from the British 1946 birth cohort, the present study investigated: (1) associations between cortisol levels and patterns and cognitive function in midlife; (2) direct and interactive effects of childhood cognition, educational attainment and cortisol on cognitive function in midlife. Verbal memory, letter search speed and reaction time were assessed at age 60-64 years. Salivary cortisol samples (wakening, 30min after wakening and evening) were collected at the same age. Childhood cognitive ability was measured at ages 8, 11, and 15, and educational level was reported at age 26. Associations between cortisol, childhood cognition, educational attainment and cognitive function in midlife were tested using linear regression and structural equation modelling approaches. Higher evening cortisol level was associated with slower reaction time and lower verbal memory. These associations were independent of childhood cognition and education as well as a range of other potential confounders. Childhood cognition and education were not directly associated with evening cortisol. However, there was a significant interaction effect between childhood cognition and evening cortisol on reaction time (p=.002): higher evening cortisol was associated with slower reaction time only among those with low childhood cognitive ability. There was little evidence of associations between the other cortisol measures and cognitive function. PMID:25001968

Gaysina, Darya; Gardner, Michael P; Richards, Marcus; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

2014-09-01

2

Cognitive Functioning, Behavior, and Quality of Life After Stroke in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: To provide a better understanding of cognitive functioning, motor outcome, behavior and quality of life after childhood stroke and to study the relationship between variables expected to influence rehabilitation and outcome (age at stroke, time elapsed since stroke, lateralization, location and size of lesion).Methods: Children who suffered from stroke between birth and their eighteenth year of life underwent an

Regula Everts; Julia Pavlovic; Franz Kaufmann; Birgit Uhlenberg; Ulrich Seidel; Krassen Nedeltchev; Walter Perrig; Maja Steinlin

2008-01-01

3

Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204

Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

2013-12-01

4

Cerebrovascular function and cognition in childhood: a systematic review of transcranial doppler studies  

PubMed Central

Background The contribution of cerebrovascular function to cognitive performance is gaining increased attention. Transcranial doppler (TCD) is portable, reliable, inexpensive and extremely well tolerated by young and clinical samples. It enables measurement of blood flow velocity in major cerebral arteries at rest and during cognitive tasks. Methods We systematically reviewed evidence for associations between cognitive performance and cerebrovascular function in children (0-18 years), as measured using TCD. A total of 2778 articles were retrieved from PsychInfo, Pubmed, and EMBASE searches and 25 relevant articles were identified. Results Most studies investigated clinical groups, where decreased blood flow velocities in infants were associated with poor neurological functioning, and increased blood flow velocities in children with Sickle cell disease were typically associated with cognitive impairment and lower intelligence. Studies were also identified assessing autistic behaviour, mental retardation and sleep disordered breathing. In healthy children, the majority of studies reported cognitive processing produced lateralised changes in blood flow velocities however these physiological responses did not appear to correlate with behavioural cognitive performance. Conclusion Poor cognitive performance appears to be associated with decreased blood flow velocities in premature infants, and increased velocities in Sickle cell disease children using TCD methods. However knowledge in healthy samples is relatively limited. The technique is well tolerated by children, is portable and inexpensive. It therefore stands to make a valuable contribution to knowledge regarding the underlying functional biology of cognitive performance in childhood.

2014-01-01

5

Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis  

SciTech Connect

Treatment-related cognitive impairments have been reported for survivors of childhood leukemia following prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment with 2400 cGy craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy. The present study was designed to prospectively evaluate cognitive functioning of 24 children prior to CNS prophylaxis of 1800 cGy of craniospinal irradiation and intrathecal drugs, and at intervals of 1 and 4-5 years. At diagnosis, prior to CNS treatment, all 24 subjects performed in the average range of intelligence, as measured by the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Subjects continued to perform in the average range with no significant declines at the 1-year follow-up. Significant declines in cognitive functioning, however, were found at the 4- to 5-year follow-up period, with five subjects (21%) performing in the low average or borderline levels of intelligence. Of the 19 subjects performing in the average range, five showed significant discrepancies between Verbal and Performance IQ scores. Nine subjects exhibited poor performance on a subtest cluster assessing perceptual and attentional processes. With regard to school experiences, 50% of the subjects had received some type of special education services. The findings indicate the need for annual evaluations of cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia who received 1800 cGy craniospinal irradiation, to identify potential cognitive late effects of treatment requiring appropriate special education services.

Rubenstein, C.L.; Varni, J.W.; Katz, E.R. (Children's Hospital of Los Angeles, CA (USA))

1990-12-01

6

Mental Ability in Childhood and Cognitive Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Identifying the determinants of cognitive aging is a research priority; however, few studies are able to examine the influence of pre-morbid cognitive ability on later changes in cognitive function. Objective: To examine the association between childhood cognitive ability and cognitive change from age 79 to 83 in the presence of other demographic and lifestyle indicators. Methods: The participants took

Alan J. Gow; Wendy Johnson; Alison Pattie; Martha C. Whiteman; John Starr; Ian J. Deary

2008-01-01

7

Cognitive Function in Childhood and Lifetime Cognitive Change in Relation to Mental Wellbeing in Four Cohorts of Older People  

PubMed Central

Background Poorer cognitive ability in youth is a risk factor for later mental health problems but it is largely unknown whether cognitive ability, in youth or in later life, is predictive of mental wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cognitive ability at age 11 years, cognitive ability in later life, or lifetime cognitive change are associated with mental wellbeing in older people. Methods We used data on 8191 men and women aged 50 to 87 years from four cohorts in the HALCyon collaborative research programme into healthy ageing: the Aberdeen Birth Cohort 1936, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, the National Child Development Survey, and the MRC National Survey for Health and Development. We used linear regression to examine associations between cognitive ability at age 11, cognitive ability in later life, and lifetime change in cognitive ability and mean score on the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale and meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of each. Results People whose cognitive ability at age 11 was a standard deviation above the mean scored 0.53 points higher on the mental wellbeing scale (95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.71). The equivalent value for cognitive ability in later life was 0.89 points (0.72, 1.07). A standard deviation improvement in cognitive ability in later life relative to childhood ability was associated with 0.66 points (0.39, 0.93) advantage in wellbeing score. These effect sizes equate to around 0.1 of a standard deviation in mental wellbeing score. Adjustment for potential confounding and mediating variables, primarily the personality trait neuroticism, substantially attenuated these associations. Conclusion Associations between cognitive ability in childhood or lifetime cognitive change and mental wellbeing in older people are slight and may be confounded by personality trait differences.

Gale, Catharine R.; Cooper, Rachel; Craig, Leone; Elliott, Jane; Kuh, Diana; Richards, Marcus; Starr, John M.; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Deary, Ian J.

2012-01-01

8

Functional neuronal network activity differs with cognitive dysfunction in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Introduction Neuropsychiatric manifestations are common in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) and often include neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can measure brain activation during tasks that invoke domains of cognitive function impaired by cSLE. This study investigates specific changes in brain function attributable to NCD in cSLE that have potential to serve as imaging biomarkers. Methods Formal neuropsychological testing was done to measure cognitive ability and to identify NCD. Participants performed fMRI tasks probing three cognitive domains impacted by cSLE: visuoconstructional ability (VCA), working memory, and attention. Imaging data, collected on 3-Tesla scanners, included a high-resolution T1-weighted anatomic reference image followed by a T2*-weighted whole-brain echo planar image series for each fMRI task. Brain activation using blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast was compared between cSLE patients with NCD (NCD-group, n = 7) vs. without NCD (noNCD-group, n = 14) using voxel-wise and region of interest-based analyses. The relationship of brain activation during fMRI tasks and performance in formal neuropsychological testing was assessed. Results Greater brain activation was observed in the noNCD-group vs. NCD-group during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks. Conversely, compared to the noNCD-group, the NCD-group showed more brain activation during the attention fMRI task. In region of interest analysis, brain activity during VCA and working memory fMRI tasks was positively associated with the participants' neuropsychological test performance. In contrast, brain activation during the attention fMRI task was negatively correlated with neuropsychological test performance. While the NCD group performed worse than the noNCD group during VCA and working memory tasks, the attention task was performed equally well by both groups. Conclusions NCD in patients with cSLE is characterized by differential activation of functional neuronal networks during fMRI tasks probing working memory, VCA, and attention. Results suggest a compensatory mechanism allows maintenance of attentional performance under NCD. This mechanism appears to break down for the VCA and working memory challenges presented in this study. The observation that neuronal network activation is related to the formal neuropsychological testing performance makes fMRI a candidate imaging biomarker for cSLE-associated NCD.

2013-01-01

9

Language functions in early childhood education: The cognitive?linguistic experiences of bilingual and monolingual children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the differences in language use between bilingual immigrant children with high and low Dutch language proficiency, and monolingual native Dutch children are explored. The language functions of utterances expressed by those bilingual and monolingual children differ in quantity and quality, i.e. the monolingual children tend to use their language ‘multi?functional’ and for cognitively more complex functions than

Marianne Verhallen; René Appel; Rob Schoonen

1989-01-01

10

Hospitalisation with otitis media in early childhood and cognitive function in young adult life: a prevalence study among Danish conscripts  

PubMed Central

Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR?=?1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early adulthood. Hospitalisation for OM did not seem to influence the prevalence of GSCE when level of BPP was taken into account.

2013-01-01

11

Congenital heart disease and cardiac surgery in childhood: effects on cognitive function and academic ability  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To evaluate changes in cognitive and academic functioning following cardiac surgery in children with congenital heart disease.?DESIGN—A prospective cross sectional study in which patients were assessed immediately before treatment and 12 months later.?PATIENTS—Three groups of children aged 3.5-17 years: a group with congenital heart disease awaiting surgery, another awaiting bone marrow transplantation, and a healthy comparison group.?MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Intelligence quotient and measures of academic attainment, evaluated with the British Ability Scales.?RESULTS—Preoperatively, children with cyanotic lesions showed deficits in comparison with those with acyanotic lesions. Postoperatively, children with cyanotic lesions showed a deterioration in performance and achieved significantly lower scores than those with acyanotic lesions. While there were significant differences between the congenital heart disease and bone marrow transplantation groups preoperatively, these were no longer apparent at follow up.?CONCLUSIONS—In contrast to previously published findings, the present results suggest that cardiac surgery does not result in early postoperative improvements in cognitive function for children with congenital heart disease. The nature of the cardiac lesion continues to affect cognitive and academic performance, even after surgery.???Keywords: congenital heart disease; cardiac surgery; cognitive ability

Wray, J; Sensky, T

2001-01-01

12

The peabody picture vocabulary test as a pre-screening tool for global cognitive functioning in childhood brain tumor survivors.  

PubMed

Minimal acceptable global intelligence is often a determinant for entry into studies utilizing children's self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) or symptoms' appraisal. However, most measures of cognitive functioning are lengthy and require a trained psychologist for administration. We used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (third edition; PPVT-III) to assess adequacy of verbal comprehension and language flexibility before entry into a pilot pharmacologic intervention trial in pediatric BT survivors who were >1 year from treatment, and received >23.4 gray as part of therapy. Participation included the ability to complete self-reported measures of HRQL. Among thirteen BT survivors who were screened, twelve proceeded to the full intervention trial and then underwent a detailed baseline neurocognitive assessment including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), administered by a neuropsychologist. Correlation of PPVT-III with WASI was 0.90 for full scale IQ (P < 0.0001), 0.89 for verbal IQ (P = 0.0001) and 0.75 for performance IQ (P = 0.0004) The PPVT-III is easy to administer by trained clinical staff and is a reliable clinic-based screening tool for research studies. While it is not designed to replace in depth neuropsychological evaluation of potential areas of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an estimation of minimal global cognitive functioning for entry into studies that rely on self-report in childhood BT survivors and other cancer survivors who have received central nervous system-directed therapy. PMID:21225316

Castellino, Sharon M; Tooze, Janet A; Flowers, Lynn; Parsons, Susan K

2011-09-01

13

The peabody picture vocabulary test as a pre-screening tool for global cognitive functioning in childhood brain tumor survivors  

PubMed Central

Minimal acceptable global intelligence is often a determinant for entry into studies utilizing children’s self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) or symptoms’ appraisal. However, most measures of cognitive functioning are lengthy and require a trained psychologist for administration. We used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (third edition; PPVT-III) to assess adequacy of verbal comprehension and language flexibility before entry into a pilot pharmacologic intervention trial in pediatric BT survivors who were >1 year from treatment, and received >23.4 gray as part of therapy. Participation included the ability to complete self-reported measures of HRQL. Among thirteen BT survivors who were screened, twelve proceeded to the full intervention trial and then underwent a detailed baseline neurocognitive assessment including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), administered by a neuropsychologist. Correlation of PPVT-III with WASI was 0.90 for full scale IQ (P < 0.0001), 0.89 for verbal IQ (P = 0.0001) and 0.75 for performance IQ (P = 0.0004) The PPVT-III is easy to administer by trained clinical staff and is a reliable clinic-based screening tool for research studies. While it is not designed to replace in depth neuropsychological evaluation of potential areas of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an estimation of minimal global cognitive functioning for entry into studies that rely on self-report in childhood BT survivors and other cancer survivors who have received central nervous system-directed therapy.

Tooze, Janet A.; Flowers, Lynn; Parsons, Susan K.

2013-01-01

14

ASSOCIATION OF EARLY CHILDHOOD DIARRHEA AND CRYPTOSPORIDIOSIS WITH IMPAIRED PHYSICAL FITNESS AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION FOUR-SEVEN YEARS LATER IN A POOR URBAN COMMUNITY IN NORTHEAST BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine potential, long-term deficits associated with early childhood diarrhea and parasitic infec- tions, we studied the physical fitness (by the Harvard Step Test) and cognitive function (by standardized tests noted below) of 26 children who had complete surveillance for diarrhea in their first 2 years of life and who had continued surveillance until 6-9 years of age in a

DAVID I. GUERRANT; SEAN R. MOORE; ALDO A. M. LIMA; PETER D. PATRICK; JOHN B. SCHORLING; RICHARD L. GUERRANT

1999-01-01

15

Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

1984-01-01

16

Dietary Patterns in Infancy and Cognitive and Neuropsychological Function in Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Trials in developing countries suggest that improving young children's diet may benefit cognitive development. Whether dietary composition influences young children's cognition in developed countries is unclear. Although many studies have examined the relation between type of milk received in infancy and subsequent cognition, there has…

Gale, Catharine R.; Martyn, Christopher N.; Marriott, Lynne D.; Limond, Jennifer; Crozier, Sarah; Inskip, Hazel M.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M.

2009-01-01

17

Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation\\u000a with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive\\u000a function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China\\u000a where the older population lived through significant hardship during

Michelle Heys; Chaoqiang Jiang; C. Mary Schooling; WeiSen Zhang; Kar Keung Cheng; Tai Hing Lam; Gabriel M. Leung

2010-01-01

18

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

PubMed Central

Background There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. Methods This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child health and nutritional status, psychosocial stimulation and nursery school attendance. The effect of these on Wechsler Pre-School and Primary Scale of Intelligence scores at five years of age was investigated using a multivariable hierarchical analysis, guided by the proposed conceptual framework. Results Unfavourable socioeconomic conditions, poorly educated mother, absent father, poor sanitary conditions at home and in the neighbourhood and low birth weight were negatively associated with cognitive performance at five years of age, while strong positive associations were found with high levels of domestic stimulation and nursery school attendance. Conclusion Children's cognitive development in urban contexts in developing countries could be substantially increased by interventions promoting early psychosocial stimulation and preschool experience, together with efforts to prevent low birth weight and promote adequate nutritional status.

Santos, Darci N; Assis, Ana Marlucia O; Bastos, Ana Cecilia S; Santos, Leticia M; Santos, Carlos Antonio ST; Strina, Agostino; Prado, Matildes S; Almeida-Filho, Naomar M; Rodrigues, Laura C; Barreto, Mauricio L

2008-01-01

19

A Comparative Assessment of the Cognitive Functioning of Adults with Childhood Histories of Learning Disability and Adults with Noncognitive Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement data were collected from 591 adults evaluated as part of an outpatient Vocational\\u000a Rehabilitation service. The specific aims of the research were to systematically compare adults with a childhood history of\\u000a LD (putative LD) to groups of adults with principally physical or psychiatric disorders and assess the extent to which the\\u000a LD group continued to

Michael Ferrari

2009-01-01

20

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders  

PubMed Central

This is the first attempt at defining criteria for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in infancy, childhood, and adolescence. The decision-making process was as for adults and consisted of arriving at consensus, based on clinical experience. This paper is intended to be a quick reference. The classification system selected differs from the one used in the adult population in that it is organized according to main complaints instead of being organ-targeted. Because the child is still developing, some disorders such as toddler's diarrhea (or functional diarrhea) are linked to certain physiologic stages; others may result from behavioral responses to sphincter function acquisition such as fecal retention; others will only be recognizable after the child is cognitively mature enough to report the symptoms (e.g., dyspepsia). Infant regurgitation, rumination, and cyclic vomiting constitute the vomiting disorders. Abdominal pain disorders are classified as: functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional abdominal pain, abdominal migraine, and aerophagia. Disorders of defecation include: infant dyschezia, functional constipation, functional fecal retention, and functional non-retentive fecal soiling. Some disorders, such as IBS and dyspepsia and functional abdominal pain, are exact replications of the adult criteria because there are enough data to confirm that they represent specific and similar disorders in pediatrics. Other disorders not included in the pediatric classification, such as functional biliary disorders, do occur in children; however, existing data are insufficient to warrant including them at the present time. For these disorders, it is suggested that, for the time being, clinicians refer to the criteria established for the adult population.???Keywords: infant vomiting; cyclic vomiting syndrome; functional dyspepsia in children; irritable bowel syndrome in children; functional abdominal pain in children; functional diarrhea in children; functional constipation in children; Rome II

Rasquin-Weber, A; Hyman, P; Cucchiara, S; Fleisher, D; Hyams, J; Milla, P; Staiano, A

1999-01-01

21

Socioeconomic position in early life, birth weight, childhood cognitive function, and adult mortality. A longitudinal study of Danish men born in 1953  

PubMed Central

Objective: To examine the relation between socioeconomic position in early life and mortality in young adulthood, taking birth weight and childhood cognitive function into account. Design: A longitudinal study with record linkage to the Civil Registration System and Cause of Death Registry. The data were analysed using Cox regression. Setting: The metropolitan area of Copenhagen, Denmark. Subjects: 7493 male singletons born in 1953, who completed a questionnaire with various cognitive measures, in school at age 12 years, and for whom birth certificates with data on birth and parental characteristics had been traced manually in 1965. This population was followed up from April 1968 to January 2002 for information on mortality. Main outcome measures: Mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, and violent deaths. Results: Men whose fathers were working class or of unknown social class at time of birth had higher mortality rates compared with those whose fathers were high/middle class: hazard ratio 1.39 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.67) and 2.04 (95% CI 1.48 to 2.83) respectively. Birth weight and childhood cognitive function were both related to father's social class and inversely associated with all cause mortality. The association between father's social class and mortality attenuated (HRworking class1.30 (1.08 to 1.56); HRunkown class1.81 (1.30 to 2.52)) after control for birth weight and cognitive function. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases and violent deaths was also significantly higher among men with fathers from the lower social classes. Conclusion: The inverse association between father's social class at time of birth and early adult mortality remains, however somewhat attenuated, after adjustment for birth weight and cognitive function.

Osler, M; Andersen, A; Due, P; Lund, R; Damsgaard, M; Holstein, B

2003-01-01

22

Executive Functioning in Childhood Epilepsy: Parent-Report and Cognitive Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is considerable interest in the assessment of executive function (EF) in pediatric clinical populations but only a few well-standardized measures exist. We examined EF in 53 children aged 8 to 18 years with recent onset epilepsy (31 males, 22 females) and 50 control children (23 males, 27 females) using the Behavior Rating Inventory of…

Parrish, Joy; Geary, Elizabeth; Jones, Jana; Seth, Raj; Hermann, Bruce; Seidenberg, Michael

2007-01-01

23

A systematic review of cognitive function in first-episode psychosis, including a discussion on childhood trauma, stress, and inflammation.  

PubMed

Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full "cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review," we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen's d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen's effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed. PMID:24409157

Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M; Pariante, Carmine M

2014-01-01

24

A Systematic Review of Cognitive Function in First-Episode Psychosis, Including a Discussion on Childhood Trauma, Stress, and Inflammation  

PubMed Central

Objective: To carry out a systematic review of the literature addressing cognitive functions in first-episode psychosis (FEP), divided into domains. Although this is not a full “cognitive-genetics-in-schizophrenia review,” we will also include putative ideas of mechanism(s) behind these impairments, focusing on how early stress, and genetic vulnerability may moderate cognitive function in psychosis. Method: Relevant studies were identified via computer literature searches for research published up to and including January 2013, only case-control studies were included for the neurocognitive meta-analysis. Results: Patients with FEP present global cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls. The largest effect size was observed for verbal memory (Cohen’s d effect size?=?2.10), followed by executive function (effect size?=?1.86), and general IQ (effect size?=?1.71). However, effect sizes varied between studies. Conclusion: Cognitive impairment across domains, up to severe level based on Cohen’s effect size, is present already in FEP studies. However, differences in levels of impairment are observed between studies, as well as within domains, indicating that further consolidation of cognitive impairment over the course of illness may be present. Cognitive abnormalities may be linked to a neurodevelopmental model including increased sensitivity to the negative effect of stress, as well as genetic vulnerability. More research on this field is needed.

Aas, Monica; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Melle, Ingrid; Murray, Robin M.; Pariante, Carmine M.

2014-01-01

25

The peabody picture vocabulary test as a pre-screening tool for global cognitive functioning in childhood brain tumor survivors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimal acceptable global intelligence is often a determinant for entry into studies utilizing children’s self-reported health-related\\u000a quality of life (HRQL) or symptoms’ appraisal. However, most measures of cognitive functioning are lengthy and require a trained\\u000a psychologist for administration. We used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (third edition; PPVT-III) to assess adequacy\\u000a of verbal comprehension and language flexibility before entry into

Sharon M. CastellinoJanet; Janet A. Tooze; Lynn Flowers; Susan K. Parsons

26

Cognitive function and hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of lowering blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive subjects is well known but the relationship between hypertension and cognitive function is controversial. This article reviews the role of hypertension in the aetiology of cognitive impairment and the relationships between BP, cerebral perfusion and cognition. It also summarizes findings of studies addressing the effect of antihypertensive therapy and cognition. An

J Birns; L Kalra

2009-01-01

27

Cognition: A Functional View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposing a shift in the locus of theoretical analysis of cognition, this paper argues that cognitive functioning may be more readily characterized without the mediation of long-term mental associations and structure. An account of cognition is proposed in which mental relations are transient functional relations, and in which psychological…

Iran-Nejad, Asghar; Ortony, Andrew

28

Mapping Cognitive Function  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Cognitive functions are fundamental to being human. Although tremendous progress has been made in the science of cognition using neuroimaging, the clinical applications of neuroimaging are just beginning to be realized. A unifying theme of this chapter is the concept that a more complete understanding of cognition only comes through integration of multimodal structural and functional imaging technologies.

Stufflebeam, Steven M.; Rosen, Bruce

2009-01-01

29

Maturation of Widely Distributed Brain Function Subserves Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive and brain maturational changes continue throughout late childhood and adolescence. During this time, increasing cognitive control over behavior enhances the voluntary suppression of reflexive\\/impulsive response tendencies. Recently, with the advent of functional MRI, it has become possible to characterize changes in brain activity during cognitive development. In order to investigate the cognitive and brain maturation subserving the ability to

Beatriz Luna; Keith R. Thulborn; Douglas P. Munoz; Elisha P. Merriam; Krista E. Garver; Nancy J. Minshew; Matcheri S. Keshavan; Christopher R. Genovese; William F. Eddy; John A. Sweeney

2001-01-01

30

Psychiatric and Cognitive Phenotype of Childhood Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To investigate the psychiatric and cognitive phenotype in young individuals with the childhood form of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). Method: Twenty-eight individuals (15 females, 13 males) with childhood DM1 (mean age 17y, SD 4.6, range 7-24y) were assessed using standardized instruments and cognitive testing of general intelligence,…

Douniol, Marie; Jacquette, Aurelia; Cohen, David; Bodeau, Nicolas; Rachidi, Linda; Angeard, Nathalie; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Vallee, Louis; Eymard, Bruno; Plaza, Monique; Heron, Delphine; Guile, Jean-Marc

2012-01-01

31

Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

2008-01-01

32

Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?  

PubMed

Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China where the older population lived through significant hardship during their early years. Multivariable linear regression was used in a cross-sectional study of 20,086 Chinese men and women aged > or = 50 years from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phases 2 and 3) 2005-8. We assessed the association of childhood meat eating with delayed 10-word and immediate recall score. Adjusted for age, sex, education, childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and current physical activity, childhood meat eating almost daily, when compared to yearly or never childhood meat eating, was positively associated with delayed recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 10 = 0.22 [95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.31]). Similarly adjusted, childhood meat eating about once a month, about once a week and almost daily were positively associated with immediate recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 30 = 0.38 [0.23-0.54], 0.73 [0.56-0.89] and 0.76 [0.55-0.98] respectively). More frequent childhood meat eating was associated with better cognition through to old age. If confirmed, these results highlight the importance of adequate childhood nutrition and they also emphasise the childhood and adolescent antecedents of adult disease, with corresponding public health implications for healthy aging. PMID:20526800

Heys, Michelle; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Schooling, C Mary; Zhang, WeiSen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M

2010-07-01

33

Optimizing Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Psychiatric Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports that expand the understanding of the treatment of childhood obsessive-compulsive disorder by using exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy in the age group of 5 to 8-year-olds are presented. A model for collecting the common core elements of evidence-based psychosocial treatments for childhood disorders is also presented.

Piacentini, John

2008-01-01

34

Teachers' and Students' Cognitive Styles in Early Childhood Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Cognitive style identifies the ways individuals react to different situations. Cognitive styles include stable attitudes, preferences, or habitual strategies that distinguish the individual styles of perceiving, remembering, thinking, and solving problems. Intended for researchers, psychologists, child development specialists, and early childhood

Saracho, Olivia Natividad

35

Early Childhood Selected Bibliographies Series. Number 4, Cognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the fourth in a series of six annotated bibliographies relevant to early childhood education. Its general subject is cognition, and i t includes seven subdivisions: intelligence, higher mental processes, cognitive style, experimental studies of learning, concept development, perception and recognition, and motivation. Each of the…

Illinois Univ., Urbana, National Lab. on Early Childhood Education.

36

Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

2004-01-01

37

Epoetin and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The uremia of chronic renal failure (CRF) can alter brain electrophysiology and cognitive function, even in the well-dialyzed patient. The effect of uremia on brain function can be assessed by electrophysiologic techniques such as electroencephalogram (EEG), sensory-evoked potentials (EPs), and cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs), and through a series of neuropsychologic tests. Five tests have been used clinically to measure the speed and efficiency of cognitive functioning and include the following: Number Cancellation, Trailmaking Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Test performance by patients with CRF is often below that of healthy controls. Auditory ERPs, a sensitive indicator of subtle changes in central nervous system (CNS) function in uremia, result in the generation of a P300 component wave that varies in amplitude and latency with patient variables such as attention and effort. Although dialysis tends to normalize P300 latencies, the waves remain somewhat prolonged in most patients. The anemia often observed in patients receiving chronic dialysis appears to aggravate uremic encephalopathy. This effect can be reversed when anemia is corrected following administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin). Improvement in P300 amplitudes, and, in some cases, decreases in P300 latencies correlated well with epoetin-induced increases in hematocrit levels. With the correction of anemia, that component of brain dysfunction not attributable to retention of uremic toxins can largely be reversed. PMID:1626553

Nissenson, A R

1992-07-01

38

Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight\\/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the relationship between normal birth weight (more than 2,500 g) and

Susan D. Shenkin; John M. Starr; Ian J. Deary

2004-01-01

39

Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder  

PubMed Central

Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

Schulz, Kurt P.; Bedard, Anne-Claude V.; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

2014-01-01

40

Soy isoflavones and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in the physiological functions of soy isoflavones, especially in whether they affect cognitive function and have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases. Here we review the recent evidence from clinical and experimental studies supporting a role for soy isoflavones in cognitive function. Soy isoflavones may mimic the actions and functions of estrogens on brain, and they have

Yoon-Bok Lee; Hyong Joo Lee; Heon Soo Sohn

2005-01-01

41

The effect of childhood trauma on spatial cognition in adults: a possible role of sex.  

PubMed

Although animal evidence indicates that early life trauma results in pervasive hippocampal deficits underlying spatial and cognitive impairment, visuo-spatial data from adult humans with early childhood adversity are lacking. We administered 4 tests of visuo-spatial ability from the Cambridge Neuorpsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) to adults with a history of childhood trauma (measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and a matched sample of healthy controls (trauma/control?=?27/28). We observed a significant effect of trauma history on spatial/pattern learning. These effects could not be accounted for by adverse adult experiences, and were sex-specific, with prior adversity improving performance in men but worsening performance in women, relative to controls. Limitations include the small sample size and reliance of our study design on a retrospective, self report measure. Our results suggest that early adversity can lead to specific and pervasive deficits in adult cognitive function. PMID:24553877

Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Phillips, Nicole; Thomas, Kevin G F; van der Honk, Jack; Stein, Dan J

2014-06-01

42

Functional and structural network impairment in childhood frontal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

In childhood frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), cognitive impairment and educational underachievement are serious, well-known co-morbidities. The broad scale of affected cognitive domains suggests wide-spread network disturbances that not only involves, but also extends beyond the frontal lobe. In this study we have investigated whole brain connectional properties of children with FLE in relation to their cognitive impairment and compared them with healthy controls. Functional connectivity (FC) of the networks was derived from dynamic fluctuations of resting state fMRI and structural connectivity (SC) was obtained from fiber tractograms of diffusion weighted MRI. The whole brain network was characterized with graph theoretical metrics and decomposed into modules. Subsequently, the graph metrics and the connectivity within and between modules were related to cognitive performance. Functional network disturbances in FLE were related to increased clustering, increased path length, and stronger modularity compared to healthy controls, which was accompanied by stronger within- and weaker between-module functional connectivity. Although structural path length and clustering appeared normal in children with FLE, structural modularity increased with stronger cognitive impairment. It is concluded that decreased coupling between large-scale functional network modules is a hallmark for impaired cognition in childhood FLE. PMID:24594874

Vaessen, Maarten J; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Braakman, Hilde M H; Hofman, Paul A M; De Louw, Anton; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H

2014-01-01

43

[Sex hormones and cognitive function].  

PubMed

Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper. PMID:24796093

Akishita, Masahiro

2014-04-01

44

Cognitive reserve preserves cognitive function in obese individuals.  

PubMed

Obesity is an established risk factor for cognitive impairment. Theories of cognitive reserve suggest that premorbid factors, such as intellectual ability, may attenuate the expression of cognitive impairment due to age or disease. The current study examined whether cognitive reserve, defined as estimated premorbid intellectual ability, moderates the relationship between obesity and cognitive function in obese adults. Participants without major medical or psychological conditions completed a computerized battery of neuropsychological tests. Hierarchical regression models found a significant interaction between BMI and cognitive reserve for attention/executive function and memory, suggesting that cognitive reserve attenuates the expression of obesity-related cognitive impairment. PMID:23339557

Galioto, Rachel M; Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Stanek, Kelly M; Gunstad, John

2013-01-01

45

Gene-environment interaction on cognition: a twin study of childhood maltreatment and COMT variability.  

PubMed

The functional variant Val(158)Met in the coding sequence of COMT gene is involved in the modulation of dopamine availability in the prefrontal cortex in both clinical and general population samples. It has been suggested that the interplay between this genotype and early environmental factors could be used to predict the observed variation in cognitive flexibility. However, other genetic variants and environmental factors may confound the association and produce the inconsistent results commonly found in the literature. In the present study we aimed at testing putative interaction mechanisms between childhood maltreatment and COMT genotypic variability that might explain a proportion of the observed variability of cognitive flexibility in the population. Our design was based on a sample of adult monozygotic twins, which allowed us to test these effects free from potential genetic and shared-environmental confounding factors. Results showed that unique environmental effects of childhood maltreatment significantly impacted cognitive performance among Met/Met subjects. Interestingly, the direction of the association indicated that exposure to early stressful experiences was associated with enhanced cognitive flexibility in this genotype group. These results suggest that COMT may operate as a plasticity gene that provides differential cognitive capacity to respond to environmental stressors. PMID:23538286

Goldberg, Ximena; Fatjó-Vilas, Mar; Alemany, Silvia; Nenadic, Igor; Gastó, Cristobal; Fañanás, Lourdes

2013-07-01

46

Does retirement affect cognitive functioning?  

PubMed

This paper analyses the effect of retirement on cognitive functioning using a longitudinal survey among older Americans, which allows controlling for individual heterogeneity and endogeneity of the retirement decision by using the eligibility age for social security as an instrument. The results highlight a significant negative effect of retirement on cognitive functioning. Our findings suggest that reforms aimed at promoting labour force participation at an older age may not only ensure the sustainability of social security systems but may also create positive health externalities for older individuals. PMID:22538324

Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane; Perelman, Sergio

2012-05-01

47

Childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders: Neonate\\/toddler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognizing the importance of childhood functional gastrointestinal disorders in understanding adult functional gastrointestinal disorders, and encouraging clinical and research interest, the Rome Coordinating Committee added a pediatric working team to Rome II in 1999. For Rome III, there was an increase from 1 to 2 pediatric working teams. This report summarizes the current consensus concerning functional disorders in infants and

PAUL E. HYMAN; PETER J. MILLA; MARC A. BENNINGA; GEOFF P. DAVIDSON; DAVID F. FLEISHER; J. A. J. M. Taminiau

2006-01-01

48

Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.  

PubMed

In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [?=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

2013-10-01

49

Cognitive functionality of older men in St. Catherine, Jamaica  

PubMed Central

Background: The scientific literature is replete with factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older men but no such study has been done in Jamaica. Aims: In this study we report our findings on the cognitive functionality of three cohorts of older men in a rural area. This is the first data published on the cognitive functionality of older men from Jamaica. Material and Method: The investigation was carried out with the administration of a 132-item questionnaire. The measure includes items on demographics, retirement and health status, the seeking and avoidance of medical care, health treatment, medication use, childhood illness, happiness and the mini-mental status examination. The measure was given to 2,000 men 55 years and older who were randomly selected from St. Catherine. Results: The multivariate analysis of the model revealed three significant determinants of cognitive functionality: Age (OR = 0.346, 95% CI = 0.206, 0.582), social support (OR = 0.683, 95% CI = 0.443, 1.053) and having children (OR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.130, 5.183). There is a negative relationship between age and cognitive functionality and a positive relationship between having children and cognitive functionality. Conclusions: Our main conclusions are that the two significant determinants of cognitive functionality of older men (age and having children) in Jamaica are unique given the many determinants of cognitive functioning cited in the scientific literature. The plethora of factors points to the need for further research to understand the range of factors that influence the cognitive functionality of older Jamaicans.

Bourne, Paul A.; Charles, Christopher A.D.; Warren, Stan

2010-01-01

50

Hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions in children with centrotemporal spikes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the impact of unilateral epileptic foci in benign idiopathic partial epilepsy of childhood with rolandic discharges (BECT) on performance and hemispheric specialization in lateralized cognitive functions. Six children with BECT with a left-sided focus (BECT-L), 6 children with BECT with a right-sided focus (BECT-R), and 12 control children were tested in verbal, visual–spatial, and visual-attention tasks, with visual

N. Bedoin; V. Herbillon; I. Lamoury; P. Arthaud-Garde; K. Ostrowsky; J. De Bellescize; P. Kéo Kosal; G. Damon; Ch. Rousselle

2006-01-01

51

Reduced activation and inter-regional functional connectivity of fronto-striatal networks in adults with childhood Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and persisting symptoms during tasks of motor inhibition and cognitive switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with fronto-striatal functional abnormalities during tasks of inhibitory control. In adults with ADHD, however, hardly any functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have investigated the neurofunctional correlates of the most compromised cognitive functions of motor response inhibition and no study has investigated cognitive flexibility. In this study we used fMRI to

Ana Cubillo; Rozmin Halari; Christine Ecker; Vincent Giampietro; Eric Taylor; Katya Rubia

2010-01-01

52

Long-Term Cognitive and Academic Effects of Early Childhood Education on Children in Poverty  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and

W. Steven Barnett

1998-01-01

53

Birth weight, cognitive development, and life chances: A comparison of siblings from childhood into early adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth Child Sample (CNLSY79), we sought to elaborate the complex interplay between childhood health and educational development over the early life course. Our approach made use of sibling comparisons to estimate the relationship between birth weight, cognitive development, and timely high school completion in models that spanned childhood, adolescence, and into early

Jacob E. Cheadle; Bridget J. Goosby

2010-01-01

54

Early Childhood Development Interventions and Cognitive Development of Young Children in Rural Vietnam1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the long-term benefits of interventions that aim to promote early childhood development programs. The goal of this research was to determine whether an early childhood development intervention added to a nutrition intervention during preschool ages had lasting effects on the cognitive develop- ment of school-age children in communes of Thanh Hoa province in rural Vietnam. The

Koichiro Watanabe; Rafael Flores; Junko Fujiwara; Lien Thi; Huong Tran

55

Methods and compositions for improving cognitive function  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

This invention relates to treating age-related cognitive impairment. This invention in particular relates to the use of inhibitors of synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A), such as levetiracetam, seletracetam, and brivaracetam, in improving cognitive function in subjects that exhibit age-related cognitive impairment or are at risk thereof, including, without limitation, subjects having or at risk for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Age-related Cognitive Decline (ARCD) or Age-Associated Memory Impairment (AAMI).

2013-12-10

56

Childhood Trauma and PTSD Symptoms Increase the Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Sample of Former Indentured Child Laborers in Old Age  

PubMed Central

A growing body of evidence suggests a link between early childhood trauma, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and higher risk for dementia in old age. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between childhood trauma exposure, PTSD and neurocognitive function in a unique cohort of former indentured Swiss child laborers in their late adulthood. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study ever conducted on former indentured child laborers and the first to investigate the relationship between childhood versus adulthood trauma and cognitive function. According to PTSD symptoms and whether they experienced childhood trauma (CT) or adulthood trauma (AT), participants (n?=?96) were categorized as belonging to one of four groups: CT/PTSD+, CT/PTSD-, AT/PTSD+, AT/PTSD-. Information on cognitive function was assessed using the Structured Interview for Diagnosis of Dementia of Alzheimer Type, Multi-infarct Dementia and Dementia of other Etiology according to ICD-10 and DSM-III-R, the Mini-Mental State Examination, and a vocabulary test. Depressive symptoms were investigated as a potential mediator for neurocognitive functioning. Individuals screening positively for PTSD symptoms performed worse on all cognitive tasks compared to healthy individuals, independent of whether they reported childhood or adulthood adversity. When controlling for depressive symptoms, the relationship between PTSD symptoms and poor cognitive function became stronger. Overall, results tentatively indicate that PTSD is accompanied by cognitive deficits which appear to be independent of earlier childhood adversity. Our findings suggest that cognitive deficits in old age may be partly a consequence of PTSD or at least be aggravated by it. However, several study limitations need to considered. Consideration of cognitive deficits when treating PTSD patients and victims of lifespan trauma (even without a diagnosis of a psychiatric condition) is crucial. Furthermore, early intervention may prevent long-term deficits in memory function and development of dementia in adulthood.

Krammer, Sandy; Simmen-Janevska, Keti

2013-01-01

57

Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network.  

PubMed

Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty. PMID:24675708

Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel

2014-08-01

58

Systematic review of efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapies in childhood and adolescent depressive disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether cognitive behaviour therapy is an effective treatment for childhood and adolescent depressive disorder. Design: Systematic review of six randomised trials comparing the efficacy of cognitive behaviour therapy with inactive interventions in subjects aged 8 to 19 years with depressive disorder. Main outcome measure: Remission from depressive disorder. Results: The rate of remission from depressive disorder was

Richard Harrington; Jane Whittaker; Philip Shoebridge; Fiona Campbell

1998-01-01

59

Cognitive coping styles of women sexually abused in childhood: a qualitative study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim was to investigate cognitive coping strategies used by a nonclinical sample of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse, to examine whether cognitive appraisals affected their current coping strategies and psychological well-being.Method: Qualitative research methods were used to enable the sample to convey their own ideas about factors and meanings they attributed to their experience of

Katherine Perrott; Eleanor Morris; Judy Martin; Sarah Romans

1998-01-01

60

Cash transfers, behavioral changes, and cognitive development in early childhood : evidence from a randomized experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of theories of skill formation suggest that investments in schooling and other dimensions of human capital will have lower returns if children do not have adequate levels of cognitive and social skills at an early age. This paper analyzes the impact of a randomized cash transfer program on cognitive development in early childhood in rural Nicaragua. It shows

Karen Macours; Norbert Schady; Renos Vakis

2008-01-01

61

Mother-Child Attachment and Cognitive Performance in Middle Childhood: An Examination of Mediating Mechanisms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although mother-child attachment has been shown to predict cognitive performance, there has been a lack of attention to the mediating mechanisms that explain these associations. In the present study, we investigated relations of early mother-child attachment and cognitive performance in middle childhood (the latter in terms of both academic…

West, Katara K.; Mathews, Brittany L.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

2013-01-01

62

Persistent cognitive dysfunction secondary to cerebellar injury in patients treated for posterior fossa tumors in childhood.  

PubMed

Traditionally, the cerebral hemispheres have been regarded as the region of the brain responsible for cognitive functions, while the cerebellum has been considered to be primarily involved in motor functions. Recent studies focus also on the possible involvement of the cerebellum in neurocognitive functions. The aim of this study was to determine the neuropsychological profile of young adults treated for a posterior fossa tumor in childhood and look for possible support for the presence of the so-called 'cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome' in these patients. Two groups of young adults were studied. The astrocytoma group (n = 12) had been treated for a low-grade cerebellar astrocytoma with surgery alone (mean age at surgery was 8.6 years and mean age at neuropsychological testing was 23.5 years). The medulloblastoma group (n = 11) had been treated with surgery followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy (mean age at surgery was 6.1 years and mean age at neuropsychological testing was 23.1 years). The neuropsychological test battery comprised measures of intelligence, motor function, attention, psychomotor speed, verbal memory and visual memory. The medulloblastoma group performed poorer than the astocytoma group on all neuropsychological measures except one. Nonetheless, the astrocytoma group also had impaired scores compared with standard norms on measures of motor speed, attention and executive function. No significant correlation between age at time of treatment and grade of neuropsychological impairment was found in the astrocytoma group, though there was a tendency that young age at time of treatment correlated with better outcome on IQ measures. In the medulloblastoma group, age was significantly correlated with outcome, for both IQ and degree of neuropsychological impairment. For this group, young age at time of treatment indicated a worse outcome. Conclusions: Persistent cognitive dysfunction was detected in patients treated for posterior fossa medulloblastoma and cerebellar astrocytoma. The astrocytoma group was treated with surgery alone, indicating that a cerebellar lesion can result in cognitive dysfunction. Thus, this study gives support to the existence of the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Follow-up of all patients treated for posterior fossa tumor in childhood should include an extensive neuropsychological testing at regular intervals. This may be of benefit for school planning and later work planning. PMID:15886508

Rønning, Camilla; Sundet, Kjetil; Due-Tønnessen, Bernt; Lundar, Tryggve; Helseth, Eirik

2005-01-01

63

Hormone therapy and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Clinical trials yield discrepant information about the impact of hormone therapy on verbal memory and executive function. This issue is clinically relevant because declines in verbal memory are the earliest predictor of Alzheimer's disease and declines in executive function are central to some theories of normal, age-related changes in cognition. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials of hormone therapy (i.e. oral, transdermal, i.m.) and verbal memory, distinguishing studies in younger (i.e. ?65 years of age; n = 9) versus older (i.e. >65 years; n = 7) women and studies involving estrogen alone versus estrogen plus progestogen. Out of 32 placebo-controlled trials, 17 were included (13 had no verbal memory measures and 2 involved cholinergic manipulations). We also provide a narrative review of 25 studies of executive function (two trials), since there are insufficient clinical trial data for systematic review. RESULTS There is some evidence for a beneficial effect of estrogen alone on verbal memory in younger naturally post-menopausal women and more consistent evidence from small-n studies of surgically post-menopausal women. There is stronger evidence of a detrimental effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on verbal memory in younger and older post-menopausal women. Observational studies and pharmacological models of menopause provide initial evidence of improvements in executive function with hormone therapy. CONCLUSIONS Future studies should include measures of executive function and should address pressing clinical questions; including what formulation of combination hormone therapy is cognitively neutral/beneficial, yet effective in treating hot flashes in the early post-menopause.

Maki, Pauline M.; Sundermann, Erin

2009-01-01

64

Epigenetics, genomic mutations and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. There is growing interest in the role of single genes in cognitive functions. Association studies are the most commonly applied method in this field. This method assumes that the genetic information affecting cognitive processes is “static” and unchanging. However, there is accumulating evidence that dynamic genomic and epigenetic alterations can modulate complex cognitive processes, and influence susceptibility to disorders

Abraham Reichenberg; Jonathan Mill; James H. MacCabe

2009-01-01

65

Running head: Evolution of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creative re-use of existing cognitive capacities may have played a significant role in the evolutionary development of the brain. There are obvious evolutionary advantages to such redeployment, and the data presented here confirm three important empirical predictions of this account of the development of cognition: (1) a typical brain area will be utilized by many cognitive functions in diverse

Michael L. Anderson

66

Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging  

PubMed Central

We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly.

Begin, M. E.; Langlois, M. F.; Lorrain, D.; Cunnane, S. C.

2008-01-01

67

Functional Connectivity of the Amygdala in Early Childhood Onset Depression  

PubMed Central

Objective Adult major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with reduced cortico-limbic functional connectivity thought to indicate decreased top-down control of emotion. However, it is unclear whether such connectivity alterations are also present in early childhood onset MDD. Method Fifty-one children ages 7–11 years, prospectively studied since preschool age, completed resting state fMRI and were assigned to four groups: 1) C-MDD (N=13) personal history of early childhood onset MDD; 2) M-MDD (N=11) a maternal history of affective disorders; 3) CM-MDD (N=13) both maternal and early childhood onset MDD or 4) CON (N=14) without either a personal or maternal history. We used seed-based resting state functional connectivity (rsfcMRI) analysis in an independent sample of adults to identify networks showing both positive (e.g., limbic regions) and negative (e.g., dorsal frontal/parietal regions) connectivity with the amygdala. These regions were then used in ROI based analyses of our child sample. Results We found a significant interaction between maternal affective disorder history and the child's MDD history for both positive and negative rsfcMRI networks. Specifically, when copared to CON, we found reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Negative Network” in children with C-MDD, M-MDD and CM-MDD. Children with either C-MDD or a maternal history of MDD (but not CM-MDD) displayed reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the “Positive Network”. Conclusions Our finding of an attenuated relationship between the amygdala, a region affected in MDD and involved in emotion processing, and cognitive control regions is consistent with a hypothesis of altered regulation of emotional processing in C-MDD suggesting developmental continuity of this alteration into early childhood.

Luking, Katherine R.; Repovs, Grega; Belden, Andy C.; Gaffrey, Michael S.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2011-01-01

68

Effects of Growth Hormone on Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whether growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and\\/or treatment in childhood and adolescence influences cognitive outcome in children with GHD or girls with Turner syndrome (TS) is controversial. Previous studies also suggest that quality of life (QoL) is reduced in adults with GHD, particularly in the areas of social isolation and fatigue. Baseline QoL scores were significantly lower in patients with GHD

Judith L. Ross

2005-01-01

69

[Cognitive function in eating disorders].  

PubMed

Eating disorders are characterized by uncontrolled eating behaviors. The core psychopathology is expressed in a variety of ways: body image distortion, preoccupation with food and weight, fear of weight gain, and so on. Brain-imaging techniques provide many opportunities to study neural circuits related symptoms in eating disorder. The present article focuses studies about functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of eating disorders. Studies of anorexia nervosa suggest 1) relationship between amygdala activation and fear of weight gain, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive flexibility. Studies of bulimic eating disorder (bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and so on) suggest 1) relationship between brain reward system and overeating, 2) relationship between prefrontal cortex activity and impulse control. PMID:24796094

Okamoto, Yuri

2014-04-01

70

Cognitive function in schizophrenia. Deficits, functional consequences, and future treatment.  

PubMed

This article has discussed the relationship between cognitive deficits and functional outcome in schizophrenia. This relationship was noted first by Kraepelin and Bleuler at the beginning of the twentieth century. With the introduction of conventional neuroleptics, the focus shifted toward the treatment of positive symptoms. In the past few decades, cognitive dysfunction has been recognized as a fundamental feature of schizophrenia and has been shown repeatedly to have a negative association with functional outcome [6]. Improvement in cognitive functioning became one of the most important clinical targets in the treatment of schizophrenia in the 1990s [82]. Main domains of cognition that are disrupted significantly in schizophrenia include attention, executive function, verbal and visuospatial working memory, and learning and memory. Although conventional antipsychotics are effective in treating positive symptoms, they lack the ability to improve cognitive impairment and produce poor functional outcome. Previous research has shown superior efficacy of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive impairments in schizophrenia compared with conventional antipsychotics. Because the heterogeneity of atypical antipsychotics in their pharmacologic properties, they have differential profiles of cognitive efficacy in patients with schizophrenia. Establishing the cognitive profile of each atypical antipsychotic is an important task. This knowledge can be used to address individual cognitive problems and needs. Because cognitive deficits have been shown to have associations with different aspects of clinical symptoms, limited learning in rehabilitation programs, and functional outcome in schizophrenia, targeting individual cognitive deficits would lead to greater treatment success in terms of clinical and functional outcome. Although atypical antipsychotics have some benefit on cognitive function, further efforts to improve cognitive function are required. Attempts at improving cognition in schizophrenia with specific cognitive enhancers pharmacologically and psychological therapies such as cognitive remediation might lead to better functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:12683258

Sharma, Tonmoy; Antonova, Lena

2003-03-01

71

The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption  

PubMed Central

Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

Romero-Martinez, Angel; Lila, Marisol; Catala-Minana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K.; Moya-Albiol, Luis

2013-01-01

72

Cognitive and behavioural effects of migraine in childhood and adolescence.  

PubMed

Since cognitive and behavioural characteristics of paediatric migraine sufferers have yet to be adequately defined, in this study we assessed the effect of migraine on the interictal functioning of children and adolescents by comparing the performance of two patient groups, 17 migraine sufferers with aura (MA) and 31 without aura (MoA) and by correlating the duration of the disorder, the frequency of attacks and interictal period with neuropsychological and behavioural findings. Both patient groups had cognitive performance within normal range except for a significant delay in the reaction time (RT) task. Both MA and MoA revealed a behavioural phenotype characterized by internalizing problems on Child Behaviour Check List (CBCL) scales. Slower RT to simple visual stimuli may be an early sign of a subclinical neuropsychological dysfunction, significantly correlated with the frequency of headache attacks and interictal period. The lack of a control group and other methodological limitations, such as patient selection bias and unadjusted P-value for multiple testing, make it difficult to give this finding a clearcut meaning. Further studies are needed on larger samples compared with a control group. PMID:16674769

Riva, D; Aggio, F; Vago, C; Nichelli, F; Andreucci, E; Paruta, N; D'Arrigo, S; Pantaleoni, C; Bulgheroni, S

2006-05-01

73

Cognitive Function in Early Onset Schizophrenia: A Selective Review  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is widely regarded as the clinical outcome of aberrant neurodevelopment caused by a combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Early Onset Schizophrenia (EOS) manifests in childhood or adolescence and represents a more severe variant of the Adult Onset form of the disorder (AOS). EOS offers a unique opportunity of exploring the impact of disease related mechanisms on the developmental trajectory of cognitive function. The present review focused on the domains of general intellectual ability (IQ), attention, executive function and memory. Significant methodological variability was noted across the different studies that examined these aspects of cognition in EOS patients. Despite this, a consistent pattern emergent from the data suggesting that (a) EOS patients compared to healthy children and adolescents show impairments of medium to large effect size in IQ, attention, memory and executive function (b) despite increased clinical severity, the cognitive profile of EOS patients is comparable to that of AOS patients (c) healthy adolescents show age-related improvement in their ability to perform tests of attention, memory and executive function; this is not present in EOS patients thus resulting in increased age-related deviance in patients’ performance. This apparent decline is mostly attributable to patients’ failure to acquire new information and to use more sophisticated cognitive strategies.

Frangou, Sophia

2009-01-01

74

The Effect of Health and Poverty on Early Childhood Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although evidence of a link between socioeconomic status and child health has been researched extensively, much less attention\\u000a has been devoted to studying the link between child health and cognitive development. This paper seeks to determine whether\\u000a early childhood illnesses and poverty significantly impede cognitive development. The empirical model attempts to control\\u000a for observed and unobserved heterogeneity through the use

David M. Welsch; David M. Zimmer

2010-01-01

75

The effect of retirement on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment has emerged as a major driver of disability in old age, with profound effects on individual well-being and decision making at older ages. In the light of policies aimed at postponing retirement ages, an important question is whether continued labour supply helps to maintain high levels of cognition at older ages. We use data of older men from the US Health and Retirement Study to estimate the effect of continued labour market participation at older ages on later-life cognition. As retirement itself is likely to depend on cognitive functioning and may thus be endogenous, we use offers of early retirement windows as instruments for retirement in econometric models for later-life cognitive functioning. These offers of early retirement are legally required to be nondiscriminatory and thus, inter alia, unrelated to cognitive functioning. At the same time, these offers of early retirement options are significant predictors of retirement. Although the simple ordinary least squares estimates show a negative relationship between retirement duration and various measures of cognitive functioning, instrumental variable estimates suggest that these associations may not be causal effects. Specifically, we find no clear relationship between retirement duration and later-life cognition for white-collar workers and, if anything, a positive relationship for blue-collar workers. PMID:21818822

Coe, Norma B; von Gaudecker, Hans-Martin; Lindeboom, Maarten; Maurer, Jürgen

2012-08-01

76

Trajectories of Lung Function during Childhood.  

PubMed

Rationale: Developmental patterns of lung function during childhood may have major implications for our understanding of the pathogenesis of respiratory disease throughout life. Objectives: To explore longitudinal trajectories of lung function during childhood and factors associated with lung function decline. Methods: In a population-based birth cohort, specific airway resistance (sRaw) was assessed at age 3 (n = 560), 5 (n = 829), 8 (n = 786), and 11 years (n = 644). Based on prospective data (questionnaires, skin tests, IgE), children were assigned to wheeze phenotypes (no wheezing, transient, late-onset, and persistent) and atopy phenotypes (no atopy, dust mite, non-dust mite, multiple early, and multiple late). We used longitudinal linear mixed models to determine predictors of change in sRaw over time. Measurements and Main Results: Contrary to the assumption that sRaw is independent of age and sex, boys had higher sRaw than girls (mean difference, 0.080; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.049-0.111; P < 0.001) and a higher rate of increase over time. For girls, sRaw increased by 0.017 kPa???s(-1) per year (95% CI, 0.011-0.023). In boys this increase was significantly greater (P = 0.012; mean between-sex difference, 0.011 kPa???s(-1); 95% CI, 0.003-0.019). Children with persistent wheeze (but not other wheeze phenotypes) had a significantly greater rate of deterioration in sRaw over time compared with never wheezers (P = 0.009). Similarly, children with multiple early, but not other atopy phenotypes had significantly poorer lung function than those without atopy (mean difference, 0.116 kPa???s(-1); 95% CI, 0.065-0.168; P < 0.001). sRaw increased progressively with the increasing number of asthma exacerbations. Conclusions: Children with persistent wheeze, frequent asthma exacerbations, and multiple early atopy have diminished lung function throughout childhood, and are at risk of a progressive loss of lung function from age 3 to 11 years. These effects are more marked in boys. PMID:24606581

Belgrave, Danielle C M; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Lowe, Lesley; Simpson, Angela; Custovic, Adnan

2014-05-01

77

Overweight Is Associated With Decreased Cognitive Functioning Among School-age Children and Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Childhood overweight and obesity have increased substantially in the past two decades, raising concerns about their psychosocial and cognitive consequences. We examined the associations between academic performance (AP), cognitive functioning (CF), and increased BMI in a nationally representative sample of children.Methods and Procedures:Participants were 2,519 children aged 8–16 years, who completed a brief neuropsychological battery and measures of height and

Yanfeng Li; Qi Dai; James C. Jackson; Jian Zhang

2008-01-01

78

Pathways to Childhood Depressive Symptoms: The Role of Social, Cognitive, and Genetic Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood depressive conditions have been explored from multiple theoretical approaches but with few empirical attempts to address the interrelationships among these different domains and their combined effects. In the present study, the authors examined different pathways through which social, cognitive, and genetic risk factors may be expressed…

Lau, Jennifer Y. F.; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Gregory, Alice M.; McGuffin, Peter; Eley, Thalia C.

2007-01-01

79

Continuity in Social Cognition from Infancy to Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research examining the development of social cognition has largely been divided into two areas: infant perception of intentional agents, and preschoolers' understanding of others' mental states and beliefs (theory of mind). Many researchers have suggested that there is continuity in social cognitive development such that the abilities observed in…

Yamaguchi, Mariko; Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Wynn, Karen; vanMarle, Kristy

2009-01-01

80

Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according

Yasuyuki Taki; Hiroshi Hashizume; Yuko Sassa; Hikaru Takeuchi; Michiko Asano; Kohei Asano; Ryuta Kawashima; Maria A. Deli

2010-01-01

81

Functional Examination of Intermediate Cognitive Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis contains a functional examination of the cognitive processing which occurs between the acquisition of representations and the execution of responses. Three separate types of processing are proposed: explicit self-instruction, general non-verba...

D. B. Porter

1986-01-01

82

Nicotinic systems and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors have been found to be important for maintaining optimal performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. In humans, nicotine-induced improvement of rapid information processing is particularly well documented. In experimental animals nicotine has been found to improve learning and memory on a variety of tasks, while the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine has been found to impair memory performance.

Edward D. Levin

1992-01-01

83

Normal cognitive functions in joubert syndrome.  

PubMed

Developmental delay and subsequent impaired cognitive functions are present in almost all patients with Joubert syndrome (JS). We report on a 20-year-old woman with mild clinical signs of JS (minimal truncal ataxia and oculomotor apraxia) but typical molar tooth sign on neuroimaging, normal full scale (IQ=93), verbal (IQ=93), and performance intelligence quotient (IQ=94). Only minor difficulties in visual-spatial organization and in some executive functions could be detected. This pattern of deficits is partly reminiscent of the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome. Her diagnosis was only reached following the diagnosis of JS in two brothers with severe cognitive impairment. Molecular investigations demonstrated a homozygous mutation in the INPP5E gene. This exceptional observation confirms that normal cognitive functions are possible in JS and corroborates the well known intrafamilial variability. PMID:20446224

Poretti, A; Dietrich Alber, F; Brancati, F; Dallapiccola, B; Valente, E M; Boltshauser, E

2009-12-01

84

Cognitive mediators of ego functioning in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has often been assumed that a relationship exists between higher levels of cognitive functioning, particularly formal operations, and mature ego functioning in adolescence. This research examined the relationships between ego functioning and two domains of operational thinking: social interpersonal reasoning and physical-mathematical reasoning in 139 high school seniors. Subjects were given two measures of physical-mathematical reasoning, two measures of

Anita Landau Hurtig; Anne C. Petersen; Maryse H. Richards; Idy Barasch Gitelson

1985-01-01

85

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety  

PubMed Central

Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and adolescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia to receive 14 sessions of cognitive behavioral therapy, sertraline (at a dose of up to 200 mg per day), a combination of sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy, or a placebo drug for 12 weeks in a 2:2:2:1 ratio. We administered categorical and dimensional ratings of anxiety severity and impairment at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. Results The percentages of children who were rated as very much or much improved on the Clinician Global Impression-Improvement scale were 80.7% for combination therapy (P<0.001), 59.7% for cognitive behavioral therapy (P<0.001), and 54.9% for sertraline (P<0.001); all therapies were superior to placebo (23.7%). Combination therapy was superior to both monotherapies (P<0.001). Results on the Pediatric Anxiety Rating Scale documented a similar magnitude and pattern of response; combination therapy had a greater response than cognitive behavioral therapy, which was equivalent to sertraline, and all therapies were superior to placebo. Adverse events, including suicidal and homicidal ideation, were no more frequent in the sertraline group than in the placebo group. No child attempted suicide. There was less insomnia, fatigue, sedation, and restlessness associated with cognitive behavioral therapy than with sertraline. Conclusions Both cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline reduced the severity of anxiety in children with anxiety disorders; a combination of the two therapies had a superior response rate. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00052078.)

Walkup, John T.; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John; Birmaher, Boris; Compton, Scott N.; Sherrill, Joel T.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Rynn, Moira A.; McCracken, James; Waslick, Bruce; Iyengar, Satish; March, John S.; Kendall, Philip C.

2009-01-01

86

Natural teeth and cognitive function in humans.  

PubMed

A number of neurobiological, psychological and social factors may account for cognitive impairment. In animal studies a relation between dental status and cognitive performance has been found. It is unclear whether such a relation exists for humans. In a first step we compared the performance of 1,351 participants (53% women, 47% men; age M = 54.0) with natural teeth to 487 edentulous participants (59% women, 41% men; age M = 71.3) on 12 cognitive tests. The natural teeth group had a lower mean age, fewer women, more years of education, higher mini-mental state (MMSE), and performed significantly higher on several cognitive tests. In a subsequent analysis, the cognitive performance of a subset of the participants (50-85 years) was examined. In this analysis, 211 had natural dentition and 188 were edentulous. The groups were matched for gender, age, social variables, diseases, stress and MMSE. The cognitive disadvantage of the edentulous group was still apparent. The results suggest that functional natural teeth relate to relatively preserved cognitive functioning in older age. PMID:18028078

Bergdahl, Maud; Habib, Reza; Bergdahl, Jan; Nyberg, Lars; Nilsson, Lars-Göran

2007-12-01

87

The Relationship Between Childhood Teasing and Later Interpersonal Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study explored the relationship between recall of a form of bullying, specifically childhood teasing, and later interpersonal functioning in a sample of 414 college students. It was predicted that memories of frequent teasing during childhood would be associated with fewer close friends, a more anxious attachment style in the context of romantic relationships, and lower social self-esteem in

Deborah Roth Ledley; Eric A. Storch; Meredith E. Coles; Richard G. Heimberg; Jason Moser; Erica A. Bravata

2006-01-01

88

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

PubMed Central

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents (coded from video recorded behaviors during a dyadic task) at 2 years predicted subsequent reading ability at age 4 years. Moreover, controlling for cognitive stimulation at 2 years, children’s cognitive ability at 2 years predicted the quality of stimulation received from their parents at 4 years. Genetic and environmental factors differentially contributed to these effects. Parenting influenced subsequent cognitive development through a family-level environmental pathway, whereas children’s cognitive ability influenced subsequent parenting through a genetic pathway. These results suggest that genetic influences on cognitive development occur through a transactional process, in which genetic predispositions lead children to evoke cognitively stimulating experiences from their environments.

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2011-01-01

89

Psychopathology, cognitive function, and social functioning of patients with schizophrenia.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES. To explore the relationship between cognitive functions, social functioning, and psychopathology in schizophrenia. METHODS. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, according to the ICD-10 criteria, were enrolled from the Department of Psychiatry of 2 postgraduate hospitals in Kolkata, India. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale for Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research Foundation India-Social Functioning Index, and a cognitive test battery were administered. RESULTS. Regarding the 100 patients recruited into the study, 4 subtests (self-care, occupational role, social role, and family role) of the social functioning were found to be significantly correlated with cognitive functions. Cognitive function battery performance scores were more inversely correlated with negative symptoms than with positive symptoms. CONCLUSION. Positive and negative symptoms along with verbal fluency were able to predict social functioning. PMID:23807631

Santosh, S; Dutta Roy, D; Kundu, P S

2013-06-01

90

A cognitive neurobiological account of deception: evidence from functional neuroimaging.  

PubMed Central

An organism may use misinformation, knowingly (through deception) or unknowingly (as in the case of camouflage), to gain advantage in a competitive environment. From an evolutionary perspective, greater tactical deception occurs among primates closer to humans, with larger neocortices. In humans, the onset of deceptive behaviours in childhood exhibits a developmental trajectory, which may be regarded as 'normal' in the majority and deficient among a minority with certain neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g. autism). In the human adult, deception and lying exhibit features consistent with their use of 'higher' or 'executive' brain systems. Accurate detection of deception in humans may be of particular importance in forensic practice, while an understanding of its cognitive neurobiology may have implications for models of 'theory of mind' and social cognition, and societal notions of responsibility, guilt and mitigation. In recent years, functional neuroimaging techniques (especially functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to study deception. Though few in number, and using very different experimental protocols, studies published in the peer-reviewed literature exhibit certain consistencies. Attempted deception is associated with activation of executive brain regions (particularly prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices), while truthful responding has not been shown to be associated with any areas of increased activation (relative to deception). Hence, truthful responding may comprise a relative 'baseline' in human cognition and communication. The subject who lies may necessarily engage 'higher' brain centres, consistent with a purpose or intention (to deceive). While the principle of executive control during deception remains plausible, its precise anatomy awaits elucidation.

Spence, Sean A; Hunter, Mike D; Farrow, Tom F D; Green, Russell D; Leung, David H; Hughes, Catherine J; Ganesan, Venkatasubramanian

2004-01-01

91

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Cognition during Childhood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a methodology of behavior genetics in the context of twin and sibling/adoption design. This model was applied to cross-sectional data on cognitive development throughout the lifespan. Results from a twin and adoption study of general intelligence are presented to illustrate the use of the basic behavior genetic model in studying causes…

Fulker, David W.; Cherny, Stacey S.

1995-01-01

92

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Sertraline, or a Combination in Childhood Anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Anxiety disorders are common psychiatric conditions affecting children and ado- lescents. Although cognitive behavioral therapy and selective serotonin-reuptake in- hibitors have shown efficacy in treating these disorders, little is known about their relative or combined efficacy. Methods In this randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 488 children between the ages of 7 and 17 years who had a primary diagnosis

John T. Walkup; Anne Marie Albano; John Piacentini; Boris Birmaher; Scott N. Compton; Joel T. Sherrill; Golda S. Ginsburg; Moira A. Rynn; James McCracken; Bruce Waslick; Satish Iyengar; John S. March; Philip C. Kendall

2008-01-01

93

Nutraceutical intervention improves older adults' cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Interventions to improve the cognitive health of older adults are of critical importance. In the current study, we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial using a pill-based nutraceutical (NT-020) that contained a proprietary formulation of blueberry, carnosine, green tea, vitamin D3, and Biovin to evaluate the impact on changes in multiple domains of cognitive functioning. One hundred and five cognitively intact adults aged 65-85 years of age (M=73.6 years) were randomized to receive NT-020 (n=52) or a placebo (n=53). Participants were tested with a battery of cognitive performance tests that were classified into six broad domains--episodic memory, processing speed, verbal ability, working memory, executive functioning, and complex speed at baseline and 2 months later. The results indicated that persons taking NT-020 improved significantly on two measures of processing speed across the 2-month test period in contrast to persons on the placebo whose performance did not change. None of the other cognitive ability measures were related to intervention group. The results also indicated that the NT-020 was well tolerated by older adults, and the presence of adverse events or symptoms did not differ between the NT-020 and placebo groups. Overall, the results of the current study were promising and suggest the potential for interventions like these to improve the cognitive health of older adults. PMID:24134194

Small, Brent J; Rawson, Kerri S; Martin, Christina; Eisel, Sarah L; Sanberg, Cyndy D; McEvoy, Cathy L; Sanberg, Paul R; Shytle, R Douglas; Tan, Jun; Bickford, Paula C

2014-02-01

94

Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood.  

PubMed

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating "hot" affective and "cool" cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6-11 years). The "food approach" behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term. PMID:24904466

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2014-01-01

95

Executive function and food approach behavior in middle childhood  

PubMed Central

Executive function (EF) has long been considered to be a unitary, domain-general cognitive ability. However, recent research suggests differentiating “hot” affective and “cool” cognitive aspects of EF. Yet, findings regarding this two-factor construct are still inconsistent. In particular, the development of this factor structure remains unclear and data on school-aged children is lacking. Furthermore, studies linking EF and overweight or obesity suggest that EF contributes to the regulation of eating behavior. So far, however, the links between EF and eating behavior have rarely been investigated in children and non-clinical populations. First, we examined whether EF can be divided into hot and cool factors or whether they actually correspond to a unitary construct in middle childhood. Second, we examined how hot and cool EF are associated with different eating styles that put children at risk of becoming overweight during development. Hot and cool EF were assessed experimentally in a non-clinical population of 1657 elementary-school children (aged 6–11 years). The “food approach” behavior was rated mainly via parent questionnaires. Findings indicate that hot EF is distinguishable from cool EF. However, only cool EF seems to represent a coherent functional entity, whereas hot EF does not seem to be a homogenous construct. This was true for a younger and an older subgroup of children. Furthermore, different EF components were correlated with eating styles, such as responsiveness to food, desire to drink, and restrained eating in girls but not in boys. This shows that lower levels of EF are not only seen in clinical populations of obese patients but are already associated with food approach styles in a normal population of elementary school-aged girls. Although the direction of effect still has to be clarified, results point to the possibility that EF constitutes a risk factor for eating styles contributing to the development of overweight in the long-term.

Groppe, Karoline; Elsner, Birgit

2014-01-01

96

Long-Term Effects of Early Childhood Programs on Cognitive and School Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which early childhood programs produce long-term benefits in chil- dren's cognitive development, socialization, and school success is a matter of some controversy. This article reviews 36 studies of both model demonstration projects and large-scale public programs to examine the long-term effects of these programs on children from low-income families. The review carefully considers issues related to research

W. Steven Barnett

1995-01-01

97

Cognitive functioning in depersonalization disorder.  

PubMed

Depersonalization disorder (DPD) is a dissociative disorder characterized by a subjective sense of unreality and detachment, and has been associated with deficits in perception and short-term memory. In this study, 21 DPD and 17 healthy comparison participants free of psychiatric disorders were administered a comprehensive neuropsychologic battery. The groups did not differ in full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), in working memory (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test), or in selective attention (Digit Span with Distracters). The DPD group performed significantly worse on immediate visual and verbal recall (Wechsler Memory Scale, Revised), but not on delayed recall. Dissociation severity was significantly correlated with processing slowness and distractibility. We conclude that DPD is associated with cognitive disruptions in early perceptual and attentional processes. PMID:18091191

Guralnik, Orna; Giesbrecht, Timo; Knutelska, Margaret; Sirroff, Beth; Simeon, Daphne

2007-12-01

98

Maturation of Cognitive Processes From Late Childhood to Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

To characterize cognitive maturation through adolescence, processing speed, voluntary response suppression, and spatial working memory were measured in 8- to 30-year-old (N 5245) healthy participants using oculo- motor tasks. Development progressed with a steep initial improvement in performance followed by stabilization in adolescence. Adult-level mature performance began at approximately 15, 14, and 19 years of age for processing speed, response

Beatriz Luna; Krista E. Garver; Nicole A. Lazar; John A. Sweeney

2004-01-01

99

Long-term cognitive and academic effects of early childhood education on children in poverty.  

PubMed

It is generally accepted that early childhood education improves the cognitive performance of children in poverty in the short-term, but whether cognitive effects persist in the long-term is hotly debated. This paper presents the results of a critical review of 38 studies of the long-term effects of early childhood programs on children in poverty. Outcomes examined include IQ, achievement, and academic success as measured by grade repetition, special education placement, and high school graduation. Early childhood education is found to produce persistent effects on achievement and academic success, but not on IQ (with some exceptions). Head Start and public school programs produce the same types of effects as better funded model programs, but at least some of the effects are smaller. Cost-benefit analysis based on one randomized trial finds that the economic return from providing early education to children in poverty far exceeds the costs. Head Start, public school preschool education, and education in high-quality child care programs all offer avenues for government investment to improve the long-term cognitive development and academic success of children in poverty. PMID:9578996

Barnett, W S

1998-01-01

100

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been\\u000a proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions\\u000a or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive\\u000a and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning

Giuseppe Pichierri; Peter Wolf; Kurt Murer; Eling D de Bruin

2011-01-01

101

Enriched childhood experiences moderate age-related motor and cognitive decline  

PubMed Central

Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

Metzler, Megan J.; Saucier, Deborah M.; Metz, Gerlinde A.

2012-01-01

102

The Relations between Measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities and Reading Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines relations between the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities and reading achievement during childhood and adolescence. Operational measures of CHC cognitive abilities obtained from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) were found to be significantly related to the components of reading achievement. Results provide valuable…

Evans, Jeffrey J.; Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Leforgee, Maria H.

2002-01-01

103

Prospective Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge and Teacher Self-Efficacy: Exploring Domain-Specific Associations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study explored South Korean prospective early childhood educators' situation-specific meta-cognitive knowledge about five problem-solving strategies, investigating whether situated strategic knowledge contributed to teacher self-efficacy domains. Overall, pre-service teachers with higher meta-cognitive knowledge were found to have…

Kim, Yeon Ha

2011-01-01

104

[Cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: advances in research on new cognitive function].  

PubMed

The importance of neuropsychological examinations in epilepsy care and, especially, in epilepsy surgery is centered on the following roles: they offer a means to confirm the epileptic focus by multi-modal preoperative assessments and they help to assess postoperative functional changes based on preoperative cognitive functions. Furthermore, assessments of the cognitive functions of patients with epilepsy using various tests aid in providing comprehensive medical care. Thus far, research on cognitive functions related to temporal lobe epilepsy has focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. However, the concept of social cognitive function has been recently proposed in the field of neuropsychology. This cognitive function, proposed by Brothers in 1990, is a collective term for functions needed in social life; these include functions required to interpret the expressions, feelings, and intentions of others and to form and maintain smooth human relationships while making decisions necessary for self-survival. These functions mainly involve facial expression recognition and decision-making. Findings of research on neural mechanisms underlying social cognitive functions have emphasized the roles of the cerebral limbic system, such as the amygdalo-hippocampal complexes, and the emotional system in the ventromedial prefrontal area. Studies on social cognitive functions in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy are being pursued currently. Early-onset right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis is the key substrate determining a severe deficit in recognizing emotional facial expressions and decision-making. In the future, neuropsychological examinations of social cognition, in addition to those of global intelligence, memory, and verbal function, will contribute to the provision of comprehensive medical care to patients with epilepsy. PMID:23667120

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2013-05-01

105

Early Childhood Cognitive Development and Parental Cognitive Stimulation: Evidence for Reciprocal Gene-Environment Transactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parenting is traditionally conceptualized as an exogenous environment that affects child development. However, children can also influence the quality of parenting that they receive. Using longitudinal data from 650 identical and fraternal twin pairs, we found that, controlling for cognitive ability at age 2 years, cognitive stimulation by parents…

Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Harden, K. Paige

2012-01-01

106

Test-Wiseness: A Cognitive Function?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the findings of an attempt to improve test-wiseness (TW) through direct instruction in selected test-taking strategies. TW was defined as "a cognitive function, subject to improvement through both general exposure to a wide variety of test items, and specific training in test-taking skills." The total investigation included:…

Woodley, Katheryn K.

107

Cognitive Decline in Schizophrenia from Childhood to Midlife: A 33-Year Longitudinal Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background To examine cognitive deficits before and after onset of schizophrenia in a longitudinal study that: 1) covers a long time interval; 2) minimizes test unreliability by including the identical measure at both childhood and post-onset cognitive assessments; and 3) minimizes bias by utilizing a population-based sample in which participants were selected neither for signs of illness in childhood nor for being at risk for schizophrenia. Methods Participants in the present study, Developmental Insult and Brain Anomaly in Schizophrenia (DIBS), were ascertained from an earlier epidemiologic study conducted in Oakland, CA. The original version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a test of receptive vocabulary, was administered at age 5 or 9 and repeated as part of the DIBS study at an average age of 40. There were 10 DIBS cases with DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 15 demographically similar DIBS controls with both child and adult PPVT scores. Results Cases scored significantly lower than controls in childhood (d=.95) and adulthood (d=1.67). Residualized scores indicating the number of SDs above or below one’s predicted adult score revealed a mean case-control difference of ?1.51 SDs, consistent with significant relative decline over time among the cases (p<.0013). Conclusions In this prospective study, individuals who developed adult schizophrenia manifested impaired receptive vocabulary during childhood and further relative deterioration (or lack of expected improvement) between childhood and midlife. Limitations should also be acknowledged, including the small sample size and the fact that we cannot be certain when the continued deterioration took place.

Kremen, William S.; Vinogradov, Sophia; Poole, John H.; Schaefer, Catherine A.; Deicken, Raymond F.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Brown, Alan S.

2011-01-01

108

[Advances in research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy: focus on social cognitive function].  

PubMed

Research on cognitive function related to temporal lobe epilepsy has thus far focused on memory, language, and general intelligence. Recently, however, the concept of social cognitive function has been proposed in the field of neuropsychology. Social cognitive function refers collectively to the higher cognitive functions that are essential in our social lives, and its representative aspects are facial expression recognition and decision-making. Emotional processing centered around the amygdala is thought to play a key role in the neural mechanism of this function. We conducted a study on the social cognitive function (decision-making) of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, and found that this function is reduced in these patients, and that the right amygdalo-hippocampal complexes play an important role. In order to ensure the best possible treatment for epilepsy patients, it is necessary not only to make an accurate diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment, but also to provide support for enabling a smoother social life from the perspective of social cognitive function. Future research developments in this field are expected to contribute to total management in medical care for epilepsy patients. PMID:23035344

Yamano, Mitsuhiko; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

2012-09-01

109

Mental exercises for cognitive function: clinical evidence.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the beneficial effects of a new cognitive intervention program designed for the care and prevention of dementia, namely Learning Therapy. The training program used systematized basic problems in arithmetic and Japanese language as training tasks. In study 1, 16 individuals in the experimental group and 16 in the control group were recruited from a nursing home. In both groups, all individuals were clinically diagnosed with senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. In study 2, we performed a single-blind, randomized controlled trial in our cognitive intervention program of 124 community-dwelling seniors. In both studies, the daily training program using reading and arithmetic tasks was carried out approximately 5 days a week, for 15 to 20 minutes a day in the intervention groups. Neuropsychological measures were determined simultaneously in the groups both prior to and after six months of the intervention. The results of our investigations indicate that our cognitive intervention using reading and arithmetic problems demonstrated a transfer effect and they provide convincing evidence that cognitive training maintains and improves the cognitive functions of dementia patients and healthy seniors. PMID:23412645

Kawashima, Ryuta

2013-01-01

110

Cognitive Function in Peripheral Autonomic Disorders  

PubMed Central

Objective aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate global cognitive function in patients with autonomic failure (AF) of peripheral origin and 2) to investigate the effect of a documented fall in blood pressure (BP) fulfilling the criteria for orthostatic hypotension (OH) on cognitive performances. Methods we assessed 12 consecutive patients (10 males, 68±7 years old) with pure AF (PAF) or autoimmune autonomic neuropathy (AAN) and 12 age- and gender-matched controls. All patients had no clinical signs of central nervous system involvement and normal brain CT/MRI scan. Cognitive function was assessed on two consecutive days in 3 conditions: on day 1, while sitting, by means of a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests; on day 2, while tilted (HUT) and during supine rest (supine) in a randomized manner. BP and heart rate (HR) were continuously recorded non-invasively for the whole duration of the examination. Results patients with PAF or AAN displayed a preserved global cognitive function while sitting. However, compared to supine assessment, during HUT patients scored significantly worse during the Trail Making Test A and B, Barrage test, Analogies test, Immediate Visual Memory, Span Forward and Span Backward test. Pathological scores, with regard to Italian normative range values, were observed only during HUT in the Barrage test and in the Analogies test in 3 and 6 patients respectively. On the contrary, in healthy controls, results to neuropsychological tests were not significantly different, during HUT compared to supine rest. Conclusions these data demonstrate that patients with PAF and AAN present a normal sitting global cognitive evaluation. However, their executive functions worsen significantly during the orthostatic challenge, possibly because of transient frontal lobes hypoperfusion.

Guaraldi, Pietro; Poda, Roberto; Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Solieri, Laura; Sambati, Luisa; Gallassi, Roberto; Cortelli, Pietro

2014-01-01

111

Extended Household Transitions, Race/Ethnicity, and Early Childhood Cognitive Outcomes*  

PubMed Central

Beyond mothers’ union status transitions, other adults’ transitions into and out of the household contribute to family instability, particularly in early childhood. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N?8,550), this study examines associations between extended household transitions and age 2 cognitive development. A substantial minority of toddlers experiences these transitions, and their consequences vary by household member type, entry versus exit, and race/ethnicity. Extended household transitions predict lower cognitive scores for white children, but the selection of low-socioeconomic status families into extended households explains these disparities. Grandparent transitions predict significantly higher cognitive scores for African American and Latino children than whites, and some “other adult” transitions predict higher scores for Latinos than African Americans and whites. Extended household transitions’ consequences are independent of co-occurring residential moves and partner transitions. Findings suggest that studying extended household transitions is useful for understanding children’s early development, and their consequences vary by race/ethnicity.

Mollborn, Stefanie; Fomby, Paula; Dennis, Jeff A.

2012-01-01

112

Sensory and Cognitive Factors Influencing Functional Ability in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Age-related sensory and cognitive impairments have been related to functional performance in older adults. With regard to cognitive abilities, processing speed in particular may be strongly related to older adults’ abilities to perform everyday tasks. Identifying and comparing cognitive correlates of functional performance is particularly important in order to design interventions to promote independence and prevent functional disability. Objective:

Kimberly M. Wood; Jerri D. Edwards; Olivio J. Clay; Virginia G. Wadley; Daniel L. Roenker; Karlene K. Ball

2005-01-01

113

Critical Periods of Brain Growth and Cognitive Function in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is evidence that IQ tends to be higher in those who were heavier at birth or who grew taller in childhood and adolescence. Although these findings imply that growth in both foetal and postnatal life influences cognitive performance, little is known about the relative importance of brain growth during different periods of development. We…

Gale, Catharine R.; O'Callaghan, Finbar J.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Law, Catherine M.; Martyn, Christopher N.

2004-01-01

114

Functional Relationships for Investigating Cognitive Processes  

PubMed Central

Functional relationships (from systematic manipulation of critical variables) are advocated for revealing fundamental processes of (comparative) cognition—through examples from my work in psychophysics, learning, and memory. Functional relationships for pigeon wavelength (hue) discrimination revealed best discrimination at the spectral points of hue transition for pigeons—a correspondence (i.e., functional relationship) similar to that for humans. Functional relationships for learning revealed: Item-specific or relational learning in matching to sample as a function of the pigeons’ sample-response requirement, and same/different abstract-concept learning as a function of the training set size for rhesus monkeys, capuchin monkeys, and pigeons. Functional relationships for visual memory revealed serial position functions (a 1st order functional relationship) that changed systematically with retention delay (a 2nd order relationship) for pigeons, capuchin monkeys, rhesus monkeys, and humans. Functional relationships for rhesus-monkey auditory memory also revealed systematic changes in serial position functions with delay, but these changes were opposite to those for visual memory. Functional relationships for proactive interference revealed interference that varied as a function of a ratio of delay times. Functional relationships for change detection memory revealed (qualitative) similarities and (quantitative) differences in human and monkey visual short term memory as a function of the number of memory items. It is concluded that these findings were made possible by varying critical variables over a substantial portion of the manipulable range to generate functions and derive relationships.

Wright, Anthony A.

2013-01-01

115

Static and Dynamic Cognitive Deficits in Childhood Preceding Adult Schizophrenia: A 30-Year Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Premorbid cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are well documented and have been interpreted as supporting a neurodevelopmental etiological model. The authors investigated the following three unresolved questions about premorbid cognitive deficits: What is their developmental course? Do all premorbid cognitive deficits follow the same course? Are premorbid cognitive deficits specific to schizophrenia or shared by other psychiatric disorders? Methods Participants were members of a representative cohort of 1,037 males and females born between 1972 and 1973 in Dunedin, New Zealand. Cohort members underwent follow-up evaluations at specific intervals from age 3 to 32 years, with a 96% retention rate. Cognitive development was analyzed and compared in children who later developed schizophrenia or recurrent depression as well as in healthy comparison subjects. Results Children who developed adult schizophrenia exhibited developmental deficits (i.e., static cognitive impairments that emerge early and remain stable) on tests indexing verbal and visual knowledge acquisition, reasoning, and conceptualization. In addition, these children exhibited developmental lags (i.e., growth that is slower relative to healthy comparison subjects) on tests indexing processing speed, attention, visual-spatial problem solving ability, and working memory. These two premorbid cognitive patterns were not observed in children who later developed recurrent depression. Conclusions These findings suggest that the origins of schizophrenia include two interrelated developmental processes evident from childhood to early adolescence (ages 7–13 years). Children who will grow up to develop adult schizophrenia enter primary school struggling with verbal reasoning and lag further behind their peers in working memory, attention, and processing speed as they get older.

Reichenberg, Abraham; Caspi, Avshalom; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S.E.; Murray, Robin M.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

2013-01-01

116

Impaired cognition and schooling in adults with end stage renal disease since childhood  

PubMed Central

Aims: To determine cognitive and educational attainment in adults with end stage renal disease (ESRD) since childhood. Methods: All Dutch patients with onset of ESRD at age 0–14 years between 1972 and 1992, who were born before 1979, were asked to perform the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) test. Educational attainment was assessed by a questionnaire. Determinants of cognitive performance were measured by reviewing medical charts in 37 hospitals. Data on cognition were compared to those of age matched controls who cooperated in the revision of the Dutch WAIS. National Dutch Statistics data were used to compare educational attainment. Results: Data on intelligence and schooling were acquired in 126 of 187 patients (67%) and data on determinants of outcome in all patients. Clinical characteristics of participants and non-participants were comparable. Educational attainment of patients was low compared to the Dutch standard. Patient mean full scale IQ, performal IQ, and verbal IQ were 10.4, 9.2, and 9.7 points lower, respectively, compared to those of 36 controls. The lowest scores were observed in tasks which require concentration, memory, and general knowledge. Patients currently on dialysis and transplanted patients had similar IQ scores. Cumulative dialysis duration of more than four years was associated with a 3.4 times higher chance of having a full scale IQ of 1 SD below the mean. Conclusion: ESRD of childhood is associated with an impaired cognitive and educational attainment in adulthood. Long duration of dialysis may enhance intellectual impairment, which may not be reversible after renal transplantation.

Groothoff, J; Grootenhuis, M; Dommerholt, A; Gruppen, M; Offringa, M; Heymans, H

2002-01-01

117

Does Childhood Executive Function Predict Adolescent Functional Outcomes in Girls with ADHD?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early/mid-adolescence. Our aim was to examine the ability of measures of childhood executive function (EF) to predict functional

Miller, Meghan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2010-01-01

118

Linkages between childhood executive functioning and adolescent social functioning and psychopathology in girls with ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 5 years, from middle childhood through early\\/midadolescence, with the aim of determining whether childhood levels of executive function (EF) would predict adolescent multi-informant outcomes of social functioning and psychopathology, including comorbidity between externalizing

Jenna R. Rinsky; Stephen P. Hinshaw

2011-01-01

119

Childhood Parental Loss and Adult Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Function  

PubMed Central

Background Several decades of research link childhood parental loss with risk for major depression and other forms of psychopathology. A large body of preclinical work on maternal separation and some recent studies of humans with childhood parental loss have demonstrated alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function which could predispose to the development of psychiatric disorders. Methods Eighty-eight healthy adults with no current Axis I psychiatric disorder participated in this study. Forty-four participants experienced parental loss during childhood, including 19 with a history of parental death and 25 with a history of prolonged parental separation. The loss group was compared to a matched group of individuals who reported no history of childhood parental separation or childhood maltreatment. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires and the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test. Repeated measures general linear models were used to test the effects of parental loss, a measure of parental care, sex, and age on the hormone responses to the Dex/CRH test. Results Parental loss was associated with increased cortisol responses to the test, particularly in males. The effect of loss was moderated by levels of parental care; participants with parental desertion and very low levels of care had attenuated cortisol responses. ACTH responses to the Dex/CRH test did not differ significantly as a function of parental loss. Conclusions These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that early parental loss induces enduring changes in neuroendocrine function.

Tyrka, Audrey R.; Wier, Lauren; Price, Lawrence H.; Ross, Nicole; Anderson, George M.; Wilkinson, Charles W.; Carpenter, Linda L.

2009-01-01

120

Cognitive mediators of ego functioning in adolescence.  

PubMed

It has often been assumed that a relationship exists between higher levels of cognitive functioning, particularly formal operations, and mature ego functioning in adolescence. This research examined the relationships between ego functioning and two domains of operational thinking: social interpersonal reasoning and physical-mathematical reasoning in 139 high school seniors. Subjects were given two measures of physical-mathematical reasoning, two measures of interpersonal reasoning, and the Sentence Completion Test of ego functioning, as well as a measure of verbal intelligence. Results indicated significant differences between males and females in patterns of correlations as well as in patterns of relationships in a causal analysis. Ego functioning was predicted by interpersonal reasoning for females and by physical-mathematical reasoning and verbal intelligence for males. PMID:24301321

Hurtig, A L; Petersen, A C; Richards, M H; Gitelson, I B

1985-03-01

121

Childhood abuse and vulnerability to depression: Cognitive scars in otherwise healthy young adults.  

PubMed

Models of depression vulnerability posit that negative early experiences, such as exposure to childhood abuse (CA), increase vulnerability to depression later in life. Though most victims of CA do not go on to develop depression, the question remains as to whether these individuals retain cognitive 'scars' that may contribute to depression vulnerability. The present study examined the relationship between self-reported, retrospective CA and cognitive vulnerability to depression in a carefully selected sample of young adults without current or past psychopathology. We measured cognitive vulnerability with both a self-report questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), and a measure of information processing bias, the Scrambled Sentences Test (SST). Self-reported severity of CA was associated with increased cognitive vulnerability to depression on both the DAS and SST. Vulnerability to depression as measured by the SST, but not by the DAS, prospectively predicted increases in depressive symptoms over a 6-month period. Scores on the SST also interacted with CA to predict increases in depressive symptoms. These findings demonstrate the pernicious effects of CA even in those without current or past psychopathology. PMID:24313549

Wells, Tony T; Vanderlind, W Michael; Selby, Edward A; Beevers, Christopher G

2014-08-01

122

Improving Cognition and Function Through Exercise Intervention in Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To analyze the effects of cognition on function and to explore the potential of aerobic exercise for promoting cognitive and functional capacities. Design: Integrative review of literature. Methods: Studies were selected based on an extensive search of electronic databases and man- ual cross-referencing for 1980 to 2006, using the combination of key words: Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia, or cognitive

Fang Yu; Ann M. Kolanowski; Neville E. Strumpf; Paul J. Eslinger

2006-01-01

123

Testosterone and cognitive function: current clinical evidence of a relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Testosterone levels decline as men age, as does cognitive function. Whether there is more than a temporal relationship between testosterone and cognitive function is unclear. Chemical castration studies in men with prostate cancer suggest that low serum testosterone may be associated with cognitive dysfunction. Low testosterone levels have also been observed in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild

Olivier Beauchet

2006-01-01

124

Evidence for a cytokine model of cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at a formulation of a cytokine model of cognitive function under immunologically unchallenged physiological conditions, this article reviews the cytokine biology in the central nervous system (CNS) and recent developments in normal cytokine functions within the CNS that subserve cognitive processes. Currently available evidence shows that the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? play a role in complex cognitive processes

J. McAfoose; B. T. Baune

2009-01-01

125

Psychological and behavioral functioning in adolescent psychiatric inpatients who report histories of childhood abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine psychological and behavioral functioning in psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents who report histories of childhood abuse. Method: Three hundred twenty-two subjects completed an assessment battery of psychometrically well-established instruments. Childhood abuse was assessed by using the childhood abuse scale of the Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory. Childhood abuse scores of 30 or less and

Carlos M. Grilo; Charles A. Sanislow; Dwain C. Fehon; Steve Martino; Thomas H. McGlashan

1999-01-01

126

Dietary boron, brain function, and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

Although the trace element boron has yet to be recognized as an essential nutrient for humans, recent data from animal and human studies suggest that boron may be important for mineral metabolism and membrane function. To investigate further the functional role of boron, brain electrophysiology and cognitive performance were assessed in response to dietary manipulation of boron (approximately 0.25 versus approximately 3.25 mg boron/2000 kcal/day) in three studies with healthy older men and women. Within-subject designs were used to assess functional responses in all studies. Spectral analysis of electroencephalographic data showed effects of dietary boron in two of the three studies. When the low boron intake was compared to the high intake, there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the proportion of low-frequency activity, and a decrease in the proportion of higher-frequency activity, an effect often observed in response to general malnutrition and heavy metal toxicity. Performance (e.g., response time) on various cognitive and psychomotor tasks also showed an effect of dietary boron. When contrasted with the high boron intake, low dietary boron resulted in significantly poorer performance (p < 0.05) on tasks emphasizing manual dexterity (studies II and III); eye-hand coordination (study II); attention (all studies); perception (study III); encoding and short-term memory (all studies); and long-term memory (study I). Collectively, the data from these three studies indicate that boron may play a role in human brain function and cognitive performance, and provide additional evidence that boron is an essential nutrient for humans. PMID:7889884

Penland, J G

1994-11-01

127

Neurocognitive Function and CNS Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose Long-term survivors of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) are at risk for cardiopulmonary complications and CNS stroke, although neurocognitive function has not been previously examined. The aim of this study was to examine neurocognitive and brain imaging outcomes in adult survivors of childhood HL. Patients and Methods In all, 62 adult survivors (mean age, 42.2 years; standard deviation [SD], 4.77; mean age at diagnosis, 15.1 years; SD, 3.30) were identified by stratified random selection from a large cohort treated with either high-dose (? 30 Gy) thoracic radiation (n = 38) or lower-dose (< 30 Gy) thoracic radiation combined with anthracycline (n = 24). Patients underwent neurocognitive evaluations, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), echocardiograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical examinations. Results Compared with national age-adjusted norms, HL survivors demonstrated lower performance on sustained attention (P = .004), short-term memory (P = .001), long-term memory (P = .006), working memory (P < .001), naming speed (P < .001), and cognitive fluency (P = .007). MRI revealed leukoencephalopathy in 53% of survivors, and 37% had evidence of cerebrovascular injury. Higher thoracic radiation dose was associated with impaired cardiac diastolic function (E/E?; ratio of peak mitral flow velocity of early rapid filling [E] to early diastolic velocity of the mitral annulus [E?]; P = .003), impaired pulmonary function (diffusing capacity of lungs for carbon monoxide [DLcocorr; P = .04), and leukoencephalopathy (P = .02). Survivors with leukoencephalopathy demonstrated reduced cognitive fluency (P = .001). Working memory impairment was associated with E/E?, although impaired sustained attention and naming speed were associated with DLcocorr. Neurocognitive performance was associated with academic and vocational functioning. Conclusion These results suggest that adult long-term survivors of childhood HL are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, which is associated with radiologic indices suggestive of reduced brain integrity and which occurs in the presence of symptoms of cardiopulmonary dysfunction.

Krull, Kevin R.; Sabin, Noah D.; Reddick, Wilburn E.; Zhu, Liang; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Green, Daniel M.; Arevalo, Alejandro R.; Krasin, Matthew J.; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M.

2012-01-01

128

Relationships of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values, Ethical and Cognitive Developmental Levels, and Views of Nature of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study explored relationships between preservice early childhood teachers' views of nature of science (NOS), cognitive developmental levels, and their cultural values. Using the Views of Nature of Science Questionnaire (VNOS-B) and interviews, we assessed views of NOS. The Learning Context Questionnaire (LCQ) was used to determine the…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.

2007-01-01

129

Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

2005-01-01

130

The Importance of Cognitive Development in Middle Childhood for Adulthood Socioeconomic Status, Mental Health, and Problem Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the extent to which continuities and discontinuities in cognitive performance between ages 5 and 10 predicted adult income, educational success, household worklessness, criminality, teen parenthood, smoking, and depression. Assessed were the degree of this change during middle childhood, the influence of socioeconomic status…

Feinstein, Leon; Bynner, John

2004-01-01

131

Life Course Socioeconomic Position and Mid-Late Life Cognitive Function in Eastern Europe  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To investigate whether the positive relation between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and later life cognitive function observed in Western populations exists in former communist countries with apparently smaller income inequalities. Method. Structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data on 30,846 participants aged 45–78 years in four Central and Eastern European centers: Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania), and six Czech towns from the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe) study. SEP was measured using self-reported childhood (maternal education, household amenities), adult (education), and older adult (current material circumstances) indicators. Latent variable for cognition was constructed from word recall, animal naming, and letter search. Results. Associations between SEP measures over the life course and cognition were similar across study centers. Education had the strongest direct association with cognition, followed by current material circumstances. Indirect path from education to cognition, mediated by current SEP, was small. Direct path from mother’s education to cognition was significant but modest, and partially mediated by later SEP measures, particularly education. Discussion. In these Eastern European populations, late life cognition reflected life course socioeconomic trajectories similarly to findings in Western countries.

2014-01-01

132

Chronic Insomnia and Cognitive Functioning Among Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic insomnia and cognitive impairment are both common complaints among older adults. This study explores the association between chronic insomnia and changes in cognitive functioning among older adults. The study population comprised two groups: 64 older adults without insomnia and 35 older adult insomniacs. The cognitive capacity of each participant was tested at the participant's home using the computerized “MindFit”

Iris Haimov; Einat Hanuka; Yael Horowitz

2008-01-01

133

Physical inactivity and cognitive functioning: results from bed rest studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In addition to multiple health benefits, participation in physical activity can enhance cognitive functioning. Less clear\\u000a is how reducing physical activity levels affects cognition, an issue potentially addressed by bed rest studies having included\\u000a cognitive tests. Detailed and reviewed here are 17 such studies, featuring 251 subjects, bed rest for 7–70 days, and tests\\u000a of cognition ranging from reaction time to

Darren M. Lipnicki; Hanns-Christian Gunga

2009-01-01

134

Cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions affecting physical functioning: A systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background Several types of cognitive or combined cognitive-motor intervention types that might influence physical functions have been proposed in the past: training of dual-tasking abilities, and improving cognitive function through behavioral interventions or the use of computer games. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the literature regarding the use of cognitive and cognitive-motor interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments that are similar to cognitive impairments seen in aging. The aim was to identify potentially promising methods that might be used in future intervention type studies for older adults. Methods A systematic search was conducted for the Medline/Premedline, PsycINFO, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. The search was focused on older adults over the age of 65. To increase the number of articles for review, we also included those discussing adult patients with neurological impairments due to trauma, as these cognitive impairments are similar to those seen in the aging population. The search was restricted to English, German and French language literature without any limitation of publication date or restriction by study design. Cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions were defined as dual-tasking, virtual reality exercise, cognitive exercise, or a combination of these. Results 28 articles met our inclusion criteria. Three articles used an isolated cognitive rehabilitation intervention, seven articles used a dual-task intervention and 19 applied a computerized intervention. There is evidence to suggest that cognitive or motor-cognitive methods positively affects physical functioning, such as postural control, walking abilities and general functions of the upper and lower extremities, respectively. The majority of the included studies resulted in improvements of the assessed functional outcome measures. Conclusions The current evidence on the effectiveness of cognitive or motor-cognitive interventions to improve physical functioning in older adults or people with neurological impairments is limited. The heterogeneity of the studies published so far does not allow defining the training methodology with the greatest effectiveness. This review nevertheless provides important foundational information in order to encourage further development of novel cognitive or cognitive-motor interventions, preferably with a randomized control design. Future research that aims to examine the relation between improvements in cognitive skills and the translation to better performance on selected physical tasks should explicitly take the relation between the cognitive and physical skills into account.

2011-01-01

135

Cognitive Function in the Community Setting: The Neighborhood as a Source of "Cognitive Reserve"?  

PubMed Central

Background Existing research has found a positive association between cognitive function and residence in a socioeconomically advantaged neighborhood. Yet, the mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been empirically investigated. This study tests the hypothesis that neighborhood socioeconomic structure is related to cognitive function partly through the availability of neighborhood physical and social resources (e.g. recreational facilities, community centers and libraries), which promote cognitively beneficial activities such as exercise and social integration. Methods Using data from a representative survey of community-dwelling adults in the City of Chicago (N = 949 adults age 50 and over) we assessed cognitive function with a modified version of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) instrument. Neighborhood socioeconomic structure was derived from US Census indicators. Systematic Social Observation was used to directly document the presence of neighborhood resources on the blocks surrounding each respondent’s residence. Results Using multilevel linear regression, residence in an affluent neighborhood had a net positive effect on cognitive function after adjusting for individual risk factors. For white respondents, the effects of neighborhood affluence operated in part through a greater density of institutional resources (e.g. community centers) that promote cognitively beneficial activities such as physical activity. Stable residence in an elderly neighborhood was associated with higher cognitive function (potentially due to greater opportunities for social interaction with peers), but long term exposure to such neighborhoods was negatively related to cognition. Conclusions Neighborhood resources have the potential to promote “cognitive reserve” for adults who are aging in place in an urban setting.

Clarke, Philippa J.; Ailshire, Jennifer A.; House, James S.; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.; King, Katherine; Melendez, Robert; Langa, Kenneth M.

2012-01-01

136

Childhood Executive Function Continues to Predict Outcomes in Young Adult Females with and without Childhood-Diagnosed ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n = 140) and matched comparison girls (n = 88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict…

Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2012-01-01

137

Semantic memory functional MRI and cognitive function after exercise intervention in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI. Here, we examined the effects of exercise training on semantic memory activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen MCI participants and 18 cognitively intact controls, similar in sex, age, education, genetic risk, and medication use, volunteered for a 12-week exercise intervention consisting of supervised treadmill walking at a moderate intensity. Both MCI and control participants significantly increased their cardiorespiratory fitness by approximately 10% on a treadmill exercise test. Before and after the exercise intervention, participants completed an fMRI famous name discrimination task and a neuropsychological battery, Performance on Trial 1 of a list-learning task significantly improved in the MCI participants. Eleven brain regions activated during the semantic memory task showed a significant decrease in activation intensity following the intervention that was similar between groups (p-values ranged 0.048 to 0.0001). These findings suggest exercise may improve neural efficiency during semantic memory retrieval in MCI and cognitively intact older adults, and may lead to improvement in cognitive function. Clinical trials are needed to determine if exercise is effective to delay conversion to AD. PMID:23803298

Smith, J Carson; Nielson, Kristy A; Antuono, Piero; Lyons, Jeri-Annette; Hanson, Ryan J; Butts, Alissa M; Hantke, Nathan C; Verber, Matthew D

2013-01-01

138

Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Childhood Repetitive Behavior Disorders: Tic Disorders and Trichotillomania  

PubMed Central

The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT) for repetitive behavior disorders. Tic disorders (i.e., Tourette's syndrome, chronic tic disorders) and trichotillomania (i.e., chronic hair pulling) are the most often studied and (arguably) most debilitating of these conditions. Therefore, this article will focus on the efficacy of CBT for tic disorders and trichotillomania. After a brief introduction to these disorders, the author will provide an overview of CBT for children presenting with these concerns. In particular, this review will focus on a therapeutic technique that is at the core of most all CBT-based interventions, habit reversal training. Discussion of two recent empirical studies pointing to the immense potential of CBT for the treatment of childhood repetitive behavior disorders will follow. Finally, future areas of research will be discussed.

Flessner, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

139

Cardiac Function in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We studied long-term effects of therapy for childhood lymphoma on cardiac function. Design and patients. We prospectively evaluated 45 survivors of childhood lymphoma, using clinical parameters, electrocardiography and echocardiography. Further comparisons were made between lymphoma subgroups and between males and females. Results. Mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years. Mean followup duration was 10.9 years. The NYHA functional class was I in 43 patients and II in 2 patients. A prolonged QTc interval (>0.44?msec) was found in 8 patients. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function and compliance were normal (LV shortening fraction 40 ± 5.6%; cardiac index 2.84 ± 1.13 L/min/m2; E/A wave ratio 2.5 ± 1.3; mean ± S.D.), LV mass was normal (97 ± 40 grams/m2, mean ± S.D.). Mitral regurgitation was observed in 7/45 patients (16%). Asymptomatic pericardial effusions were found in 3/45 (7%) patients. Conclusions. Long-term follow-up shows that most parameters of cardiac function are normal in survivors of childhood lymphoma. This is likely due to relatively low doses of anthracyclines in modern protocol modalities. Abnormalities in mitral valve flow, QTc prolongation and in a small proportion of survivors, and functional capacity necessitate long-term cardiac follow-up of these patients.

Friedberg, Mark K.; Solt, Ido; Weyl-Ben-Arush, Myriam; Braver, Yulia; Lorber, Avraham

2011-01-01

140

Cognitive Adequacy in Structural-Functional Theories of Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the role played by cognition in three linguistic theories which may be labelled as "structural-functional": Functional (Discourse) Grammar, Role and Reference Grammar and Systemic Functional Grammar. It argues that if we are to achieve true cognitive adequacy, we must go well beyond the grammar itself to include the processes…

Butler, Christopher S.

2008-01-01

141

The effect of childhood obesity on cardiac functions.  

PubMed

Obesity is a metabolic disorder defined as excessive accumulation of body fat, which is made up of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors and has various social, psychological, and medical complications. Childhood obesity is a major indicator of adult obesity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cardiac functions via electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography (ECHO), and treadmill test in childhood obesity. A patient group consisting of 30 obese children and a control group consisting of 30 non-obese children were included in the study. The age range was between 8 and 17 years. Anthropometric measurements, physical examination, ECG, ECHO, and treadmill test were done in all patients. P-wave dispersion (PD) was found to be statistically significantly high in obese patients. In ECHO analysis, we found that end-diastolic diameter, end-systolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, and interventricular septum were significantly greater in obese children. In treadmill test, exercise capacity was found to be significantly lower and the hemodynamic response to exercise was found to be defective in obese children. Various cardiac structural and functional changes occur in childhood obesity and this condition includes important cardiovascular risks. PD, left ventricle end-systolic and end-diastolic diameter, left ventricle posterior wall thickness, interventricular septum thickness, exercise capacity, and hemodynamic and ECG measurements during exercise testing are useful tests to determine cardiac dysfunctions and potential arrhythmias even in early stages of childhood obesity. Early recognition and taking precautions for obesity during childhood is very important to intercept complications that will occur in adulthood. PMID:24150205

Üner, Abdurrahman; Do?an, Murat; Epcacan, Zerrin; Epçaçan, Serdar

2014-03-01

142

Cognitive and symptom profiles in Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism.  

PubMed

Asperger syndrome (AS) and autistic disorder are two subtypes of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), but there has been considerable debate over whether AS and autistic disorder without mental retardation (IQ > or = 70), called high-functioning autism (HFA), are distinct conditions or not. The aim of the present paper was to clarify this issue through a comparison of cognitive function and autistic symptom profiles. Based on the DSM-IV and ICD-10 definitions of language acquisition, 36 age- and IQ-balanced subjects with AS (mean age, 12.8 years; mean full-scale IQ, 98.3) were compared with 37 subjects with HFA (mean age, 12.6 years; mean full-scale IQ, 94.6) on the Japanese version of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales and the Childhood Autism Rating Scale-Tokyo Version (CARS-TV). Compared with the HFA subjects, the AS subjects scored significantly higher on Verbal IQ, Vocabulary, and Comprehension, but scored significantly lower on Coding. Although the total CARS-TV score did not differ significantly between the two groups, AS subjects scored significantly lower (i.e. less abnormal) on Verbal communication and Non-verbal communication than did the HFA subjects. A history of normal language acquisition in early childhood could predict his/her better verbal ability in mid-childhood or later. Autistic cognitive characteristics shared by both AS and HFA subjects appear to support the validity of the current diagnostic classification of PDD. PMID:17239046

Koyama, Tomonori; Tachimori, Hisateru; Osada, Hirokazu; Takeda, Toshinobu; Kurita, Hiroshi

2007-02-01

143

Sex hormones and cognitive functioning in men.  

PubMed

Blood and saliva samples were obtained from 117 healthy young men, following which radioimmunoassays were used to determine the serum concentrations of testosterone (Tser), 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and the level of free testosterone (Tsal) in the saliva. The cognitive functioning was determined by five spatial and six verbal ipsative test scores, reflecting intra-individual variance in the performance of these tasks, independent of the person's general level of achievement. Within the normal physiological range of androgen levels--especially Tser and to a lesser extent DHT and Tsal--showed a significantly positive correlation with measures of spatial ability and field dependence-independence and a significantly negative correlation with measures of verbal production. PMID:3444523

Christiansen, K; Knussmann, R

1987-01-01

144

Everyday functioning in mild cognitive impairment and its relationship with executive cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Elderly persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at increased risk of dementia and functional impairments. The present study investigated the contribution of three domains of executive cognition to everyday functioning among persons with MCI. Methods 124 MCI patients and 68 cognitively normal elderly participants were administered a cognitive screening battery. These tests were used to divide patients into four subgroups (amnestic single domain, amnestic multiple domain, non-amnestic single domain, and non-amnestic multiple domain). Subjects were then administered 18 executive function tests that assess planning/problem-solving, working memory, and judgment. Performance of everyday activities and everyday cognition was rated with two informant-reported measures. Results All MCI subtypes had more difficulties in everyday activities than cognitively normal elderly participants. Multiple domain MCI patients had more functional impairments than single domain MCI patients. Contrary to our expectations, only one executive function component, working memory, contributed significantly to functional status after controlling for demographic, health-related and other cognitive factors. Conclusions Functional abilities are compromised in all MCI subtypes. Working memory may be associated with functional impairments, but general cognitive measures account for more unique variance.

Aretouli, Eleni; Brandt, Jason

2010-01-01

145

Benzodiazepine use and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the relation between benzodiazepine use and cognitive function among community-dwelling elderly.Methods: This prospective cohort study included 2765 self-reporting subjects from the Duke Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. The subjects were cognitively intact at baseline (1986–1987) and alive at follow-up data collection 3 years later. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status

Joseph T. Hanlon; Ronnie D. Horner; Kenneth E. Schmader; Gerda G. Fillenbaum; Ingrid K. Lewis; William E. Wall; Lawrence R. Landerman; Carl F. Pieper; Dan G. Blazer; Harvey Jay Cohen

1998-01-01

146

Obesity, cognitive functioning and dementia: back to the future.  

PubMed

The conditions of chronic obesity and overweight status are risk factors for lower cognitive performance, cognitive decline, cognitive deficit, and dementia. But lower cognitive performance early in life itself may be a risk factor for an increase in body weight over time. With this in mind, we review important papers in the literature that advance our knowledge of relations between weight and cognitive functioning, with an emphasis on papers that illustrate methodological and theoretical issues of importance. We describe the evolution in research on weight and cognition with respect to two major features: (a) the move backward in time from the diagnosis of dementia to the pre-clinical period of dementia in order to better identify risk factors; and (b) the evolution of studies from an earlier emphasis on obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors as major mediators of relations between obesity and cognition to a more recent emphasis on metabolic variables, lifestyle variables, genotype, and other mechanisms that explain relations among weight change, obesity, and cognition. We conclude that: 1) a complete understanding of the causal links between weight and cognitive functioning requires a lifespan perspective; 2) practically speaking, lifespan research may need to amalgamate and integrate research at different segments of the lifespan until such time that we can include the entire life cycle within a single study of weight and cognition; and 3) we need more studies that examine reciprocal relations between weight and cognition, especially early in life. PMID:22057026

Elias, Merrill F; Goodell, Amanda L; Waldstein, Shari R

2012-01-01

147

Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

1998-01-01

148

Trial-Based Functional Analysis and Functional Communication Training in an Early Childhood Setting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted…

Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

149

Endogenous Glucocorticoids Are Essential for Maintaining Prefrontal Cortical Cognitive Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glucocorticoid hormones are important in the maintenance of many brain functions. Although their receptors are distributed abun- dantly throughout the brain, including the prefrontal cortex (PFC), it is not clear how glucocorticoid functions, particularly with regard to cognitive processing in the PFC. There is evidence of PFC cognitive deficits such as working memory impairment in several stress- related neuropsychiatric disorders,

Kazushige Mizoguchi; Atsushi Ishige; Shuichi Takeda; Masaki Aburada; Takeshi Tabira

2004-01-01

150

Cognitive functioning and school performance in children with renal failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although previous studies have documented neuropsychological deficits in children with end-stage renal disease, few have evaluated and compared the cognitive functioning and the school performance of children with renal failure. The current study evaluated the influence of chronic renal failure on cognitive functioning and school performance in children and adolescents with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis and after renal transplantation.

Kathleen W. Lawryl; Ben H. Brouhardl; Robert J. Cunningham

1994-01-01

151

Trace Element Levels and Cognitive Function in Rural Elderly Chinese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Trace elements are involved in metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction reactions in the central nervous system and could have a possible effect on cognitive function. The relationship between trace elements measured in individual biological samples and cognitive function in an elderly population had not been investigated extensively. Methods. The participant population is part of a large cohort study of 2000

Sujuan Gao; Yinlong Jin; Frederick W. Unverzagt; Feng Ma; Kathleen S. Hall; Jill R. Murrell; Yibin Cheng; Jianzhao Shen; Bo Ying; Rongdi Ji; Janetta Matesan; Chaoke Liang; Hugh C. Hendrie

152

Clinical and Functional Outcome of Childhood ADHD 33 Years Later  

PubMed Central

Context Prospective studies of childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have not extended beyond early adulthood. Objective To test whether children diagnosed with ADHD at mean age 8 (probands) have worse educational, occupational, economic, social, marital outcomes; higher rates of ongoing ADHD, antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), substance disorders (SD); adult onset psychiatric disorders, psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations, than non-ADHD comparisons, at mean age 41. To test for: positive associations between probands’ ongoing ADHD and ASPD, and SD’s; and for worse social and occupational functioning in probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders, than comparisons. Design Prospective, 33 year follow-up study, with blind clinical assessments. Setting Research clinic. Participants 135 Caucasian males with ADHD in childhood, free of conduct disorder, and 136 male comparisons without childhood ADHD (65% and 76% of original cohort, respectively). Main Outcome Measures Occupational, economic, and educational attainment; marital history; occupational and social functioning; ongoing and lifetime psychiatric disorders; psychiatric hospitalizations, and incarcerations. Results Probands had significantly worse educational, occupational, economic, social outcomes, and more divorces than comparisons; higher rates of ongoing ADHD (22% vs 5%, p<.001), ASPD (16% vs 0%, p<.001)and SD (14% vs 5%, p<.01), but not more mood or anxiety disorders (p’s=.36 and .33). Ongoing ADHD was weakly related to ongoing SD (phi=.19, p=.04), and ASPD+SD (phi=.20, p=.04). Lifetime, probands had significantly more ASPD and SD’s, but not mood or anxiety disorders, and more psychiatric hospitalizations and incarcerations than comparisons. Relative to comparisons, psychiatric disorders with onsets at age 21 or beyond were not significantly elevated in probands. Probands without ongoing psychiatric disorders had worse social, but not occupational, functioning. Conclusions The multiple disadvantages predicted by childhood ADHD well into adulthood began in adolescence, without increased onsets of new disorders after age 20. Findings highlight the importance of extended monitoring and treatment of children with ADHD.

Klein, Rachel G.; Mannuzza, Salvatore; Ramos Olazagasti, Maria A.; Roizen Belsky, Erica; Hutchison, Jesse A.; Lashua-Shriftman, Erin; Castellanos, F. Xavier

2012-01-01

153

Face Perception in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Interface Between Cognitive and Social Cognitive Functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Perceiving facial features, both affective and non-affective, plays a vital role in everyday life. While it is known that\\u000a the processing of facial emotion expressions is compromised in schizophrenia, the mechanisms underlying face perception and\\u000a their connection with cognitive and social cognitive functioning are somewhat elusive. Two important and unresolved issues\\u000a have been whether visual and cognitive processing of face

Yue Chen

154

Trial-based functional analysis and functional communication training in an early childhood setting.  

PubMed

Problem behavior is common in early childhood special education classrooms. Functional communication training (FCT; Carr & Durand, 1985) may reduce problem behavior but requires identification of its function. The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a method that can be used to identify problem behavior function in schools. We conducted trial-based FAs and FCT with 3 children in an early childhood special education setting. All trial-based FAs resulted in identification of behavioral functions, and subsequent FCT led to reductions in problem behavior and increases in communication. PMID:23060670

Lambert, Joseph M; Bloom, Sarah E; Irvin, Jennifer

2012-01-01

155

A THEORY ON THE USE OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT) PLUS EYE MOVEMENT DESENSITIZATION AND REPROCESSING (EMDR) TO REDUCE SUICIDAL THOUGHTS IN CHILDHOOD TRAUMA VICTIMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many victims of childhood trauma struggle with recurrent suicidal thoughts and behaviors even after traditional therapies. We used a combination of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) plus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in five patients with histories of childhood trauma and recurrent suicidal thoughts to reduce or eliminate suicidal thoughts, behaviors, and attempts after 3 months to 5 years follow

Kennneth F. Tullis; Cynthia L. Westcott; Traci R. Winton

156

Patterns and associates of cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive function, psychosocial wellbeing and health are important domains of function. Consistencies and inconsistencies in patterns of wellbeing across these domains may be informative about wellbeing in old age and the ways it is manifested amongst individuals. In this study we investigated whether there were groups of individuals with different profiles of scores across these domains. We also aimed to identify characteristics of any evident groups by comparing them on variables that were not used in identifying the groups. Methods The sample was the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936, which included 1091 participants born in 1936. They are a community-dwelling, narrow-age-range sample of 70-year-olds. Most had taken part in the Scottish Mental Survey 1947 at an average age of 11, making available a measure of childhood intelligence. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to explore possible profiles using 9 variables indicating cognitive functioning, psychosocial wellbeing and health status. Demographic, personality, and lifestyle variables – none of which were used in the LCA – were used to characterize the resulting profile groups. Results We accepted a 3-group solution, which we labeled High Wellbeing (65.3%), Low Cognition (20.3%), and Low Bio-Psychosocial (14.5%). Notably, the High Wellbeing group had significantly higher childhood IQ, lower Neuroticism scores, and a lower percentage of current smokers than the other 2 groups. Conclusion The majority of individuals were functioning generally well; however, there was evidence of the presence of groups with different profiles, which may be explained in part in terms of cognitive ability differences. Results suggested that higher life-long intelligence, personality traits associated with less mental distress, and basic health practices such as avoiding smoking are important associates of wellbeing in old age.

2014-01-01

157

The Impact of Social Disparity on Prefrontal Function in Childhood  

PubMed Central

The prefrontal cortex (PFC) develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children.

Sheridan, Margaret A.; Sarsour, Khaled; Jutte, Douglas; D'Esposito, Mark; Boyce, W. Thomas

2012-01-01

158

Can Basic Risk Research Help in the Prevention of Childhood and Adolescent Depression? Examining a Cognitive and Emotional Regulation Approach  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to highlight ways in which basic research findings in the field of childhood and adolescent depression can help to inform and refine preventive intervention efforts. We selectively review basic research evidence from community, clinical, and high-risk populations that identifies cognitive mechanisms (thought processes and reactions to negative affect) and emotional regulation as key processes involved in the onset and maintenance of depression. We focus on cognitive and emotional mechanisms in order to allow comparability with the majority of current preventive interventions. A range of basic research strategies and studies are then suggested that could be employed to help the development and refinement of prevention strategies. These include the need for prospective longitudinal studies to identify causal risk and protective factors, an integration of research approaches and methods, and a focus on understanding potential aetiological heterogeneity between childhood and adolescent depression.

Rice, Frances; Rawal, Adhip

2011-01-01

159

Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be more effective than PCT and WL in decreasing PTSD and related symptoms.

Annmarie McDonagh; Matthew Friedman; Gregory McHugo; Julian Ford; Anjana Sengupta; Kim Mueser; Christine Carney Demment; Debra Fournier; Paula P. Schnurr; Monica Descamps

2005-01-01

160

Research progress of cognitive function in schizophrenia in China  

PubMed Central

Summary Cognitive impairment – one of the core symptoms of schizophrenia – has become a focus of research about schizophrenia in China and elsewhere. The main reason for the interest in cognitive functioning is that the degree of cognitive impairment is associated both with the current severity of the illness and with the prognosis of the illness due to its effect on individuals' ability to live independently and on their occupational and social functioning. The first study on cognitive function in schizophrenia in China was conducted in the late 1970s; more recently there has been a resurgence of interest in the area because of new information that has emerged as neuroimaging technologies have improved. The current review summarizes studies on cognitive impairment in schizophrenia conducted in China and proposes directions for future research in this area.

LIU, Dengtang; WANG, Yingchan; XU, Yifeng; JIANG, Kaida

2013-01-01

161

High Risk of Cognitive and Functional Decline after Postoperative Delirium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of the study was to investigate the association of postoperative delirium with the outcomes of cognitive impairment, functional disability and death. Methods: Hip surgery patients aged 60 years or over (n = 200) underwent preoperative and daily postoperative assessment of their cognitive status during hospital stay. Outcome variables were determined at an average of 8 and 38

Horst Bickel; Reiner Gradinger; Eberhard Kochs; Hans Förstl

2008-01-01

162

Cognitive Adequacy in a Dialogic Functional Discourse Grammar  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG), as a theory of the organization of natural languages, seeks to attain pragmatic, typological and cognitive adequacy. The attempt to achieve cognitive adequacy has been fraught with problems stemming from the vagueness of the concept and the difficulty of adapting to trends in psycholinguistics. Specifically,…

Mackenzie, J. Lachlan

2012-01-01

163

Walking and the Preservation of Cognitive Function in Older Populations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This cross-sectional study takes a unique look at the association between patterns of walking and cognitive functioning by examining whether older adults with mild cognitive impairment differ in terms of the community settings where they walk and the frequency, intensity, or duration of walking. Design and Methods: The sample was based on…

Prohaska, Thomas R.; Eisenstein, Amy R.; Satariano, William A.; Hunter, Rebecca; Bayles, Constance M.; Kurtovich, Elaine; Kealey, Melissa; Ivey, Susan L.

2009-01-01

164

Connections between Vision, Hearing, and Cognitive Function in Old Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses findings of studies that examined the relationship between vision, hearing, and cognitive function in normally aging adults. Indicates that most found at least modest significant relationships between sensory and cognitive measures based on diverse assessment and design methods. (Contains 42 references.) (JOW)

Wahl, Hans-Werner; Heyl, Vera

2003-01-01

165

Elicited Emotions and Cognitive Functioning in Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the effects of eliciting positive and negative emotions on various cognitive functions of four- to five-year-old preschool children were examined. Emotions were elicited through presentations of "happy" and "sad" video clips, before the children performed the cognitive tasks. Behavioural (facial expressions) and physiological (heart…

Blau, Rivka; Klein, Pnina S.

2010-01-01

166

Towards an understanding of cognitive function in Friedreich ataxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is limited documentation regarding cognitive function in individuals with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), possibly because FRDA is widely held to predominantly affect the spinal cord, peripheral sensory nerves and cerebellum and not to affect cognition. Traditionally, the cerebellum has been thought to coordinate voluntary movement and motor tone, posture and gait. However, recent studies have implicated the cerebellum in a

Louise A. Corben; Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis; Michael C. Fahey; Elsdon Storey; Andrew Churchyard; Malcolm Horne; John L. Bradshaw; Martin B. Delatycki

2006-01-01

167

Neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive functioning in prodromal Huntington disease  

PubMed Central

Introduction The brain mechanisms of cognitive impairment in prodromal Huntington disease (prHD) are not well understood. Although striatal atrophy correlates with some cognitive abilities, few studies of prHD have investigated whether cortical gray matter morphometry correlates in a regionally specific manner with functioning in different cognitive domains. This knowledge would inform the selection of cognitive measures for clinical trials that would be most sensitive to the target of a treatment intervention. Method In this study, random forest analysis was used to identify neuroanatomical correlates of functioning in five cognitive domains including attention and information processing speed, working memory, verbal learning and memory, negative emotion recognition, and temporal processing. Participants included 325 prHD individuals with varying levels of disease progression and 119 gene-negative controls with a family history of HD. In intermediate analyses, we identified brain regions that showed significant differences between the prHD and the control groups in cortical thickness and striatal volume. Brain morphometry in these regions was then correlated with cognitive functioning in each of the domains in the prHD group using random forest methods. We hypothesized that different regional patterns of brain morphometry would be associated with performances in distinct cognitive domains. Results The results showed that performances in different cognitive domains that are vulnerable to decline in prHD were correlated with regionally specific patterns of cortical and striatal morphometry. Putamen and/or caudate volumes were top-ranked correlates of performance across all cognitive domains, as was cortical thickness in regions related to the processing demands of each domain. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of identifying structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) markers of functioning in different cognitive domains, as their relative sensitivity depends on the extent to which processing is called upon by different brain networks. The findings have implications for identifying neuroimaging and cognitive outcome measures for use in clinical trials.

Harrington, Deborah L; Liu, Dawei; Smith, Megan M; Mills, James A; Long, Jeffrey D; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Paulsen, Jane S

2014-01-01

168

Heterogeneity of late-life depression: relationship with cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Late-life depression is a heterogeneous disorder, whereby cognitive impairments are often observed. This study examines which clinical characteristics and symptom dimensions of late-life depression are especially impacting on specific cognitive domains. Methods: Cross-sectional data of 378 depressed and 132 non-depressed older adults between 60-93 years, from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older adults (NESDO) were used. Depressed older adults were recruited from both inpatient and outpatient mental healthcare institutes and general practices, and diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Multivariable associations were examined with depression characteristics (severity, onset, comorbidity, psychotropic medication) and symptom dimensions as independent variables and cognitive domains (episodic memory, processing speed, interference control, working memory) as dependent variables. Results: Late-life depression was associated with poorer cognitive functioning. Within depressed participants, higher severity of psychopathology and having a first depressive episode was associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The use of tricyclic antidepressants, serotonergic and noradrenergic working antidepressants, and benzodiazepines was associated with worse cognitive functioning. Higher scores on the mood dimension were associated with poorer working memory and processing speed, whereas higher scores on a motivational and apathy dimension were associated with poorer episodic memory and processing speed. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in late-life depression may lead to differences in cognitive functioning. Higher severity and having a first depressive episode was associated with worse cognitive performance. Additionally, different domains of cognitive functioning were associated with specific symptom dimensions. Our findings on the use of psychotropic medication suggest that close monitoring on cognitive side effects is needed. PMID:24565278

Korten, Nicole C M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Kok, Rob M; Stek, Max L; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Deeg, Dorly J H; Comijs, Hannie C

2014-06-01

169

Diabetes is associated with lower global cognitive function in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Co-morbidity of schizophrenia (SZ) and metabolic problems such as diabetes mellitus (DM) has been suggested by many studies. Nonetheless, it is still debated whether DM affects cognitive dysfunction associated with SZ and how much treatment for DM is beneficial for cognitive functions in SZ. We addressed these questions by re-assessing the cognitive dataset from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) schizophrenia study. Methods We identified 1289 SZ patients in which scores for several cognitive domains of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory together with the composite score and metabolic characteristics (body mass index, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and DM) were available at baseline of the trial. We performed multiple linear regression analyses to assess the impact of DM on cognitive performance of SZ patients, controlling for a number of other confounding factors including obesity, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. We also conducted analyses of covariance to compare cognitive performance among SZ patients without DM and diabetic SZ sub-groups based on anti-diabetic drugs they were receiving at baseline of the trial. Results Co-morbid DM with SZ predicted worse overall cognitive performance and lower scores for three cognitive domains (vigilance, processing speed, and reasoning), but none of the other metabolic factors (i.e., obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia) correlated with cognitive function in SZ. Furthermore, SZ patients with untreated DM showed poorer overall cognitive performance and a significantly lower score in the domain of vigilance compared with SZ patients without DM. Conclusion Our data suggest that DM negatively affects the overall cognitive function of SZ patients.

Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Cascella, Nicola G.; Sawa, Akira; Eaton, William W.

2014-01-01

170

Genotype differences in cognitive functioning in Noonan syndrome.  

PubMed

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disorder associated with highly variable features, including heart disease, short stature, minor facial anomalies and learning disabilities. Recent gene discoveries have laid the groundwork for exploring whether variability in the NS phenotype is related to differences at the genetic level. In this study, we examine the influence of both genotype and nongenotypic factors on cognitive functioning. Data are presented from 65 individuals with NS (ages 4-18) who were evaluated using standardized measures of intellectual functioning. The cohort included 33 individuals with PTPN11 mutations, 6 individuals with SOS1 mutations, 1 individual with a BRAF mutation and 25 participants with negative, incomplete or no genetic testing. Results indicate that genotype differences may account for some of the variation in cognitive ability in NS. Whereas cognitive impairments were common among individuals with PTPN11 mutations and those with unknown mutations, all of the individuals with SOS1 mutations exhibited verbal and nonverbal cognitive skills in the average range or higher. Participants with N308D and N308S mutations in PTPN11 also showed no (or mild) cognitive delays. Additional influences such as hearing loss, motor dexterity and parental education levels accounted for significant variability in cognitive outcomes. Severity of cardiac disease was not related to cognitive functioning. Our results suggest that some NS-causing mutations have a more marked impact on cognitive skills than others. PMID:19077116

Pierpont, E I; Pierpont, M E; Mendelsohn, N J; Roberts, A E; Tworog-Dube, E; Seidenberg, M S

2009-04-01

171

Mental work demands, retirement, and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Age-related changes in cognitive abilities are well-documented, and a very important indicator of health, functioning, and decline in later life. However, less is known about the course of cognitive functioning before and after retirement and specifically whether job characteristics during one's time of employment (i.e., higher vs. lower levels of mental work demands) moderate how cognition changes both before and after the transition to retirement. We used data from n = 4,182 (50% women) individuals in the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative panel study in the United States, across an 18 year time span (1992-2010). Data were linked to the O*NET occupation codes to gather information about mental job demands to examine whether job characteristics during one's time of employment moderates level and rate of change in cognitive functioning (episodic memory and mental status) both before and after retirement. Results indicated that working in an occupation characterized by higher levels of mental demands was associated with higher levels of cognitive functioning before retirement, and a slower rate of cognitive decline after retirement. We controlled for a number of important covariates, including socioeconomic (education and income), demographic, and health variables. Our discussion focuses on pathways through which job characteristics may be associated with the course of cognitive functioning in relation to the important transition of retirement. Implications for job design as well as retirement are offered. PMID:24635733

Fisher, Gwenith G; Stachowski, Alicia; Infurna, Frank J; Faul, Jessica D; Grosch, James; Tetrick, Lois E

2014-04-01

172

[Cognitive function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

It is increasingly recognized that COPD is a multi-component disease, but little attention has been paid to its effects on cognition. Cognitive dysfunction is associated with increased disability of daily living and mortality. However, it remains to be elucidated in COPD. Our main findings are: 1) cognitive dysfunction in patients with COPD is related to the grade of activity of daily livings and hypoxemia, especially in exercise-induced hypoxemia; 2) cognitive impairment such as perception, attention and short memory are impaired; 3) attention function determined by Trail Making Test is improved by O2 inhalation with the increase in the prefrontal cortex oxygenation; 4) by 8 week exercise training, cognitive function in COPD is improved with the increase in the prefrontal circulation. PMID:24796104

Fujimoto, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Hirata, Kazuto

2014-04-01

173

Cognitive reserve moderates relation between global cognition and functional status in older adults.  

PubMed

The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) is necessary for independent living. Research suggests that community-dwelling older adults are at risk for experiencing subtle decrements in the performance of IADLs. Neuropsychological tests have been used to account for differences in IADL status. Studies of the relationship between cognitive ability and functional status have produced variable results, however, and cognitive ability appears to be only a moderate predictor. Several studies of normal aging have revealed cognitive and functional benefits of higher cognitive reserve (CR) in healthy, nondemented older adults. The purposes of the present study were to: (a) examine the relationship between global cognitive ability and IADL performance among 53 community-dwelling older adults, and (b) determine whether formal education, as a proxy of CR, significantly moderates this relationship. Consistent with previous findings, global cognitive ability accounted for a considerable portion of variance in IADL performance [?R(2) = .54; ?F(2, 53) = 67.96; p < .001]. Additionally, CR modestly but significantly attenuated this relationship [?R(2) = .044; ?F(4, 53) = 5.98; p = .018; total R(2) = .65]. This finding suggests that community-dwelling older adults with lower levels of formal education may be at greater risk for functional decrements associated with age-related cognitive decline. PMID:24611794

Duda, Bryant; Puente, Antonio N; Miller, Lloyd Stephen

2014-05-01

174

Impact of a community?based programme for motor development on gross motor skills and cognitive function in preschool children from disadvantaged settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development?2, and in study 2, 83 children

Catherine E. Draper; Masturah Achmat; Jared Forbes; Estelle V. Lambert

2011-01-01

175

Impact of a Community-Based Programme for Motor Development on Gross Motor Skills and Cognitive Function in Preschool Children from Disadvantaged Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aims of the studies were to assess the impact of the Little Champs programme for motor development on (1) the gross motor skills, and (2) cognitive function of children in the programme. In study 1, 118 children from one Early Childhood Development Centre (ECDC) were tested using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, and in study 2, 83…

Draper, Catherine E.; Achmat, Masturah; Forbes, Jared; Lambert, Estelle V.

2012-01-01

176

Relationship disorders and cognitive functioning in young children.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive functioning of young children with or without relationship disorders with their mother. Mother-infant dyads were recruited during the first three postpartum days. Parent Infant Relationship Global Assessment Scale (PIRGAS) scores and mother-child relationship disorders were decided when children were 41-49 months of age by integrating the data obtained from psychiatric interview with mothers, Clinical Problem Solving Procedure (CPSP) and home observation. Cognitive functioning of young children was evaluated with Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The young children without relationship problems/disorders had higher intelligence quotient (IQ) scores even after controlling for the effect of independent variables on cognitive functioning. These findings suggest that there is a link between the quality of the mother-child relationship and cognitive functioning in young children. Therefore, physicians should assess the interactions of children with their mothers even if they are brought for reasons other than relationship problems. PMID:21434537

Akdemir, Devrim; Chadaro?lu-Cetin, Füsun; Ozusta, Seniz; Karada?, Ferda

2010-01-01

177

Compositions and Methods for Enhancing Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention provides compositions and methods for enhancing cognitive function and synaptic plasticity. According to the method, Ca.sup.++ influx into excitatory neurons (nerve cells) is decreased by treatment with a number of different agents i...

G. Liu I. Slutsky

2004-01-01

178

Cogimir: A Study of Cognitive Functions in Microgravity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nonspecific (attention psychomotor speed) and specific (mental flexibility, time estimation, visuospatial perception, and memory) cognitive functions were measured in a single case study during a six day visit on the Russian orbital complex Mir using comp...

T. Benke O. Koserenko F. Gerstenbrand N. Watson

1992-01-01

179

AR, apoE, and cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Reduced androgen levels in aged men and women might be risk factors for age-related cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Ongoing clinical trials are designed to evaluate the potential benefit of estrogen in women and of testosterone in men. In this review, we discuss the potential beneficial effects of androgens and androgen receptors (ARs) in males and females. In addition, we discuss the hypothesis that AR interacts with apolipoprotein (apoE)4, encoded by ?4 and a risk factor for age-related cognitive decline and AD, and the potential consequences of this interaction.

Raber, Jacob

2008-01-01

180

Cognitive function, numeracy and retirement saving trajectories  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the extent to which cognitive abilities relate to differences in trajectories for key economic outcomes as individuals move towards and through their retirement. We look at whether differences in baseline numeracy (measured in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing in 2002) and broader cognitive ability predict the subsequent trajectories of outcomes such as wealth, retirement income and key dimensions of retirement expectations. Those with lower numeracy are shown to have different wealth trajectories both pre- and post-retirement than their more numerate counterparts, but the distributions of retirement expectations and net replacement rates are similar across numeracy groups.

Banks, James; O'Dea, Cormac; Oldfield, Zoe

2011-01-01

181

Functional brain networks and cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Graph-theoretical analyses of functional networks obtained with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have recently proven to be a useful approach for the study of the substrates underlying cognitive deficits in different diseases. We used this technique to investigate whether cognitive deficits in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with changes in global and local network measures. Thirty-six healthy controls (HC) and 66 PD patients matched for age, sex, and education were classified as having mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or not based on performance in the three mainly affected cognitive domains in PD: attention/executive, visuospatial/visuoperceptual (VS/VP), and declarative memory. Resting-state fMRI and graph theory analyses were used to evaluate network measures. We have found that patients with MCI had connectivity reductions predominantly affecting long-range connections as well as increased local interconnectedness manifested as higher measures of clustering, small-worldness, and modularity. The latter measures also tended to correlate negatively with cognitive performance in VS/VP and memory functions. Hub structure was also reorganized: normal hubs displayed reduced centrality and degree in MCI PD patients. Our study indicates that the topological properties of brain networks are changed in PD patients with cognitive deficits. Our findings provide novel data regarding the functional substrate of cognitive impairment in PD, which may prove to have value as a prognostic marker. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4620-4634, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24639411

Baggio, Hugo-Cesar; Sala-Llonch, Roser; Segura, Bàrbara; Marti, Maria-José; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junqué, Carme

2014-09-01

182

Clinical implications of cognitive function in bipolar disorder  

PubMed Central

In recent years there has been increased interest in cognitive function in bipolar disorder (BD) as a means of understanding and exploring biological mechanisms relating to predisposition, disease expression and outcome. Despite significant methodological differences between studies we can begin to discern meaningful patterns from existing data. The evidence reviewed suggests that: (a) premorbid cognitive dysfunction is not a dominant feature of BD; in contrast to other severe psychiatric conditions, enhanced cognitive function may be a risk marker for BD; (b) in BD patients with established syndromal disease, trait-related cognitive impairment is reliably seen in the speed of information processing, verbal Learning and memory and response inhibition; (c) cognitive function appears to remain stable post-disease onset in the majority of patients although the risk of dementia in old age is increased; (d) cognitive impairment is a key predictor of functional outcome in BD. These findings underscore the importance of cognition in BD as a marker of neural integrity across all phases of the illness and as a therapeutic target in disability reduction.

Kumar, C. T. Sudhir; Frangou, Sophia

2010-01-01

183

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

PubMed Central

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition. Included in the discussion are findings from studies that have assessed the acute and long-term effects of methamphetamine on several domains of cognition, including visuospatial perception, attention, inhibition, working memory, long-term memory, and learning. In addition, relevant neuroimaging data are reviewed in an effort to better understand neural mechanisms underlying methamphetamine-related effects on cognitive functioning. In general, the data on acute effects show that methamphetamine improves cognitive performance in selected domains, that is, visuospatial perception, attention, and inhibition. Regarding long-term effects on cognitive performance and brain-imaging measures, statistically significant differences between methamphetamine users and control participants have been observed on a minority of measures. More importantly, however, the clinical significance of these findings may be limited because cognitive functioning overwhelmingly falls within the normal range when compared against normative data. In spite of these observations, there seems to be a propensity to interpret any cognitive and/or brain difference(s) as a clinically significant abnormality. The implications of this situation are multiple, with consequences for scientific research, substance-abuse treatment, and public policy.

Hart, Carl L; Marvin, Caroline B; Silver, Rae; Smith, Edward E

2012-01-01

184

Aspirin use and cognitive function in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decline in cognitive function in the elderly is common and represents a major clinical and public health concern. Aspirin may reduce the decline in cognitive function by influencing multi-infarct dementia, but data are sparse. The East Boston Senior Health Project is a population-based cohort study that enrolled 3,809 community-dwelling residents aged 65 years and older in 1982-1983 and followed them

Til Sturmer; Robert J. Glynn; Terry S. Field; James O. Taylor; Charles H. Hennekens

1996-01-01

185

Nicotinic acetylcholine involvement in cognitive function in animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nicotinic cholinergic systems are involved with several important aspects of cognitive function including attention, learning\\u000a and memory. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors are located in many regions of the brain, including areas important for cognitive\\u000a function such as the hippocampus and frontal cortex. Nicotinic agonists have been found in rodent and non-human primate studies\\u000a to improve performance on a variety of memory

E. D. Levin; Barbara B. Simon

1998-01-01

186

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Bipolar Disorder: Effects on Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder.

Stange, Jonathan P.; Eisner, Lori R.; Holzel, Britta K.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2012-01-01

187

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder: effects on cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in cognition, including difficulties in executive functioning, even when patients are euthymic (neither depressed nor manic). The purpose of this study was to assess changes in self-reported cognitive functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who participated in an open pilot trial of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). Following MBCT, patients reported significant improvements in executive functioning, memory, and ability to initiate and complete tasks, as measured by the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe). Changes in cognitive functioning were correlated with increases in mindful, nonjudgmental observance and awareness of thoughts, feelings, and sensations, and were not associated with decreases in depression. Improvements tended to diminish after termination of treatment, but some improvements, particularly those in executive functioning, persisted after 3 months. These results provide preliminary evidence that MBCT may be a treatment option that can be used as an adjunct to medication to improve cognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. PMID:22108398

Stange, Jonathan P; Eisner, Lori R; Hölzel, Britta K; Peckham, Andrew D; Dougherty, Darin D; Rauch, Scott L; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Lazar, Sara; Deckersbach, Thilo

2011-11-01

188

Effects of topiramate on cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVETo explore the impact of topiramate on tests of intellect and other cognitive processes.METHODSThis was a retrospective study. The neuropsychological test scores of 18 patients obtained before and after the introduction of treatment with topiramate (median dose 300 mg) were compared with changes in test performance of 18 patients who had undergone repeat neuropsychological assessments at the same time intervals.

P J Thompson; S A Baxendale; J S Duncan; J W A S Sander

2000-01-01

189

[Tolerance of neuroleptics, deficit syndrome and cognitive functions].  

PubMed

Neuroleptics have been held responsible for cognitive impairments and negative symptoms in the course of schizophrenia. On the other hand, recent data suggest that alterations in information processing, cognitive and neuro-psychological functions are present at early stages in the developmental course of the illness. Two recent reviews, by D. King and G. Cassens suggest that, although acute administration of neuroleptics may alter performances in some neuro-psychological functions, there is no convincing evidence so far, to support a significant role of chronic neuroleptic treatment in the development of negative symptoms and cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. Despite several methodological limitations, which preclude any definitive statement, experimental and clinical data suggest that chronic neuroleptic treatment might improve neuropsychological functioning and the deficit syndrome, in some groups of schizophrenic patients. These results are examined in the framework of recent theoretical developments, which emphasize the role of cognitive dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:8767043

Kahn, J P

1996-06-01

190

Personality Predicts Cognitive Function Over Seven Years in Older Persons  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether Neuroticism, as well as the less-studied dimensions the Five Factor Model of personality (Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) were associated with 7-year trajectories of cognitive functioning in older persons. Design Primary analysis of existing clinical trial data. Participants 602 persons of average age 79 at baseline. Measurements The NEO-Five Factor Inventory of personality, completed at baseline, and the modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MSE) measured every 6 months for 7 years. Results Controlling for demographics, baseline morbidities including depression, health behaviors, Apolipoprotein E4 genotype, and self-rated health, higher Neuroticism was associated with worse average cognitive functioning and a steeper rate of decline over follow-up. Higher Extraversion and lower Openness were both associated with worse average cognitive functioning prospectively, while persons higher in Conscientiousness showed a slower rate of cognitive decline. Conclusions In addition to Neuroticism, other dispositional tendencies appear prognostically relevant for cognitive functioning in older persons. More work is needed to understand the mechanisms by which traits operate, as well as whether mitigation of certain dispositional tendencies can facilitate a better course of cognitive function.

Chapman, Benjamin; Duberstein, Paul; Tindle, Hilary A; Sink, Kaycee M; Robbins, John; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Franks, Peter

2011-01-01

191

Long-term cognitive function change among breast cancer survivors.  

PubMed

Cognitive decline is a common health problem among breast cancer patients and understanding trajectories of cognitive change following among breast cancer survivors is an important public health goal. We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the cognitive function changes from 18 month to 3 years after breast cancer diagnosis among participants of the Shanghai Breast cancer survivor study, a population-based cohort study of breast cancer survivors. In our study, we completed cognitive function evaluation for 1,300 breast cancer survivors at the 18th month's survey and 1,059 at 36th month's survey, respectively, using a battery of cognitive function measurements. We found the scores in attention and executive function, immediate memory and delayed memory significantly improved from 18 to 36 months after breast cancer diagnosis. The improvements appeared in breast cancer survivors receiving treatments (i.e., surgery, radiotherapy, tamoxifen, or chemotherapy combined with or without tamoxifen), but not in those who received neither chemotherapy nor tamoxifen treatment. The results indicate that cognitive functions, particularly immediate verbal episodic memory, and delayed memory significantly improved among breast cancer survivors from 18 to 36 months after cancer diagnosis. In general, comorbidity was inversely associated with the improvements. PMID:25005574

Zheng, Ying; Luo, Jianfeng; Bao, Pingping; Cai, Hui; Hong, Zhen; Ding, Ding; Jackson, James C; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Dai, Qi

2014-08-01

192

Psychosocial well-being in young adults with chronic illness since childhood: the role of illness cognitions  

PubMed Central

Background More and more pediatric patients reach adulthood. Some of them are successfully integrating in adult life, but many others are not. Possibly Illness cognitions (IC) - the way people give meaning to their illness/disability – may play a role in individual differences on long-term adjustment. This study explored the association of IC with disease–characteristics and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), anxiety and depression in young adults with a disability benefit due to childhood-onset chronic condition. Methods In a cross-sectional study, young adults (22–31 years, N?=?377) who claimed a disability benefit because of a somatic condition since childhood, completed the Illness Cognition Questionnaire (acceptance-helplessness-benefits), RAND-36 (HRQoL) and HADS (anxiety and depression) online. Besides descriptive statistics, linear regression analyses were conducted to predict (1) illness cognitions by age, gender and disease-characteristics, and (2) HRQoL (Mental and Physical Component Scale), Anxiety and Depression by illness cognitions, controlling for disease-characteristics, age and gender. Results Respectively 90.2%, 83.8% and 53.3% of the young adults with a disability benefit experienced feelings of acceptance, benefits and helplessness. Several disease-characteristics were associated with IC. More acceptance and less helplessness were associated with better mental (??=?0.31; ??=??0.32) and physical (??=?0.16; ??=??0.15) HRQoL and with less anxiety (??=??0.27; ??=?0.28) and depression (??=??0.29; ??=?0.31). Conclusions IC of young adult beneficiaries were associated with their HRQoL and feelings of anxiety and depression. Early recognition of psychological distress and negative IC might be a key to the identification of pediatric patients at risk for long-term dysfunction. Identification of maladaptive illness cognitions enables the development of psychosocial interventions to optimise their well-being and adaptation to society.

2014-01-01

193

Characterizing executive functioning in older special populations: from cognitively elite to cognitively impaired.  

PubMed

The authors examined the structure and invariance of executive functions (EF) across (a) a continuum of cognitive status in 3 groups of older adults (cognitively elite [CE], cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and (b) a 3-year longitudinal interval. Using latent variable analyses (LISREL 8.80), the authors tested 3-factor models ("Inhibition": Hayling [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Stroop [Regard, 1981]; "Shifting": Brixton [Burgess & Shallice, 1997], Color Trails [D'Elia et al., 1996]; and "Updating": Reading and Computational Span [Salthouse & Babcock, 1991]) and 1-factor models within each group. Participants (initial N = 570; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study (Sample 3, Waves 1 and 2). Cross-sectionally, the authors observed a 3-factor EF structure especially for the CE group and 1-factor solutions for all 3 groups. Longitudinally, temporal invariance was supported for the 3-factor model (CE and CN groups) and the 1-factor model (CI and CN groups). Subgroups with higher cognitive status and greater 3-year stability performed better on EF factors than corresponding groups with lower cognitive status and less stability. Studies of EF structure, performance, dedifferentiation, and dysfunction will benefit from considering initial cognitive status and longitudinal stability. PMID:19899836

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A; Strauss, Esther

2009-11-01

194

Auditory verbal hallucinations and cognitive functioning in healthy individuals.  

PubMed

Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are a characteristic symptom in schizophrenia, and also occur in the general, non-clinical population. In schizophrenia patients, several specific cognitive deficits, such as in speech processing, working memory, source memory, attention, inhibition, episodic memory and self-monitoring have been associated with auditory verbal hallucinations. Such associations are interesting, as they may identify specific cognitive traits that constitute a predisposition for AVH. However, it is difficult to disentangle a specific relation with AVH in patients with schizophrenia, as so many other factors can affect the performance on cognitive tests. Examining the cognitive profile of healthy individuals experiencing AVH may reveal a more direct association between AVH and aberrant cognitive functioning in a specific domain. For the current study, performance in executive functioning, memory (both short- and long-term), processing speed, spatial ability, lexical access, abstract reasoning, language and intelligence performance was compared between 101 healthy individuals with AVH and 101 healthy controls, matched for gender, age, handedness and education. Although performance of both groups was within the normal range, not clinically impaired, significant differences between the groups were found in the verbal domain as well as in executive functioning. Performance on all other cognitive domains was similar in both groups. The predisposition to experience AVH is associated with lower performance in executive functioning and aberrant language performance. This association might be related to difficulties in the inhibition of irrelevant verbal information. PMID:21839618

Daalman, Kirstin; van Zandvoort, Martine; Bootsman, Florian; Boks, Marco; Kahn, René; Sommer, Iris

2011-11-01

195

Methadone maintenance treatment and cognitive function: a systematic review.  

PubMed

Methadone has been used as a pharmacotherapy for the treatment of opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Many studies examining the benefits of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) for opiate dependence have documented a significant reduction in both criminal behavior and the use of other opiates. Nevertheless, emerging evidence suggests that MMT may impair cognitive function. However, it is unclear as to the part methadone dose, duration of MMT or plasma level may play in any observed deficits. Given the large number of people enrolled in MMT world-wide and the potential for deficits in cognitive function, a systematic review of the research investigating the association between MMT and cognitive function seemed warranted. The following databases were searched with a combination of free-text and thesaurus terms (methadone AND cognition): MEDLINE In-Process, EMBASE, PsycINFO and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Seventy-eight articles were retrieved of which 35 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of research suggests that MMT is associated with impaired cognitive function and that deficits extended across a range of domains. However, caution is required when interpreting these results due to the methodological limitations associated with many studies. Further research that includes a combination of psychological and physiological measures within well-controlled group comparison studies is required to more accurately assess which cognitive domains are affected. PMID:23773088

Wang, Grace Y; Wouldes, Trecia A; Russell, Bruce R

2013-09-01

196

COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Preliminary evidence suggests that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), the val108/158met SNP, within the gene that codes for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), a key enzyme involved in regulating dopamine (DA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), is related to cognitive function in schizophrenia and cognitive improvement with atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs). Specifically, several studies have identified an association between working memory and executive functions, and COMT val108/158met genotype in schizophrenia; although there have been several negative findings that are likely related to small sample sizes and, possibly, medication status of patients at the time of testing. The association between COMT val108/158met genotype, cognitive function, and cognitive improvement with clozapine was investigated in a relatively large prospective sample of patients with schizophrenia, most of whom were unmedicated at baseline. Patients were genotyped for the COMT val108/158met SNP after completing a cognitive battery consisting of tests of attention, working memory, verbal learning and memory, executive function, and verbal fluency at baseline and after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment with clozapine. Consistent with several previous studies, an association between COMT genotype and tests of executive function and working memory was identified at baseline. In addition, a novel interaction between genotype and improvement on tests of attention and verbal fluency was identified. Specifically, met homozygous and val/met heterozygous patients demonstrated significantly greater improvement than val homozygous patients following 6 months of treatment with clozapine. The results are discussed in relation to previous cross-sectional studies and prospective investigations of the associations between COMT genotype, cognition, and cognitive improvement with atypical APDs in schizophrenia. PMID:17123785

Woodward, Neil D; Jayathilake, Karu; Meltzer, Herbert Y

2007-02-01

197

Common and specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: relationships to function  

PubMed Central

The goals of the present study were to assess the interrelationships among tasks from the MATRICS and CNTRACS batteries, to determine the degree to which tasks from each battery capture unique variance in cognitive dys-function in schizophrenia, and to determine the ability of tasks from each battery to predict functional outcome. Subjects were 104 schizophrenia patients and 132 healthy control subjects recruited as part of the CNTRACS initiative. All subjects completed four CNTRACS tasks and two tasks from the MATRICS battery: Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia Symbol Coding and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test. Functional outcome was also assessed in the schizophrenia subjects. In both the patient and control groups, we found significant intercorrelations between all higher order cognitive tasks (episodic memory, goal maintenance, processing speed, verbal learning) but minimal relationships with the visual task. For almost all tasks, scores were significantly related to measures of functional outcome, with higher associations between CNTRACS tasks and performance-based measures of function and between one of the MATRICS tasks and self-reported functioning, relative to the other functioning measures. After regressing out variance shared by other tasks, we continued to observe group differences in performance among task residuals, particularly for measures of episodic memory from both batteries, although these residuals did not correlate as robustly with functional outcome as raw test scores. These findings suggest that there exists both shared and specific variance across cognitive tasks related to cognitive and functional impairments in schizophrenia and that measures derived from cognitive neuroscience can predict functional capacity and status in schizophrenia.

Sheffield, Julia M.; Gold, James M.; Strauss, Milton E.; Carter, Cameron S.; MacDonald, Angus W.; Ragland, J. Daniel; Silverstein, Steven M.; Barch, Deanna M.

2014-01-01

198

Does cerebral oxygenation affect cognitive function during exercise?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested whether cerebral oxygenation affects cognitive function during exercise. We measured reaction times (RT)\\u000a of 12 participants while they performed a modified version of the Eriksen flanker task, at rest and while cycling. In the\\u000a exercise condition, participants performed the cognitive task at rest and while cycling at three workloads [40, 60, and 80%\\u000a of peak oxygen uptake

Soichi Ando; Masahiro Kokubu; Yosuke Yamada; Misaka Kimura

199

Cognitive Function in Children With Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE—To quantify the magnitude and pattern of cognitive difficulties in pediatric type 1 diabetes as well as the effects associated with earlier disease onset and severe hypoglycemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Pediatric studies of cognitive function since 1985 were identified for study inclusion using MEDLINE and PsycInfo. Effect size (ES, Cohen's d) between the diabetic and control groups, expressed in SD units, were calculated within cognitive domains to standardize meta-analysis test performance. RESULTS—The meta-analysis sample of 2,144 children consisted of 1,393 study subjects with type 1 diabetes and 751 control subjects from 19 studies. Overall, type 1 diabetes was associated with slightly lower overall cognition (ES ?0.13), with small differences compared with control subjects across a broad range of domains, excluding learning and memory, which were similar for both groups. Learning and memory skills, both verbal and visual (?0.28 and ?0.25), were more affected for children with early-onset diabetes (EOD) than late-onset diabetes (LOD), along with attention/executive function skills (?0.27). Compared with nondiabetic control subjects, EOD effects were larger, up to one-half SD lower, particularly for learning and memory (?0.49). Generally, seizures were associated with a negligible overall cognition ES of ?0.06, with slight and inconsistent cognitive effects found on some measures, possibly reflecting the opposing effects of poorer versus better metabolic control. CONCLUSIONS—Pediatric diabetes generally relates to mildly lower cognitive scores across most cognitive domains. Cognitive effects are most pronounced and pervasive for EOD, with moderately lower performance compared with control subjects. Seizures are generally related to nominal, inconsistent performance differences.

Gaudieri, Patricia A.; Chen, Rusan; Greer, Tammy F.; Holmes, Clarissa S.

2008-01-01

200

Does Cognitive Function Increase over Time in the Healthy Elderly?  

PubMed Central

Background In dementia screening, most studies have focused on early cognitive impairment by comparing patients suffering from mild dementia or mild cognitive impairment with normal subjects. Few studies have focused on modifications over time of the cognitive function in the healthy elderly. The objective of the present study was to analyze the cognitive function changes of two different samples, born > 15 years apart. Method A first sample of 204 cognitively normal participants was recruited in the memory clinic of Broca hospital between 1991 and 1997. A second sample of 177 cognitively normal participants was recruited in 2008–2009 in the same institution. Both samples were from the same districts of Paris and were assessed with the same neuropsychological test battery. Mean cognitive test scores were compared between 1991 and 2008 samples, between < 80 years old and ? 80 years old in 1991 and 2008 samples, and finally between subjects < 80 year old of 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 years old of the 2008 sample. Means were compared with T-tests stratified on gender, age-groups and educational level. Results Cognitive scores were significantly higher in the 2008 sample. Participants < 80 years old outperformed those ? 80 in both samples. However, participants < 80 years old in 1991 sample and subjects ? 80 in the 2008 sample, born on average in 1923, performed mostly identically. Conclusion This study showed a significant increase of cognitive scores over time. Further, contemporary octogenarians in the later sample performed like septuagenarians in the former sample. These findings might be consistent with the increase in life expectancy and life span in good health. The study highlights the necessity to take into account factors which may contaminate and artificially inflate the age-related differences in favor of younger to the older adults.

de Rotrou, Jocelyne; Wu, Ya-Huei; Mabire, Jean-Bernard; Moulin, Florence; de Jong, Laura W.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Vidal, Jean-Sebastien

2013-01-01

201

Childhood executive function continues to predict outcomes in young adult females with and without childhood-diagnosed ADHD.  

PubMed

We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of preadolescent girls with ADHD (n?=?140) and matched comparison girls (n?=?88) over a period of 10 years, from middle childhood through late adolescence/young adulthood. Our aim was to examine the ability of childhood measures of executive function (EF) to predict functional outcomes at follow-up. Measures of EF comprised the childhood predictors, with academic, socioemotional, occupational, and global functioning serving as young adult criterion measures. Results indicated that childhood EF - particularly measures of global EF and working memory - predicted academic and occupational functioning across our entire sample (independent of diagnostic group status), but diagnostic status (ADHD versus comparison) moderated the association between (a) working memory and reading achievement and (b) a global EF measure and suspensions/expulsions. That is, in the ADHD group, low working memory predicted poor reading scores and impaired global EF predicted higher suspensions/expulsions, but this was not the case in the comparison group. Overall, these results extend previous findings of associations between EF and adolescent outcomes in girls with and without ADHD into young adulthood. Findings continue to suggest the importance of assessing and developing interventions that target EF impairments early in life in order to prevent long-term difficulties across a range of important functional domains. PMID:22124540

Miller, Meghan; Nevado-Montenegro, Adriana J; Hinshaw, Stephen P

2012-07-01

202

Insight dimensions and cognitive function in psychosis: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that lack of insight is significantly associated with cognitive disturbance in schizophrenia. This study examines the longitudinal relationships between insight dimensions and cognitive performance in psychosis. Methods Participants were 75 consecutively admitted inpatients with schizophrenia, affective disorder with psychotic symptoms or schizoaffective disorder. Assessments were conducted at two time points during the study: at the time of hospital discharge after an acute psychotic episode and at a follow-up time that occurred more than 6 months after discharge. A multidimensional approach of insight was chosen and three instruments for its assessment were used: the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD), three items concerning insight on the Assessment and Documentation in Psychopathology (AMDP) system and the Insight and Treatment Attitudes Questionnaire. The neuropsychological battery included a wide range of tests that assessed global cognitive function, attention, memory, and executive functions. Results After conducting adequate statistical correction to avoid Type I bias, insight dimensions and cognitive performance were not found to be significantly associated at cross-sectional and longitudinal assessments. In addition, baseline cognitive performance did not explain changes in insight dimensions at follow-up. Similar results were found in the subset of patients with schizophrenia (n = 37). The possibility of a Type II error might have increased due to sample attrition at follow-up. Conclusion These results suggest that lack of insight dimensions and cognitive functioning may be unrelated phenomena in psychosis.

Cuesta, Manuel J; Peralta, Victor; Zarzuela, Amalia; Zandio, Maria

2006-01-01

203

Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.  

PubMed

Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6 years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6 years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620

Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne

2013-11-01

204

Lower-Extremity Function in Cognitively Healthy Aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine differences in lower-extremity function in cognitive healthy older persons, older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and older persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Design Descriptive study. Setting University Alzheimer’s disease clinical and research program. Participants Older persons (N=66) were studied (mean age, 76.7y); 22 were cognitively normal, 22 were diagnosed with probable MCI, 22 were diagnosed with probable AD. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Lower-extremity function was assessed by the four-meter walk test (4MWT), Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, and sit-to-stand (STS) test. Results Analysis of variance, adjusting for covariates, revealed that performance on the 4MWT was significantly lower in the MCI and AD groups as compared with controls. TUG test performance was worse in the AD group compared with controls. No significant group differences were found for STS performance. Conclusions These results suggest an association between cognitive impairment and lower-limb function in older persons Walking speed could be evaluated for its possible utility in screening older persons at risk for cognitive impairment and falls.

Eggermont, Laura H.; Gavett, Brandon E.; Volkers, Karin M.; Blankevoort, Christiaan G.; Scherder, Erik J.; Jefferson, Angela L.; Steinberg, Eric; Nair, Anil; Green, Robert C.; Stern, Robert A.

2010-01-01

205

Attention and executive functions profile in childhood absence epilepsy.  

PubMed

Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) has been associated with executive functions and attention deficits. To clarify the issue of neurocognitive impairments in CAE, we investigated whether specific executive functions and attention deficit patterns were present in a well-defined group of children with CAE who were taking valproic acid. Participants included 15 children with CAE and 15 healthy controls aged 8-15 years and matched for sex, age and IQ. We compared the performances of the two groups in the following neuropsychological domains: planning and problem solving (TOL), verbal fluency (FAS and CAT), verbal short-term memory (DSF), verbal working memory (DSB), visuospatial memory (Corsi Block Tapping Test) and sustained and divided attention (TMT-A and TMT-B). No differences were found between the two groups on measures of intellectual functioning, verbal short-term memory and visuospatial memory. By contrast, significant differences were found in total time of planning task, phonological and category fluency and sustained and divided attention. Future studies that systematically examine different aspects of attention and executive functions are needed to outline a clear and specific neuropsychological profile in CAE. PMID:22459253

D'Agati, Elisa; Cerminara, Caterina; Casarelli, Livia; Pitzianti, Mariabernarda; Curatolo, Paolo

2012-11-01

206

Computer-assisted cognitive function assessment of pilots  

Microsoft Academic Search

in an environment unforgiving of human error, where cogni- tive failure can lead to catastrophic consequences. Cognitive function testing is one means of selecting mentally capable pilots. It is also a means of screening for covert disease, and it can be used to establish baseline performance data and pro- vide ongoing monitoring of health. (For these reasons, cog- nitive function

Roderick Westerman; David G Darby; Paul Maruff; Alexander Collie

2001-01-01

207

Identifying Similarities in Cognitive Subtest Functional Requirements: An Empirical Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the cognitive test interpretation literature, a Rational/Intuitive, Indirect Empirical, or Combined approach is typically used to construct conceptual taxonomies of the functional (behavioral) similarities between subtests. To address shortcomings of these approaches, the functional requirements for 49 subtests from six individually…

Frisby, Craig L.; Parkin, Jason R.

2007-01-01

208

The Relationship between Stress, Fatigue, and Cognitive Functioning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a plethora of research suggesting that daily stressors and fatigue can have a significant effect on learning and various cognitive functions in young adults. Little is known, however, about how these effects impact learning and other neurocognitive functions in students with learning challenges when compared to their counterparts without…

Palmer, Laura K.

2013-01-01

209

The role of the prefrontal cortex in higher cognitive functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The higher cognitive functions, working memory, mental imagery and willed action, are all intimately associated with consciousness. The common process underlying all these functions is that information is “held in mind” for a period of time. This information, which may be about stimuli or responses, can be derived from the past or generated for the future. Brain imaging studies show

Chris Frith; Ray Dolan

1996-01-01

210

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g.,

Jonathan M. Campbell; Ronald T. Brown; Sarah E. Cavanagh; Sarah F. Vess; Mathew J. Segall

2008-01-01

211

Structural and functional organization of a developing brain and formation of cognitive functions in child ontogeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of multidisciplinary studies, including neuromorphological, neurophysiological, neuropsychological, and psychphysiological\\u000a studies, are reviewed. They allow the brain mechanisms of cognition formation and development during maturation to be identified.\\u000a The role of regulatory (modulatory) brain systems in forming the cognitive function in the child is demonstrated. Data on\\u000a considerable changes in the brain systems responsible for the development of cognitive functions

M. M. Bezrukikh; R. I. Machinskaya; D. A. Farber

2009-01-01

212

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older adults  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review The effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in reducing the prevalence of cardiovascular and chronic diseases has been largely evidenced. Although nutrition constitutes an interesting approach in preventing age-related brain disorders, the association between the Mediterranean-style diet and cognitive functions has been very occasionally explored. Recent findings Results are provided from only two recent prospective cohorts of older Americans and French individuals (?65 y) on the relationship of Mediterranean diet to cognitive functions. A high adherence to the Mediterranean diet has been associated with slower cognitive decline, with reduced risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment conversion to Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and with reduced risk of AD. Summary The possibility that the Mediterranean diet may affect not only the risk for AD, but also the evolution of cognitive performances a long time before the clinical diagnosis of dementia and subsequent disease course constitutes major promising results. Replication of these results in other populations seems necessary to allow their generalization and to propose the Mediterranean diet as a potential preventive approach against cognitive decline or dementia in addition to its expected benefits against many other unfavorable outcomes in a public health perspective.

Feart, Catherine; Samieri, Cecilia; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

2010-01-01

213

Prenatal undernutrition and cognitive function in late adulthood  

PubMed Central

At the end of World War II, a severe 5-mo famine struck the cities in the western part of The Netherlands. At its peak, the rations dropped to as low as 400 calories per day. In 1972, cognitive performance in 19-y-old male conscripts was reported not to have been affected by exposure to the famine before birth. In the present study, we show that cognitive function in later life does seem affected by prenatal undernutrition. We found that at age 56 to 59, men and women exposed to famine during the early stage of gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, a cognitive ability that usually declines with increasing age. We hypothesize that this decline may be an early manifestation of an accelerated cognitive aging process.

de Rooij, Susanne R.; Wouters, Hans; Yonker, Julie E.; Painter, Rebecca C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.

2010-01-01

214

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

PubMed Central

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment are evident in their performance on the semantic verbal fluency test. In addition to the semantic verbal fluency test score, several other performance characteristics sensitive to disease status and predictive of future cognitive decline have been defined in terms of words generated from semantically related categories (clustering) and shifting between categories (switching). However, the traditional assessment of clustering and switching has been performed manually in a qualitative fashion resulting in subjective scoring with limited reproducibility and scalability. Our approach uses word definitions and hierarchical relations between the words in WordNet®, a large electronic lexical database, to quantify the degree of semantic similarity and relatedness between words. We investigated the novel semantic fluency indices of mean cumulative similarity and relatedness between all pairs of words regardless of their order, and mean sequential similarity and relatedness between pairs of adjacent words in a sample of patients with clinically diagnosed probable (n=55) or possible (n=27) Alzheimer’s disease or mild cognitive impairment (n=31). The semantic fluency indices differed significantly between the diagnostic groups, and were strongly associated with neuropsychological tests of executive function, as well as the rate of global cognitive decline. Our results suggest that word meanings and relations between words shared across individuals and computationally modeled via WordNet and large text corpora provide the necessary context to account for the variability in language-based behavior and relate it to cognitive dysfunction observed in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease.

Pakhomov, Serguei V.S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

215

Cognitive indicators of vocational outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood.  

PubMed

Recent studies suggest that plasticity does not benefit outcome when diffuse cerebral pathology of the young child's brain is concerned. Thirty-three patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) at preschool age were followed-up until adulthood. After the age of 18 years, a thorough neurological, neuropsychological and social evaluation, including detailed patient history and assessment of identity, was made by the team. When the youngest patients were 21 years old, the study was completed, with a questionnaire assessing employment status and ability to live independently. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients worked full time, 21% had subsidised work, 37% lived independently at home and 15% needed help with every-day functions. Tests measuring speed, executive and memory functions were significantly associated with vocational outcome, as was the sense identity, which was independent of the test scores. The results support the recent reports on the vulnerability of a young child's brain to early trauma. The study also strongly suggests that the final assessment of outcome after childhood TBI should be done in adulthood. PMID:10576460

Nybo, T; Koskiniemi, M

1999-10-01

216

Personalized Cognitive Training in Unipolar and Bipolar Disorder: A Study of Cognitive Functioning  

PubMed Central

Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20?min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only. Before the onset of training we administered to all patients self-report questionnaires of mood, mental and psychological health, and everyday coping. We also assessed executive control using a broad computerized neurocognitive battery of tests which yielded, among others, scores in Working Memory, Shifting, Inhibition, Visuomotor Vigilance, Divided Attention, Memory Span, and a Global Executive Function score. All questionnaires and tests were re-administered to the patients who adhered to the study at the end of training. When we compared the groups (between-group comparisons) on the amount of change that had taken place from baseline to post-training, we found significantly reduced depression level for the intervention group. This group also displayed significant improvements in Shifting, Divided Attention, and in the Global executive control score. Further exploration of the data showed that the cognitive improvement did not predict the improvements in mood. Single-group data (within-group comparisons) show that patients in the intervention group were reporting fewer cognitive failures, fewer dysexecutive incidents, and less difficulty in everyday coping. This group had also improved significantly on the six executive control tests and on the Global executive control score. By contrast, the control group improved only on the reports of cognitive failure and on working memory.

Preiss, Marek; Shatil, Evelyn; Cermakova, Radka; Cimermanova, Dominika; Ram, Ilana

2013-01-01

217

Childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Substance Use, and Adult Functioning among Incarcerated Women  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To estimate prevalence of childhood ADHD among incarcerated women and determine its association with substance use and adult functioning. Method: 192 female participants are recruited from the Department of Corrections in Rhode Island. Childhood ADHD is defined as scoring >46 on the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Results: The findings…

Hennessey, Kathleen A.; Stein, Michael D.; Rosengard, Cynthia; Rose, Jennifer S.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

2010-01-01

218

Childhood Trauma and Adult Interpersonal Functioning: A Study Using the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method (CCRT)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This study aimed to examine the long-term correlates of childhood trauma in regard to interpersonal functioning in adulthood. Method: One hundred and nineteen (N=119) subjects from the Austen Riggs Follow-along Study were included in the study. The Traumatic Antecedent Interview scoring method was used to assess 10 types of childhood

Drapeau, M.; Perry, J.C.

2004-01-01

219

Renal function 17 to 23 years after chelation therapy for childhood plumbism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Renal function 17 to 23 years after chelation therapy for childhood plumbism. An elegant retrospective description of an epidemic of chronic renal failure occurring in patients with histories of untreated childhood lead poisoning in Queensland, Australia established beyond reasonable doubt the existence of lead nephropathy. However, a retrospective uncontrolled report from Boston in 1963 refuted the claim that there are

Donald I Moel; Henrietta K Sachs

1992-01-01

220

What is the contribution of different cognitive biases and stressful childhood events to the presence and number of previous depressive episodes?  

PubMed

Negative cognitive biases as well as stressful childhood events are well-known risk factors for depression. Few studies have compared the association of different types of biases and events with depression. The current study examined whether different cognitive biases and stressful childhood events variables were associated with depression and recurrence. Three types of childhood events were assessed in 83 never-depressed and 337 formerly depressed individuals: trauma within the family, trauma outside the family, and adverse events. Furthermore, after a sad mood induction procedure, participants executed a Dot Probe task (selective attentional bias), an Emotional Stroop task (attentional interference bias) and an incidental learning task (memory bias). The association of these measures with case status and recurrence status (one or multiple past episodes) was examined. Negative memory bias and traumatic childhood events within the family were associated with case status, whereas none of the bias measures or childhood events variables were associated with recurrence status. The results indicate that memory bias as well as the experience of aggression and/or abuse within the family during childhood are independently associated with depression. Biases and stressful childhood events did not offer differentiation between individuals with one or multiple past episodes. PMID:24726815

Vrijsen, Janna N; Becker, Eni S; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; van Dijk, Maarten K; Speckens, Anne; Oostrom, Iris van

2014-07-30

221

Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction  

PubMed Central

To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction.

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

2012-01-01

222

Resting functional connectivity between the hemispheres in childhood absence epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Objective: The fundamental mechanisms by which childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) changes neural networks even between seizures remain poorly understood. During seizures, cortical and subcortical networks exhibit bihemspheric synchronous activity based on prior EEG-fMRI studies. Our aim was to investigate whether this abnormal bisynchrony may extend to the interictal period, using a blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) resting functional connectivity approach. Methods: EEG-fMRI data were recorded from 16 patients with CAE and 16 age- and gender-matched controls. Three analyses were performed. 1) Using 16 pairs of seizure-related regions of interest (ROI), we compared the between-hemisphere interictal resting functional connectivity of patients and controls. 2) For regions showing significantly increased interhemispheric connectivity in CAE, we then calculated connectivity to the entire brain. 3) A paired-voxel approach was performed to calculate resting functional connectivity between hemispheres without the constraint of predefined ROIs. Results: We found significantly increased resting functional connectivity between hemispheres in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex of patients with CAE compared to normal controls. Enhanced between-hemisphere connectivity localized to the lateral orbitofrontal cortex was confirmed by all 3 analysis methods. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate abnormal increased connectivity between the hemispheres in patients with CAE in seizure-related regions, even when seizures were not occurring. These findings suggest that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex may play an important role in CAE pathophysiology, warranting further investigation. In addition, resting functional connectivity analysis may provide a promising biomarker to improve our understanding of altered brain function in CAE during the interictal period.

Bai, X.; Guo, J.; Killory, B.; Vestal, M.; Berman, R.; Negishi, M.; Danielson, N.; Novotny, E.J.; Constable, R.T.

2011-01-01

223

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results showed that 95% of the participants experienced clinically

Jane Shakespeare-Finch; Therese de Dassel

2009-01-01

224

Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

2009-01-01

225

Assessment of cognitive function in the heterozygous reeler mouse.  

PubMed Central

RATIONALE The heterozygous reeler mouse has been proposed as a genetic mouse model of schizophrenia, based on several neuroanatomical and behavioral similarities between these mice and patients with schizophrenia. However, the effect of reelin haploinsufficiency on one of the cardinal symptoms of schizophrenia, the impairment of prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive function, has yet to be determined. OBJECTIVE Here, we investigated multiple aspects of cognitive function in heterozygous reeler mice that are known to be impaired in schizophrenic patients. METHODS Heterozygous reeler mice were assessed for (1) cognitive flexibility in an instrumental reversal learning task; (2) impulsivity in an inhibitory control task; (3) attentional function in a three-choice serial reaction time task; and (4) working memory in a delayed matching-to-position task. RESULTS No differences were found between heterozygous reeler mice and wild-type littermate controls in any prefrontal-related cognitive measures. However, heterozygous reeler mice showed deficits in the acquisition of two operant tasks, consistent with a role for reelin in certain forms of learning. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that heterozygous reeler mice may not be an appropriate model for the core prefrontal-dependent cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia, but may model more general learning deficits that are associated with many psychiatric disorders.

Krueger, Dilja D.; Howell, Jessica L.; Hebert, Britni F.; Olausson, Peter; Taylor, Jane R.; Nairn, Angus C.

2006-01-01

226

Omega-3 fatty acids and cognitive function in women  

PubMed Central

Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) could play an important role in maintaining cognitive function in aging individuals. The omega-3 FA docosahexaenoic acid is a major constituent of neuronal membranes and, along with the other long-chain omega-3 FAs from fish such as eicosapentaentoic acid, has been shown to have a wide variety of beneficial effects on neuronal functioning, inflammation, oxidation and cell death, as well as on the development of the characteristic pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Omega-3 FAs may prevent vascular dementia via salutary effects on lipids, inflammation, thrombosis and vascular function. Epidemiologic studies have generally supported a protective association between fish and omega-3 FA levels and cognitive decline. Some of the small, short-term, randomized trials of docosahexaenoic acid and/or eicosapentaentoic acid supplementation have found positive effects on some aspects of cognition in older adults who were cognitively intact or had mild cognitive impairment, although little effect was found in participants with Alzheimer’s disease. Large, long-term trials in this area are needed.

Robinson, Jennifer G; Ijioma, Nkechinyere; Harris, William

2010-01-01

227

Cognitive Functioning in Long Duration Head-down Bed Rest  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Flight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is a self-administered battery of tests used on the International Space Station for evaluating cognitive functioning. Here, WinSCAT was used to assess cognitive functioning during extended head-down bed rest. Thirteen subjects who participated in 60 or 90 days of 6 deg head-down bed rest took WinSCAT during the pre-bed rest phase, the in-bed rest phase, and the post-bed rest (reconditioning) phase of study participation. After adjusting for individual baseline performance, 12 off-nominal scores were observed out of 351 total observations during bed rest and 7 of 180 during reconditioning. No evidence was found for systematic changes in off-nominal incidence as time in bed rest progressed, or during the reconditioning period. Cognitive functioning does not appear to be adversely affected by long duration head-down bed rest. Individual differences in underlying cognitive ability and motivation level are likely explanations for the current findings.

Seaton, Kimberly A.; Slack, Kelley J.; Sipes, Walter A.; Bowie, Kendra

2008-01-01

228

Impact of prophylactic cranial irradiation for childhood leukemia on subsequent cognitive and problem-solving skills  

SciTech Connect

Previous research has indicated that children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), treated with a CNS prophylaxis of 2,400 cGy radiation and intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX), demonstrate a decline in both global and specific aspects of their cognitive functioning. Recent changes in treatment protocols for ALL have resulted in a significant reduction in radiation to a dosage of 1,800 cGy, or the elimination of radiation altogether. Today, it is recognized that for low- and average-risk ALL patients the use of intrathecal methotrexate is equally effective for reducing the occurrence of CNS leukemic relapse. Current research has not yet fully determined the impact of this lowered dosage of radiation on later intellectual functioning in survivors of ALL. The present research compared the standardized-test performance of a group of children receiving 1,800 cGy radiation and IT-MTX (n = 15) to a group receiving IT-MTX only (n = 10) as a CNS prophylaxis. All subjects were treated with one leg of the Childrens Cancer Study Group protocols {number sign}161 or {number sign}162, and were evaluated at least 5 years post-diagnosis, while in remission from the disease process. Subjects ranged in age from seven to twelve at the time of participation. Tests administered included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R), the Mental Processing subtests of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and a variety of tasks which have been indicated to measure different aspects of children's cognitive strategy usage (including Tower of Hanoi and Matching Familiar Figures tasks). Analysis revealed significant performance-differences between these groups as reflected on the WISC-R (Verbal IQ) and on the K-ABC (Sequential Processing score), with the Radiated group performing more poorly than the Non-radiated group.

Hays, R.C.

1989-01-01

229

Impact of regional white matter lesions on cognitive function in subcortical vascular cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Objectives: Exact characterization and localization of white matter lesions (WMLs) as they relate and contribute to vascular cognitive impairment is highly debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of WML on cognitive function by using a new anatomy-based classification method. Methods: We detected WML accurately by using a three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (3D FLAIR) imaging technique and subsequently segmented WMLs by using an anatomy-based method. Participants included 56 consecutive patients diagnosed with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment (SubVCI). The volume of WMLs in different anatomic regions was measured. The volume of the hippocampus, the corpus callosum (CC), any lacunar infarcts, total gray matter (GM), and total brain volumes were also calculated. Results: Hippocampal (P ?=? 0·005) as well as temporal WML volumes (P ?=? 0·039) were both independently associated with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score. Only the parietal WML volume (P ?=? 0·000) was independently associated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score. Frontal WMLs were independently correlated with executive function. Occipital WMLs were independently associated with visuospatial and recall function. Language impairment was independently correlated with both parietal GM and parietal WML volume. Functions related to orientation were independently associated with parietal WML volume. Discussion: The volume of WMLs in the temporal region as well as in the hippocampus were both independently associated with MMSE score. For the MoCA score, however, only parietal WML volumes were independently correlated. White matter lesions within different anatomic regions were separately correlated with different subdomains of cognitive function. PMID:24641691

Ai, Qing; Pu, Yue-Hua; Sy, Christopher; Liu, Li-Ping; Gao, Pei-Yi

2014-05-01

230

Learning Disabilities in Long-Term Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Concerns for Parents and Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As young people survive childhood cancer at ever-increasing rates, the late effects of treatment that affect growth, development, and cognitive functioning must be considered. This paper describes medical treatment for childhood cancer, long-term survival and general effects of treatment, cognitive late effects of treatment, and educational…

Peckham, Virginia C.

1989-01-01

231

Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults123  

PubMed Central

Background: Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. Objective: We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 Puerto Ricans aged 45–75 y living in Massachusetts in relation to cognitive function performances. Design: Food security was assessed with the US Household Food Security Scale. Cognitive function was measured to capture general cognition with a battery of 7 tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning (verbal memory), digit span (attention), clock drawing and figure copying (visual-spatial ability), and Stroop and verbal fluency tests (fluency executive functioning). Results: The overall prevalence of food insecurity during the past 12 mo was 12.1%; 6.1% of the subjects reported very low food security. Food insecurity was inversely associated with global cognitive performance, as assessed by the MMSE score. The adjusted difference in the MMSE score was ?0.90 (95% CI: ?1.6, ?0.19; P for trend = 0.003) for a comparison of participants with very low food security with those who were food secure, after adjustment for age, smoking, education, poverty status, income, acculturation, plasma homocysteine, alcohol, diabetes, and hypertension. Food insecurity was significantly associated with lower scores for word-list learning, percentage retention, letter fluency, and digit span backward tests. Conclusions: Very low food security was prevalent among the study subjects and was associated with lower cognitive performance. Further studies, both observational and experimental, are warranted to clarify the direction of causality in this association.

Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Falcon, Luis M; Wilde, Parke E; Tucker, Katherine L

2009-01-01

232

Roles of Brain Angiotensin II in Cognitive Function and Dementia  

PubMed Central

The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II in neural injury, neuroinflammation, and cognitive function and that RAS blockade attenuates cognitive impairment in rodent dementia models of AD. Therefore, RAS regulation is expected to have therapeutic potential for AD. Here, we discuss the role of angiotensin II in cognitive impairment and AD. Angiotensin II binds to the type 2 receptor (AT2) and works mainly by binding with the type 1 receptor (AT1). AT2 receptor signaling plays a role in protection against multiple-organ damage. A direct AT2 receptor agonist is now available and is expected to reduce inflammation and oxidative stress and enhance cell differentiation. We and other groups reported that AT2 receptor activation enhances neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth in the brain. Here, we also review the effect of the AT2 receptor on cognitive function. RAS modulation may be a new therapeutic option for dementia including AD in the future.

Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

2012-01-01

233

PTSD and cognitive functioning: importance of including performance validity testing.  

PubMed

Many studies have observed an association between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and cognitive deficits across several domains including memory, attention, and executive functioning. The inclusion of response bias measures in these studies, however, remains largely unaddressed. The purpose of this study was to identify possible cognitive impairments correlated with PTSD in returning OEF/OIF/OND veterans after excluding individuals failing a well-validated performance validity test. Participants included 126 men and 8 women with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) referred for a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation as part of a consortium of five Veterans Affairs hospitals. The PTSD CheckList (PCL) and Word Memory Test (WMT) were used to establish symptoms of PTSD and invalid performance, respectively. Groups were categorized as follows: Control (PCL < 50, pass WMT), PTSD-pass (PCL ? 50, pass WMT), and PTSD-fail (PCL ? 50, fail WMT). As hypothesized, failure on the WMT was associated with significantly poorer performance on almost all cognitive tests administered; however, no significant differences were detected between individuals with and without PTSD symptoms after separating out veterans failing the WMT. These findings highlight the importance of assessing respondent validity in future research examining cognitive functioning in psychiatric illness and warrant further consideration of prior studies reporting PTSD-associated cognitive deficits. PMID:24354897

Wisdom, Nick M; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Miller, Brian I; Booth, Jane E; Romesser, Jennifer M; Linck, John F; Sim, Anita H

2014-01-01

234

Decreased Motor Function Is Associated with Poorer Cognitive Function in Elderly with Type 2 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Impaired motor function has been associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but this relationship is poorly understood in elderly with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We thus investigated it in a large sample (n = 726) of cognitively normal elderly with T2D. Methods In this cross-sectional study, hierarchical linear regressions assessed correlations of 3 motor measures (timed walk, grip strength, and self-reported motor difficulties) with episodic memory, attention/working memory, semantic categorization, executive function, and overall cognition controlling for demographics. Results Longer timed walk and weaker grip strength were associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains except episodic memory. Conclusions Associations of motor and cognitive functions in T2D and non-T2D samples are consistent. A lack of association of motor function with episodic memory may suggest non-Alzheimer's disease-related underlying mechanisms.

Guerrero-Berroa, Elizabeth; Ravona-Springer, Ramit; Heymann, Anthony; Schmeidler, James; Silverman, Jeremy M.; Sano, Mary; Koifmann, Keren; Preiss, Rachel; Hoffman, Hadas; Schnaider Beeri, Michal

2014-01-01

235

Cognitive functioning in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) patients, 12 psychiatric patients matched for severity of psychopathology, and 12 normal controls were assessed for cognitive functioning by means of a comprehensive test battery. Both patient groups felt subjectively more impaired than normals. Performance on measures of intelligence, organicity, verbal fluency, memory, and attention was significantly poorer in patients than in normals. The performance

Tzvi Gil; Avraham Calev; David Greenberg; Sol Kugelmass; Bernard Lerer I

1990-01-01

236

Influence of Caffeine on Physiological and Cognitive Functions of Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review is devoted to the analysis of the effect of caffeine on physiological and cognitive functions of humans. The methodological aspects of experiments with the use of caffeine are discussed, in particular, the dosage, the frequency of use, and in combination with other products. The possibilities of the use of caffeine for studying physiological and mental phenomena, as well

S. A. Schapkin

2002-01-01

237

[Cognitive functions, their development and modern diagnostic methods].  

PubMed

Cognitive psychology is an interdisciplinary field whose main aim is to study the thinking mechanisms of humans leading to cognizance. Therefore the concept of human cognitive processes envelopes the knowledge related to the mechanisms which determine the way humans acquire information from the environment and utilize their knowledge and experience. There are three basic processes which need to be distinguished when discussing human perception development: acquiring sensations, perceptiveness and attention. Acquiring sensations means the experience arising from the stimulation of a single sense organ, i.e. detection and differentiation of sensory information. Perceptiveness stands for the interpretation of sensations and may include recognition and identification of sensory information. The attention process relates to the selectivity of perception. Mental processes of the higher order used in cognition, thanks to which humans tend to try to understand the world and adapt to it, doubtlessly include the processes of memory, reasoning, learning and problem solving. There is a great difference in the human cognitive functioning at different stages of one's life (from infancy to adulthood). The difference is both quantitative and qualitative. There are three main approaches to the human cognitive functioning development: Jean Piaget's approach, information processing approach and psychometric approach. Piaget's ideas continue to form the groundwork of child cognitive psychology. Piaget identified four developmental stages of child cognition: 1. Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old); 2. Preoperational stage (ages 2-7); 3. Concrete operations (ages 7-11; 4. Formal operations (11 and more). The supporters of the information processing approach use a computer metaphor to present the human cognitive processes functioning model. The three important mechanisms involved are: coding, automation and strategy designing and they all often co-operate together. This theory has provided a theory. The psychometric approach concentrates on studying the differences in intelligence. The aim of this approach is to test intelligence by means of standardized tests (e.g. WISC-R, WAIS-R) used to show the individual differences among humans. Human cognitive functions determine individuals' adaptation capabilities and disturbances in this area indicate a number of psychopathological changes and are a symptom enabling to differentiate or diagnose one with a disorder. That is why the psychological assessment of cognitive functions is an important part of patients' diagnosis. Contemporary neuropsychological studies are to a great extent based computer tests. The use of computer methods has a number of measurement-related advantages. It allows for standardized testing environment, increasing therefore its reliability and standardizes the patient assessment process. Special attention should be paid to the neuropsychological tests included in the Vienna Test System (Cognitron, SIGNAL, RT, VIGIL, DAUF), which are used to assess the operational memory span, learning processes, reaction time, attention selective function, attention continuity as well as attention interference resistance. It also seems justified to present the CPT id test (Continuous Performance Test) as well as Free Recall. CPT is a diagnostic tool used to assess the attention selective function, attention continuity of attention, attention interference resistance as well as attention alertness. The Free Recall test is used in the memory processes diagnostics to assess patients' operational memory as well as the information organization degree in operational memory. The above mentioned neuropsychological tests are tools used in clinical assessment of cognitive function disorders. PMID:17471820

Klasik, Adam; Janas-Kozik, Ma?gorzata; Krupka-Matuszczyk, Irena; Augustyniak, Ewa

2006-01-01

238

Testicular function following the treatment of Hodgkin's disease in childhood.  

PubMed Central

Testicular function was studied in 40 males treated in childhood for Hodgkin's disease at St Bartholomew's Hospital, and the Hospital for Sick Children, London, between 1971-1985. All patients were 16 years or over at evaluation, and off treatment more than 6 years. Basal FSH, LH and testosterone levels were measured. Testicular size was measured using a Prader orchidometer, and all patients were offered a seminal analysis. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy, usually ChlVPP. Twenty-one also had radiotherapy, five below the diaphragm. Twelve patients were treated with radiotherapy alone (five below the diaphragm). Twenty-six of 28 patients treated with chemotherapy and three of five patients treated with radiotherapy alone below the diaphragm have elevated basal FSH levels, and 18 of these also have elevated basal LH levels. Median testicular volume is 11 ml (range 5-25 ml). Eleven of 13 patients investigated are azoospermic. All patients have normal testosterone levels, and normal secondary sexual characteristics. There is no biochemical evidence of healing of the damaged germinal epithelium with elevated FSH levels persisting up to 17 years from the end of therapy. These results indicate a high incidence of damage to the germinal epithelium in patients treated with ChlVPP chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy below the diaphragm. Appropriate counselling of these patients with regard to their reproductive capabilities is essential.

Shafford, E. A.; Kingston, J. E.; Malpas, J. S.; Plowman, P. N.; Pritchard, J.; Savage, M. O.; Eden, O. B.

1993-01-01

239

Long-Term Enhancement of Brain Function and Cognition Using Cognitive Training and Brain Stimulation  

PubMed Central

Summary Noninvasive brain stimulation has shown considerable promise for enhancing cognitive functions by the long-term manipulation of neuroplasticity [1–3]. However, the observation of such improvements has been focused at the behavioral level, and enhancements largely restricted to the performance of basic tasks. Here, we investigate whether transcranial random noise stimulation (TRNS) can improve learning and subsequent performance on complex arithmetic tasks. TRNS of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), a key area in arithmetic [4, 5], was uniquely coupled with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure online hemodynamic responses within the prefrontal cortex. Five consecutive days of TRNS-accompanied cognitive training enhanced the speed of both calculation- and memory-recall-based arithmetic learning. These behavioral improvements were associated with defined hemodynamic responses consistent with more efficient neurovascular coupling within the left DLPFC. Testing 6 months after training revealed long-lasting behavioral and physiological modifications in the stimulated group relative to sham controls for trained and nontrained calculation material. These results demonstrate that, depending on the learning regime, TRNS can induce long-term enhancement of cognitive and brain functions. Such findings have significant implications for basic and translational neuroscience, highlighting TRNS as a viable approach to enhancing learning and high-level cognition by the long-term modulation of neuroplasticity.

Snowball, Albert; Tachtsidis, Ilias; Popescu, Tudor; Thompson, Jacqueline; Delazer, Margarete; Zamarian, Laura; Zhu, Tingting; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

2013-01-01

240

Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children  

PubMed Central

Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

2010-01-01

241

How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of authors have investigated the impact of early childhood education and care programs on the development of children. Often they have focused on the effects on children from socio-economically disadvantaged families. To assess the effects of various preschool programs on cognitive development, recent key studies were reviewed. In addition, the extent to which these programs could establish equal

Kaspar Burger

2010-01-01

242

Task Orientation, Parental Warmth and SES Account for a Significant Proportion of the Shared Environmental Variance in General Cognitive Ability in Early Childhood: Evidence from a Twin Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests shared environmental influences on cognitive performance are important in early childhood. However, few studies have attempted to identify the factors comprising this shared environmental variance. To address this issue, we examined the covariance between task orientation, parental warmth, socioeconomic status and general…

Petrill, Stephen A.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

2004-01-01

243

Cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function in African Americans.  

PubMed

The present study examined the cross-sectional association of medically determined cardiovascular risk factors with cognitive function in 43 African Americans (aged 43-82 yr; 83% women). Measures of attention, memory, and executive functions were evaluated in relation to blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and fitness level (peak O(2)). Multiple regression analyses with age, education, number of antihypertensive medications, HbA1c, diastolic BP, and peak O(2) as predictors revealed significant (and marginally significant) associations between lower levels of fitness (peak O(2)) and poorer executive functions and delayed verbal memory. Antihypertensive medications were associated with poorer attention, but better delayed verbal memory. In addition, greater levels of HbA1c were positively related to attention. These results suggest that cardiovascular risk factors are important predictors of cognitive function among middle-aged and older African Americans. PMID:12084788

Izquierdo-Porrera, Anna Maria; Waldstein, Shari R

2002-07-01

244

Functional Impairment and Cognition in Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bipolar disorder is a common, chronic and severe mental disorder, affecting approximately 2% of the adult population. Bipolar disorder causes substantial psychosocial morbidity that frequently affects the patient's marriage, children, occupation, and other aspects of the patient's life. Few studies have examined the functional impairment in patients with affective illness. Earlier outcome studies of mania reported favorable long-term outcomes. However,

Carlos A. Zarate; Mauricio Tohen; Michelle Land; Sarah Cavanagh

2000-01-01

245

Cognitive Processes Functional in Spatial Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little is known about the precise nature of the processing, storage, and recall strategies functional in spatial recall. High school and college samples completed tasks in field-dependence-independence, figural creativity, and verbal abilities. Spatial recall ability was assessed through a map reconstruction task in which subjects were required to…

Shaha, Steven H.

246

Cognitive and Functional Outcome After Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

The nature of residual cognitive deficits after out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is incompletely described and has never been defined against a cardiac control (CC) group. The objective of this study is to examine neuropsychological outcomes 3 months after OHCA in patients in a “middle range” of acute severity. Thirty prospective OHCA admissions with coma >1 day and responsive but confused at 1 week, and 30 non-OHCA coronary care admissions were administered standard tests in five cognitive domains. OHCA subjects fell into two deficit profiles. One group (N = 20) had mild memory deficits and borderline psychomotor deficits compared to the CC group; 40% had returned to work. The other group (N = 10) had severe impairments in all domains. Coma duration was associated with group. Neither group had a high prevalence of depression. For most patients within the “middle range” of acute severity of OHCA, cognitive and functional outcomes at 3 months were encouraging.

Alexander, Michael P.; Lafleche, Ginette; Schnyer, David; Lim, Chun; Verfaellie, Mieke

2014-01-01

247

High-fat diets, insulin resistance and declining cognitive function.  

PubMed

Results from our work in rats and others findings from human epidemiologic studies demonstrate deficits in cognitive performance following chronic ingestion of high fat, high saturated fat, diets. Yet, the precise physiologic mechanism underlying these deficits is not well understood. We report that older adults with insulin resistance show remarkably similar deficits in cognitive function and respond to glucose ingestion in a comparable manner to rodents fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that insulin resistance is a probable mediator of these diet-induced deficits. As insulin resistance worsens to overt type 2 diabetes, profound deficits in cognitive functions, especially those dependent on the medial temporal lobes, are apparent in both obese Zucker rats and humans with type 2 diabetes. Unlike the older adult with insulin resistance, glucose ingestion further impairs medial temporal lobe function in adults with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, the human and rodent data point to a role of diet-induced endocrine abnormalities, including the development of insulin resistance, as mediating the cognitive deficits associated with high fat consumption. PMID:16257476

Greenwood, Carol E; Winocur, Gordon

2005-12-01

248

Gender differences in cognitive function of patients with chronic schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Schizophrenic patients have cognitive impairments, but gender differences in these cognitive deficits have had limited study. This study assessed cognitive functioning in 471 subjects including 122 male and 78 female schizophrenic patients and 141 male and 130 female healthy controls. We found that immediate memory, language, delayed memory and total RBANS scores were significantly decreased in schizophrenia compared with healthy controls for both genders. Male patients had significant lower immediate memory, delayed memory and total RBANS scores than female patients, and healthy controls showed a similar gender difference. The RBANS showed modest correlations with PANSS scores, duration of illness and antipsychotic dose (chlorpromazine equivalents). Almost all RBANS scores in the schizophrenics and healthy controls showed significant positive correlations with education. Thus, patients of both sexes with schizophrenia experienced more deteriorated performance than healthy controls on cognitive domains of immediate memory, language and delayed memory. Furthermore, male schizophrenic patients had more serious cognitive deficits than female patients in immediate and delayed memory, but not in language, visuospatial and attention indices. PMID:22820676

Han, Mei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Chen, Da Chun; Xiu, Mei Hong; Hui, Li; Liu, Haibo; Kosten, Thomas R; Zhang, Xiang Yang

2012-12-01

249

Evidence-based Assessment of Cognitive Functioning in Pediatric Psychology  

PubMed Central

Objective To review the evidence base for measures of cognitive functioning frequently used within the field of pediatric psychology. Methods From a list of 47 measures identified by the Society of Pediatric Psychology (Division 54) Evidence-Based Assessment Task Force Workgroup, 27 measures were included in the review. Measures were organized, reviewed, and evaluated according to general domains of functioning (e.g., attention/executive functioning, memory). Results Twenty-two of 27 measures reviewed demonstrated psychometric properties that met “Well-established” criteria as set forth by the Assessment Task Force. Psychometric properties were strongest for measures of general cognitive ability and weakest for measures of visual-motor functioning and attention. Conclusions We report use of “Well-established” measures of overall cognitive functioning, nonverbal intelligence, academic achievement, language, and memory and learning. For several specific tests in the domains of visual-motor functioning and attention, additional psychometric data are needed for measures to meet criteria as “Well established.”

Brown, Ronald T.; Cavanagh, Sarah E.; Vess, Sarah F.; Segall, Mathew J.

2008-01-01

250

Social-Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: A Preliminary Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined social cognition of socially anxious 6- to 11-year-olds, focusing on ability to understand others' mental states in interpersonal situations. Found evidence that anxious children experienced specific social-cognitive difficulties in understanding links between emotions, intentions, and beliefs in social situations. Such children were…

Banerjee, Robin; Henderson, Lynne

2001-01-01

251

Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-01

252

Is the "Idiot's Box" Raising Idiocy? Early and Middle Childhood Television Watching and Child Cognitive Outcome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is widespread belief that exposure to television has harmful effects on children's cognitive development. Most studies that point to a negative correlation between hours of television watching and cognitive outcomes, fail to establish causality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) we study young children between 5 and 10…

Munasib, Abdul; Bhattacharya, Samrat

2010-01-01

253

Impact of childhood trauma on functionality and quality of life in HIV-infected women  

PubMed Central

Background While there are many published studies on HIV and functional limitations, there are few in the context of early abuse and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) in HIV. Methods The present study focused on HIV in the context of childhood trauma and its impact on functionality and Quality of Life (QoL) by evaluating 85 HIV-positive (48 with childhood trauma and 37 without) and 52 HIV-negative (21 with childhood trauma and 31 without) South African women infected with Clade C HIV. QoL was assessed using the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), the Patient's Assessment of Own Functioning Inventory (PAOFI), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS). Furthermore, participants were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results Subjects had a mean age of 30.1 years. After controlling for age, level of education and CES-D scores, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated significant individual effects of HIV status and childhood trauma on self-reported QoL. No significant interactional effects were evident. Functional limitation was, however, negatively correlated with CD4 lymphocyte count. Conclusions In assessing QoL in HIV-infected women, we were able to demonstrate the impact of childhood trauma on functional limitations in HIV.

2011-01-01

254

Dramatic increase in heritability of cognitive development from early to middle childhood: An 8-year longitudinal study of 8700 pairs of twins  

PubMed Central

The generalist genes hypothesis implies that general cognitive ability (g) is an essential target for understanding how genetic polymorphisms influence the development of the human brain. Using 8791 twin pairs from the Twins Early Development Study, we examine genetic stability and change in the etiology of g assessed by diverse measures during the critical transition from early to middle childhood. The heritability of a latent g factor in early childhood is 23%, while shared environment accounts for 74% of the variance. In contrast, in middle childhood, heritability is 62% and shared environment accounts for 33%. Despite increasing importance of genetic influences and declining influence of shared environment, similar genetic and shared environmental factors affect g from early to middle childhood, as indicated by a cross-age genetic correlation of 0.57 and a shared environmental correlation of 0.65. These findings set constraints on how genetic and environmental variation affects the developing brain.

Davis, Oliver S.P.; Haworth, Claire M.A.; Plomin, Robert

2014-01-01

255

Subjective Cognitive Complaints and the Role of Executive Cognitive Functioning in the Working Population: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Background Cognitive functioning is important for managing work and life in general. However, subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), involving perceived difficulties with concentration, memory, decision making, and clear thinking are common in the general and working population and can be coupled with both lowered well-being and work ability. However, the relation between SCC and cognitive functioning across the adult age-span, and in the work force, is not clear as few population-based studies have been conducted on non-elderly adults. Thus, the present study aimed to test the relation between SCC and executive cognitive functioning in a population-based sample of employees. Methods Participants were 233 employees with either high (cases) or low (controls) levels of SCC. Group differences in neuropsychological test performance on three common executive cognitive tests were analysed through a set of analyses of covariance tests, including relevant covariates. Results & Conclusions In line with the a priori hypotheses, a high level of SCC was associated with significantly poorer executive cognitive performance on all three executive cognitive tests used, compared to controls with little SCC. Additionally, symptoms of depression, chronic stress and sleeping problems were found to play a role in the relations between SCC and executive cognitive functioning. No significant associations remained after adjusting for all these factors. The current findings contribute to an increased understanding of what characterizes SCC in the work force and may be used at different levels of prevention of- and intervention for SCC and related problems with executive cognitive functioning.

Stenfors, Cecilia U. D.; Marklund, Petter; Magnusson Hanson, Linda L.; Theorell, Tores; Nilsson, Lars-Goran

2013-01-01

256

Physical Work and Cognitive Function During Acute Heat Exposure before and after Heat Acclimation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight physically active males, without a history of heat acclimation were studied during heat exposure for 22 consecutive days. Physiological adaptation and cognitive function were evaluated during heat stress tests. Four cognitive function tests were adm...

M. J. Patterson N. A. Taylor D. Amos

1998-01-01

257

Social and Cognitive Functioning as Risk Factors for Suicide: A Historical-Prospective Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Objectives- Previous studies have shown that poor cognitive and social functioning are associated with increased risk of suicide. This study aimed to examine the association between social and cognitive functioning in adolescence and later completed suici...

E. Fruchter G. Lubin N. Rotem N. Werbeloff R. Neidorf

2011-01-01

258

Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse and Eating-Disordered Cognitions and Behaviors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective:: This study assessed links between reported childhood sexual abuse and a range of eating behaviors and attitudes, among a large sample of eating-disordered women. It tested the hypothesis that there will be links to bulimic behaviors and body dissatisfaction, rather than restriction. Method:: The sample consisted of 299 women, meeting…

van Gerko, K.; Hughes, M.L.; Hamill, M.; Waller, G.

2005-01-01

259

Effects of age, gender, and cognitive, functional and motor status on functional outcomes of stroke rehabilitation.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate the relation between age, gender, initial functional, cognitive and motor condition, spasticity, diabetes mellitus, and functional outcome after rehabilitation of stroke patients. Eighty-eight patients who had suffered stroke were administered in this study. Participants were stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation in Istanbul Physical Treatment and Rehabilitation Training and Research Hospital. Functional condition (Functional Independence Measurement (FIM)), spasticity (Ashworth Scale), cognitive condition (Mini Mental State Evaluation (MMSE)), post-treatment FIM were measured. A significant positive association between MMSE at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association Brunnstrom (upper lower extremity assessment) scores and the functional discharge measures was observed. A significant positive association between spasticity at admission and the functional discharge measures was observed. In conclusions, the admission functional, motor, cognition condition, age, spasticity were a significant predictors of total and motor FIM score at discharge, but not gender and diabetes mellitus. PMID:20037216

One?, Kadrye; Yalçinkaya, Ebru Yilmaz; Toklu, Banu Cetnkaya; Ca?lar, Nil

2009-01-01

260

Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self-help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care  

PubMed Central

Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self?help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self?help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain. Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self?help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty?one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as ‘much’/‘very much’ improved on the Clinical Global Impression–Improvement (CGI–I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self?help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care.

2010-01-01

261

Feasibility of guided cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) self-help for childhood anxiety disorders in primary care.  

PubMed

Anxiety disorders in childhood are common, disabling and run a chronic course. Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is effective but expensive and trained therapists are scarce. Guided self-help treatments may be a means of widening access to treatment. This study aimed to examine the feasibility of guided CBT self-help in primary care for childhood anxiety disorders, specifically in terms of therapist adherence, patient and therapist satisfaction and clinical gain.Participants were children aged between five and 12 years referred to two primary child and adolescent mental health services (PCAMHSs) in Oxfordshire, UK, who met diagnostic criteria for a primary anxiety disorder. Of the 52 eligible children, 41 anxious children were assessed for anxiety severity and interference before and after receiving CBT self-help delivered via a parent (total therapy time = five hours) by primary mental health workers (PMHWs). Therapy sessions were rated for treatment adherence and parents and PMHWs completed satisfaction questionnaires after treatment completion. Over 80% of therapy sessions were rated at a high level of treatment adherence. Parents and PMHWs reported high satisfaction with the treatment. Sixty-one percent of the children assessed no longer met the criteria for their primary anxiety disorder diagnosis following treatment, and 76% were rated as 'much'/'very much' improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. There were significant reductions on parent and child report measures of anxiety symptoms, interference and depression. Preliminary exploration indicated that parental anxiety was associated with child treatment outcome. The findings suggest that guided CBT self-help represents a promising treatment for childhood anxiety in primary care. PMID:22477922

Creswell, Cathy; Hentges, Francoise; Parkinson, Monika; Sheffield, Paul; Willetts, Lucy; Cooper, Peter

2010-03-01

262

Relationships among cognitive function, fine motor speed and age in the rhesus monkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Declines in fine motor skills and cognitive function are well known features of human aging. Yet, the relationship between\\u000a age-related impairments in motor and cognitive function remains unclear. Rhesus monkeys, like humans, show marked decline\\u000a in cognitive and fine motor function with age and are excellent models to investigate potential interactions between age-related\\u000a declines in cognitive and motor functioning. We

Agnès Lacreuse; Paola M. Espinosa; James G. Herndon

2006-01-01

263

Chronic Kidney Disease and Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Findings from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Cognitive Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate cognitive impairment in older, ethnically diverse individuals with a broad range of kidney function, to evaluate a spectrum of cognitive domains and to determine whether the relationship between CKD and cognitive function is independent of demographic and clinical factors. Design Cross sectional. Setting Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Participants 825 adults ?55 years with CKD. Measurements We estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m2) using the four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation. We compared cognitive scores on six cognitive tests across eGFR strata using linear regression; multivariable logistic regression was used to examine level of CKD and clinically significant cognitive impairment (score ?1 sd from mean). Results Mean age of the participants was 64.9 years, 50% were male and 45% were Black. After multi-variable adjustment, participants with lower eGFR had lower cognitive scores on most cognitive domains (P<0.05). In addition, compared with persons who had mild or moderate CKD (eGFR 45-59), participants with advanced CKD (eGFR <30) were more likely to have clinically significant cognitive impairment on global cognition (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.9), naming (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.3), attention (OR 2.4, 95%CI 1.3-4.5), executive function (OR 2.5, 95%CI 1.9- 4.4) and delayed memory, (OR=1.5, 95%CI 0.9-2.6) but not on category fluency (OR=1.1, 95% CI 0.6-2.0). Conclusions Among older adults with CKD, lower level of kidney function was associated with lower cognitive function on most domains. Our results suggest that older patients with advanced CKD should be screened for cognitive impairment.

Yaffe, Kristine; Ackerson, Lynn; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Le Blanc, Patti; Kusek, John W.; Sehgal, Ashwini R.; Cohen, Debbie; Anderson, Cheryl; Appel, Lawrence; DeSalvo, Karen; Ojo, Akinlolu; Seliger, Stephen; Robinson, Nancy; Makos, Gail; Go, Alan S.

2009-01-01

264

A Reevaluation of the Common Factor Theory of Shared Variance Among Age, Sensory Function, and Cognitive Function in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The common cause hypothesis of the relationship among age, sensory measures, and cognitive measures in very old adults was reevaluated. Both sensory function and processing speed were evaluated as mediators of the rela- tionship between age and cognitive function. Cognitive function was a latent variable that comprised 3 factors in- cluding memory, speed, and verbal ability. The sample was population

Kaarin J. Anstey; Mary A. Luszcz; Linnett Sanchez

2001-01-01

265

Effects of GH on cognitive function in elderly patients with adult-onset GH deficiency: a placebo-controlled 12-month study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency (GHD) have reduced memory and attention, which can be improved by treatment with GH. Little information is available on cognitive function in elderly GHD patients. Design: Single center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of 52-week duration. Methods: Elderly GH therapy naive GHD patients (nZ34; age range 60-77 years) were enrolled and randomized to receive

Mahesh Sathiavageeswaran; Pia Burman; David Lawrence; Alan G Harris; Marina G Falleti; Paul Maruff; John Wass

2007-01-01

266

Group and Individual Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Childhood Anxiety Disorders: A Randomized Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To compare the efficacy of group and individual cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) in children with Axis I anxiety disorders. It was hypothesized that certain subgroups would respond preferentially to one modality.

KATHARINA MANASSIS; SANDRA L. MENDLOWITZ; DONNA SCAPILLATO; DAVID AVERY; LISA FIKSENBAUM; MARLINDA FREIRE; SUNEETA MONGA; MARY OWENS

2002-01-01

267

Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highly readable and comprehensive, this volume explores the significance of friendship for social, emotional, and cognitive development from early childhood through adolescence. The authors trace how friendships change as children age and what specific functions these relationships play in promoting adjustment and well-being. Compelling topics…

Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

2011-01-01

268

The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves From an Early Childhood Educational Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Abecedarian Project, a prospective randomized trial, the effects of early educational intervention on patterns of cognitive and academic development among poor, minority children were examined. Participants in the follow-up were 104 of the original 111 participants in the study (98% African American). Early treatment was full-time, high-quality, educational child care from infancy to age 5. Cognitive test scores

Frances A. Campbell; Elizabeth P. Pungello; Shari Miller-Johnson; Margaret Burchinal; Craig T. Ramey

2001-01-01

269

A Cognitive Engineering Analysis of the Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Function  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cognitive engineering analysis of the Flight Management System (FMS) Vertical Navigation (VNAV) function has identified overloading of the VNAV button and overloading of the Flight Mode Annunciator (FMA) used by the VNAV function. These two types of overloading, resulting in modal input devices and ambiguous feedback, are well known sources of operator confusion, and explain, in part, the operational issues experienced by airline pilots using VNAV in descent and approach. A proposal to modify the existing VNAV design to eliminate the overloading is discussed. The proposed design improves pilot's situational awareness of the VNAV function, and potentially reduces the cost of software development and improves safety.

Sherry, Lance; Feary, Michael; Polson, Peter; Mumaw, Randall; Palmer, Everett

2001-01-01

270

Factors Associated with Changing Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Implications for Nursing Rehabilitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the significant effects of aging on cognitive function. As people age, brain tissue volume decreases, white matter hyperintensities increase, and associated deficits are seen in working memory, attention, and executive function. Comorbidities include hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Another factor that affects cognitive function is the presence of apolipoprotein E-4, which is negatively correlated with cognitive

Jamie S. Myers

271

The cognitive neuroscience toolkit for the neuroeconomist: A functional overview  

PubMed Central

This article provides the beginning neuroeconomist with an introductory overview to the different methods used in human neuroscience. It describes basic strengths and weaknesses of each technique, points to examples of how each technique has been used in neuroeconomic studies, and provides key tutorial references that contain more detailed information. In addition to this overview, the article presents a framework that organizes human neuroscience methods functionally, according to whether they provide tests of the association between brain activity and cognition or behavior, or whether they test the necessity or the sufficiency of brain activity for cognition and behavior. This framework demonstrates the utility of a multi-method research approach, since converging evidence from tests of association, necessity and sufficiency provides the strongest inference regarding brain-behavior relationships. Set against this goal of converging evidence, human neuroscience studies in neuroeconomics currently rely far too heavily on methods that test association, most notably functional MRI.

Kable, Joseph W.

2011-01-01

272

Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.  

PubMed

It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P < 0·001; Sternberg: P = 0·050; Flanker: P = 0·014) trials. Following the low-GI breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P < 0·001) than following the high-GI breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission. PMID:22017815

Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

2012-06-01

273

Correlates of Cognitive Function in Middle-Aged Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study administered cognitive function tests to more than 14,000 middle-aged adults in 1990–1992. The battery included the Delayed Word Recall test, the Digit Symbol Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, and the Controlled Oral Word Association (Word Fluency) test. Test performance was correlated positively with education level, negatively with age, was better in women

James R. Cerhan; Aaron R. Folsom; James A. Mortimer; Eyal Shahar; David S. Knopman; Paul G. McGovern; Melissa A. Hays; Larry D. Crum; Gerardo Heiss

1998-01-01

274

with the cognitive function of attention in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale Patients suffering from Alzheimer' sd isease (AD) experience a marked reduction in cortical nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). In particular, selective loss of the ?4?2 nAChR subtype was observed in postmortem AD brain tissue. The ?4 and ?7 nAChR subunits were suggested to play an important role in cognitive function. Positron emission tomography (PET) has so far been used to

Ahmadul Kadir; Ove Almkvist; Anders Wall; Bengt Långström; Agneta Nordberg

275

Early Childhood Education: Functional Interactivity of Family--Community--School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The argument presented in this monograph stresses that, as concerns early childhood education, Jamaican parents must not only know and understand what is being done for and with their children but must also be active contributors to their educational development. It is further stressed that disadvantaged parents need special training and help if…

Grant, D. R. B.

276

Family Functioning and Sibling Adjustment Following Treatment of Childhood Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood cancer and its treatment have been identified as significant stressors for individuals and families. The impact of this experience on healthy siblings has not been clearly determined. This study was designed to assess siblings regarding their adjustment and their perceptions of their families following a sick sibling's treatment.…

Tucker, Cindy L.; Hansen, James C.; Zevon, Michael A.

277

Aerodynamic Indices of Velopharyngeal Function in Childhood Apraxia of Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is characterized as a deficit in the motor processes of speech for the volitional control of the articulators, including the velum. One of the many characteristics attributed to children with CAS is intermittent or inconsistent hypernasality. The purpose of this study was to document differences in velopharyngeal…

Sealey, Linda R.; Giddens, Cheryl L.

2010-01-01

278

Cognitive and sexual functions in patients with traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has an immense psychosocial impact on an individual as well as on the close relatives. Sexuality is one among the functions which are usually found compromised post injury. The aim of present study was to examine cognitive and sexual functions post TBI. The objective of the study was to explore these domains and their relationship with each other. Tools: The tools used were sociodemographics record sheet, Edinburg handedness inventory, brief sexual function inventory, depression anxiety stress scales-21 and NIMHANS head injury battery. The sample consisted of 30 patients with mild-to-moderate TBI. All the subjects were tested individually in their regional language. Results: On cognitive domain, patients performed inadequately on all the tests; however, the percentage was higher in mental speed (43.3%), sustained attention (26.7%), verbal working memory (30%), response inhibition (36.7%), verbal memory (immediate and delayed) (43%) and visual (immediate, 23.3% and delayed, 26.7%). On the domain of sexual functions, all the four domains (sexual drive, erection, ejaculation and problem assessment) were affected however overall satisfaction (93.3%) was adequate. Among the four domains higher percentage of involvement was noted on problem assessment (70%), ejaculation (56.7%), and erection (46.7%). Significant correlation was found between mental speed, verbal working memory, planning, and visual memory with sexual drive, erection, ejaculation and overall satisfaction domains of sexual functioning. Negative correlation was found between motor speed and sustained attention with sexual drive, erection and ejaculation. Conclusion: Both cognitive and sexual functioning were found effected post TBI. However less emphasis is given to sexual functioning by the professionals. Educational intervention is needed to sensitize professional about this area and to include this area for better management.

War, Firdous A.; Jamuna, R.; Arivazhagan, A.

2014-01-01

279

PET STUDIES OF THE DOPAMINE SYSTEM IN RELATION TO COGNITIVE FUNCTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT The human,brain is intricately designed to execute cognitive functions such as perception, attention, memory and learning. Deficits in cognitive functions accompany major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease. The biological underpinnings,of cognitive functions, is however poorly understood. One of the neurotransmitters proposed to play a central role in cognition is dopamine (DA). Positron

Nina Erixon-Lindroth

2007-01-01

280

Effects of Galvanic vestibular stimulation on cognitive function.  

PubMed

Although imaging studies suggest activation of cortical areas by vestibular input, there is little evidence of an adverse effect of non-veridical vestibular input on cognitive function. To test the hypothesis that degraded vestibular afferent input adversely affects cognition, we compared performance on a cognitive test battery in a group undergoing suprathreshold bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) with a control group receiving no GVS or subthreshold stimulation. The battery consisted of six cognitive tests as follows: reaction time, dual tasking, Stroop, mental rotation, perspective-taking and matching-to-sample, as well as a simple visuomotor (manual tracking) task. Subjects performed the test battery before, during and after suprathreshold GVS exposure or subthreshold stimulation. Suprathreshold GVS significantly increased error rate for the match-to-sample and perspective-taking tasks relative to the subthreshold group, demonstrating a negative effect of non-veridical vestibular input in these specific cognitive tasks. Reaction time, dual tasking, mental rotation and manual tracking were unaffected by GVS exposure. The adverse effect of suprathreshold GVS on perspective taking but not mental rotation is consistent with imaging studies, which have demonstrated that egocentric mental transformations (perspective taking) occur primarily in cortical areas that receive vestibular input (the parietal-temporal junction and superior parietal lobule), whereas object-based transformations (mental rotation) occur in the frontoparietal region. The increased error rate during the match-to-sample task is likely due to interference with hippocampal processing related to spatial memory, as suggested by imaging studies on vestibular patients. PMID:22076407

Dilda, Valentina; MacDougall, Hamish G; Curthoys, Ian S; Moore, Steven T

2012-01-01

281

Cognitive function and gait speed under normal and dual-task walking among older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Gait ability and cognitive function are interrelated during both normal walking (NW) and dual-task walking (DTW), and gait ability is thus adversely affected by cognitive impairment in both situations. However, this association is insufficiently understood in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here, we conducted a study with MCI participants, to examine whether the association depends on walking conditions and MCI subtypes. Methods We classified 389 elderly adults into amnestic MCI (n?=?191) and non-amnestic MCI (n?=?198), assessed their cognitive functions, and administered gait experiments under NW and DTW conditions. Gait ability was defined as gait speed. Five aspects of cognitive function were assessed: processing speed, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, and visual memory. Results Regression analysis adjusted for covariates showed a significant association between cognitive functions and gait speed. Processing speed and executive function correlated with gait speed during both NW and DTW (p?cognitive function depends on walking condition and MCI subtypes. Additional studies are necessary to determine the neural basis for the disruption in gait control in older adults with MCI.

2014-01-01

282

The Function Machine as a Cognitive Root for the Function Concept.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The concept of function is considered as foundational in mathematics. Yet, it proves to be elusive and subtle for students. A generic image that can act as a cognitive root for the concept is the function box. This is not a simple pattern-spotting device, but a concept that embodies the salient features of the idea of function, including process…

Tall, David; McGowen, Mercedes; DeMarois, Phil

283

Cognitive fitness of cost-efficient brain functional networks  

PubMed Central

The human brain's capacity for cognitive function is thought to depend on coordinated activity in sparsely connected, complex networks organized over many scales of space and time. Recent work has demonstrated that human brain networks constructed from neuroimaging data have economical small-world properties that confer high efficiency of information processing at relatively low connection cost. However, it has been unclear how the architecture of complex brain networks functioning at different frequencies can be related to behavioral performance on cognitive tasks. Here, we show that impaired accuracy of working memory could be related to suboptimal cost efficiency of brain functional networks operating in the classical ? frequency band, 15–30 Hz. We analyzed brain functional networks derived from magnetoencephalography data recorded during working-memory task performance in 29 healthy volunteers and 28 people with schizophrenia. Networks functioning at higher frequencies had greater global cost efficiency than low-frequency networks in both groups. Superior task performance was positively correlated with global cost efficiency of the ?-band network and specifically with cost efficiency of nodes in left lateral parietal and frontal areas. These results are consistent with biophysical models highlighting the importance of ?-band oscillations for long-distance functional connections in brain networks and with pathophysiological models of schizophrenia as a dysconnection syndrome. More generally, they echo the saying that “less is more”: The information processing performance of a network can be enhanced by a sparse or low-cost configuration with disproportionately high efficiency.

Bassett, Danielle S.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Apud, Jose A.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Coppola, Richard

2009-01-01

284

Determinants of cognitive development of low SES children in Chile: a post-transitional country with rising childhood obesity rates.  

PubMed

Studies conducted in developing countries have noted associations between concurrent stunting, social-emotional problems and poor cognitive ability in young children. However, the relative contribution of these variables in Latin America is likely changing as undernutrition rates decline and prevalence of childhood obesity rises. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 106 normal-weight and 109 obese preschool children to compare the relative contribution of early nutrition, sociodemographic factors and psychosocial variables on cognitive development in normal-weight and obese preschool children in Chile. The study variables were categorized as: (1) socio-demographic (age, sex, birth order and socioeconomic) (2) early nutrition (maternal height, birth weight, birth length and height at 5 years) (3) psychosocial factors (maternal depression, social-emotional wellbeing and home space sufficiency). In order to assess determinants of cognitive development at 4-5 years we measured intelligence quotient (IQ); variability in normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics (r(2) = 0.26), while in obese children early nutritional factors had a significant effect (r(2) = 0.12) beyond socio-demographic factors (r(2) = 0.19). Normal-weight children, who were first born, of slightly better SES and height Z score >1, had an IQ ? 6 points greater than their counterparts (p < 0.05). Obese children who were first born with birth weight >4,000 g and low risk of socio-emotional problems had on average ?5 IQ points greater than their peers (p < 0.05). We conclude that in Chile, a post-transitional country, IQ variability of normal children was mostly explained by socio-demographic characteristics; while in obese children, early nutrition also played a significant role. PMID:22915146

Galván, Marcos; Uauy, Ricardo; Corvalán, Camila; López-Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Kain, Juliana

2013-09-01

285

Computerized Testing of Neurocognitive Function in Euthymic Bipolar Patients Compared to Those with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Cognitively Healthy Controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: While neuropsychological impairment in bipolar disorder is well documented, the effect size of this impairment is rarely compared directly to that in other clinically familiar cognitive disorders. This study compares neuropsychological functioning of euthymic bipolar patients to those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as well as healthy controls. Methods: Following evaluation during regular follow-up in a mood disorders clinic,

Y. Osher; A. Dobron; R. H. Belmaker; Y. Bersudsky; T. Dwolatzky

2011-01-01

286

Relations between executive function and emotionality in preschoolers: Exploring a transitive cognition-emotion linkage  

PubMed Central

Emotions play a crucial role in appraisal of experiences and environments and in guiding thoughts and actions. Moreover, executive function (EF) and emotion regulation (ER) have received much attention, not only for positive associations with children’s social–emotional functioning, but also for potential central roles in cognitive functioning. In one conceptualization of ER (Campos etal., 2004), processes of ER, and those of emotional expression and experience (hereafter referred to as emotionality) are highly related and reciprocal; yet, there has been little research on young children’s EF that focuses on emotionality, although it is easily observed within a classroom. The two goals of the study were to: (1) investigate the relatively unexplored role of emotionality in the development of EF in early childhood and (2) assess the relations between an observational rating of EF obtained after direct assessment with a standardized EF rating scale. We predicted that observed emotionality and EF would both demonstrate stability and predict one another within and across time. 175 children aged 35–60 months were recruited from Head Start and private childcare centers. Using partial least squares modeling, we chose T1 emotionality as the exogenous variable and tested pathways between emotionality and EF across two time points, 6 months apart. Results showed that both T1 observed EF and emotionality predicted their respective T2 counterparts, supporting the idea that both constructs build upon existing systems. Further, T1 emotionality predicted T1 observed EF and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. In turn, T1 observed EF predicted emotionality and the T2 BRIEF-P composite. These findings fit with literature on older populations in which EF and emotionality have been related, yet are the first to report such relations in early childhood. Last, T1 observed EF’s positive prediction of the T2 BRIEF-P composite lends credence to the use of both EF measures in applied and research settings.

Ferrier, David E.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Denham, Susanne A.

2014-01-01

287

Lateralization of Cognitive Functions in Aphasia after Right Brain Damage  

PubMed Central

Purpose The lateralization of cognitive functions in crossed aphasia in dextrals (CAD) has been explored and compared mainly with cases of aphasia with left hemisphere damage. However, comparing the neuropsychological aspects of CAD and aphasia after right brain damage in left-handers (ARL) could potentially provide more insights into the effect of a shift in the laterality of handedness or language on other cognitive organization. Thus, this case study compared two cases of CAD and one case of ARL. Materials and Methods The following neuropsychological measures were obtained from three aphasic patients with right brain damage (two cases of CAD and one case of ARL); language, oral and limb praxis, and nonverbal cognitive functions (visuospatial neglect and visuospatial construction). Results All three patients showed impaired visuoconstructional abilities, whereas each patient showed a different level of performances for oral and limb praxis, and visuospatial neglect. Conclusion Based on the analysis of these three aphasic patients' performances, we highlighted the lateralization of language, handedness, oral and limb praxis, visuospatial neglect and visuospatial constructive ability in aphasic patients with right brain damage.

Ha, Ji-Wan; Hwang, Yu Mi; Sim, Hyunsub

2012-01-01

288

Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.  

PubMed

Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (? = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (? = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (? = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

2013-12-01

289

Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?  

PubMed Central

An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease. A confirmatory 4-factor structural equation model was tested on data derived from 162 participants with HIV. The model posited that measures of ProM comprise a unique factor, apart from standard clinical tests of retrospective memory, executive functions, and motor skills. The fit of the model was evaluated using the Bollen-Stine bootstrap method and indicated a 4-factor model with measures of ProM loading on a unique factor fit the data well, and better than a model with a single common factor hypothesized to drive cognitive performance. The results of this study lend further evidence to the dissociability of ProM in HIV infection, are consistent with prior studies in healthy adults, and contribute to a growing literature on the construct validity of ProM in HIV disease.

Gupta, Saurabh; Woods, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; Grant, Igor

2010-01-01

290

Oral zinc supplementation may improve cognitive function in schoolchildren.  

PubMed

Zinc is an important micronutrient for humans, and zinc deficiency among schoolchildren is deleterious to growth and development, immune competence, and cognitive function. However, the effect of zinc supplementation on cognitive function remains poorly understood. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral zinc supplementation (5 mg Zn/day for 3 months) on the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ), and Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ) using a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We studied 36 schoolchildren aged 6 to 9 years (7.8 ± 1.1) using a nonprobability sampling method. The baseline serum zinc concentrations increased significantly after zinc supplementation (p < 0.0001), with no difference between sexes. Tests were administered under basal conditions before and after zinc supplementation, and there was no difference in FSIQ according to gender or age. The results demonstrated that zinc improved the VIQ only in the Information Subtest (p = 0.009), although the supplementation effects were more significant in relation to the PIQ, as these scores improved for the Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block Design, and Object Assembly Subtests (p = 0.0001, for all subtests). In conclusion, zinc supplementation improved specific cognitive abilities, thereby positively influencing the academic performance of schoolchildren, even those without marginal zinc deficiency. PMID:23892699

de Moura, José Edson; de Moura, Edna Nubia Oliveira; Alves, Camila Xavier; Vale, Sancha Helena de Lima; Dantas, Márcia Marília Gomes; Silva, Alfredo de Araújo; Almeida, Maria das Graças; Leite, Lúcia Dantas; Brandão-Neto, José

2013-10-01

291

Cognitive function in breast cancer patients prior to adjuvant treatment  

PubMed Central

Purpose To compare the neuropsychological functioning of breast cancer patients with invasive cancer and noninvasive cancer prior to adjuvant treatment. Patients and Methods Breast cancer patients (N = 132) with invasive (Stages 1–3, N = 110, age = 54.1 ± 8.1) or noninvasive (Stage 0, N = 22, age = 55.8 ± 8.0) disease completed a battery of neuropsychological and psychological instruments following surgery but prior to initiation of chemotherapy, radiation or hormonal therapy. Matched healthy controls (N = 45, age = 52.9 ± 10.0) completed the same battery of instruments. For the patients, data on menstrual status, type of surgery, time of general anesthesia, CBC and platelets, nutritional status (B12 and folate), and thyroid function were collected. Results Comparison of mean neuropsychological test scores revealed that all groups scored within the normal range; however, patients with Stage 1–3 cancer scored significantly lower than healthy controls on the Reaction Time domain (p = 0.005). Using a definition of lower than expected cognitive performance that corrected for misclassification error, Stage 1–3 patients were significantly (p = 0.002) more likely to be classified as having lower than expected overall cognitive performance (22%) as compared to Stage 0 patients (0%) and healthy controls (4%). No differences were observed between patients classified as having lower than expected cognitive performance compared to those classified as normal performance on measures of depression, anxiety, fatigue, menstrual status, surgery/anesthesia or any of the blood work parameters. Conclusion Patients with Stage 1–3 breast cancer were more likely to be classified as having lower than expected cognitive performance prior to adjuvant treatment as compared to Stage 0 patients and healthy controls, although correction for misclassification error produced a lower rate than previously reported.

Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Furstenberg, Charlotte T.; Cole, Bernard F.; Hanscom, Brett S.; Mulrooney, Tamsin J.; Schwartz, Gary N.; Kaufman, Peter A.

2011-01-01

292

Cognitive Functioning in Space Exploration Missions: A Human Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solving cognitive issues in the exploration missions will require implementing results from both Human Behavior and Performance, and Space Human Factors Engineering. Operational and research cognitive requirements need to reflect a coordinated management approach with appropriate oversight and guidance from NASA headquarters. First, this paper will discuss one proposed management method that would combine the resources of Space Medicine and Space Human Factors Engineering at JSC, other NASA agencies, the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, Wyle Labs, and other academic or industrial partners. The proposed management is based on a Human Centered Design that advocates full acceptance of the human as a system equal to other systems. Like other systems, the human is a system with many subsystems, each of which has strengths and limitations. Second, this paper will suggest ways to inform exploration policy about what is needed for optimal cognitive functioning of the astronaut crew, as well as requirements to ensure necessary assessment and intervention strategies for the human system if human limitations are reached. Assessment strategies will include clinical evaluation and fitness-to-perform evaluations. Clinical intervention tools and procedures will be available to the astronaut and space flight physician. Cognitive performance will be supported through systematic function allocation, task design, training, and scheduling. Human factors requirements and guidelines will lead to well-designed information displays and retrieval systems that reduce crew time and errors. Means of capturing process, design, and operational requirements to ensure crew performance will be discussed. Third, this paper will describe the current plan of action, and future challenges to be resolved before a lunar or Mars expedition. The presentation will include a proposed management plan for research, involvement of various organizations, and a timetable of deliverables.

Fiedler, Edan; Woolford, Barbara

2005-01-01

293

APOE Genotype and Cognitive Functioning in a Large Age-Stratified Population Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that the cognitive effects of Alzheimer's disease can be seen decades before disease diagnosis. If this is the case, then the apolipoprotein E (APOE)*E4 allele might be expected to have effects on cognitive functioning earlier in the life span. To assess such effects, the authors examined data on the *E4 allele and cognitive functioning from a population

Anthony F. Jorm; Karen A. Mather; Peter Butterworth; Kaarin J. Anstey; Helen Christensen; Simon Easteal

2007-01-01

294

Brief Report: Feasibility of Social Cognition and Interaction Training for Adults with High Functioning Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and utility of a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention to improve social-cognitive functioning in adults with high-functioning autism (HFA). We modified the treatment manual of a previously validated intervention, Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT), for optimal use with…

Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Perry, Timothy D.; Dichter, Gabriel S.; Bodfish, James W.; Penn, David L.

2008-01-01

295

The relationship of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) to functional capacity and real-world functional outcome.  

PubMed

The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) assesses five different domains of cognitive function with six tests, and takes about 30-35 minutes to complete in patients with schizophrenia. Previous work has demonstrated the reliability of this measure, and its sensitivity to the deficits of schizophrenia. However, the relationship of this brief cognitive measure to functional outcome has not been determined. Further, future registration trials for potentially cognitive enhancing compounds may not only assess efficacy with cognitive performance measures, but with assessments of real-world functional outcome and functional capacity. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the BACS and a potential co-primary measure for treatment studies of cognition in schizophrenia, and to determine if such a measure accounts for significant variance in functioning beyond that provided by cognitive function. The current study assessed 60 patients with schizophrenia over the course of six months. Cognitive functions were measured with the BACS. Functional capacity was measured with the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA). Real-world functional outcome was measured with the Independent Living Skills Inventory (ILSI). BACS composite scores were significantly correlated with functional capacity as measured by the UPSA (r = .65, df = 55, p < .001), and real-world functional outcome as assessed by the ILSI (r = .37, df = 56, p = .005). In multiple regression analyses, UPSA scores did not account for additional variance in real-world functioning beyond that accounted for by the BACS. These data suggest that brief cognitive assessments such as the BACS are able to assess aspects of cognition that are related to important functional measures in clinical trials of cognitive enhancement. They also suggest that the measures being considered as potential co-primary indicators of cognitive function for registration trials are significantly correlated with cognition as assessed by brief cognitive assessments. PMID:16484097

Keefe, Richard S E; Poe, Margaret; Walker, Trina M; Harvey, Philip D

2006-02-01

296

Do LCPUFAs Influence Cardiovascular Function in Early Childhood?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years there have been reports linking breast milk intake in infancy to lower blood pressure during childhood. The\\u000a mechanisms underlying the relationship remain uncertain however there has been recent interest in the role of long chain polyunsaturated\\u000a fatty acids (LCPUFAs). Several studies involving human adults have reported a lowering of blood pressure with n-3 fatty acid\\u000a supplementation. Data

J. Stewart Forsyth

297

Cognitive Functioning, Retirement Status, and Age: Results from the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons Study  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate assessment of cognitive functioning is an important step in understanding how to better evaluate both clinical and cognitive competence in practicing surgeons. As part of the Cognitive Changes and Retirement among Senior Surgeons study, we examined the objective cognitive functioning of senior surgeons in relation to retirement status and age. Study Design Computerized cognitive tasks measuring visual sustained attention, reaction time, and visual learning and memory were administered to both practicing and retired surgeons at annual meetings of the American College of Surgeons. Data from 168 senior surgeons aged 60 and older were compared with data from 126 younger surgeons aged 45 to 59, with performance below 1.5 standard deviations or more indicating a significant difference between the groups. Results Sixty-one percent of practicing senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all cognitive tasks. Seventy-eight percent of practicing senior surgeons aged 60 to 64 performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks compared with 38% of practicing senior surgeons aged 70 and older. Forty-five percent of retired senior surgeons performed within the range of the younger surgeons on all tasks. No senior surgeon performed below the younger surgeons on all 3 tasks. Conclusions The majority of practicing senior surgeons performed at or near the level of their younger peers on all cognitive tasks, as did almost half of the retired senior surgeons. This suggests that older age does not inevitably preclude cognitive proficiency. The variability in cognitive performance across age groups and retirement status suggests the need for formal measures of objective cognitive functioning to help surgeons detect changes in cognitive performance and aid in their decisions to retire.

Drag, Lauren L; Bieliauskas, Linas A; Langenecker, Scott A; Greenfield, Lazar J

2014-01-01

298

Racial Identity, Social Context, and Race-Related Social Cognition in African Americans during Middle Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effect of changes in racial identity, cross-race friendships, same-race friendships, and classroom racial composition on changes in race-related social cognition from 3rd to 5th grade for 73 African American children. The goal of the study was to determine the extent to which preadolescent racial identity and social context…

Rowley, Stephanie J.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Roberts, Joanne E.; Zeisel, Susan A.

2008-01-01

299

Early Childhood Computer Experience and Cognitive Development among Urban Low-Income Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the association between home computer experience and cognitive development among preschool children in inner-city Head Start programs. Approximately 200 children enrolled in four Head Start centers in Detroit, Michigan were recruited to participate in this study. Data was collected from parents regarding the children's…

Fish, Angela M.; Li, Xiaoming; McCarrick, Katy; Butler, Sheretta T.; Stanton, Bonita; Brumitt, Gail A.; Bhavnagri, Navaz Peshotan; Holtrop, Teresa; Partridge, Ty

2008-01-01

300

Physiological Response and Childhood Anxiety: Association With Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders and Cognitive Bias  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the physiological response (skin conductance and heart rate [HR]) of youth exposed to a mildly phobic stimulus (video of a large dog) and its relation to child- and parent-reported anxiety symptoms and cognitive bias in a community-recruited sample of youth (n = 49). The results of this study indicated that HR and…

Weems, Carl F.; Zakem, Alan H.; Costa, Natalie M.; Cannon, Melinda F.; Watts, Sarah E.

2005-01-01

301

Does Methylphenidate Improve Inhibition and Other Cognitive Abilities in Adults with Childhood-Onset ADHD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effect of methylphenidate (Mph) on inhibition and several other cognitive abilities in 43 adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) by use of Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and the Change Task (ChT), an extension of the Stop Signal Test (SST). In a double blind, cross-over, placebo controlled study with Mph, tests were administered during the third

A. Marije Boonstra; J. J. Sandra Kooij; Jaap Oosterlaan; Joseph A. Sergeant; Jan K. Buitelaar

2005-01-01

302

Differences in Language and Cognitive Development: ECI-3. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The third of seven training modules for professionals in early intervention focuses on working with young (birth to age 3) children who are speech/language impaired, learning disabled, slow learning, or socially delayed. Background information summarized what is known about language, cognitive and social dysfunction or affect in infants and young…

Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

303

Cognitive Functions in Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2  

PubMed Central

Background: Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is characterized by cerebellar atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, oculomotor apraxia, and elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. The disease is caused by a recessive mutation in the senataxin gene. Since it is a very rare cerebellar disorder, no detailed examination of cognitive functions in AOA2 has been published to date. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuropsychological profile of a 54-year-old patient with AOA2. Methods: A broad range of neuropsychological examination protocol was administered including the following domains: short-term, working- and episodic-memories, executive functions, implicit sequence learning, and the temporal parameters of speech. Results: The performance on the Listening Span, Letter Fluency, Serial Reaction Time Task, and pause ratio in speech was 2 or more standard deviations (SD) lower compared to controls, and 1 SD lower on Backward Digit Span, Semantic Fluency, articulation rate, and speech tempo. Conclusion: These findings indicate that the pathogenesis of the cerebrocerebellar circuit in AOA2 is responsible for the weaker coordination of complex cognitive functions such as working memory, executive functions, speech, and sequence learning.

Klivenyi, Peter; Nemeth, Dezso; Sefcsik, Tamas; Janacsek, Karolina; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Haden, Gabor Peter; Londe, Zsuzsa; Vecsei, Laszlo

2012-01-01

304

Microtubule ionic conduction and its implications for higher cognitive functions.  

PubMed

The neuronal cytoskeleton has been hypothesized to play a role in higher cognitive functions including learning, memory and consciousness. Experimental evidence suggests that both microtubules and actin filaments act as biological electrical wires that can transmit and amplify electric signals via the flow of condensed ion clouds. The potential transmission of electrical signals via the cytoskeleton is of extreme importance to the electrical activity of neurons in general. In this regard, the unique structure, geometry and electrostatics of microtubules are discussed with the expected impact on their specific functions within the neuron. Electric circuit models of ionic flow along microtubules are discussed in the context of experimental data, and the specific importance of both the tubulin C-terminal tail regions, and the nano-pore openings lining the microtubule wall is elucidated. Overall, these recent results suggest that ions, condensed around the surface of the major filaments of the cytoskeleton, flow along and through microtubules in the presence of potential differences, thus acting as transmission lines propagating intracellular signals in a given cell. The significance of this conductance to the functioning of the electrically active neuron, and to higher cognitive function is also discussed. PMID:20589950

Craddock, Travis J A; Tuszynski, Jack A; Priel, Avner; Freedman, Holly

2010-06-01

305

Utility of TICS-M for the assessment of cognitive function in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Background Routine screening of high-risk elderly people for early cognitive impairment is constrained by the limitations of currently available cognitive function tests. The Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status is a novel instrument for assess- ment of cognitive function that can be administered in person or by telephone. Objective To evaluate the determinants and utility of TICS-M (13-item modified version)

Celeste A. de Jager; Marc M. Budge; Robert Clarke

2003-01-01

306

Metabolic Syndrome and Cognitive Function in Healthy Middle-Aged and Older Adults without Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few studies have addressed whether the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components are associated with cognitive function in middle-aged and older populations, as well as whether specific areas of cognition are more affected than others. We examined the cross-sectional association between MetS and six areas of cognitive function in healthy cognitively intact adults without diabetes (n?=?853, mean age

Nicole M. Gatto; Victor W. Henderson; Jan A. St. John; Carol McCleary; Howard N. Hodis; Wendy J. Mack

2008-01-01

307

Neurocognitive and Family Functioning and Quality of Life Among Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many childhood brain tumor survivors experience significant neurocognitive late effects across multiple domains that negatively affect quality of life. A theoretical model of survivorship suggests that family functioning and survivor neurocognitive functioning interact to affect survivor and family outcomes. This paper reviews the types of neurocognitive late effects experienced by survivors of pediatric brain tumors. Quantitative and qualitative data from

Matthew C. Hocking; Wendy L. Hobbie; Janet A. Deatrick; Matthew S. Lucas; Margo M. Szabo; Ellen M. Volpe; Lamia P. Barakat

2011-01-01

308

Continuity of Functional-Somatic Symptoms from Late Childhood to Young Adulthood in a Community Sample  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The goal of this study was to assess the course of functional-somatic symptoms from late childhood to young adulthood and the associations of these symptoms with young adult psychopathology. Methods: Data were collected in a large community sample at three different points in time (1994, 1997, and 2001). Functional-somatic symptoms…

Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Metzke, Christa Winkler

2007-01-01

309

A Longitudinal Study of Forms and Functions of Aggressive Behavior in Early Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct forms (i.e., physical and relational) and functions (i.e., proactive and reactive) of aggressive behavior during early childhood (n = 101; M age = 45.09 months). Forms, but not functions, of aggressive behavior were stable over time. A number of contributors to aggression were associated…

Murray-Close, Dianna; Ostrov, Jamie M.

2009-01-01

310

Executive Functioning as a Potential Mediator of Age-Related Cognitive Decline in Normal Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical requirements for the hypothesis that executive functioning is a potential mediator of age-related effects on cognitive functioning are that variables assumed to reflect executive functioning represent a distinct construct and that age-related effects on other types of cognitive functioning are reduced when measures of executive functioning are statistically controlled. These issues were investigated in a study involving 261 adults

Timothy A. Salthouse; Thomas M. Atkinson; Diane E. Berish

2003-01-01

311

Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood  

PubMed Central

Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty?health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty.

Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W.; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S. Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S.; Swain, James E.; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K. Luan

2013-01-01

312

Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence  

PubMed Central

Background Individuals with schizophrenia and individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA) seem to share some social, behavioral and biological features. Although marked impairments in social cognition have been documented in both groups, little empirical work has compared the social cognitive functioning of these two clinical groups. Method Forty-four individuals with schizophrenia, 36 with HFA and 41 non-clinical controls completed a battery of social cognitive measures that have been linked previously to specific brain regions. Results The results indicate that the individuals with schizophrenia and HFA were both impaired on a variety of social cognitive tasks relative to the non-clinical controls, but did not differ from one another. When individuals with schizophrenia were divided into negative symptom and paranoid subgroups, exploratory analyses revealed that individuals with HFA may be more similar, in terms of the pattern of social cognition impairments, to the negative symptom group than to the paranoia group. Conclusions Our findings provide further support for similarities in social cognition deficits between HFA and schizophrenia, which have a variety of implications for future work on gene–brain–behavior relationships.

Couture, S. M.; Penn, D. L.; Losh, M.; Adolphs, R.; Hurley, R.; Piven, J.

2009-01-01

313

Cognitive Biases in Childhood Anxiety, Depression, and Aggression: Are They Pervasive or Specific?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the extent to which children’s negative information processing biases are pervasive across the cognitive modalities of attention, judgment, and memory and, further, whether such biases are specifically associated with anxiety, depression, and\\/or aggression. 133 children between the ages of 8 and 14 years were assessed on an attention allocation task, a vignette interpretation measure, and a memory recall

Sophie C. Reid; Karen Salmon; Peter F. Lovibond

2006-01-01

314

Cognitive functioning in sydenham's chorea: Part 2. executive functioning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten patients with Sydenham's chorea, ages 7 to 15 years, were tested on two executive functioning tasks—the Tower of Hanoi and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST). Both tasks have demonstrated deficits in performance by other basal ganglia disorders (e.g., Huntington's chorea, Parkinson's disease). Deficits were observed during performance of the Tower of Hanoi, but not the WCST, relative to

B. J. Casey; Yolanda C. Vauss; Amy Chused; Susan E. Swedo

1994-01-01

315

Self-reported global function among adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity bone tumors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Adult survivors of childhood lower-extremity bone tumors may experience physical and psychosocial late effects that impact\\u000a physical performance, global function and quality of life. The identification of survivors at greatest risk for poor outcomes\\u000a will inform potential intervention targets.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Study participants were selected from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a multi-institutional study of childhood\\u000a cancer survivors. Adult survivors (n?=?629)

Rajaram Nagarajan; Rona Mogil; Joesph P. Neglia; Leslie L. Robison; Kirsten K. Ness

2009-01-01

316

Can performance of daily activities discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment?  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Our primary aim was to examine whether preclinical disability in performance of cognitively-focused instrumental activities of daily living (C-IADL) tasks can discriminate between older adults with normal cognitive function and those with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The secondary purpose was to determine the two tasks with the strongest psychometric properties and assess their discriminative ability. Our goal was to generate diagnosis-relevant information about cognitive changes associated with MCI and DSM-5 Mild Neurocognitive Disorder. DESIGN Secondary analyses of cross-sectional data from a cohort of individuals diagnosed with normal cognitive function or MCI. SETTING Private home locations in Pittsburgh, PA. PARTICIPANTS Older adults with remitted major depression (N=157). MEASUREMENTS Diagnosis of cognitive status was made by the Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Performance of 8 C-IADL was measured using the criterion-referenced, observation-based Performance Assessment of Self-Care Skills (PASS). RESULTS A total of 96 older adults with normal cognitive function (mean age=72.5, SD=5.9) and 61 older adults with MCI (mean age=75.5, SD=6.3) participated. The 8 C-IADL demonstrated 81% accuracy in discriminating cognitive status (area under curve 0.81, p<0.001). Two tasks (shopping and checkbook balancing) were the most discriminating (area under curve 0.80, p<0.001); they demonstrated similar ability, as the 8 C-IADL, to discriminate cognitive status. Assessing performance on these two C-IADL takes 10–15 minutes. CONCLUSION This is the first demonstration of the discriminative ability of preclinical disability in distinguishing MCI from cognitively normal older adults. These findings highlight potential tasks, when measured with the observation-based PASS, which demonstrate increased effort for individuals with MCI. These tasks may be considered when attempting to diagnose MCI or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder in clinical practice and research.

Rodakowski, Juleen; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Dew, Mary Amanda; Butters, Meryl A.; Holm, Margo B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Rogers, Joan C.

2014-01-01

317

Parents' Education, Mothers' Vocabulary, and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Evidence From Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Objectives. I estimated the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and early child cognitive development in a sample of poor children in rural Ecuador. Methods. I used regression analysis to estimate the association between parents’ education, mothers’ vocabulary, and the vocabulary, memory, and visual integration skills of children at early ages, controlling for possible confounders. The study is based on a longitudinal cohort of children in rural Ecuador (n = 2118). Results. The schooling and vocabulary levels of mothers were strong predictors of the cognitive development of young children. Household wealth and child's height, weight, and hemoglobin levels explained only a modest fraction of the observed associations. The vocabulary levels of mothers and children were more strongly correlated among older children in the sample, suggesting that the effects of a richer maternal vocabulary are cumulative. Conclusions. Differences in children's cognitive outcomes start very early, which has important implications for the intergenerational transmission of poverty and inequality. Programs that seek to increase early stimulation for disadvantaged children, perhaps through parenting programs or high-quality center-based care, hold promise.

2011-01-01

318

What's Cooking? - Cognitive Training of Executive Function in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Executive function involves the efficient and adaptive engagement of the control processes of updating, shifting, and inhibition (Miyake, 2000) to guide behavior toward a goal. It is associated with decrements in many other cognitive functions due to aging (West, 1996; Raz, 2000) with itself particularly vulnerable to the effect of aging (Treitz et al., 2007). Cognitive training in the form of structural experience with executive coordination demands exhibited effective enhancement in the elderly (Hertzog et al., 2008). The current study was thus aimed at the development and evaluation of a training regime for executive function in the elderly. The breakfast cooking task of Craik and Bialystok (2006) was adapted into a multitasking training task in a session (pre-test vs. post-test) by group (control vs. training). In the training condition, participants constantly switched, updated, and planned in order to control the cooking of several foods and concurrently performed a table setting secondary task. Training gains were exhibited on task related measures. Transfer effect was selectively observed on the letter–number sequencing and digit symbol coding test. The cooking training produced short term increase in the efficiency of executive control processing. These effects were interpreted in terms of the process overlap between the training and the transfer tasks.

Wang, Man-Ying; Chang, Chien-Yu; Su, Shou-Yi

2011-01-01

319

Apolipoprotein E Genotype Modifies the Association between Midlife Lung Function and Cognitive Function in Old Age  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Because poor lung function may be a risk factor for cognitive decline, we aimed to test the association of respiratory function with cognitive function and dementia later in life, as well as potential effect modification by APOE ?4 carrier status. Methods In a prospective population-based cohort study, forced vital capacity and forced expiratory flow were measured around 1965 in 857 men aged 45–64 years (394 from Finland, 208 from The Netherlands, and 255 from Italy). The Mini-Mental State Examination scores around 1990, 1995 and 2000 were analyzed using multilevel regression models and the Clinical Dementia Rating score around 1990 using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Results Midlife lung function was positively associated with cognitive function in old age in APOE ?4 non-carriers, but not in carriers (p < 0.05 for interaction). In Finland and Italy, 18.6% had questionable to mild dementia and 2.8% moderate to severe dementia after 25 years of follow-up. Dementia was inversely related to midlife lung function in APOE ?4 non-carriers, but not in carriers (p < 0.05 for interaction). Conclusions Small lung volumes were prospectively associated with an increased risk for poor cognitive function and dementia in non-carriers of the APOE ?4 gene.

Giltay, Erik J.; Nissinen, Aulikki; Giampaoli, Simona; Kromhout, Daan

2009-01-01

320

Relation of neurocardiovascular instability to cognitive, emotional and functional domains.  

PubMed

There is bulk of evidence suggesting that blood pressure dysregulation, as low blood pressure (LBP) or hypotension, orthostatic hypotension (OH) and high blood pressure (HPB) or hypertension are associated with alterations in cognitive and emotional domains. Some studies suggest that LBP, neurocardiovascular instability, like the OH, and atherosclerosis resulting from long standing HBP, reduces cerebral blood flow, increasing the risk of cognitive impairment, morbidity and mortality. This study aims to evaluate whether patients with cognitive impairment and cardiovascular disease would show any differences in some anamnestic indicators and/or psychometric measures of cognitive performance and affective symptoms. We recruited 36 patients over 65 years of age admitted to both psycho- and cardio-geriatric ambulatories of our hospital during the last year. The population (mean age of 80.5 years, 72.2% females, 27.8% males) was divided in 2 groups, with OH (25%), and without OH (75%). The first group was subdivided in subgroups: patients with HBP, normal BP and LBP, respectively. Cognitive and depressive domains were assessed with the mini mental state examination (MMSE) and the Italian "scala di valutazione del benessere emotivo nell' anziano" (SVEBA). Information about the present status, comorbidities (cumulative illness rating scale=CIRS), functional ability (activities of daily living=ADL, instrumental ADL=IADL) and drugs were collected during clinical examination. BP was measured 4 times, at the beginning of examination, then with the patient in clinostatic and orthostatic position (1st and 3rd minute). Data were analyzed by MANCOVA, considering age and gender as covariates, MMSE, SVEBA, CIRS, ADL, IADL and drugs as dependent variables, and presence/absence of OH as factor. Covariates were not significant sources of variance, as well as overall factor. Due to the heuristic aim of the study, we considered of interest the results of subsequent ANOVAs showing significant differences in SVEBA and ADL with respect to the factor. These data give us the basis to develop a longitudinal study to confirm the detrimental effect of OH on a wide range of health domains. PMID:17317436

Bendini, C; Angelini, A; Salsi, F; Finelli, M E; Martini, E; Neviani, F; Mussi, C; Neri, M

2007-01-01

321

Effect of trataka on cognitive functions in the elderly  

PubMed Central

Background: Trataka, a type of yoga practice is considered to improve cognitive functions. The aim of this study was to test the effect of trataka on cognitive functions of the elderly. Materials and Methods: Elderly subjects were recruited based on inclusion and exclusion criteria (n = 60) and randomly divided using randomized block design into two groups: Trataka and wait list control group. Trataka (a visual cleansing technique) was given for a period of 1 month (26 days). The subjects in both groups were assessed on day 1 (pre- and postintervention in trataka group and after quiet sitting in control group) and on day 30 on Digit Span Test, Six Letter Cancellation Test (SLCT), and Trail Making Test-B (TMT-B). Results: Friedman's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed that at the 2nd follow-up there was significant improvement in digit span scores (z = ?3.35, P < 0.01) in the trataka group. SLCT scores (t = 5.08, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = ?4.26, P < 0.01) improved immediately after the practice of trataka (when baseline compared to first follow-up). At 1 month follow-up, trataka group showed significantly better performance in the SLCT test compared to baseline (t = ?3.93, P < 0.01) and TMT-B scores (t = 7.09, P < 0.01). Repeated measure analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) results also reiterated that there was significant interaction effect at the end of 1 month of trataka intervention as compared to control group on TMT-B and SLCT scores. Conclusions: The results of this study establish that Trataka can be used as a technique to enhance cognition in the elderly.

Talwadkar, Shubhada; Jagannathan, Aarti; Raghuram, Nagarathna

2014-01-01

322

Serum leptin and cognitive function in people with type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

People with obesity and type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of cognitive impairment. We aimed to investigate the association of leptin with cognitive abilities in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes. We performed a cross-sectional study of 1057 men and women aged 60-75 years with type 2 diabetes living in Lothian (Scotland). A cognitive battery was administered. Prior intelligence was estimated from vocabulary testing and adjustment for scores on this test was used to estimate lifetime cognitive change. Relationships between fasting morning leptin levels and cognitive ability and estimated cognitive change were tested. Higher leptin levels were associated with significantly poorer estimated overall cognitive decline, and poorer performance in 2 cognitive domains assessing mental flexibility and executive function, only amongst men (p < 0.05). High morning leptin levels in elderly men with type 2 diabetes are associated with estimated age-related cognitive change. PMID:22475620

Labad, Javier; Price, Jacqueline F; Strachan, Mark W J; Deary, Ian J; Seckl, Jonathan R; Sattar, Naveed; Reynolds, Rebecca M

2012-12-01

323

Protocol for Fit Bodies, Fine Minds: a randomized controlled trial on the affect of exercise and cognitive training on cognitive functioning in older adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Declines in cognitive functioning are a normal part of aging that can affect daily functioning and quality of life. This study will examine the impact of an exercise training program, and a combined exercise and cognitive training program, on the cognitive and physical functioning of older adults. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Fit Bodies, Fine Minds is a randomized, controlled trial. Community-dwelling adults,

Siobhan T O'Dwyer; Nicola W Burton; Nancy A Pachana; Wendy J Brown

2007-01-01

324

Automated Semantic Indices Related to Cognitive Function and Rate of Cognitive Decline  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of our study is to introduce a fully automated, computational linguistic technique to quantify semantic relations between words generated on a standard semantic verbal fluency test and to determine its cognitive and clinical correlates. Cognitive differences between patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are…

Pakhomov, Serguei V. S.; Hemmy, Laura S.; Lim, Kelvin O.

2012-01-01

325

Olfactory Acuity and Cognitive Function Converge in Older Adulthood: Support for the Common Cause Hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visual and auditory thresholds and cognitive variables have shown converging losses in old age, which might exist because standard cognitive tests rely on these modalities for assessment. The present study investigated the common cause hypothesis in another sensory modality. Structural equation modeling tested the fit of a model representing the common cause hypothesis for olfactory acuity and cognitive function data

Mario F. Dulay; Claire Murphy

2002-01-01

326

A Study to Investigate Whether Consistent Cognitive Functioning Cuts Across Number, Space, and Time Conceptualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducted on 58 girls aged six to nine years was undertaken to validate a major hypothesis deriving from Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development. This stated that general levels of cognitive functioning can be established which emerge simultaneously in all three areas of number, space, and time and make appropriate the concept of clearly identifiable stages in cognitive

Elizabeth Brittan

1979-01-01

327

The Role of Cognitive Functioning in Medication Adherence of Children and Adolescents with HIV Infection  

PubMed Central

Objective?To evaluate the relationship between cognitive functioning and medication adherence in children and adolescents with perinatally acquired HIV infection.?Methods?Children and adolescents, ages 3–18 (N = 1,429), received a cognitive evaluation and adherence assessment. Multiple logistic regression models were used to identify associations between adherence and cognitive status, adjusting for potential confounding factors.?Results?Children's average cognitive performance was within the low-average range; 16% of children were cognitively impaired (MDI/FSIQ <70). Cognitive status was not associated with adherence to full medication regimens; however, children with borderline/low average cognitive functioning (IQ 70–84) had increased odds of nonadherence to the protease inhibitor class of antiretroviral therapy. Recent stressful life events and child health characteristics, such as HIV RNA detectability, were significantly associated with nonadherence.?Conclusion?Cognitive status plays a limited role in medication adherence. Child and caregiver psychosocial and health characteristics should inform interventions to support adherence.

Williams, Paige L.; Montepiedra, Grace; Nichols, Sharon; Sirois, Patricia A.; Storm, Deborah; Farley, John; Kammerer, Betsy

2009-01-01

328

Effects of Early Chemotherapeutic Treatment on Learning in Adolescent Mice: Implications for Cognitive Impairment and Remediation in Childhood Cancer Survivors  

PubMed Central

Purpose Among children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and given chemotherapy-only treatment, 40-70% of survivors experience neurocognitive impairment. The present study used a preclinical mouse model to investigate the effects of early exposure to common ALL chemotherapeutics methotrexate (MTX) and cytarabine (Ara-C) on learning and memory. Experimental Design Pre-weanling mouse pups were treated on postnatal day (PND) 14, 15, and 16 with saline, MTX, Ara-C, or a combination of MTX and Ara-C. Nineteen days following treatment (PND 35), behavioral tasks measuring different aspects of learning and memory were administered. Results Significant impairment in acquisition and retention over both short (1h) and long (24h) intervals, as measured by autoshaping and novel object recognition tasks, were found following treatment with MTX and Ara-C. Similarly, a novel conditional discrimination task revealed impairment in acquisition for chemotherapy-treated mice. No significant group differences were found following the extensive training component of this task, with impairment following the rapid training component occurring only for the highest MTX and Ara-C combination group. Conclusions Findings are consistent with clinical studies suggesting that childhood cancer survivors are slower at learning new information and primarily exhibit deficits in memory years after successful completion of chemotherapy treatment. The occurrence of mild deficits on a novel conditional discrimination task suggests that chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment may be ameliorated through extensive training or practice.

Bisen-Hersh, Emily B.; Hineline, Philip N.; Walker, Ellen A.

2013-01-01

329

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Children With Functional Abdominal Pain and Their Parents Decreases Pain and Other Symptoms  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES Unexplained abdominal pain in children has been shown to be related to parental responses to symptoms. This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of an intervention designed to improve outcomes in idiopathic childhood abdominal pain by altering parental responses to pain and children's ways of coping and thinking about their symptoms. METHODS Two hundred children with persistent functional abdominal pain and their parents were randomly assigned to one of two conditions—a three-session intervention of cognitive-behavioral treatment targeting parents' responses to their children's pain complaints and children's coping responses, or a three-session educational intervention that controlled for time and attention. Parents and children were assessed at pretreatment, and 1 week, 3 months, and 6 months post-treatment. Outcome measures were child and parent reports of child pain levels, function, and adjustment. Process measures included parental protective responses to children's symptom reports and child coping methods. RESULTS Children in the cognitive-behavioral condition showed greater baseline to follow-up decreases in pain and gastrointestinal symptom severity (as reported by parents) than children in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.01). Also, parents in the cognitive-behavioral condition reported greater decreases in solicitous responses to their child's symptoms compared with parents in the comparison condition (time × treatment interaction, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS An intervention aimed at reducing protective parental responses and increasing child coping skills is effective in reducing children's pain and symptom levels compared with an educational control condition.

Levy, Rona L.; Langer, Shelby L.; Walker, Lynn S.; Romano, Joan M.; Christie, Dennis L.; Youssef, Nader; DuPen, Melissa M.; Feld, Andrew D.; Ballard, Sheri A.; Welsh, Ericka M.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Young, Melissa; Coffey, Melissa J.; Whitehead, William E.

2011-01-01

330

Long-term effects of cranial irradiation and intrathecal chemotherapy in treatment of childhood leukemia: a MEG study of power spectrum and correlated cognitive dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Background Prophylaxis to prevent relapses in the central nervous system after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) used to consist of both intrathecal chemotherapy (CT) and cranial irradiation (CRT). CRT was mostly abolished in the eighties because of its neurotoxicity, and replaced with more intensive intrathecal CT. In this study, a group of survivors treated with CRT before 1983 and another group treated without CRT thereafter are investigated 20–25 years later, giving a much stronger perspective on long-term quality of life than previous studies. The outcomes will help to better understand these groups’ current needs and will aid in anticipating late effects of prophylactic CRT that is currently applied for other diseases. This study evaluates oscillatory neuronal activity in these long-term survivors. Power spectrum deviations are hypothesized to correlate with cognitive dysfunction. Methods Resting state eyes-closed magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings were obtained from 14 ALL survivors treated with CT?+?CRT, 18 treated with CT alone and 35 controls. Relative spectral power was calculated in the ?, ?, ?1, ?2, ? and ? frequency bands. The Amsterdam Neuropsychological Tasks (ANT) program was used to assess cognition in the executive functions domain. MEG data and ANT scores were correlated. Results In the CT?+?CRT group, relative ? power was slightly increased (p?=?0.069) and ?2 power was significantly decreased (p?=?0.006). The CT?+?CRT group performed worse on various cognitive tests. A deficiency in visuomotor accuracy, especially of the right hand, could be clearly associated with the deviating regional ? and ?2 powers (0.471?

2012-01-01

331

Coupled Cognitive and Functional Change in Alzheimer's Disease and the Influence of Depressive Symptoms  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD), cognition and function are only moderately correlated in cross-sectional studies, and studies of their longitudinal association are less common. One potential non-cognitive contributor to function is depression, which has been associated with poorer clinical outcomes. The current study investigated longitudinal associations between functional abilities, cognitive status, and depressive symptoms in AD. 517 patients diagnosed with probable AD and enrolled in The Multicenter Study of Predictors of Disease Course in Alzheimer’s Disease were included. Patients were followed at 6-month intervals over 5.5 years. Longitudinal changes in the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, modified Mini-Mental State Exam, and the depression subscale of the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in AD were examined in a multivariate latent growth curve model that controlled for gender, age, education, and recruitment site. Results showed that cognition and function worsened over the study period, whereas depressive symptoms were largely stable. Rates of change in cognition and function were correlated across participants and coupled within participants, indicating that they travel together over time. Worse initial cognitive status was associated with faster subsequent functional decline, and vice versa. Higher level of depressive symptoms was associated with worse initial functioning and faster subsequent cognitive and functional decline. These findings highlight the importance of both cognitive and psychiatric assessment for functional prognosis. Targeting both cognitive and depressive symptoms in the clinical treatment of AD may have incremental benefit on functional abilities.

Zahodne, Laura B.; Devanand, D.P.; Stern, Yaakov

2013-01-01

332

Executive Functions in Girls with and without Childhood ADHD: Developmental Trajectories and Associations with Symptom Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: We prospectively followed an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and a matched comparison sample (n = 88) from childhood through young adulthood to evaluate developmental trajectories of executive functions (EF) and associations between EF trajectories…

Miller, Meghan; Loya, Fred; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

2013-01-01

333

Drug Use and Psychosocial Functioning of a Community-Derived Sample of Adolescents with Childhood ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the late adolescent psychosocial outcomes from a relatively large, community-identified sample of children with ADHD who have been assessed longitudinally from childhood through late adolescence. A range of outcomes were compared between ADHD (n = 119) and normal control (n = 93) groups, as well as ADHD subgroups that varied as a function of the course of externalizing predominantly ODD problems (persisters,

George M. Realmuto; Ken C. Winters; Gerald J. August; Susanne Lee; Tamara Fahnhorst; Andria Botzet

2009-01-01

334

Alone Is a Crowd: Social Motivations, Social Withdrawal, and Socioemotional Functioning in Later Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goals of this study were to test a conceptual model linking social approach and avoidance motivations, socially withdrawn behaviors, and peer difficulties in later childhood and to compare the socioemotional functioning of different subtypes of withdrawn children (shy, unsociable, avoidant). Participants were 367 children, aged 9-12…

Coplan, Robert J.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Weeks, Murray; Kingsbury, Adam; Kingsbury, Mila; Bullock, Amanda

2013-01-01

335

Phaeochromocytoma and functioning paraganglioma in childhood and adolescence: role of iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phaeochromocytomas and functioning paragangliomas are rare tumours in childhood and adolescence. We review our experience of 43 cases (24 men, 19 women) who were first diagnosed at the age of ? 18 years. All patients were evaluated at some point in their illness with iodine 131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-mIBG) scintigraphy. Eight patients (19%) had bilateral adrenal tumours, 12 (28%) had solitary

Frederick A. Khafagi; Brahm Shapiro; Manfred Fischer; James C. Sisson; Raymond Hutchinson; William H. Beierwaltes

1991-01-01

336

Childhood Fears, Neurobehavioral Functioning and Behavior Problems in School-Age Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective is to examine underlying associations between childhood fears, behavior problems and neurobehavioral functioning (NBF) in school-age children. Healthy, regular school children (N = 135), from second, fourth and sixth grade classes were assessed. Data regarding children's fears and behavioral problems were obtained with the Revised…

Kushnir, Jonathan; Sadeh, Avi

2010-01-01

337

Executive Function in Early Childhood: Longitudinal Measurement Invariance and Developmental Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested the longitudinal measurement invariance and developmental changes of a newly developed battery of executive function (EF) tasks for use in early childhood. The battery was administered in the Family Life Project--a prospective longitudinal study (N = 1,292) of families who were oversampled from low-income and African American…

Willoughby, Michael T.; Wirth, R. J.; Blair, Clancy B.

2012-01-01

338

Effects of Gestational Age at Birth on Cognitive Performance: A Function of Cognitive Workload Demands  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive deficits have been inconsistently described for late or moderately preterm children but are consistently found in very preterm children. This study investigates the association between cognitive workload demands of tasks and cognitive performance in relation to gestational age at birth. Methods Data were collected as part of a prospective geographically defined whole-population study of neonatal at-risk children in Southern Bavaria. At 8;5 years, n?=?1326 children (gestation range: 23–41 weeks) were assessed with the K-ABC and a Mathematics Test. Results Cognitive scores of preterm children decreased as cognitive workload demands of tasks increased. The relationship between gestation and task workload was curvilinear and more pronounced the higher the cognitive workload: GA2 (quadratic term) on low cognitive workload: R2?=?.02, p<0.001; moderate cognitive workload: R2?=?.09, p<0.001; and high cognitive workload tasks: R2?=?.14, p<0.001. Specifically, disproportionally lower scores were found for very (<32 weeks gestation) and moderately (32–33 weeks gestation) preterm children the higher the cognitive workload of the tasks. Early biological factors such as gestation and neonatal complications explained more of the variance in high (12.5%) compared with moderate (8.1%) and low cognitive workload tasks (1.7%). Conclusions The cognitive workload model may help to explain variations of findings on the relationship of gestational age with cognitive performance in the literature. The findings have implications for routine cognitive follow-up, educational intervention, and basic research into neuro-plasticity and brain reorganization after preterm birth.

Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Wolke, Dieter

2013-01-01

339

[Effect of aerospace weightlessness on cognitive functions and the relative dialectical analysis of Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

Aerospace medicine has paid more and more attention to abnormal changes of physiological functions induced by weightlessness and studies on their prevention during space flight. In this paper, the effect of space weightlessness on cognitive functions was introduced. We tried to analyze the correlation between the cognitive function changes and relevant Chinese medical syndromes, thus providing a potential available way to prevent and treat weightlessness induced cognitive deficit during space flight. PMID:24758090

Dong, Li; Liu, Xin-Min; Wu, Li-Sha; Yang, Si-Jin; Wang, Qiong

2014-03-01

340

Cognitive variability in adults with ADHD and AS: disentangling the roles of executive functions and social cognition.  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Asperger's Syndrome (AS) share a heterogeneous cognitive profile. Studies assessing executive functions (EF) and social cognition in both groups have found preserved and impaired performances. These inconsistent findings would be partially explained by the cognitive variability reported in these disorders. First, the present study explored the inter-individual variability in EF and social cognition in both patient groups. Second, we compared differential characteristics and commonalities in the cognitive profiles of EF and social cognition between ADHD, AS and control adults. We assessed 22 patients with ADHD, 23 adults with AS and 21 matched typically developing subjects using different measures of EF (working memory, cognitive flexibility and multitasking) and social cognition (theory of mind and decision-making). Group comparisons and multiple case series analyses (MCSA) were conducted. The between-group comparisons showed an EF deficit in working memory in ADHD and a theory of mind (ToM) impairment in AS. The MCSA evidenced that, compared to controls, ADHD patients had a higher inter-individual variability in EF, while individuals with AS had a more heterogeneous profile in social cognition tasks compared to both groups. Finally, the AS and ADHD groups presented higher task-related variability compared to controls and shared a common heterogeneous profile in EF. This is the first study to compare variability in EF and social cognition profiles of ADHD and AS. We propose that heterogeneity in EF performance is a link between ADHD and AS which may explain the overlap of symptomatology between both diagnoses. In addition, patients with AS seem to show a unique heterogeneous profile in ToM which may explain the low probability of finding AS symptoms in patients with ADHD. PMID:23220737

Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Baez, Sandra; Torralva, Teresa; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Rattazzi, Alexia; Bein, Victoria; Rogg, Katharina; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

2013-02-01

341

Evaluating the Relationship Between Neuropsychological Function and Cognitive Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The last 2 decades have produced a vast literature describing relationships between cognitive performance and neuropsychological data. This literature has provided the foundation for countless theories about the neural correlates of cognitive processing a...

G. Gunzelmann J. L. Moore

2012-01-01

342

Longitudinal associations between infections and atopic disorders across childhood and dysregulated adrenocortical functioning in early adolescence.  

PubMed

The present study sought to determine if exposure to common childhood medical problems (i.e., infections and atopic disorders [e.g., allergies, asthma]) may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Longitudinal data from 96 youth were used to examine this possibility. Medical records were drawn from government databases indicating the frequency of visits to healthcare facilities for infections and atopic disorders from infancy to early adolescence. During early adolescence, participants provided salivary cortisol samples from awakening until bedtime over 2 consecutive days. Individuals with a history of increased number visits for infections across childhood displayed elevated levels of cortisol at awakening whereas individuals with childhood histories of visits for atopic disorders displayed blunted diurnal cortisol slopes. These findings build on previous research documenting associations between infections and atopic disorders and cortisol by identifying longitudinal linkages from early health problems to later HPA axis functioning. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 56: 897-907, 2014. PMID:24037638

Ruttle, Paula L; Serbin, Lisa A; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Stack, Dale M; Schwartzman, Alex E

2014-07-01

343

The acquisition of biological knowledge during childhood: Cognitive conflict or tabula rasa?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clinical interviews were conducted with three elementary school children, who varied in age but not in family or school environment, to determine the extent to which they held naive misconceptions about important biological topics and to determine agewise trends in the development of biological knowledge. Does early biological knowledge acquisition follow a pattern of spontaneous naive theory construction and cognitive conflict or does it follow a pattern of gradual accretion to an initially blank slate? Contrary to findings in the physical sciences, little evidence was found for biological misconceptions as knowledge acquisition appeared to more directly follow the gradual accretion hypothesis with the primary source of that knowledge adult authority rather than personal experience. However, conceptual change teaching is still advocated due to its ability to provoke students to consider and test alternative conceptions (even if they are not their own) as a means of encouraging the development of important general reasoning patterns utilized in the testing of causal hypotheses.

Lawson, Anton E.

344

Recovery of cognitive and dynamic motor function following concussion  

PubMed Central

Objective Neuropsychological testing has been advocated as an important tool of proper post?concussion management. Although these measures provide information that can be used in the decision of when to return an individual to previous levels of physical activity, they provide little data on motor performance following injury. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between measures of dynamic motor performance and neuropsychological function following concussion over the course of 28?days. Methods Participants completed two experimental protocols: gait stability and neuropsychological testing. The gait stability protocol measured whole?body centre of mass motion as subjects walked under conditions of divided and undivided attention. Neuropsychological testing consisted of a computerised battery of tests designed to assess memory, reaction time, processing speed and concussion symptoms. Correlation coefficients were computed between all neuropsychological and gait variables and comparisons of neuropsychological and gait stability post?concussion recovery curves were assessed. Results Dynamic motor tasks, such as walking under varying conditions of attention, are complex and demanding undertakings, which require a longer recovery time following a concussion than cognitive measures. Little statistical relationship was found between the neuropsychological and gait variables, and the recovery curves of neuropsychological and gait domains were observed to be independent. Conclusions In order to fully examine the effects of concussion and determine the optimal time for a safe return to activity, a multi?factorial approach, including both cognitive and motor tasks, should be employed.

Parker, Tonya M; Osternig, Louis R; van Donkelaar, Paul; Chou, Li-Shan

2007-01-01

345

Effects of allantoin on cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis.  

PubMed

Allantoin is contained in Nelumbo nucifera (lotus) and a well-known cosmetic ingredient reported to have anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we investigated whether allantoin affects cognitive function in mice. The subchronic administration of allantoin (1, 3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) significantly increased the latency time measured during the passive avoidance task in scopolamine-induced cholinergic blockade and normal naïve mice. Allantoin treatment (3 or 10 mg/kg, for 7 days) also increased the expression levels of phosphorylated phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), phosphorylated protein kinase B (Akt) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Doublecortin and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine immunostaining revealed that allantoin significantly increased the neuronal cell proliferation of immature neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus region. In conclusion, allantoin has memory-enhancing effects, and these effects may be partly mediated by the PI3K-Akt-GSK-3? signal pathway. These findings suggest that allantoin has therapeutic potential for the cognitive dysfunctions observed in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24296131

Ahn, Young Je; Park, Se Jin; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Kim, Hyun Ji; Kwon, Guyoung; Gao, Qingtao; Jang, Dae Sik; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2014-02-01

346

Alzheimer's disease neurodegenerative biomarkers are associated with decreased cognitive function but not beta-amyloid in cognitively normal older individuals  

PubMed Central

Beta amyloid (A?)-plaque deposition and neurodegeneration within temporoparietal and hippocampal regions may indicate increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examined relationships between AD biomarkers of A? and neurodegeneration as well as cognitive performance in cognitively normal older individuals. A? burden was quantified in 72 normal older human subjects from the Berkeley Aging Cohort (BAC) using [11C] Pittsburgh compound B (PIB) PET. In the same individuals, we measured hippocampal volume, as well as glucose metabolism and cortical thickness, which were extracted from a template of cortical AD-affected regions. The three functional and structural biomarkers were merged into a highly AD-sensitive multi-modality biomarker reflecting neural integrity. In the normal older individuals, there was no association between A? burden and either the single-modality or the multi-modality neurodegenerative biomarkers. While lower neural integrity within the AD-affected regions and a control area (the visual cortex) was related to lower scores on memory and executive function tests, the same association was not found with PIB retention. The relationship between cognition and the multi-modality AD biomarker was stronger in individuals with the highest PIB uptake. The findings indicate that neurodegeneration occurs within AD regions irrespective of A? deposition and accounts for worse cognition in cognitively normal older people. The impact of neural integrity on cognitive functions is enhanced in the presence of high A? burden for regions that are vulnerable to AD pathology.

Wirth, Miranka; Madison, Cindee M.; Rabinovici, Gil D.; Oh, Hwamee; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

2013-01-01

347

Competition for Cognitive Resources During Rapid Serial Processing: Changes Across Childhood  

PubMed Central

The ability to direct cognitive resources to target objects despite distraction by competing information plays an important role for the development of mental aptitudes and skills. We examined developmental changes of this ability in a cross-sectional design, using the “attentional blink” (AB) paradigm. The AB is a pronounced impairment of T2 report, which occurs when a first (T1) and second target (T2) embedded in a rapid stimulus sequence are separated by at least one distractor and occur within 500?ms of each other. Two groups of children (6- to 7-year-olds and 10- to 11-year-olds; ns = 21 and 24, respectively) were asked to identify green targets in two AB tasks: one using non-linguistic symbols and the other letters or words. The temporal distance or stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) between T1 and T2 varied between no intervening distractor (Lag 1, 116-ms SOA) and up to 7 intervening distractors (Lag 8, 928-ms SOA). In the symbol task, younger children linearly increased T2 identification with increasing lag. Older children, however, displayed a hook-shaped pattern as typically seen in adults, with lowest identification reports in T2 symbols at the critical blink interval (Lag 2, 232-ms SOA), and a slight performance gain for the Lag 1 condition. In the verbal task, the older group again exhibited a prominent drop in T2 identification at Lag 2, whereas the younger group showed a more alleviated and temporally diffuse AB impairment. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that the control of attention allocation and/or working memory consolidation of targets among distractors represents a cognitive skill that emerges during primary school age.

Heim, Sabine; Wirth, Nadine; Keil, Andreas

2011-01-01

348

Efficiency of weak brain connections support general cognitive functioning.  

PubMed

Brain network topology provides valuable information on healthy and pathological brain functioning. Novel approaches for brain network analysis have shown an association between topological properties and cognitive functioning. Under the assumption that "stronger is better", the exploration of brain properties has generally focused on the connectivity patterns of the most strongly correlated regions, whereas the role of weaker brain connections has remained obscure for years. Here, we assessed whether the different strength of connections between brain regions may explain individual differences in intelligence. We analyzed-functional connectivity at rest in ninety-eight healthy individuals of different age, and correlated several connectivity measures with full scale, verbal, and performance Intelligent Quotients (IQs). Our results showed that the variance in IQ levels was mostly explained by the distributed communication efficiency of brain networks built using moderately weak, long-distance connections, with only a smaller contribution of stronger connections. The variability in individual IQs was associated with the global efficiency of a pool of regions in the prefrontal lobes, hippocampus, temporal pole, and postcentral gyrus. These findings challenge the traditional view of a prominent role of strong functional brain connections in brain topology, and highlight the importance of both strong and weak connections in determining the functional architecture responsible for human intelligence variability. Hum Brain Mapp 35:4566-4582, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24585433

Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Galli, Giulia; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

2014-09-01

349

Do aromatase inhibitors have adverse effects on cognitive function?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Aromatase inhibitors are an important component of treatment for most postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early-stage breast cancer. Women taking aromatase inhibitors experience very low levels of circulating estrogen. This might be expected to result in cognitive dysfunction given the important relationship between estrogen and cognition in the basic science literature. Several studies have examined the cognitive effects of

Kelly Anne Phillips; Karin Ribi; Richard Fisher

2011-01-01

350

Mild Cognitive Impairment is Associated with Selected Functional Markers: Integrating Concurrent, Longitudinal, and Stability Effects  

PubMed Central

Objective We examined functional performance on multiple indicators for two cognitive status groups: (a) not impaired controls (NIC) and (b) mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We identified functional markers associated with differences, changes, and stability in cognitive status. Method In the Victoria Longitudinal Study (VLS) we examined cognitive status group effects in (a) cross-sectional functional performance, (b) longitudinal stability, (c) longitudinal functional performance change, and (d) functional marker prediction of later cognitive status. We assembled markers from five continuous clusters of MCI-related functional factors: biological vitality, activity lifestyle, psychosocial affect, subjective health, and global cognition. We used a cross-sectional sample and a two-wave longitudinal sample, stratified by age (mid-old, old-old) and cognitive status (MCI, NIC). Results First, cross-sectional results showed that eight markers differentiated MCI and NIC adults, with the latter performing uniformly better. The groups differed on diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, positive and negative affect, MMSE, and the lifestyle indicators of self-maintenance, travel, and novel cognitive activities. Second, Wave1 to Wave2 stabilities in cognitive status classification were high. Third, several markers differentiated the stable (NIC-to-NIC, MCI-to-MCI) from the unstable (NIC-to-MCI, MCI-to-NIC) cognitive status groups. Fourth, five relevant markers for identifying older adults at risk for cognitive status changes were: diastolic blood pressure, self-maintenance activities, novel cognitive activities, positive affect, and global cognitive status. Conclusion Selected risk and protective factors differentiate persons classified with MCI from those not currently cognitively impaired, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally.

Dolcos, Sanda; MacDonald, Stuart W.S.; Braslavsky, Anna; Camicioli, Richard; Dixon, Roger A.

2013-01-01

351

The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention  

PubMed Central

This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ min of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait-list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait-list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control.

Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Erickson, Kirk I.; Voss, Michelle W.; Knecht, Anya M.; Pontifex, Matthew B.; Castelli, Darla M.; Hillman, Charles H.; Kramer, Arthur F.

2013-01-01

352

Functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to assess cognitive function in infants in rural Africa.  

PubMed

Cortical mapping of cognitive function during infancy is poorly understood in low-income countries due to the lack of transportable neuroimaging methods. We have successfully piloted functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a neuroimaging tool in rural Gambia. Four-to-eight month old infants watched videos of Gambian adults perform social movements, while haemodynamic responses were recorded using fNIRS. We found distinct regions of the posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal cortex that evidenced either visual-social activation or vocally selective activation (vocal > non-vocal). The patterns of selective cortical activation in Gambian infants replicated those observed within similar aged infants in the UK. These are the first reported data on the measurement of localized functional brain activity in young infants in Africa and demonstrate the potential that fNIRS offers for field-based neuroimaging research of cognitive function in resource-poor rural communities. PMID:24751935

Lloyd-Fox, Sarah; Papademetriou, M; Darboe, M K; Everdell, N L; Wegmuller, R; Prentice, A M; Moore, S E; Elwell, C E

2014-01-01

353

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor/FK506-binding protein 5 genotype by childhood trauma interactions do not impact on hippocampal volume and cognitive performance.  

PubMed

In the development of psychotic symptoms, environmental and genetic factors may both play a role. The reported association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms could therefore be moderated by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the stress response, such as FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Recent studies investigating childhood trauma by SNP interactions have inconsistently found the hippocampus to be a potential target underlying these interactions. Therefore, more detailed modelling of these effects, using appropriate covariates, is required. We examined whether BDNF/FKBP5 and childhood trauma interactions affected two proxies of hippocampal integrity: (i) hippocampal volume and (ii) cognitive performance on a block design (BD) and delayed auditory verbal task (AVLT). We also investigated whether the putative interaction was different for patients with a psychotic disorder (n?=?89) compared to their non-psychotic siblings (n?=?95), in order to elicit possible group-specific protective/vulnerability effects. SNPs were rs9296158, rs4713916, rs992105, rs3800373 (FKBP5) and rs6265 (BDNF). In the combined sample, no BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were apparent for either outcome, and BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions were not different for patients and siblings. The omission of drug use and alcohol consumption sometimes yielded false positives, greatly affected explained error and influenced p-values. The consistent absence of any significant BDNF/FKBP5 by childhood trauma interactions on assessments of hippocampal integrity suggests that the effect of these interactions on psychotic symptoms is not mediated by hippocampal integrity. The importance of appropriate statistical designs and inclusion of relevant covariates should be carefully considered. PMID:24658422

Hernaus, Dennis; van Winkel, Ruud; Gronenschild, Ed; Habets, Petra; Kenis, Gunter; Marcelis, Machteld; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Collip, Dina

2014-01-01

354

The Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory Function and Dysfunction in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Patients with schizophrenia have pronounced deficits in memory for events, or episodic memory. These deficits severely affect patients’ quality of life and functional outcome, and current medications have only a modest effect, making episodic memory an important domain for translational development of clinical trial paradigms. The current article provides a brief review of the significant progress that cognitive neuroscience has made in understanding basic mechanisms of episodic memory formation and retrieval that were presented and discussed at the first CNTRICS meeting in Washington, D.C. During that meeting a collaborative decision was made that measures of item-specific and relational memory were the most promising constructs for immediate translational development. A brief summary of research on episodic memory in schizophrenia is presented to provide a context for investigating item-specific and relational memory processes. Candidate brain regions are also discussed.

Ranganath, Charan; Minzenberg, Michael; Ragland, J. Daniel

2008-01-01

355

[Dopaminergic modulation of cerebral activity and cognitive functions].  

PubMed

Alterations in dopaminergic system are known to lie in the basis of such diseases as Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Tourette syndrome, schizophrenia and drug abuse. This induced broad investigations of dopaminergic system in nearly all the areas of neuroscience. New insights into the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases have emerged. Research in the field of dopaminergic neurotransmission and memory was awarded Nobel prize in the year 2000. New avenues for the development of more selective drugs have been opened. In their daily practice clinicians are often prescribing medications acting on presynaptic or postsynaptic sites of dopaminergic units. Thus the aim of this review was to renew some knowledge on the architecture of dopaminergic system and also to glance through some of the studies implying its modulating effect on cognitive functions. PMID:12474782

Jucaite, Aurelija

2002-01-01

356

Cognition and behavioural development in early childhood: the role of birth weight and postnatal growth  

PubMed Central

Background We evaluate the relative importance of birth weight and postnatal growth for cognition and behavioural development in 8389 Chinese children, 4–7 years of age. Method Weight was the only size measure available at birth. Weight, height, head circumference and intelligence quotient (IQ) were measured between 4 and 7 years of age. Z-scores of birth weight and postnatal conditional weight gain to 4–7 years, as well as height and head circumference at 4–7 years of age, were the exposure variables. Z-scores of weight at 4–7 years were regressed on birth weight Z-scores, and the residual was used as the measure of postnatal conditional weight gain. The outcomes were child’s IQ, measured by the Chinese Wechsler Young Children Scale of Intelligence, as well as internalizing behavioural problems, externalizing behavioural problems and other behavioural problems, evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist 4–18. Multivariate regressions were conducted to investigate the relationship of birth weight and postnatal growth variables with the outcomes, separately for preterm children and term children. Results Both birth weight and postnatal weight gain were associated with IQ among term children; 1 unit increment in Z-score of birth weight (?450 g) was associated with an increase of 1.60 [Confidence interval (CI): 1.18–2.02; P < 0.001] points in IQ, and 1 unit increment in conditional postnatal weight was associated with an increase of 0.46 (CI: 0.06–0.86; P = 0.02) points in IQ, after adjustment for confounders; similar patterns were observed when Z-scores of postnatal height and head circumference at age 4–7 years were used as alternative measurements of postnatal growth. Effect sizes of relationships with IQ were smaller than 0.1 of a standard deviation in all cases. Neither birth weight nor postnatal growth indicators were associated with behavioural outcomes among term children. In preterm children, neither birth weight nor postnatal growth measures were associated with IQ or behavioural outcomes. Conclusions Both birth weight and postnatal growth were associated with IQ but not behavioural outcomes for Chinese term children aged 4–7 years, but the effect sizes were small. No relation between either birth weight or postnatal growth and cognition or behavioural outcomes was observed among preterm children aged 4–7 years.

Huang, Cheng; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ren, Aiguo; Li, Zhiwen

2013-01-01

357

The cerebellum: its role in language and related cognitive and affective functions.  

PubMed

The traditional view on the cerebellum as the sole coordinator of motor function has been substantially redefined during the past decades. Neuroanatomical, neuroimaging and clinical studies have extended the role of the cerebellum to the modulation of cognitive and affective processing. Neuroanatomical studies have demonstrated cerebellar connectivity with the supratentorial association areas involved in higher cognitive and affective functioning, while functional neuroimaging and clinical studies have provided evidence of cerebellar involvement in a variety of cognitive and affective tasks. This paper reviews the recently acknowledged role of the cerebellum in linguistic and related cognitive and behavioral-affective functions. In addition, typical cerebellar syndromes such as the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS) and the posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) will be briefly discussed and the current hypotheses dealing with the presumed neurobiological mechanisms underlying the linguistic, cognitive and affective modulatory role of the cerebellum will be reviewed. PMID:23333152

De Smet, Hyo Jung; Paquier, Philippe; Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter

2013-12-01

358

Early Warning Signs of Functional Illiteracy: Predictors in Childhood and Adolescence. Occasional Paper OP94-01.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a 20-year longitudinal study of 125 males and 126 females born to Black teenage mothers in a Baltimore hospital between 1966 and 1968 were analyzed to identify early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence determinants of functional literacy. All 251 subjects were interviewed in 1987, and 202 of them completed a document…

Baydar, Nazli; And Others

359

A Comparative Analysis of the Function of Coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care in France and Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In several European countries professionals are in charge of the coordination of Early Childhood Education and Care provision at local community level. For the past 20 years the number of this personnel has grown considerably in Italy and in France. This study provides a comparative analysis of the function of coordinating Early Childhood Education and Care services in these two

Olga Baudelot; Sylvie Rayna; Susanna Mayer; Tullia Musatti

2003-01-01

360

Contextualizing the effects of childhood sexual abuse on adult self- and social functioning: an attachment theory perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This retrospective survey study explored the hypothesis that multiple maltreatment and loss experiences in early childhood would interfere with the formation of secure attachments, creating (1) an increased vulnerability to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and (2) adult problems in self-and social functioning.Method: Data were collected from 687 undergraduates on an urban, commuter campus. They were analyzed by means of

Joan H Liem; Arne C Boudewyn

1999-01-01

361

A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Childhood Trauma on Symptoms and Functioning of People with Severe Mental Health Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the relationship between childhood trauma and the psychiatric symptoms and psychosocial functioning of adults with severe mental health problems. Participants (n?=?31) were recruited from the caseloads of community mental health services in Northern Ireland and assessed at baseline, 9 months, and 18 months. More than half had a history of childhood trauma (n?=?17). There were no differences

Gavin Davidson; Ciaran Shannon; Ciaran Mulholland; Jim Campbell

2009-01-01

362

Functional Somatic Syndromes and Childhood Physical Abuse in Women: Data From a Representative Community-Based Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated whether childhood physical abuse was associated with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) in women while controlling for age, race, and four clusters of potentially confounding factors: (a) Other childhood adversities, (b) adult health behaviors, (c) socioeconomic status and stressors, and (d) mental health. A regional subsample of the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey of 7,342 women was used.

Esme Fuller-Thomson; Joanne Sulman; Sarah Brennenstuhl; Moeza Merchant

2011-01-01

363

Nicotinic effects on cognitive function: behavioral characterization, pharmacological specification, and anatomic localization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Nicotine has been shown in a variety of studies in humans and experimental animals to improve cognitive function. Nicotinic\\u000a treatments are being developed as therapeutic treatments for cognitive dysfunction.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Critical for the development of nicotinic therapeutics is an understanding of the neurobehavioral bases for nicotinic involvement\\u000a in cognitive function.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Specific and diverse cognitive functions affected by nicotinic treatments are reviewed,

Edward D. Levin; F. Joseph McClernon; Amir H. Rezvani

2006-01-01

364

Performance-Based Measures of Everyday Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective The view that everyday function is preserved in mild cognitive impairment may be problematic. The objectives of this study were to determine the magnitude of impairment in everyday function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using a novel sensitive performance-based measure (the UCSD Performance-Based Skills Assessment; UPSA), contrast it with use of an informant-based measure (the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study–Activities of Daily Living Inventory; ADCS-ADL), and model the relationship between cognitive measures and the performance-based measure. Method Fifty cognitively normal elders, 26 patients who met criteria for amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 22 patients who suffered from mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease were assessed on the UPSA, the ADCS-ADL, and a battery of neurocognitive tests. Results Patients with mild cognitive impairment had significant impairments on the UPSA but not on the ADCS-ADL. The magnitude of the effect size between the cognitively healthy and the mild cognitive impairment group for the UPSA was large (d=0.86). A strong and significant relationship was observed between cognitive performances in speed (R2=0.37), episodic memory (R2=0.10), and semantic processing (R2=0.03) and UPSA score using multiple regression models. The psychometric properties of the UPSA were acceptable, as were its sensitivity and specificity in contrasts between cognitively normal elders and patients with mild cognitive impairment and between the latter group and patients with Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions These findings indicate that performance-based measures of function may be a sensitive tool in studies of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment and suggest the need for a reconceptualization of the relationship between cognition and function in mild cognitive impairment so that they can be usefully aligned.

Goldberg, Terry E.; Koppel, Jeremy; Keehlisen, Lynda; Christen, Erica; Dreses-Werringloer, Ute; Conejero-Goldberg, Concepcion; Gordon, Marc L.; Davies, Peter

2010-01-01

365

Cognitive function. Survey of elderly persons living at home in rural Newfoundland.  

PubMed Central

We tested the cognitive function of elderly, community-dwelling residents in rural Newfoundland using the Canadian Mental Status Questionnaire. The prevalence of moderate and severe cognitive impairment was 9.3%. Physicians in the community had recognized those with severe impairment, but had not recognized any of those with moderate impairment. Cognitive function testing should be part of the periodic health examination of older patients.

Worrall, G.; Moulton, N.

1993-01-01

366

Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as “certainly applied” at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Conclusion Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

2013-01-01

367

Albuminuria, Cognitive Functioning and White Matter Hyperintensities in Homebound Elders  

PubMed Central

Background Albuminuria, a kidney marker of microvascular disease, may herald microvascular disease elsewhere, including in the brain. Study Design Cross sectional. Setting and Participants Boston, MA (USA) elders receiving home health services to maintain independent living who consented to brain magnetic resonance imaging. Predictor Urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcome Performance on a cognitive battery assessing executive function and memory using principal components analysis and white matter hyperintensity volume on brain imaging, evaluated in logistic and linear regression models. Results Of 335 participants, mean age was 73.4 ± 8.1 years; 123 participants had microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. Each doubling of ACR was associated with worse executive function [?=-0.05 (p=0.005) in univariate and ?=-0.07 (p=0.004) in multivariable analyses controlling for age, sex, race, education, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, medications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate] but not with worse memory or working memory. Individuals with microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria were more likely to be in the lower versus the highest tertile of executive functioning [Odds ratio =1.18 (1.06 to 1.32) and 1.19 (1.05 to 1.35) per doubling of ACR in univariate and multivariable analyses, respectively]. Albuminuria was associated with qualitative white matter hyperintensity grade [Odds ratio =1.13 (1.02 to 1.25) and 1.15 (1.02 to 1.29) per doubling of ACR] in univariate and multivariable analyses, and with quantitative white matter hyperintensity volume [?=0.11 (p=0.007) and ?=0.10 (p=0.01)] in univariate and multivariable analyses of log-transformed data, respectively. Results were similar when excluding individuals with macroalbuminuria. Limitations Single measurement of ACR, indirect creatinine calibration and reliance on participant recall for elements of medical history Conclusions Albuminuria is associated with worse cognitive performance, particularly in executive functioning, as well as increased white matter hyperintensity volume. Albuminuria likely identifies greater brain microvascular disease burden.

Weiner, Daniel E.; Bartolomei, Keith; Scott, Tammy; Price, Lori Lyn; Griffith, John L.; Rosenberg, Irwin; Levey, Andrew S.; Folstein, Marshal F.; Sarnak, Mark J.

2009-01-01

368

Mediterranean diet and cognitive function in older age: results from the Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to a Mediterranean diet may help prevent cognitive decline in older age, but studies are limited. We examined the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with cognitive function and decline. Methods We included 6,174 participants, aged 65+ years, from the cognitive sub-study of the Women’s Health Study. Women provided dietary information in 1998 and completed a cognitive battery 5 years later, followed by two assessments at 2-year intervals. The primary outcomes were composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. The alternate Mediterranean diet adherence 9-point-score was constructed based on intakes of: vegetables, fruits, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, red and processed meats, moderate alcohol, and the ratio of monounsaturated-to-saturated fats. Results After multivariable adjustment, the alternate Mediterranean diet score was not associated with trajectories of repeated cognitive scores (P-trend across quintiles=0.26 and 0.40 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively), nor with overall global cognition and verbal memory at older ages, assessed by averaging the three cognitive measures (P-trend=0.63 and 0.44, respectively). Among alternate Mediterranean diet components, higher monounsaturated-to-saturated fats ratio was associated with more favorable cognitive trajectories (P-trend=0.03 and 0.05 for global cognition and verbal memory, respectively). Greater whole grain intake was not associated with cognitive trajectories, but was related to better average global cognition (P-trend=0.02). Conclusions In this large study of older women, we observed no association of the Mediterranean diet with cognitive decline. Relations between individual Mediterranean diet components, particularly whole grains, and cognitive function merit further study.

Samieri, Cecilia; Grodstein, Francine; Rosner, Bernard A.; Kang, Jae H.; Cook, Nancy R.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buring, Julie E.; Willett, Walter C.; Okereke, Olivia I.

2013-01-01

369

Novel Television-Based Cognitive Training Improves Working Memory and Executive Function  

PubMed Central

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60–87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of “adequate” to “high” system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition.

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecka, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bures, Vladimir

2014-01-01

370

Novel television-based cognitive training improves working memory and executive function.  

PubMed

The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities. Significant improvements were observed in well validated working memory and executive function tasks in the cognitive training but not in the control group. None of the groups showed statistically significant improvement in life satisfaction score. Participants' reports of "adequate" to "high" system usability testify to the successful development and implementation of the interactive television-based system and compliant cognitive training contents. The study demonstrates that cognitive training delivered by means of an interactive television system can generate genuine cognitive benefits in users and these are measurable using well-validated cognitive tests. Thus, older adults who cannot use or afford a computer can easily use digital interactive television to benefit from advanced software applications designed to train cognition. PMID:24992187

Shatil, Evelyn; Mikulecká, Jaroslava; Bellotti, Francesco; Bureš, Vladimír

2014-01-01

371

Toward a more embedded/extended perspective on the cognitive function of gestures  

PubMed Central

Gestures are often considered to be demonstrative of the embodied nature of the mind (Hostetter and Alibali, 2008). In this article, we review current theories and research targeted at the intra-cognitive role of gestures. We ask the question how can gestures support internal cognitive processes of the gesturer? We suggest that extant theories are in a sense disembodied, because they focus solely on embodiment in terms of the sensorimotor neural precursors of gestures. As a result, current theories on the intra-cognitive role of gestures are lacking in explanatory scope to address how gestures-as-bodily-acts fulfill a cognitive function. On the basis of recent theoretical appeals that focus on the possibly embedded/extended cognitive role of gestures (Clark, 2013), we suggest that gestures are external physical tools of the cognitive system that replace and support otherwise solely internal cognitive processes. That is gestures provide the cognitive system with a stable external physical and visual presence that can provide means to think with. We show that there is a considerable amount of overlap between the way the human cognitive system has been found to use its environment, and how gestures are used during cognitive processes. Lastly, we provide several suggestions of how to investigate the embedded/extended perspective of the cognitive function of gestures.

Pouw, Wim T. J. L.; de Nooijer, Jacqueline A.; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

2014-01-01

372

A Large, Cross-Sectional Observational Study of Serum BDNF, Cognitive Function, and Mild Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Objective: The clinical relationship between brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and cognitive function or mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is not well-understood. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between serum BDNF and cognitive function and MCI, and determine whether serum BDNF level might be a useful biomarker for assessing risk for MCI in older people. Materials and Methods: A total of 4463 individuals aged 65?years or older (mean age 72?years) participating in the study. We measured performance in a battery of neuropsychological and cognitive function tests; serum BDNF concentration. Results: Eight hundred twenty-seven participants (18.8%) had MCI. After adjustment for sex, age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking, serum BDNF was associated with poorer performance in the story memory, and digit symbol substitution task scores. Serum BDNF was marginally associated with the presence of MCI (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 1.00–1.99) when BDNF was 1.5 SD lower than the mean value standardized for sex and age, education level, diabetes, and current smoking. Conclusion: Low serum BDNF was associated with lower cognitive test scores and MCI. Future prospective studies should establish the discriminative value of serum BDNF for the risk of MCI.

Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Anan, Yuya; Uemura, Kazuki; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

2014-01-01

373

Chaos in the Home and Socioeconomic Status Are Associated with Cognitive Development in Early Childhood: Environmental Mediators Identified in a Genetic Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study examined whether socioeconomic status (SES) and chaos in the home mediate the shared environmental variance associated with cognitive functioning simultaneously estimating genetic influences in a twin design. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive development were assessed at 3 and 4 years for identical and same-sex fraternal twin pairs…

Petrill, Stephen A.; Pike, Alison; Price, Tom; Plomin, Robert

2004-01-01

374

Patients with hepatitis C infection and normal liver function: an evaluation of cognitive function  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the study Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with neuropsychiatric complaints. Previous studies have associated cognitive alterations with HCV infection but have often included confounding factors in their samples. This study compares the cognitive performance between patients with HCV infection (HCV patients) and a control group while excluding other factors that may cause cognitive impairment. Study design This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2010 through June 2011. HCV infected patients and healthy individuals between the ages of 18 and 80?years were considered eligible. The exclusion criteria included well established causes of cognitive impairment such as depression and cirrhosis. Study participants underwent neuropsychological testing involving measures of attention, memory, abstraction, visuoconstructive abilities, and executive function. Results Of 138 initial patients, 47 were excluded because of their medical records, three refused to participate, 23 did not attend the consultation, and 32 were excluded because of having Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores >11. In all, 33 patients underwent neuropsychological testing; however, three were excluded because of having hypothyroidism, and one was excluded because of having a cobalamin deficiency. For the control group, of the 33 healthy individuals that were selected, four were excluded because of having BDI scores >11. Thus, the final analysis included 29 HCV patients and 29 control participants. The groups did not differ in education, age, or gender. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups regarding cognitive performance. Conclusions In this study using strict selection criteria, there was no evidence of an association between HCV infection and cognitive impairment.

Abrantes, Jefferson; Torres, Daniel Simplicio; de Mello, Carlos Eduardo Brandao

2013-01-01

375

Cognitive Ability as a Resource for Everyday Functioning among Older Adults Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reports on a study that investigated the role of cognitive resources in the everyday functioning of 121 older adults who were visually impaired and 150 sighted older adults, with a mean age of 82 years. Cognitive performance and everyday functioning were most strongly related in the group who were visually impaired. The authors…

Heyl, Vera; Wahl, Hans-Werner

2010-01-01

376

How Do Cognitive Function and Knowledge Affect Heart Failure Self-Care?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite extensive patient education, few heart failure (HF) patients master self-care. Impaired cognitive function may explain why patient education is ineffective. A concurrent triangulation mixed methods design was used to explore how knowledge and cognitive function influence HF self-care. A total of 41 adults with HF participated in interviews…

Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; Lee, Christopher S.; Riegel, Barbara

2011-01-01

377

Cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using the Stroop task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in cognition, motor function, and emotion processing. However, little is known about how traumatic brain injury (TBI) affects the ACC system. Our purpose was to compare, by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, the patterns of cortical activation in patients with cognitive impairment after TBI and those of normal subjects. Cortical

Akio Soeda; Toshihiko Nakashima; Ayumi Okumura; Kazuo Kuwata; Jun Shinoda; Toru Iwama

2005-01-01

378

Relationship between cognitive function and prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation in adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Decrease in intrinsic motivation is a common complaint among elementary and junior high school students, and is related to poor academic performance. Since grade-dependent development of cognitive functions also influences academic performance by these students, we examined whether cognitive functions are related to the prevalence of decrease in intrinsic academic motivation. METHODS: The study group consisted of 134 elementary

Kei Mizuno; Masaaki Tanaka; Sanae Fukuda; Kyoko Imai-Matsumura; Yasuyoshi Watanabe

2011-01-01

379

Insights From Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a critical role in the development of academic skills such as reading. This

Kelly B. Cartwright

2012-01-01

380

Smoking, drinking, and other life style factors and cognitive function in men in the Caerphilly cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To examine the cognitive function in a large, ongoing cohort study of older men, and to identify associations with social and lifestyle factors. DESIGN: A cross sectional study of cognitive function was conducted within the Caerphilly Prospective Study of Heart Disease and stroke. SETTING: The Caerphilly Study was originally set up in 1979-83 when the men were 45-59

P. C. Elwood; J. E. Gallacher; C. A. Hopkinson; J. Pickering; P. Rabbitt; B. Stollery; C. Brayne; F. A. Huppert; A. Bayer

1999-01-01

381

Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and

Min-Hyeon Park; E-Jin Park; Jeewook Choi; Sukhi Chai; Ji-Han Lee; Chul Lee; Dai-Jin Kim

382

Cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged and aged adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate the relationship of cognitive function with glucose tolerance status and obesity in Chinese middle-aged or aged adults.Methods: A sample of 1722 subjects aged 40 years or order was investigated from four communities in Shijingshan District, Beijing, China. People with any emotional disorder, substance abuse, known diabetes or stroke were excluded. Global cognitive function was measured by the

Yanhui Lu; Juming Lu; Shuyu Wang; Chunlin Li; Lisheng Liu; Runping Zheng; Hui Tian; Xianling Wang; Lijuan Yang; Yuqing Zhang; Changyu Pan

2012-01-01

383

Alcohol Drinking and Cognitive Functions: Findings from the Cardiovascular Risk Factors Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Moderate alcohol drinking is suggested to be beneficial for cognitive functions, but the results of previous studies have varied greatly. Little is known about the effects of midlife alcohol drinking on the cognitive functions later in life. Methods: Participants were derived from random, population-based samples studied in Eastern Finland in 1972, 1977, 1982, or 1987. A total of 1,341

Tiia Ngandu; Eeva-Liisa Helkala; Hilkka Soininen; Bengt Winblad; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Aulikki Nissinen; Miia Kivipelto

2007-01-01

384

High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Cognitive Function and Mortality in a U.S. National Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of both high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and cognitive function are associated with increased mortality risk. HDL plays an important role in brain metabolism. We test the hypotheses that the relative protective effect of high HDL level as related to mortality is greater in persons with impaired cognitive function than in others. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal

Richard F Gillum; Thomas O Obisesan

2011-01-01

385

Insights from Cognitive Neuroscience: The Importance of Executive Function for Early Reading Development and Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Executive function begins to develop in infancy and involves an array of processes, such as attention, inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, which provide the means by which individuals control their own behavior, work toward goals, and manage complex cognitive processes. Thus, executive function plays a…

Cartwright, Kelly B.

2012-01-01

386

Alternatively activated myeloid (M2) cells enhance cognitive function in immune compromised mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was recently shown that adaptive immunity plays a key role in cognitive function. T cells appear to be major players in learning and memory; thus, mice devoid of functional T cells are impaired in performance of cognitive tasks such as Morris water maze (MWM), Barnes maze and others. This is a reversible phenomenon; injection of immune deficient mice with

Noel C. Derecki; Kayla M. Quinnies; Jonathan Kipnis

2011-01-01

387

Cognitive, Linguistic and Adaptive Functioning in Williams Syndrome: Trajectories from Early to Middle Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Little is known about trajectories of cognitive functioning as individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) move though adulthood. Method: The present study investigated cognitive, linguistic and adaptive functioning in adults with WS aged 19-55 years, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches. Results: Data from the…

Howlin, Patricia; Elison, Sarah; Udwin, Orlee; Stinton, Christopher

2010-01-01

388

Cognitive function and social abilities in patients with schizophrenia: Relationship with atypical antipsychotics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although atypical antipsychotics have been associated with improvements in cognitive function in schizophrenia, the neurochemical basis for such effects is not well understood. Candidate neu- rotransmitter systems primarily involve dopamine and serotonin. The current study explored this issue by examining the cognitive abilities, social function and quality of life in patients with schizo- phrenia who were medicated with atypical antipsychotics.

PHILIP J. TYSON; KEITH R. LAWS; KENNETH A. FLOWERS; AGI TYSON; ANN M. MORTIMER

2006-01-01

389

Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

May, Joanne C.

2005-01-01

390

Cognitive Function, Mental Health, and Health-related Quality of Life after Lung Transplantation.  

PubMed

Rationale: Cognitive and psychiatric impairments are threats to functional independence, general health, and quality of life. Evidence regarding these outcomes after lung transplantation is limited. Objectives: Determine the frequency of cognitive and psychiatric impairment after lung transplantation and identify potential factors associated with cognitive impairment after lung transplantation. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed cognitive function, mental health, and health-related quality of life using a validated battery of standardized tests in 42 subjects post-transplantation. The battery assessed cognition, depression, anxiety, resilience, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, a validated screening test with a range of 0 to 30. We hypothesized that cognitive function post-transplantation would be associated with type of transplant, cardiopulmonary bypass, primary graft dysfunction, allograft ischemic time, and physical therapy post-transplantation. We used multivariable linear regression to examine the relationship between candidate risk factors and cognitive function post-transplantation. Measurements and Main Results: Mild cognitive impairment (score, 18-25) was observed in 67% of post-transplant subjects (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50-80%) and moderate cognitive impairment (score, 10-17) was observed in 5% (95% CI, 1-16%) of post-transplant subjects. Symptoms of moderate to severe anxiety and depression were observed in 21 and 3% of post-transplant subjects, respectively. No transplant recipients reported symptoms of PTSD. Higher resilience correlated with less psychological distress in the domains of depression (P < 0.001) and PTSD (P = 0.02). Prolonged graft ischemic time was independently associated with worse cognitive performance after lung transplantation (P = 0.001). The functional gain in 6-minute-walk distance achieved at the end of post-transplant physical rehabilitation (P = 0.04) was independently associated with improved cognitive performance post-transplantation. Conclusions: Mild cognitive impairment was present in the majority of patients after lung transplantation. Prolonged allograft ischemic time may be associated with cognitive impairment. Poor physical performance and cognitive impairment are linked, and physical rehabilitation post-transplant and psychological resilience may be protective against the development of long-term impairment. Further study is warranted to confirm these potential associations and to examine the trajectory of cognitive function after lung transplantation. PMID:24605992

Cohen, David G; Christie, Jason D; Anderson, Brian J; Diamond, Joshua M; Judy, Ryan P; Shah, Rupal J; Cantu, Edward; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Blumenthal, Nancy P; Demissie, Ejigayehu; Hopkins, Ramona O; Mikkelsen, Mark E

2014-05-01

391

Exploring the cognitive and motor functions of the basal ganglia: an integrative review of computational cognitive neuroscience models  

PubMed Central

Many computational models of the basal ganglia (BG) have been proposed over the past twenty-five years. While computational neuroscience models have focused on closely matching the neurobiology of the BG, computational cognitive neuroscience (CCN) models have focused on how the BG can be used to implement cognitive and motor functions. This review article focuses on CCN models of the BG and how they use the neuroanatomy of the BG to account for cognitive and motor functions such as categorization, instrumental conditioning, probabilistic learning, working memory, sequence learning, automaticity, reaching, handwriting, and eye saccades. A total of 19 BG models accounting for one or more of these functions are reviewed and compared. The review concludes with a discussion of the limitations of existing CCN models of the BG and prescriptions for future modeling, including the need for computational models of the BG that can simultaneously account for cognitive and motor functions, and the need for a more complete specification of the role of the BG in behavioral functions.

Helie, Sebastien; Chakravarthy, Srinivasa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

2013-01-01

392

Cognitive Training Changes Hippocampal Function in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

A randomized pilot experiment examined the neural substrates of response to cognitive training in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants performed exercises previously demonstrated to improve verbal memory and an active control group performed other computer activities. An auditory-verbal fMRI task was conducted before and after the two-month training program. Verbal memory scores improved significantly and left hippocampal activation increased significantly in the experimental group (gains in 5 of 6 participants) relative to the control group (reductions in all 6 participants). Results suggest that the hippocampus in MCI may retain sufficient neuroplasticity to benefit from cognitive training.

Rosen, Allyson C.; Sugiura, Lisa; Kramer, Joel H.; Whitfield-Gabrieli, Susan; Gabrieli, John D.

2012-01-01

393

Cognitive function in schizophrenia: insights from intelligence research.  

PubMed

Schizophrenia is characterised by generalised cognitive impairment that is both a risk factor and a predictor of outcome. Recent research into human intelligence supports the view that, in schizophrenia, poor performance on disparate cognitive tasks can be explained by dysfunction of a frontoparietal neural network thought to support fluid intelligence. PMID:23999476

Joyce, Eileen M

2013-09-01

394

The Relationship between Nonverbal Cognitive Functions and Hearing Loss  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and memory and attention when nonverbal, visually presented cognitive tests are used. Method: Hearing loss (pure-tone audiometry) and IQ were measured in 30 participants with mild to severe hearing loss. Participants performed cognitive tests of pattern recognition memory,…

Zekveld, Adriana A.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Goverts, S. Theo; Kramer, Sophia E.

2007-01-01

395

Is Cognitive Functioning Impaired in Methamphetamine Users? A Critical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view is that recreational methamphetamine use causes a broad range of severe cognitive deficits, despite the fact that concerns have been raised about interpretations drawn from the published literature. This article addresses an important gap in our knowledge by providing a critical review of findings from recent research investigating the impact of recreational methamphetamine use on human cognition.

Carl L Hart; Caroline B Marvin; Rae Silver; Edward E Smith

2012-01-01

396

Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function.  

PubMed

Dendritic spines serve as the post-synaptic structural component of synapses. The structure and function of dendritic spines are dynamically regulated by a number of signaling pathways and allow for normal neural processing, whereas aberrant spine changes are thought to contribute to cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, spine changes within different brain regions and their contribution to specific cognitive functions, especially later in adulthood, is not well understood. In this study, we used late-adult KALRN-deficient mice as a tool to investigate the vulnerability of different cognitive functions to long-term perturbations in spine plasticity in different forebrain regions. We found that in these mice, loss of one or both copies of KALRN lead to genotype and brain region-dependent reductions in spine density. Surprisingly, heterozygote and knockout mice showed differential impairments in cognitive phenotypes, including working memory, social recognition, and social approach. Correlation analysis between the site and magnitude of spine loss and behavioral alterations suggests that the interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing and underscores the importance of spine plasticity in normal cognitive function. Long-term perturbation of spine plasticity results in distinct impairments of cognitive function. Using genetically modified mice deficient in a central regulator of spine plasticity, we investigated the brain region-specific contribution of spine numbers to various cognitive functions. We found distinct cognitive functions display differential sensitivity to spine loss in the cortex and hippocampus. Our data support spines as neuronal structures important for cognition and suggest interplay between brain regions is critical for complex cognitive processing. PMID:22862288

Vanleeuwen, Jon-Eric; Penzes, Peter

2012-12-01

397

Effects of hydration on cognitive function of pilots.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of fluid intake and possible dehydration on cognitive flight performance of pilots. A repeated-measures, counterbalanced, mixed study design was used to examine differences in working memory, spatial orientation, and cognitive flight performance of 40 randomly selected healthy pilots after having high and low fluid intakes. Serial weights were also analyzed to determine differences in cognitive flight performance of the dehydrated (1-3% weight loss) and hydrated study participants. Results showed flight performance and spatial cognition test scores were significantly (p < 0.05) poorer for pilots who had low fluid intakes and experienced dehydration in comparison to the hydrated pilots. These findings indicate fluid intake differences resulting in dehydration may have safety implications because peak cognitive performance among pilots is critical for flight safety. PMID:23820354

Lindseth, Paul D; Lindseth, Glenda N; Petros, Thomas V; Jensen, Warren C; Caspers, Julie

2013-07-01

398

Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.  

PubMed

The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

2014-02-01

399

Functional significance of complex fluctuations in brain activity: from resting state to cognitive neuroscience  

PubMed Central

Behavioral studies have shown that human cognition is characterized by properties such as temporal scale invariance, heavy-tailed non-Gaussian distributions, and long-range correlations at long time scales, suggesting models of how (non observable) components of cognition interact. On the other hand, results from functional neuroimaging studies show that complex scaling and intermittency may be generic spatio-temporal properties of the brain at rest. Somehow surprisingly, though, hardly ever have the neural correlates of cognition been studied at time scales comparable to those at which cognition shows scaling properties. Here, we analyze the meanings of scaling properties and the significance of their task-related modulations for cognitive neuroscience. It is proposed that cognitive processes can be framed in terms of complex generic properties of brain activity at rest and, ultimately, of functional equations, limiting distributions, symmetries, and possibly universality classes characterizing them.

Papo, David

2014-01-01

400

Factors Predicting Reversion from Mild Cognitive Impairment to Normal Cognitive Functioning: A Population-Based Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with an increased risk of developing dementia. However, many individuals diagnosed with MCI are found to have reverted to normal cognition on follow-up. This study investigated factors predicting or associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Methods Our analyses considered 223 participants (48.9% male) aged 71–89 years, drawn from the prospective, population-based Sydney Memory and Ageing Study. All were diagnosed with MCI at baseline and subsequently classified with either normal cognition or repeat diagnosis of MCI after two years (a further 11 participants who progressed from MCI to dementia were excluded). Associations with reversion were investigated for (1) baseline factors that included diagnostic features, personality, neuroimaging, sociodemographics, lifestyle, and physical and mental health; (2) longitudinal change in potentially modifiable factors. Results There were 66 reverters to normal cognition and 157 non-reverters (stable MCI). Regression analyses identified diagnostic features as most predictive of prognosis, with reversion less likely in participants with multiple-domain MCI (p?=?0.011), a moderately or severely impaired cognitive domain (p?=?0.002 and p?=?0.006), or an informant-based memory complaint (p?=?0.031). Reversion was also less likely for participants with arthritis (p?=?0.037), but more likely for participants with higher complex mental activity (p?=?0.003), greater openness to experience (p?=?0.041), better vision (p?=?0.014), better smelling ability (p?=?0.040), or larger combined volume of the left hippocampus and left amygdala (p<0.040). Reversion was also associated with a larger drop in diastolic blood pressure between baseline and follow-up (p?=?0.026). Discussion Numerous factors are associated with reversion from MCI to normal cognition. Assessing these factors could facilitate more accurate prognosis of individuals with MCI. Participation in cognitively enriching activities and efforts to lower blood pressure might promote reversion.

Sachdev, Perminder S.; Lipnicki, Darren M.; Crawford, John; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A.; Trollor, Julian N.; Wen, Wei; Draper, Brian; Slavin, Melissa J.; Kang, Kristan; Lux, Ora; Mather, Karen A.; Brodaty, Henry; Team, Ageing Study

2013-01-01

401

Social Activity and Cognitive Functioning Over Time: A Coordinated Analysis of Four Longitudinal Studies  

PubMed Central

Social activity is typically viewed as part of an engaged lifestyle that may help mitigate the deleterious effects of advanced age on cognitive function. As such, social activity has been examined in relation to cognitive abilities later in life. However, longitudinal evidence for this hypothesis thus far remains inconclusive. The current study sought to clarify the relationship between social activity and cognitive function over time using a coordinated data analysis approach across four longitudinal studies. A series of multilevel growth models with social activity included as a covariate is presented. Four domains of cognitive function were assessed: reasoning, memory, fluency, and semantic knowledge. Results suggest that baseline social activity is related to some, but not all, cognitive functions. Baseline social activity levels failed to predict rate of decline in most cognitive abilities. Changes in social activity were not consistently associated with cognitive functioning. Our findings do not provide consistent evidence that changes in social activity correspond to immediate benefits in cognitive functioning, except perhaps for verbal fluency.

Brown, Cassandra L.; Gibbons, Laura E.; Kennison, Robert F.; Robitaille, Annie; Lindwall, Magnus; Mitchell, Meghan B.; Shirk, Steven D.; Atri, Alireza; Cimino, Cynthia R.; Benitez, Andreana; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Zelinski, Elizabeth M.; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner; Johansson, Boo; Dixon, Roger A.; Mungas, Dan M.; Hofer, Scott M.; Piccinin, Andrea M.

2012-01-01

402

Childhood psychological function and obesity risk across the lifecourse: findings from the 1970 British Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Psychological comorbidities of obesity are well recognised. However, the role of childhood psychological problems in the aetiology of later obesity has been little studied.Design:Secondary analyses of a national birth cohort (1970 British Cohort Study). Analysis: Logistic regression models to predict obesity risk at 26, 30 and 34 years related to hypothesised predictors: maternal and teacher reported child psychological function at

B White; D Nicholls; D Christie; T J Cole; R M Viner

2012-01-01

</