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Sample records for children 2-5 years

  1. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  2. Wakefulness (Not Sleep) Promotes Generalization of Word Learning in 2.5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werchan, Denise M.; Gómez, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep enhances generalization in adults, but this has not been examined in toddlers. This study examined the impact of napping versus wakefulness on the generalization of word learning in toddlers when the contextual background changes during learning. Thirty 2.5-year-old children (M = 32.94, SE = 0.46) learned labels for novel categories of…

  3. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  4. Parental Influences on the Diets of 2-5-Year-Old Children: Systematic Review of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Jacqueline; Sinn, Natalie; Campbell, Karen; Lynch, John

    2012-01-01

    During the early years, parents have a major influence on their children's diets, food choices and development of eating habits. However, research concerning the influence of parental feeding practices on young children's diets is limited. This paper presents a systematic review of intervention studies with parents of preschool children. The aim…

  5. Space or Physics? Children Use Physical Reasoning to Solve the Trap Problem from 2.5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seed, Amanda M.; Call, Josep

    2014-01-01

    By 3 years of age, children can solve tasks involving physical principles such as locating a ball that rolled down a ramp behind an occluder by the position of a partially visible solid wall (Berthier, DeBlois, Poirer, Novak, & Clifton, 2000; Hood, Carey, & Prasada, 2000). However, the extent to which children use physical information (the…

  6. Children who screen positive for autism at 2.5 years and receive early intervention: a prospective naturalistic 2-year outcome study

    PubMed Central

    Spjut Jansson, Birgitta; Miniscalco, Carmela; Westerlund, Joakim; Kantzer, Anne-Katrin; Fernell, Elisabeth; Gillberg, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous research has stressed the importance of early identification and intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Methods Children who had screened positive for autism at the age of 2.5 years in a general population screening and then received a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder were enrolled in an intervention program provided by Swedish habilitation services. The following interventions were available: a comprehensive intervention based on Applied Behavior Analysis – Intensive Learning (IL) – in two settings, which included home- and preschool-based (IL Regular) and only home-based (IL Modified) and eclectic interventions. Results There was considerable variability in terms of outcome, but intervention group status was not associated with any of the chosen outcome variables. Conclusion The main finding was that the type of intervention was not critical for outcome of adaptive or global functioning. The variability in outcome demonstrates the need for continuous assessments and evaluation of the child’s function and behavior throughout the intervention period. PMID:27621636

  7. Seasonal variation in musculoskeletal extremity injuries in school children aged 6–12 followed prospectively over 2.5years: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Eva; Holst, René; Franz, Claudia; Rexen, Christina T; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The type and level of physical activity in children vary over seasons and might thus influence the injury patterns. However, very little information is available on the distribution of injuries over the calendar year. This study aims to describe and analyse the seasonal variation in extremity injuries in children. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 10 public schools in the municipality of Svendborg, Denmark. Participants A total of 1259 school children aged 6–12 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Methods School children were surveyed each week during 2.5 school-years. Musculoskeletal injuries were reported by parents answering automated mobile phone text questions (SMS-Track) on a weekly basis and diagnosed by clinicians. Data were analysed for prevalence and incidence rates over time with adjustments for gender and age. Results Injuries in the lower extremities were reported most frequently (n=1049). There was a significant seasonal variation in incidence and prevalence for lower extremity injuries and for lower and upper extremity injuries combined (n=1229). For the upper extremities (n=180), seasonal variation had a significant effect on the risk of prevalence. Analysis showed a 46% increase in injury incidence and a 32% increase in injury prevalence during summer relative to winter for lower and upper extremity injuries combined. Conclusions There are clear seasonal differences in the occurrence of musculoskeletal extremity injuries among children with almost twice as high injury incidence and prevalence estimates during autumn, summer and spring compared with winter. This suggests further research into the underlying causes for seasonal variation and calls for preventive strategies to be implemented in order to actively prepare and supervise children before and during high-risk periods. PMID:24401728

  8. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. PMID:27112725

  9. Fluoride Exposure, Caregiver Education, and Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (dmft) in 2-5 year-old English or Spanish Speaking Children.

    PubMed

    Uceda, Paola R; Sanzone, Lauren A; Phillips, Ceib L; Roberts, Michael W

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that includes behavioral and cultural components. The study's purpose was to determine the caries experienced (as measured by dmft) in a group of 2-5 y/o children, assess their family and home environment including consumption of fluoridated drinking water, use of a fluoride containing dentifrice, and level of caregiver formal education. Parents of children referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia and who either spoke and read English or Spanish were recruited and consent obtained. Selected information on the family home, parental education and selected fluoride contact data was obtained. An oral clinical examination of the child assisted by intraoral radiographs was completed and the number of decayed, missing, filled primary teeth (dmft) recorded for each child. Bitewings were obtained if posterior or anterior teeth contacts were closed but only periapical radiographs were obtained if contacts were open. Children of English speaking caregivers had statistically more dmft after controlling for the effect of the child's age and years of parental education (p=0.04). English speaking families had lived in their current home longer and the parent had more formal education than did the Spanish speaking parent. When available, the English children drank municipal tap water more often than did the Spanish children. Spanish speaking parents often chose bottled drinking water. No difference between the two groups was found in the use of tap water for cooking or the use of fluoridated dentifrice. In conclusion, increased parent education, language spoken by the parents and time living in the current home were not associated with lower dmft. Drinking fluoridated drinking water did not affect the dmft. However, using fluoridated water when available to cook and using fluoride containing dentifrice by both groups may have been mutually beneficial. PMID:24379894

  10. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5-3.5 year-olds with 5.5-6.5 year-olds.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children's prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5-3.5 years of age and 5.5-6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called "game" where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception-no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5-3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5-6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children's social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  11. Developmental Trajectories of Sex-Typed Behavior in Boys and Girls: A Longitudinal General Population Study of Children Aged 2.5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Croudace, Tim; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    The stability of sex-typed behavior from the preschool to the middle school years was examined. The Preschool Activities Inventory, a measure of within-sex variation in sex-typed behavior, was completed by the primary caregiver when the child was 2.5, 3.5, and 5 years, and a modified version, the Child Activities Inventory, was completed by the…

  12. Comparative study using oral solutions of bambuterol once daily or terbutaline three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. Bambuterol Multicentre Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kuusela, A L; Marenk, M; Sandahl, G; Sanderud, J; Nikolajev, K; Persson, B

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare safety and efficacy of bambuterol hydrochloride (10 mg) oral solution administered once daily in the evening with terbutaline sulphate (0.075 mg/kg body weight) oral solution administered three times daily in 2-5-year-old children with asthma. There were two treatment groups: (2/3) of the patients received bambuterol and (1/3) received terbutaline. The study was double-blind, randomized, and of a parallel group design, and it lasted for 3 months after a 2-week run-in period. The primary objective was to evaluate safety (adverse events, and changes in blood pressure, pulse rate, hematology, and clinical chemistry parameters). Plasma concentrations of terbutaline and/or bambuterol were also measured. Evaluation of efficacy (diary card data) was a secondary objective. A total of 155 patients (range, 2-6 years; 3 patients were 6 years old at randomization) were treated with the study drugs; 104 patients received bambuterol and 51 patients received terbutaline. Both treatments showed a good safety profile with respect to clinical and laboratory tests, and they were generally well tolerated. Reported adverse events were mild to moderate. There were no statistically significant differences between treatment groups in any of the efficacy variables (diary variables: peak expiratory flow (PEF), asthma symptoms, restlessness, other reported symptoms, use of inhaled bronchodilators, and nighttime awakenings). For morning PEF, the mean increase from run-in to treatment was 16.9 L/min in the terbutaline group and 23.3 L/min in the bambuterol group. For evening PEF, the mean increase was 20.2 L/min in the terbutaline group and 20.6 L/min in the bambuterol group. In conclusion, once-daily bambuterol is as safe and effective as terbutaline given three times daily. The study also confirmed that bambuterol has a 24-hr duration of action, and therefore its once daily administration, makes it a preferred bronchodilator agent. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2000

  13. The effects of intergroup competition on prosocial behaviors in young children: a comparison of 2.5–3.5 year-olds with 5.5–6.5 year-olds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yi; Guan, Xian; Li, Yansong

    2015-01-01

    Group-based competition is considered to be a ubiquitous social context in human society. However, little is known about its potential effects on children’s prosocial behaviors. To this end, we designed an experiment in which two age groups (2.5–3.5 years of age and 5.5–6.5 years of age) engaged in an intergroup competition task where they did a so-called “game” where each child transferred table tennis balls with a spoon from one container to the other. The non-intergroup competition condition was identical to the intergroup competition condition with one exception—no intergroup competition manipulation was involved. Then, they were required to perform two economic games used to measure their prosocial behaviors. We found that under the non-intergroup competition condition, as children aged, their behaviors tended to be more fairness-oriented (such as an increase in egalitarian behaviors). However, under the intergroup competition condition, children at 2.5–3.5 years of age tended to behave prosocially towards their ingroup members compared with those who are at 5.5–6.5 years of age. The behavioral pattern under the intergroup competition condition reflects strengthening prosocial tendencies driven by the intergroup competition in younger children and simultaneously weakening intergroup competition-driven prosocial tendencies possibly due to the development of fairness-oriented behaviors in older children. Taken together, these results point to the importance of considering the effects of competitive contexts on children’s social behaviors and may have important implications for further research on the role of competitive contexts in the development of human prosocial behaviors. PMID:25729357

  14. Association of caregiver quality of care with neurocognitive outcomes in HIV-affected children aged 2-5 years in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bass, Judith K; Nakasujja, Noeline; Familiar-Lopez, Itziar; Sikorskii, Alla; Murray, Sarah M; Opoka, Robert; Augustinavicius, Jura; Boivin, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Children affected by HIV are at increased risk of developmental and neuropsychological disturbances due to direct effects of HIV on the brain and direct effects associated with living in poverty. Caregivers can play an important role, through quality caregiving, in mitigating the negative effect of these stressors. This study used baseline data from an ongoing caregiver training intervention trial to evaluate the association between quality of caregiver-child interactions and neurocognitive outcomes in rural HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in Uganda. We also assessed the extent to which caregiver distress moderated this relationship. Data on 329 caregiver-child dyads were collected between March 2012 and July 2014, when the children were between 2 and 5 years of age. Child outcomes include the Mullen Scales of Early Learning to assess general cognitive ability and the Color Object Association Test to assess immediate memory and total recall. Caregiving quality was assessed using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment (HOME) total and subscale scores. Caregiver distress was assessed using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. General linear regression models assessed the association between the HOME total and subscale scores and child outcomes, with interaction terms used to test moderation by caregiver distress. Total HOME scores were positively and significantly associated with Mullen scores of cognitive ability; HOME acceptance subscale scores were positively and significantly associated with immediate recall scores. No other associations were statistically significant. As hypothesized, there is a strong association between the HOME and Mullen scores of cognitive ability in our study population, such that children who were assessed as living in environments with more stimulation also presented with a higher level of general neurocognitive development. Our results support the view of program guidance for HIV-affected children

  15. Circadian biology: a 2.5 billion year old clock.

    PubMed

    Loudon, Andrew S I

    2012-07-24

    A recent study suggests that circadian clocks may have evolved at the time of the Great Oxidation Event 2.5 billion years ago in order to drive detoxification of reactive oxygen species. PMID:22835791

  16. Source Monitoring and Executive Function in 2.5- to 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hala, Suzanne; McKay, Lee-Ann; Brown, Alisha M. B.; San Juan, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Hala, Brown, McKay, and San Juan (2013) found that children as young as 2.5 years of age demonstrated high levels of accuracy when asked to recall whether they or the experimenter had carried out a particular action. In the research reported here, we examined the relation of early-emerging source monitoring to executive function abilities.…

  17. Tolerability of 2.5% Lidocaine/Prilocaine Hydrogel in Children Undergoing Cryotherapy for Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André A M; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia A R S; Moreno, Ronilson A; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    The tolerability of a 2.5% lidocaine/prilocaine hydrogel (Nanorap, Biolab Indústria Farmacêutica Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil) was evaluated in 20 children ages 2 to 11 years undergoing cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum (MC). The product was well tolerated, with only two children presenting with eczema at the application site. These adverse reactions were considered unlikely to be related to the test product, because a patch test was negative in one of the individuals and the other event occurred in only one of the two treated areas. Nanorap is an efficacious and well-tolerated option for topical anesthesia in children undergoing cryotherapy for MC. PMID:27041686

  18. Language Skills and Reading Comprehension in English Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children in Grades 2-5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Rebecca D.; Proctor, C. Patrick; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Hartranft, Anna M.; Doyle, Brie; Zelinke, Sarah B.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated language skills and reading comprehension with English monolingual and Spanish-English bilingual children in grades 2-5. Of the 377 children in the sample, 207 were English monolingual and 170 were Spanish-English bilingual. Data were collected within a cohort-sequential design for two academic years in the fall and…

  19. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  20. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of levalbuterol in 2-5-year-old patients with asthma.

    PubMed

    Skoner, David P; Greos, Leon S; Kim, Kenneth T; Roach, James M; Parsey, Merdad; Baumgartner, Rudolf A

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-isomer (R)-albuterol (levalbuterol, LEV) in children aged 2-5 years. Children aged 2-5 years (n = 211) participated in this multicenter, randomized, double-blind study of 21 days of t.i.d. LEV (0.31 mg or 0.63 mg without regard to weight), racemic albuterol (RAC, 1.25 mg for children <33 pounds (lb); 2.5 mg for children >/=33 lb), or placebo (PBO). Endpoints included adverse-event (AE) reporting, safety parameters, peak expiratory flow (PEF), the Pediatric Asthma Questionnaire(c) (PAQ), and the Pediatric Asthma Caregiver's Quality of Life Questionnaire (PACQLQ). Baseline disease severity was generally mild in all groups, as defined by PAQ scores that ranged from 6.3-7.3 on a scale of 0-27 and 1.5 days/week of uncontrolled asthma. After treatment, the PAQ decreased in all groups (P = NS). In the subset of subjects able to perform PEF (51.7%), all active treatments improved in-clinic PEF after the first dose (mean +/- SD: PBO, 1.4 +/- 20.8; LEV 0.31 mg, 12.4 +/- 12; LEV 0.63 mg, 16.7 +/- 15.4; RAC, 18.0 +/- 16.5 l/min; P < 0.01). PACQLQ measurements improved more than the minimally important difference only in the LEV-treated groups, and were significant in children <33 lb (P < 0.05). Asthma exacerbations occurred primarily in children >/=33 lb, and one serious asthma exacerbation occurred in the 2.5-mg RAC group. RAC and LEV 0.63 mg, but not LEV 0.31 mg or placebo, led to significant increases in ventricular heart rate. In this study of levalbuterol in children aged 2-5 years with asthma, LEV was generally well-tolerated, and in children able to perform PEF, led to significant bronchodilation compared with placebo. PMID:16193496

  1. Quantifying the impact of PM2.5 and associated heavy metals on respiratory health of children near metallurgical facilities.

    PubMed

    Dunea, Daniel; Iordache, Stefania; Liu, Hai-Ying; Bøhler, Trond; Pohoata, Alin; Radulescu, Cristiana

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to link the concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and associated heavy metals with occurrence of wheezing and hospitalizations due to wheezing in 111 children who live near metallurgical plants in Targoviste City, Romania. A group of 72 children with high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and eosinophils, as well as frequent wheezing episodes, was geolocated on digital thematic maps. Monitoring campaigns and medical assessments were performed over two consecutive years (2013-2014). The multiannual average concentrations of PM2.5 ranged from 4.6 to 22.5 μg m(-3), up to a maximum value of 102 μg m(-3). Significant correlations (p < 0.01) were observed between the locations of the children with respiratory issues and the PM2.5 multiannual average (r = 0.985) and PM2.5 maximum (r = 0.813). Fe, Ni, Cd, and Cr were the main marker elements of the emissions from steel production and metal-working facilities in the Targoviste area. The results support the hypothesis that increased PM2.5 levels directly influence wheezing symptom and asthma attacks in the analyzed group. IgE, eosinophils, and wheezing episodes may be considered key indicators with which to evaluate the adverse effects of PM2.5 air pollution on children's health. PMID:27115705

  2. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-adoption

    PubMed Central

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2014-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar et al., 2013; Kreppner, O’Connor, & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad et al., 2008). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M= 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M= 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into 4 groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = −0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = −.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. PMID:25070881

  3. PM2.5 chemical composition in five European Mediterranean cities: A 1-year study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, Dalia; Detournay, Anais; Pey, Jorge; Pérez, Noemi; Liguori, Francesca; Saraga, Dikaia; Bove, Maria Chiara; Brotto, Paolo; Cassola, Federico; Massabò, Dario; Latella, Aurelio; Pillon, Silvia; Formenton, Gianni; Patti, Salvatore; Armengaud, Alexandre; Piga, Damien; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Bartzis, John; Tolis, Evangelos; Prati, Paolo; Querol, Xavier; Wortham, Henri; Marchand, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    The seasonal and spatial characteristics of PM2.5 and its chemical composition in the Mediterranean Basin have been studied over a 1-year period (2011-2012) in five European Mediterranean cities: Barcelona (BCN), Marseille (MRS), Genoa (GEN), Venice (VEN), and Thessaloniki (THE). During the year under study, PM10 annual mean concentration ranged from 23 to 46 μg m- 3, while the respective PM2.5 ranged from 14 to 37 μg m- 3, with the highest concentrations observed in THE and VEN. Both cities presented an elevated number of exceedances of the PM10 daily limit value, as 32% and 20% of the days exceeded 50 μg m- 3, respectively. Similarly, exceedances of the WHO guidelines for daily PM2.5 concentrations (25 μg m- 3) were also more frequent in THE with 78% of the days during the period, followed by VEN with 39%. The lowest PM levels were measured in GEN. PM2.5 exhibited significant seasonal variability, with much higher winter concentrations for VEN and MRS, in fall for THE and in spring for BCN. PM2.5 chemical composition was markedly different even for similar PM2.5 levels. On annual average, PM2.5 was dominated by OM except in THE. OM contribution was higher in Marseille (42%), while mineral matter was the most abundant constituent in THE (32%). Moreover, PM2.5 relative mean composition during pollution episodes (PM2.5 > 25 μg m- 3) as well as the origins of the exceedances were also investigated. Results outline mainly the effect of NO3- being the most important driver and highlight the non-negligible impact of atmospheric mixing and aging processes during pollution episodes.

  4. Effects of A 2.5-Year Campus-Wide Intervention to Reduce College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Owens, Dee; Gassman, Ruth; Kingori, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study reports on the results of a 2.5-year college-wide, coordinated intervention that was implemented from June 2007 to December 2009 to reduce the amount and frequency of students' alcohol consumption. Design: Quasi-experimental study using a one-group (freshmen living on campus) pretest/posttest design ("N"…

  5. Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) PM 2.5 speciation program: Methodology and PM 2.5 chemical composition for the years 2003-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Dann, Tom F.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Celo, Valbona; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Mathieu, David; Ding, Luyi; Austin, Claire C.

    2011-01-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network, monitoring criteria gases (CO, O 3, NO x, and SO 2), PM 2.5, PM 10, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and particle chemical mass and composition, has been in operation for over 40 years. Since 1984 both fine (<2.5 μm - PM 2.5) and coarse (2.5-10 μm - PM 10-2.5) particle mass measurements have been made at NAPS network sites using dichotomous samplers. In January 2003, the NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program was initiated with the purpose of measuring all major components of PM 2.5, including ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulphate, metals, and organic and elemental carbon. The present paper describes the improved sampling (e.g. Teflon/Nylon filter packs for nitrate loss, and an active blank for each and every sample in the determination of positive organic carbon artifacts), and analytical methods used in the Canadian NAPS PM 2.5 speciation program. A detailed dataset was then analyzed for seasonal and geographical variations in the major components of 24-h time integrated PM 2.5 samples collected at eight urban and three rural measurement sites across Canada (2003-2008). Chemical mass reconstruction was used for assessment of the adequacy of selected sampling and chemical parameters as well as for the determination of the relative contributions of different compound classes to PM 2.5 mass. The highest frequency of PM 2.5 episodes exceeding 30 μg m -3 were observed in Ontario and southern Quebec. In general, the most important contributions to PM 2.5 mass were secondary aerosol sulphate and nitrate (38-63% for western sites and 3-44% for eastern sites), depending on the season. Organic matter (OM) was found to be the second most important component (21-45%), while particle-bound water (PBW) accounted for 6-12% of the PM 2.5 mass. Golden B.C. was an exception, exhibiting high levels of OM (60-70%) and low levels of PBW (˜3%).

  6. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. PMID:25070881

  7. 2.5-year-olds use cross-situational consistency to learn verbs under referential uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only a fraction of the vocabulary children acquire, and arguably represent the simplest case of word learning based on observations of world scenes. Here we extended the study of cross-situational word learning to a new segment of the vocabulary, action verbs, to permit a stronger test of the role of statistical information in word learning. In two experiments, on each trial 2.5-year-olds encountered two novel intransitive (e.g., “She’s pimming!”; Experiment 1) or transitive verbs (e.g., “She’s pimming her toy!”; Experiment 2) while viewing two action events. The consistency with which each verb accompanied each action provided the only source of information about the intended referent of each verb. The 2.5-year-olds used cross-situational consistency in verb learning, but also showed significant limits on their ability to do so as the sentences and scenes became slightly more complex. These findings help to define the role of cross-situational observation in word learning. PMID:22104489

  8. Back injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: A 2.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Franz, C; Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Leboeuf-Yde, C; Wedderkopp, N

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed back pain in childhood, classified as either nontraumatic or traumatic back injury, and to estimate the association with physical activity in different settings. Over 2.5 years, 1240 children aged 6-12 years were surveyed weekly using mobile text messages to ask about the presence or absence of back pain. Pain was clinically diagnosed and injuries were classified using the International Classification of Diseases version 10. Physical activity data were obtained from text messages and accelerometers. Of the 315 back injuries diagnosed, 186 injuries were nontraumatic and 129 were traumatic. The incidence rate ratio was 1.5 for a nontraumatic back injury compared with a traumatic injury. The overall estimated back injury incidence rate was 0.20 per 1000 physical activity units (95% confidence interval 0.18-0.23). The back injury incidence rates were higher for sports when exposure per 1000 physical activity units was taken into consideration and especially children horse-riding had a 40 times higher risk of sustaining a traumatic back injury compared to the risk during non-organized leisure time physical activity. However, the reasonably low injury incidence rates support the recommendations of children continuously being physically active. PMID:26130046

  9. One-year intensive characterization on PM2.5 nearby port area of Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Tolis, Evangelos I; Saraga, Dikaia E; Filiou, Katerina F; Tziavos, Nikolaos I; Tsiaousis, Chistos P; Dinas, Athanasios; Bartzis, John G

    2015-05-01

    The chemical characterization of particulate matter (PM) 2.5 fraction was studied during a 1-year sampling campaign conducted at a site near Thessaloniki's port area. PM2.5 collected samples were chemically analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, minerals, and trace elements (Pb, Ni, Cu, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Mg, K, Ti, Fe, Ca, and Al); water-soluble ions (Cl(-), NO3 (-), SO4 (2-), K(+), Na(+), NH4 (+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)); and organic and elemental carbon. The average annual PM2.5 concentration (66.0 μg/m(3)) was at the highest level compared with other studies reported for the same city but different sampling sites. The average daily sum of the measured concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was 12.76 ng/m(3); this value decreased to 6.73 ng/m(3) for the warm period and reached the value of 19.8 ng/m(3) for the cold period. The average concentration of benzo[a]pyrene during the sampling period was 0.75 ng/m(3), which is below the European Union limit value of 1.0 ng/m(3). The ionic content comprised, on average, 22.6 % of the PM2.5 mass, with sulfate and ammonium being the most abundant species (31 and 26 %, respectively, of measured ions during the whole sampling period). The annual mean concentrations of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were 10.5 ± 6.3 and 2.3 ± 1.5 μg/m(3), respectively. The OC/EC ratio ranged from 1.6 to 9.9, suggesting that there is a significant influence of residential wood burning for heating as well as ship and vehicle emissions to the sampling area. Finally, the elemental composition of associated PM2.5 was dominated by Ca, Fe, and Al. Although conclusions based only on PM2.5 measurements cannot entirely estimate all harbor sources' contribution, there is evidence to support that port activities affect the city's air quality and vice versa. PMID:25430014

  10. Performance of the MIR Cooperative Solar Array After 2.5 Years in Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.; Hoffman, David J.

    1999-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA) was developed jointly by the United States and Russia to produce 6 kW of power for the Russian space station Mir. Four, multi-orbit test sequences were executed between June 1996 and December 1998 to measure MCSA electrical performance. A dedicated Fortran computer code was developed to analyze the detailed thermal-electrical performance of the MCSA. The computational performance results compared very favorably with the measured flight data in most cases. Minor performance degradation was detected in one current generating section of the MCSA. Yet overall, the flight data indicated the MCSA was meeting and exceeding performance expectations. There was no precipitous performance loss due to contamination or other causes after 2.5 years of operation. In this paper, we review the MCSA flight electrical performance tests, data and computational modeling and discuss findings from data comparisons with the computational results.

  11. 2.5-year-olds Succeed at a Verbal Anticipatory-Looking False-Belief Task

    PubMed Central

    He, Zijing; Bolz, Matthias; Baillargeon, Renée

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants and toddlers succeed at a wide range of nonelicited-response false-belief tasks (i.e., tasks that do not require children to answer a direct question about a mistaken agent’s likely behavior). However, one exception to this generalization comes from verbal anticipatory-looking tasks, which have produced inconsistent findings with toddlers. One possible explanation for these findings is that toddlers succeed when they correctly interpret the prompt as a self-addressed utterance (making the task a nonelicited-response task), but fail when they mistakenly interpret the prompt as a direct question (making the task an elicited-response task). Here, 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested in a verbal anticipatory-looking task that was designed to help them interpret the anticipatory prompt as a self-addressed utterance: the experimenter looked at the ceiling, chin in hand, during and after the prompt. Children gave evidence of false-belief understanding in this task, but failed when the experimenter looked at the child during and after the prompt. These results reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief reasoning and provide additional support for the distinction between nonelicited- and elicited-response false-belief tasks. Three accounts of the discrepant results obtained with these tasks—and of early false-belief understanding more generally—are discussed. PMID:22429030

  12. False-belief understanding in 2.5-year-olds: evidence from two novel verbal spontaneous-response tasks.

    PubMed

    Scott, Rose M; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renée; Cummins, Denise

    2012-03-01

    Recent research indicates that toddlers and infants succeed at various non-verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks; here we asked whether toddlers would also succeed at verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks that imposed significant linguistic demands. We tested 2.5-year-olds using two novel tasks: a preferential-looking task in which children listened to a false-belief story while looking at a picture book (with matching and non-matching pictures), and a violation-of-expectation task in which children watched an adult 'Subject' answer (correctly or incorrectly) a standard false-belief question. Positive results were obtained with both tasks, despite their linguistic demands. These results (1) support the distinction between spontaneous- and elicited-response tasks by showing that toddlers succeed at verbal false-belief tasks that do not require them to answer direct questions about agents' false beliefs, (2) reinforce claims of robust continuity in early false-belief understanding as assessed by spontaneous-response tasks, and (3) provide researchers with new experimental tasks for exploring early false-belief understanding in neurotypical and autistic populations. PMID:22356174

  13. Musculoskeletal extremity injuries in a cohort of schoolchildren aged 6-12: a 2.5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, E; Rexen, C T; Franz, C; Møller, N C; Froberg, K; Wedderkopp, N

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this prospective school cohort study were to describe the epidemiology of diagnosed musculoskeletal extremity injuries and to estimate the injury incidence rates in relation to different settings, different body regions and injury types. In all, 1259 schoolchildren, aged 6-12, were surveyed weekly during 2.5 years using a new method of automated mobile phone text messaging asking questions on the presence of any musculoskeletal problems. All injuries were clinically diagnosed. Physical activity was measured from text messaging and accelerometers. A total number of 1229 injuries were diagnosed; 180 injuries in the upper extremity and 1049 in the lower extremity, with an overall rate of 1.59 injuries per 1000 physical activity units [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.50-1.68]. Upper extremities accounted for a rate of 0.23 (95% CI 0.20-0.27) and lower extremities accounted for 1.36 (95% CI 1.27-1.44). This study has added a wide overall perspective to the area concerning incidence and incidence rates of musculoskeletal extremity injuries in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years, including severe and less severe, traumatic, and overuse injuries. The understanding of injury epidemiology in children is fundamental to the acknowledgement and insurance of the appropriate prevention and treatment. PMID:24472003

  14. Characterization of an area of reference for inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with genetic biomonitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Silva da Silva, Cristiane; Rossato, Juliana Marzari; Vaz Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2015-01-15

    Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 μg/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 μg/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.3±0.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.4±0.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.8±4.23 (-S9) and 17.5±2.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.3±0.41 (‰) and for other cell types a variation from 0.6±0.73 (‰), nuclear buds to 57.5±24.92 (‰), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.1±12.44; 7.3±11.66 and 0.9±2.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied. PMID:25726147

  15. Participation in an Intensive Longitudinal Study with Weekly Web Surveys Over 2.5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer; Kusunoki, Yasamin; Schulz, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Technological advances have made it easier for researchers to collect more frequent longitudinal data from survey respondents via personal computers, smartphones, and other mobile devices. Although technology has led to an increase in data-intensive longitudinal studies, little is known about attrition from such studies or the differences between respondents who complete frequently administered surveys in a timely manner, and respondents who do not. Objective We examined respondent characteristics and behaviors associated with continued and on-time participation in a population-based intensive longitudinal study, using weekly web-based survey interviews over an extended period. Methods We analyzed data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life study, an intensive longitudinal study that collected weekly web-based survey interviews for 2.5 years from 1003 18- and 19-year-olds to investigate factors shaping the dynamics of their sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancies. Results Ordinary least squares and logistic regression analyses showed background respondent characteristics measured at baseline were associated with the number of days respondents remained enrolled in the study, the number of interviews they completed, and the odds that they were late completing interviews. In addition, we found that changes in pregnancy-related behaviors reported in the weekly interviews were associated with late completion of interviews. Specifically, after controlling for sociodemographic, personality, contact information, and prior experience variables, we found that weekly reports such as starting to have sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.17, 95% CI 1.03-1.32, P=.01), getting a new partner (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.53-2.03, P<.001), stopping the use of contraception (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.10-1.49, P=.001), and having a new pregnancy (OR 5.57, 95% CI 4.26-7.29, P<.001) were significantly associated with late survey completion. However, young women who reported changes in

  16. Two-Year-Old Children Interpret Abstract, Purely Geometric Maps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler-Rhoades, Nathan; Carey, Susan C.; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, 2.5-year-old children spontaneously used geometric information from 2D maps to locate objects in a 3D surface layout, without instruction or feedback. Children related maps to their corresponding layouts even though the maps differed from the layouts in size, mobility, orientation, dimensionality, and perspective, and even when…

  17. False-Belief Understanding in 2.5-Year-Olds: Evidence from Two Novel Verbal Spontaneous-Response Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; He, Zijing; Baillargeon, Renee; Cummins, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Recent research indicates that toddlers and infants succeed at various "non-verbal" spontaneous-response false-belief tasks; here we asked whether toddlers would also succeed at verbal spontaneous-response false-belief tasks that imposed significant linguistic demands. We tested 2.5-year-olds using two novel tasks: a "preferential-looking" task in…

  18. Reanalysis of archived IMPROVE PM2.5 samples previously analyzed over a 15-year period.

    PubMed

    Hyslop, Nicole P; Trzepla, Krystyna; White, Warren H

    2012-09-18

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) network has collected airborne particulate matter (PM) samples at locations throughout the United States since 1988. These samples have been analyzed for elemental content using analytical methods that evolved over the years. Changes in analytical methods sometimes introduced shifts in reported concentrations that are evident in the historical record. We sought to illuminate the effects of methodological changes by reanalyzing archived samples with current methods. To test the feasibility of this approach, the 15-year archive of PM samples from Great Smoky Mountains National Park was selected for reanalysis as a single analytical batch using a common protocol and calibration. Comparisons of the reanalyses and original analyses indicate that concentrations of all but one measured element, Br, remained stable on the filters over years of storage. The agreement between the two analyses varied with element and original measurement method. For elements measured well above their contemporary detection limits - S, K, Ca, Fe, and Zn - the reanalysis established that method changes had limited impacts on reported concentrations, generally <10%. For elements originally measured near their detection limits, reanalysis confirmed the presence of discontinuities in the data record, many of which were previously recognized and documented as method-related. PMID:22913377

  19. Plate tectonics 2.5 billion years ago - Evidence at Kolar, south India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krogstad, E. J.; Hanson, G. N.; Balakrishnan, S.; Rajamani, V.; Mukhopadhyay, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The Archean Kolar Schist Belt, south India, is a suture zone where two gneiss terranes and at least two amphibolite terranes with distinct histories were accreted. Amphibolites from the eastern and western sides of the schist belt have distinct incompatible element and isotopic characteristics suggesting that their volcanic protoliths were derived from different mantle sources. The amphibolite and gneiss terranes were juxtaposed by horizontal compression and shearing between 2530 and 2420 million years ago (Ma) along a zone marked by the Kolar Schist Belt. This history of accretion of discrete crustal terranes resembles those of Phanerozoic convergent margins and thus suggests that plate tectonics operated on earth by 2500 Ma.

  20. Long-term treatment with buprenorphine/naloxone in primary care: results at 2-5 years.

    PubMed

    Fiellin, David A; Moore, Brent A; Sullivan, Lynn E; Becker, William C; Pantalon, Michael V; Chawarski, Marek C; Barry, Declan T; O'Connor, Patrick G; Schottenfeld, Richard S

    2008-01-01

    To examine long-term outcomes with primary care office-based buprenorphine/naloxone treatment, we followed 53 opioid-dependent patients who had already demonstrated six months of documented clinical stability for 2-5 years. Primary outcomes were retention, illicit drug use, dose, satisfaction, serum transaminases, and adverse events. Thirty-eight percent of enrolled subjects were retained for two years. Ninety-one percent of urine samples had no evidence of opioid use, and patient satisfaction was high. Serum transaminases remained stable from baseline. No serious adverse events related to treatment occurred. We conclude that select opioid-dependent patients exhibit moderate levels of retention in primary care office-based treatment. PMID:18393054

  1. Three-Centimeter Bullet in the Orbita of a 2.5-Year-Old Syrian Boy.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, İskender A; Tekerekoğlu, Bülent

    2015-06-01

    Aim of this report is to present a patient who has had a retrobulbar bullet in his left orbit after gunshot injury and had full recovery after surgery. A Syrian boy aged 2.5 years was referred to our emergency after a gunshot injury from left temple. First examination showed stable vital functions; the boy was conscious but had marked proptosis and edema on the left eye. Left intraorbital bullet was observed in X-ray and computed tomography. The exact localization of the bullet and the integrity of the left eye cannot be determined because of shining in computed tomography. Under general anesthesia, lateral and inferior orbitotomy was performed and 3-cm long bullet was excised, which was obliquely localized in the retrobulbar, intraconal area. Ten days later, the patient was sent to his homeland with almost full recovery and minimum sequela. PMID:26080186

  2. The chemical composition and sources of PM2.5 during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jialiang; Sun, Peng; Hu, Xiaoling; Zhao, Wei; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo

    2012-11-01

    China is virtually shut down during the week-long Chinese New Year's holiday. This implies that the anthropogenic emissions would be greatly decreased during the period thus providing an opportunity to study the air quality in China under reduced emissions, and the drastic emission changes during a short period of time allows the comparison of source contributions under significantly different conditions. Seventeen PM2.5 samples were collected during the 2009 Chinese New Year's holiday in Shanghai to study the composition and sources of the fine particles. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), eight water-soluble ions, fourteen metals and solvent extractable organic compounds (SEOC) including alkanes, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and fatty acids were measured. Diagnostic PAH ratios, correlation analysis of OC, EC, n-alkanes, hopanes and PAHs showed that vehicle emissions were the main source of n-alkanes and EC, and an important source of the locally emitted particulate PAHs in urban Shanghai, while coal burning should be the main source of the transported PAHs from the inland areas. The composition of n-fatty acids also provided some clue on the significance of the contribution by kitchen activities. In the New Year's Eve's sample, 75% of the particle mass was estimated to be from fireworks, and K+, SO42 -, Cl-, OC, Al and Ba were the main components. Firework fine particles had high OC/EC ratio and low NO3-/SO42 - ratio.

  3. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event.

    PubMed

    Houston, J Brian; Spialek, Matthew L; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  4. 2011 Joplin, Missouri Tornado Experience, Mental Health Reactions, and Service Utilization: Cross-Sectional Assessments at Approximately 6 Months and 2.5 Years Post-Event

    PubMed Central

    Houston, J. Brian; Spialek, Matthew L.; Stevens, Jordan; First, Jennifer; Mieseler, Vicky L.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. On May 22, 2011 the deadliest tornado in the United States since 1947 struck Joplin, Missouri killing 161 people, injuring approximately 1,150 individuals, and causing approximately $2.8 billion in economic losses. Methods. This study examined the mental health effects of this event through a random digit dialing sample (N = 380) of Joplin adults at approximately 6 months post-disaster (Survey 1) and a purposive convenience sample (N = 438) of Joplin adults at approximately 2.5 years post-disaster (Survey 2). For both surveys we assessed tornado experience, posttraumatic stress, depression, mental health service utilization, and sociodemographics. For Survey 2 we also assessed social support and parent report of child strengths and difficulties. Results. Probable PTSD relevance was 12.63% at Survey 1 and 26.74% at Survey 2, while current depression prevalence was 20.82% at Survey 1 and 13.33% at Survey 2. Less education and more tornado experience was generally related to greater likelihood of experiencing probable PTSD and current depression for both surveys. Men and younger participants were more likely to report current depression at Survey 1. Low levels of social support (assessed only at Survey 2) were related to more probable PTSD and current depression. For both surveys, we observed low rates of mental health service utilization, and these rates were also low for participants reporting probable PTSD and current depression. At Survey 2 we assessed parent report of child (ages 4 to 17) strengths and difficulties and found that child difficulties were more frequent for younger children (ages 4 to 10) than older children (ages 11 to 17), and that parents reporting probable PTSD reported a greater frequency of children with borderline or abnormal difficulties. Discussion. Overall our results indicate that long-term (multi-year) community disaster mental health monitoring, assessment, referral, outreach, and services are needed following a major

  5. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars. PMID:25539085

  6. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

  7. Multi-year hourly PM 2.5 carbon measurements in New York: Diurnal, day of week and seasonal patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rattigan, Oliver V.; Dirk Felton, H.; Bae, Min-Suk; Schwab, James J.; Demerjian, Kenneth L.

    2010-05-01

    Multi-year hourly measurements of PM 2.5 elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) from a site in the South Bronx, New York were used to examine diurnal, day of week and seasonal patterns. The hourly carbon measurements also provided temporally resolved information on sporadic EC spikes observed predominantly in winter. Furthermore, hourly EC and OC data were used to provide information on secondary organic aerosol formation. Average monthly EC concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 1.4 μg m -3 with peak hourly values of several μg m -3 typically observed from November to March. Mean EC concentrations were lower on weekends (approximately 27% lower on Saturday and 38% lower on Sunday) than on weekdays (Monday to Friday). The weekday/weekend difference was more pronounced during summer months and less noticeable during winter. Throughout the year EC exhibited a similar diurnal pattern to NO x showing a pronounced peak during the morning commute period (7-10 AM EST). These patterns suggest that EC was impacted by local mobile emissions and in addition by emissions from space heating sources during winter months. Although EC was highly correlated with black carbon (BC) there was a pronounced seasonal BC/EC gradient with summer BC concentrations approximately a factor of 2 higher than EC. Average monthly OC concentrations ranged from 1.0 to 4.1 μg m -3 with maximum hourly concentrations of 7-11 μg m -3 predominantly in summer or winter months. OC concentrations generally correlated with PM 2.5 total mass and aerosol sulfate and with NO x during winter months. OC showed no particular day of week pattern. The OC diurnal pattern was typically different than EC except in winter when OC tracked EC and NO x indicating local primary emissions contributed significantly to OC during winter at the urban location. On average secondary organic aerosol was estimated to account for 40-50% of OC during winter and up to 63-73% during summer months.

  8. The antecedents and benefits of achieving abstinence in opioid addicts: a 2.5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Rounsaville, B J; Kosten, T R; Kleber, H D

    1987-01-01

    This report examines long-term and short-term benefits of achieving abstinence from opioids in a sample of opioid addicts who were reevaluated 2.5 years following seeking treatment. Extensive assessment of drug use history and drug-associated problems had been obtained when the subjects applied for treatment. At follow-up evaluations, detailed information was obtained on intervening course of drug use, treatment, legal problems, psychological problems, social functioning, occupational functioning, and medical status. The results were as follows: (1) Achieving abstinence from illicit opioids was associated with concurrent improvement in other aspects of functioning including reduction of criminal activity, improved medical status, improved social functioning, and reduced abuse of other psychoactive substances. However, many of these improvements were reversed immediately if relapse to opioid use occurred. (2) Achieving abstinence was associated with being in drug treatment, especially treatment in a methadone maintenance program. (3) Achievement of abstinence was not successfully predicted by client characteristics measured at entrance into treatment. (4) Long-range benefits of abstinence were detectable in social functioning even for those who had relapsed at the time of follow-up reevaluation. PMID:3687888

  9. Hearing Children's Voices in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Hannah

    2004-01-01

    In this article Hannah Mortimer explores how even very young children can be consulted and included when planning for their education and needs. This allows early years practitioners to ensure that the children they support have equal opportunities, feel involved and successful in their learning and play, and are given activities and interventions…

  10. Celebrating Children's Choices: 25 Years of Children's Favorite Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Arden DeVries

    This book provides the background and development of the Children's Choices project and highlights many of the best known and most popular books that have appeared on the Children's Choices list over the past 25 years. Each book selection features a picture of the book jacket, an annotation from the Choices list, a list of classroom applications,…

  11. Mexico City normal weight children exposed to high concentrations of ambient PM2.5 show high blood leptin and endothelin-1, vitamin D deficiency, and food reward hormone dysregulation versus low pollution controls. Relevance for obesity and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; D'Angiulli, Amedeo; Rodríguez-Díaz, Joel; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Chao, Chih-kai; Thompson, Charles; Mukherjee, Partha S; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George

    2015-07-01

    Millions of Mexico, US and across the world children are overweight and obese. Exposure to fossil-fuel combustion sources increases the risk for obesity and diabetes, while long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) above US EPA standards is associated with increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mexico City Metropolitan Area children are chronically exposed to PM2.5 and O3 concentrations above the standards and exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, cognitive deficits, and Alzheimer disease neuropathology. We investigated adipokines, food reward hormones, endothelial dysfunction, vitamin D and apolipoprotein E (APOE) relationships in 80 healthy, normal weight 11.1±3.2 year olds matched by age, gender, BMI and SES, low (n: 26) versus high (n:54) PM2.5 exposures. Mexico City children had higher leptin and endothelin-1 (p<0.01 and p<0.000), and decreases in glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP 1), ghrelin, and glucagon (<0.02) versus controls. BMI and leptin relationships were significantly different in low versus high PM2.5 exposed children. Mexico City APOE 4 versus 3 children had higher glucose (p=0.009). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<30 ng/mL was documented in 87% of Mexico City children. Leptin is strongly positively associated to PM 2.5 cumulative exposures. Residing in a high PM2.5 and O3 environment is associated with 12h fasting hyperleptinemia, altered appetite-regulating peptides, vitamin D deficiency, and increases in ET-1 in clinically healthy children. These changes could signal the future trajectory of urban children towards the development of insulin resistance, obesity, type II diabetes, premature cardiovascular disease, addiction-like behavior, cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Increased efforts should be made to decrease pediatric PM2.5 exposures, to deliver health interventions prior to the development of obesity and to identify and mitigate environmental factors influencing obesity and Alzheimer

  12. Trends of particulate matter (PM2.5) and chemical composition at a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean over the last nine years (2002-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Alastuey, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2012-09-01

    The time variability and long term trends of PM2.5 (particulate matter of diameter < 2.5 μm) at various regional background (RB) sites across Europe are studied and interpreted in this work. Data on mean annual levels of PM2.5 measured at Montseny (MSY, North East Spain) and various RB sites in Spain and Europe are evaluated and compared, and subsequently analysed for statistically significant trends. The MSY site registered higher average PM2.5 levels than those measured at a selection of other RB sites across Spain, Portugal, Germany and Scandinavia by percentage compared to the mean of all the stations in these countries, but lower than those measured in Switzerland, Italy and Austria. Reductions in PM2.5 were observed across all stations in Spain and Europe to varying degrees (7-49%). MSY underwent a statistically significant reduction since measurements began, indicating a year-on-year gradual decrease (-3.7 μg m-3, calculated from the final year of data compared to the mean). Similar trends were observed in other RB sites across Spain (-1.9 μg m-3). Reductions recorded in PM2.5 across Europe were varied, with many experiencing gradual, year-on-year decreases (-1.8 μg m-3). These reductions have been attributed to various causes: the introduction and implementation of pollution abatement strategies in EU member states, the effect of the current economic crisis on emissions of PM2.5 and the influence of meteorology observed during the winters of 2009 and 2010. In addition, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a large scale meteorological phenomenon most prevalent during winter, was observed to influence the frequency of Saharan dust intrusions across the Iberian Peninsula. Chemical composition of PM2.5 at MSY is characterised by high levels of organic matter (OM) and sulphate, followed by crustal material, nitrate and ammonia. Sea Spray and elemental carbon (EC) comprised a minor part of the total PM2.5 mass. Statistical trend analysis was performed on the

  13. 2.5-Year-Olds Use Cross-Situational Consistency to Learn Verbs under Referential Uncertainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rose M.; Fisher, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that children can use cross-situational statistics to learn new object labels under referential ambiguity (e.g., Smith & Yu, 2008). Such evidence has been interpreted as support for proposals that statistical information about word-referent co-occurrence plays a powerful role in word learning. But object labels represent only…

  14. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (< 5%). Seasonal enhancement of PM2.5 was observed in autumn 2012, especially with high-PM2.5 events (more than 100 μg/m3) in October. The backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and the cluster analysis of the back-trajectories indicate that the northern area is an important source region of long-range transport. An enhancement of PM2.5 as well as sulfate, OC, and EC was observed in the samples with the influence of northern air masses. However, the footprint retroplume of the samples shows that the sources in the Pearl River Delta Region should also be considered, especially secondary aerosol formation and biomass/biofuel burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  15. Associations of PM2.5 Constituents and Sources with Hospital Admissions: Analysis of Four Counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts (USA) for Persons ≥ 65 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Leaderer, Brian P.; Gent, Janneane F.; Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros; Wang, Yun; Dominici, Francesca; Peng, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between short-term exposure to PM2.5 and hospital admissions. The chemical composition of particles varies across locations and time periods. Identifying the most harmful constituents and sources is an important health and regulatory concern. Objectives: We examined pollutant sources for associations with risk of hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Methods: We obtained PM2.5 filter samples for four counties in Connecticut and Massachusetts and analyzed them for PM2.5 elements. Source apportionment was used to estimate daily PM2.5 contributions from sources (traffic, road dust, oil combustion, and sea salt as well as a regional source representing coal combustion and other sources). Associations between daily PM2.5 constituents and sources and risk of cardiovascular and respiratory hospitalizations for the Medicare population (> 333,000 persons ≥ 65 years of age) were estimated with time-series analyses (August 2000–February 2004). Results: PM2.5 total mass and PM2.5 road dust contribution were associated with cardiovascular hospitalizations, as were the PM2.5 constituents calcium, black carbon, vanadium, and zinc. For respiratory hospitalizations, associations were observed with PM2.5 road dust, and sea salt as well as aluminum, calcium, chlorine, black carbon, nickel, silicon, titanium, and vanadium. Effect estimates were generally robust to adjustment by co-pollutants of other constituents. An interquartile range increase in same-day PM2.5 road dust (1.71 μg/m3) was associated with a 2.11% (95% CI: 1.09, 3.15%) and 3.47% (95% CI: 2.03, 4.94%) increase in cardiovascular and respiratory admissions, respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest some particle sources and constituents are more harmful than others and that in this Connecticut/Massachusetts region the most harmful particles include black carbon, calcium, and road dust PM2.5. Citation: Bell ML, Ebisu K

  16. The Year of the Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Harrison

    The article describes a program sponsored by International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in which approximatey 60 children (14 to 17 years old) gifted in science spent much of 1941 after school hours in a science laboratory in IBM's showroom building. A number of these former students have achieved such positions as head of Goddard Space…

  17. Teachers' Nature of Science Implementation Practices 2-5 Years after Having Completed an Intensive Science Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Benjamin C.; Clough, Michael P.; Olson, Joanne K.

    2013-01-01

    Few, if any, studies have examined the impact of nature of science (NOS) instruction on science teachers' practices 2 or more years after completing a science teacher education program. Extant studies on preservice and first-year teachers' NOS teaching practices have had disappointing results, with few teachers valuing NOS as a cognitive objective…

  18. Trends of particulate matter (PM2.5) and chemical composition at a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean over the last nine years (2002-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Alastuey, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2012-04-01

    The time variability and long term trends of PM2.5 (particulate matter of diameter <2.5 μm) at various regional background (RB) sites across Europe are studied and interpreted in this work. Long-term trends of PM2.5 concentrations are relatively scarce across Europe, with few studies outlining the changes measured in PM2.5 concentrations over a significant period of time. To this end, data on mean annual levels of PM2.5 measured at Montseny (MSY, North East Spain) and various RB sites in Spain and Europe are evaluated and compared, and subsequently analysed for statistically significant trends. The MSY site registered higher average PM2.5 levels than those measured at a selection of other RB sites across Spain, Portugal, Germany and Scandinavia, but lower than those measured in Switzerland, Italy and Austria. Reductions in PM2.5 were observed across all stations in Spain and Europe to varying degrees. MSY underwent a statistically significant reduction since measurements began, indicating a year-on-year gradual decrease (-3.7 μg m-3, calculated from the final year of data compared to the mean). Similar trends were observed in other RB sites across Spain (-1.9 μg m-3). Reductions recorded in PM2.5 across Europe were varied, with many experiencing gradual, year-on-year decreases (-1.8 μg m-3). These reductions have been attributed to various causes: the introduction and implementation of pollution abatement strategies in EU member states, the effect of the current economic crisis on emissions of PM2.5 and the influence of anomalous meteorology observed during the winters of 2009 and 2010. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a large scale meteorological phenomenon most prevalent during winter, was observed to influence the frequency of Saharan dust intrusions across the Iberian Peninsula. Chemical composition of PM2.5 at MSY is characterised by high levels of organic matter (OM) and sulphate, followed by crustal material, nitrate and ammonia. Sea Spray and

  19. Spatial and Interspecies Patterns of PM2.5 at Three Sites in the Pearl River Delta, China: One-Year Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, J.; Lau, A. K.; Wu, C.; Ng, W.; Yuan, Z.; Wu, D.

    2009-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) is among the most economically fast-developing regions in China. The region has been experiencing increasing levels of particulate matter (PM) pollution. In an effort of establishing long-term trend in chemical characteristics of PM2.5 and understanding PM sources important at regional scale, filter-based samples have been collected at three sites in the PRD concurrently in one-in-six-day schedule since August 2007. We here report observation results of PM2.5 over one-year period (August 2007-June 2008). The three sites include an urban downtown location in Guangzhou, Nansha, a rural receptor site at the mouth of the Pearl River, and Tsuen Wan, an urban background site in Hong Kong. Guangzhou recorded the highest annual average PM2.5 concentration of 78.2 μgm-3, followed by Nansha (65.9 μgm-3) and Tsuen Wan (42.8 μgm-3). Organic matter (OM) and sulfate are the top two constituents, accounting for ~70% of PM2.5 mass. The annual average nitrate contributions were similar at GZ and NS (~13%), but lower at TW (~7%). Inter-site correlations of PM2.5 and major constituents indicate that GZ strongly influenced ambient PM2.5 levels at NS, but GZ’s influence on TW was much reduced. Sulfate, ammonium, and OM showed strong regional characteristics. To the contrary, EC at the three sites had no correlations, suggesting a dominating local origin. Examples of high PM2.5 episodes are also analyzed to identify the conditions conducive for high PM.

  20. 10-year spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-06-01

    -series analysis showed that, for the 10-year study period, the PM2.5 levels in the southeastern US have decreased by ~20%. The annual decrease has been relatively steady from 2001 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2010 while a significant drop occurred between 2007 and 2008. An observed increase in PM2.5 levels in year 2005 is attributed to elevated sulfate concentrations in the study area in warm months of 2005.

  1. Heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, and children's respiratory symptoms and asthma from an e-waste recycling area.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiang; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Xiangbin; Reponen, Tiina; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia

    2016-03-01

    This study was to investigate the levels of heavy metals in PM2.5 and in blood, the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma, and the related factors to them. Lead and cadmium in both PM2.5 and blood were significant higher in Guiyu (exposed area) than Haojiang (reference area) (p < 0.05), however, no significant difference was found for chromium and manganese in PM2.5 and in blood. The prevalence of cough, phlegm, dyspnea, and wheeze of children was higher in Guiyu compared to Haojiang (p < 0.05). No significant difference was found for the prevalence of asthma in children between Guiyu and Haojiang. Living in Guiyu was positively associated with blood lead (B = 0.196, p < 0.001), blood cadmium (B = 0.148, p < 0.05) and cough (OR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.30-4.32; p < 0.01). Blood lead>5 μg/dL was significantly associated with asthma (OR, 9.50; 95% CI, 1.16-77.49). Higher blood chromium and blood manganese were associated with more cough and wheeze, respectively. Our data suggest that living in e-waste exposed area may lead to increased levels of heavy metals, and accelerated prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma. PMID:26803791

  2. Evaluating Trends in Historical PM2.5 Element Concentrations by Reanalyzing a 15-Year Sample Archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyslop, N. P.; White, W. H.; Trzepla, K.

    2014-12-01

    The IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments) network monitors aerosol concentrations at 170 remote sites throughout the United States. Twenty-four-hour filter samples of particulate matter are collected every third day and analyzed for chemical composition. About 30 of the sites have operated continuously since 1988, and the sustained data record (http://views.cira.colostate.edu/web/) offers a unique window on regional aerosol trends. All elemental analyses have been performed by Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California in Davis, and sample filters collected since 1995 are archived on campus. The suite of reported elements has remained constant, but the analytical methods employed for their determination have evolved. For example, the elements Na - Mn were determined by PIXE until November 2001, then by XRF analysis in a He-flushed atmosphere through 2004, and by XRF analysis in vacuum since January 2005. In addition to these fundamental changes, incompletely-documented operational factors such as detector performance and calibration details have introduced variations in the measurements. Because the past analytical methods were non-destructive, the archived filters can be re-analyzed with the current analytical systems and protocols. The 15-year sample archives from Great Smoky Mountains (GRSM), Mount Rainier (MORA), and Point Reyes National Parks (PORE) were selected for reanalysis. The agreement between the new analyses and original determinations varies with element and analytical era. The graph below compares the trend estimates for all the elements measured by IMPROVE based on the original and repeat analyses; the elements identified in color are measured above the detection limit more than 90% of the time. The trend estimates are sensitive to the treatment of non-detect data. The original and reanalysis trends are indistinguishable (have overlapping confidence intervals) for most of the well-detected elements.

  3. The Kepler Cluster Study: rotation period measurements for cool stars in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Soren; Barnes, Sydney A.; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Latham, David W.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Kepler Science Team, Kepler Science Operations Center

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Cluster Study (KeCS) is a program to measure stellar rotation periods and search for planets around members of open star clusters within the field of view of NASA's Kepler mission. We present here the latest results from KeCS - measurements of stellar rotation periods in the 2.5 billion year open cluster NGC 6819 - and discuss their implications for a technique (gyrochronology) to determine stellar ages from stellar rotation.

  4. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  5. Eight-year (2007-2014) trends in ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bari, Md Aynul; Kindzierski, Warren B

    2016-05-01

    Currently there have been questions about ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels in the Capital Region of Alberta, Canada. An investigation of temporal trends in PM2.5 and its chemical components was undertaken in the City of Edmonton within the Capital Region over an 8-year period (2007-2014). A non-parametric trend detection method was adopted to characterize trends in ambient concentrations. No statistically significant change was observed for ambient PM2.5 concentrations during 2007-2014, while significant decreasing trends were found for organic carbon, elemental carbon, oxalate, barium, lead and cadmium. A statistically significant increasing trend was observed for sodium chloride indicating an increase of de-icing salt contribution for winter road maintenance in recent years. Concentrations of potassium ion and zinc exhibited strong and significant seasonal variability with higher concentrations in winter than in summer likely reflecting wood smoke origins more than other potential sources in Edmonton and the surrounding region. No statistically significant changes were observed for all other chemical components examined. Notwithstanding robust population growth that has occurred in Edmonton, these findings reveal that particulate air quality and corresponding trace elements in Edmonton's air has been unchanged or improved over the investigated period (2007-2014). Longer-term air quality monitoring at least over several decades is needed to establish whether trends reported here are actually occurring. PMID:26949866

  6. Five years' experience of injured children.

    PubMed

    Kibel, S M; Bass, D H; Cywes, S

    1990-10-01

    This study was undertaken to analyse admission data on all patients seen in the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital Trauma Unit during the period 24 April 1984 - 31 March 1989. Data were retrieved from computerised records completed on admission and were reviewed descriptively. Variations in age, sex and population group pattern for different causes of injury were evaluated together with data on the nature and place of injury and time seen. Data for analysis of nature of injury by cause were also retrieved, but over a 2-year period only (1986-1987). Accuracy of recorded data was assessed from a random sample of hospital records. During the 5-year period 57,468 patients were seen in the Trauma Unit, of whom 17.1% were admitted. In addition 6,377 cases of poisoning and 119 of near-drowning were seen by the medical departments. Forty-three per cent of injuries were due to falls, which were the most important cause of injury in both admitted and non-admitted patients of all age, sex and population groups. Other main cause groups were bumps and blows (15%), transport (11%) and burns (11%). Transport and burn injuries had the highest admission rates. This is the first study of children's injuries in southern Africa and provides information essential to future design of paediatric trauma care systems and accident prevention programmes. PMID:2218761

  7. Agenda for Children: 2006 Year in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agenda for Children, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…

  8. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2013-08-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted for a few weeks only and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On an annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous on a regional scale, during the whole project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2=0.84, n=330), suggesting the importance of mid- or long

  9. A one-year comprehensive chemical characterisation of fine aerosol (PM2.5) at urban, suburban and rural background sites in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressi, M.; Sciare, J.; Ghersi, V.; Bonnaire, N.; Nicolas, J. B.; Petit, J.-E.; Moukhtar, S.; Rosso, A.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Féron, A.

    2012-11-01

    Studies describing the chemical composition of fine aerosol (PM2.5) in urban areas are often conducted during few weeks only, and at one sole site, giving thus a narrow view of their temporal and spatial characteristics. This paper presents a one-year (11 September 2009-10 September 2010) survey of the daily chemical composition of PM2.5 in the region of Paris, which is the second most populated "Larger Urban Zone" in Europe. Five sampling sites representative of suburban (SUB), urban (URB), northeast (NER), northwest (NWR) and south (SOR) rural backgrounds were implemented. The major chemical components of PM2.5 were determined including elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and the major ions. OC was converted to organic matter (OM) using the chemical mass closure methodology, which leads to conversion factors of 1.95 for the SUB and URB sites, and 2.05 for the three rural ones. On average, gravimetrically determined PM2.5 annual mass concentrations are 15.2, 14.8, 12.6, 11.7 and 10.8 μg m-3 for SUB, URB, NER, NWR and SOR sites, respectively. The chemical composition of fine aerosol is very homogeneous at the five sites and is composed of OM (38-47%), nitrate (17-22%), non-sea-salt sulfate (13-16%), ammonium (10-12%), EC (4-10%), mineral dust (2-5%) and sea salt (3-4%). This chemical composition is in agreement with those reported in the literature for most European environments. On the annual scale, Paris (URB and SUB sites) exhibits its highest PM2.5 concentrations during late autumn, winter and early spring (higher than 15 μg m-3 on average, from December to April), intermediates during late spring and early autumn (between 10 and 15 μg m-3 during May, June, September, October, and November) and the lowest during summer (below 10 μg m-3 during July and August). PM levels are mostly homogeneous at the regional scale, on the whole duration of the project (e.g. for URB plotted against NER sites: slope = 1.06, r2 = 0.84, n = 330), suggesting the

  10. Interactive and additive influences of Gender, BMI and Apolipoprotein 4 on cognition in children chronically exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone. APOE 4 females are at highest risk in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Jewells, Valerie; Galaz-Montoya, Carolina; van Zundert, Brigitte; Pérez-Calatayud, Angel; Ascencio-Ferrel, Eric; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Sandoval-Cano, Marcela; Carlos, Esperanza; Solorio, Edelmira; Acuña-Ayala, Hilda; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-10-01

    Children's air pollution exposures are associated with systemic and brain inflammation and the early hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) 4 allele is the most prevalent genetic risk for AD, with higher risk for women. We assessed whether gender, BMI, APOE and metabolic variables in healthy children with high exposures to ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) influence cognition. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was administered to 105 Mexico City children (12.32±5.4 years, 69 APOE 3/3 and 36 APOE 3/4). APOE 4v 3 children showed decrements on attention and short-term memory subscales, and below-average scores in Verbal, Performance and Full Scale IQ. APOE 4 females had higher BMI and females with normal BMI between 75-94% percentiles had the highest deficits in Total IQ, Performance IQ, Digit Span, Picture Arrangement, Block Design and Object Assembly. Fasting glucose was significantly higher in APOE 4 children p=0.006, while Gender was the main variable accounting for the difference in insulin, HOMA-IR and leptin (p<.05). Gender, BMI and APOE influence children's cognitive responses to air pollution and glucose is likely a key player. APOE 4 heterozygous females with >75% to <94% BMI percentiles are at the highest risk of severe cognitive deficits (1.5-2SD from average IQ). Young female results highlight the urgent need for gender-targeted health programmes to improve cognitive responses. Multidisciplinary intervention strategies could provide paths for prevention or amelioration of female air pollution targeted cognitive deficits and possible long-term AD progression. PMID:27376929

  11. Life after Adolescent and Adult Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Self-Reported Executive, Emotional, and Behavioural Function 2-5 Years after Injury.

    PubMed

    Finnanger, Torun Gangaune; Olsen, Alexander; Skandsen, Toril; Lydersen, Stian; Vik, Anne; Evensen, Kari Anne I; Catroppa, Cathy; Håberg, Asta K; Andersson, Stein; Indredavik, Marit S

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of moderate-severe Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) are at risk for long-term cognitive, emotional, and behavioural problems. This prospective cohort study investigated self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural problems in the late chronic phase of moderate and severe TBI, if demographic characteristics (i.e., age, years of education), injury characteristics (Glasgow Coma Scale score, MRI findings such as traumatic axonal injury (TAI), or duration of posttraumatic amnesia), symptoms of depression, or neuropsychological variables in the first year after injury predicted long-term self-reported function. Self-reported executive, emotional, and behavioural functioning were assessed among individuals with moderate and severe TBI (N = 67, age range 15-65 years at time of injury) 2-5 years after TBI, compared to a healthy matched control group (N = 72). Results revealed significantly more attentional, emotional regulation, and psychological difficulties in the TBI group than controls. Demographic and early clinical variables were associated with poorer cognitive and emotional outcome. Fewer years of education and depressive symptoms predicted greater executive dysfunction. Younger age at injury predicted more aggressive and rule-breaking behaviour. TAI and depressive symptoms predicted Internalizing problems and greater executive dysfunction. In conclusion, age, education, TAI, and depression appear to elevate risk for poor long-term outcome, emphasising the need for long-term follow-up of patients presenting with risk factors. PMID:26549936

  12. Assessing risks to adults and preschool children posed by PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during a biomass burning episode in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Tipmanee, Danai; Khumsup, Chukkapong; Kittikoon, Itthipon; Hirunyatrakul, Phoosak

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential cancer risk resulting from biomass burning, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) bound to fine particles (PM2.5) were assessed in nine administrative northern provinces (NNP) of Thailand, before (N-I) and after (N-II) a haze episode. The average values of Σ 3,4-ring PAHs and B[a] P Equivalent concentrations in world urban cities were significantly (p<0.05) much higher than those in samples collected from northern provinces during both sampling periods. Application of diagnostic binary ratios of PAHs underlined the predominant contribution of vehicular exhaust to PM2.5-bound PAH levels in NNP areas, even in the middle of the agricultural waste burning period. The proximity of N-I and N-II values in three-dimensional (3D) principal component analysis (PCA) plots also supports this conclusion. Although the excess cancer risk in NNP areas is much lower than those of other urban area and industrialized cities, there are nevertheless some concerns relating to adverse health impacts on preschool children due to non-dietary exposure to PAHs in home environments. PMID:25506906

  13. Similarity Predicts Liking in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Two studies examined the influence of similarity on 3-year-old children's initial liking of their peers. Children were presented with pairs of childlike puppets who were either similar or dissimilar to them on a specified dimension and then were asked to choose one of the puppets to play with as a measure of liking. Children selected the puppet…

  14. A New Hybrid Spatio-temporal Model for Estimating Daily Multi-year PM2.5 Concentrations Across Northeastern USA Using High Resolution Aerosol Optical Depth Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra A.; Just, Allan C.; Nordio, Francesco; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent A.; Lyapustin, Alexei; Wang, Yujie; Schwartz, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The use of satellite-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) to estimate fine particulate matter PM(sub 2.5) for epidemiology studies has increased substantially over the past few years. These recent studies often report moderate predictive power, which can generate downward bias in effect estimates. In addition, AOD measurements have only moderate spatial resolution, and have substantial missing data. We make use of recent advances in MODIS satellite data processing algorithms (Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC), which allow us to use 1 km (versus currently available 10 km) resolution AOD data.We developed and cross validated models to predict daily PM(sub 2.5) at a 1X 1 km resolution across the northeastern USA (New England, New York and New Jersey) for the years 2003-2011, allowing us to better differentiate daily and long term exposure between urban, suburban, and rural areas. Additionally, we developed an approach that allows us to generate daily high-resolution 200 m localized predictions representing deviations from the area 1 X 1 km grid predictions. We used mixed models regressing PM(sub 2.5) measurements against day-specific random intercepts, and fixed and random AOD and temperature slopes. We then use generalized additive mixed models with spatial smoothing to generate grid cell predictions when AOD was missing. Finally, to get 200 m localized predictions, we regressed the residuals from the final model for each monitor against the local spatial and temporal variables at each monitoring site. Our model performance was excellent (mean out-of-sample R(sup 2) = 0.88). The spatial and temporal components of the out-of-sample results also presented very good fits to the withheld data (R(sup 2) = 0.87, R(sup)2 = 0.87). In addition, our results revealed very little bias in the predicted concentrations (Slope of predictions versus withheld observations = 0.99). Our daily model results show high predictive accuracy at high spatial resolutions

  15. A 2.5 year study on health and locomotion symmetry in young Standardbred horses subjected to two levels of high intensity training distance.

    PubMed

    Ringmark, S; Jansson, A; Lindholm, A; Hedenström, U; Roepstorff, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document effects of two high-intensity training regimes on horse health. Sixteen Standardbred horses in training from September as 1-year-olds with the goal to race as 3-year-olds were used in a 2.5 year study. Horses were trained in either a control training program (C-group) or in a program with 30% reduced high intensity distance compared to the C-group (R-group). Clinical examinations were performed nine times. Locomotion asymmetry was registered with a sensor-based system 17 times. There was no difference in health scores, locomotion asymmetry or veterinary treatments between groups. Subjective lameness score and objective front limb locomotion asymmetry increased during the spring both as 2- and 3-year-olds after introduction of speed- and uphill interval training but decreased during winter. Hind limb locomotion asymmetry increased during spring as 2-year-olds and was still above initial level in December as 3-year-olds. Horses that qualified for races early had less asymmetric front limb locomotion and were less lame in clinical examinations (0.7 ± 0.3 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2 degrees [AAEP scale], P = 0.04) than late qualifiers. Days lost to training were higher in C-group than in R-group (27 ± 3% and 17 ± 3%, P = 0.029). It is concluded that (1) less days may be lost to training by reducing the high intensity training distance and (2) the introduction of new training may alter locomotion asymmetry and this can be detected with objective locomotion analysis. PMID:26654845

  16. Infantile Amnesia across the Years: A 2-Year Follow-Up of Children's Earliest Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Carole; Warren, Kelly L.; Short, Megan M.

    2011-01-01

    Although infantile amnesia has been investigated for many years in adults, only recently has it been investigated in children. This study was a 2-year follow-up and extension of an earlier study. Children (4-13 years old) were asked initially and 2 years later for their earliest 3 memories. At follow-up, their age at the time of these memories…

  17. Military Children from Birth to Five Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.; Chartrand, Molinda M.

    2013-01-01

    Because most research on military families has focused on children who are old enough to go to school, we know the least about the youngest and perhaps most vulnerable children in these families. Some of what we do know, however, is worrisome--for example, multiple deployments, which many families have experienced during the wars in Iraq and…

  18. Practitioner Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    This research, a collaboration between Pearson and the National Literacy Trust, was designed to explore the use of technology by children in the early years. In 2013 Pearson and the National Literacy Trust invited practitioners who work with three to five-year-olds to take part in an online survey to explore how they support children's language…

  19. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  20. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  1. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  2. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  3. Reference Intervals of Hematology and Clinical Chemistry Analytes for 1-Year-Old Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Ryun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. Methods A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. Results As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. Conclusions We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age. PMID:27374715

  4. Gravimetric analysis for PM2.5 mass concentration based on year-round monitoring at an urban site in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanli; Yang, Wen; Han, Bin; Zhang, Wenjie; Chen, Mindong; Bai, Zhipeng

    2016-02-01

    Daily PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of below 2.5 μm) mass concentrations were measured by gravimetric analysis in Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences (CRAES), in the northern part of the Beijing urban area, from December 2013 to April 2015. Two pairs of Teflon (T1/T2) and Quartz (Q1/Q2) samples were obtained, for a total number of 1352 valid filters. Results showed elevated pollution in Beijing, with an annual mean PM2.5 mass concentration of 102 μg/m(3). According to the calculated PM2.5 mass concentration, 50% of our sampling days were acceptable (PM2.5<75 μg/m(3)), 30% had slight/medium pollution (75-150 μg/m(3)), and 7% had severe pollution (> 250 μg/m(3)). Sampling interruption occurred frequently for the Teflon filter group (75%) in severe pollution periods, resulting in important data being missing. Further analysis showed that high PM2.5 combined with high relative humidity (RH) gave rise to the interruptions. The seasonal variation of PM2.5 was presented, with higher monthly average mass concentrations in winter (peak value in February, 422 μg/m(3)), and lower in summer (7 μg/m(3) in June). From May to August, the typical summer period, least severe pollution events were observed, with high precipitation levels accelerating the process of wet deposition to remove PM2.5. The case of February presented the most serious pollution, with monthly averaged PM2.5 of 181 μg/m(3) and 32% of days with severe pollution. The abundance of PM2.5 in winter could be related to increased coal consumption for heating needs. PMID:26969555

  5. Children's Books of the Year 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Elaine, Comp.

    Selected from the reference library of current children's books housed at the National Book League in London, the 323 books in this annotated bibliography reflect the author's personal selection of those works which seemed most worth noticing from the publications of 1971. Books are categorized into picture books, fictional stories for five to…

  6. Children's Books of the Year 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Elaine, Comp.

    Selected from the reference library of current children's books housed at the National Book League in London, the 323 books in this annotated bibliography reflect the author's personal selection of those works which seemed most worth noticing from the publications of 1972. Books are categorized into picture books, fictional stories for five to…

  7. Young Gifted Children: The Elementary Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaklee, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important experiences in a child's life begins when he starts formal school, most often at age 5. Going to kindergarten is thrilling and sometimes scary but always an adventure. At this time, children come together from all walks of life; all types of families; at all levels of development; and with a vast array of skills,…

  8. Parents' Perspectives: Children's Use of Technology in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Susie

    2014-01-01

    Technology is playing an increasingly large role in children's reading, writing and daily lives. In the last year use of tablet computers by five to 15-year-olds has increased three-fold (14% to 42%) and 28% of three to four-year-olds use a tablet computer. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of new technologies on children's…

  9. Plasma endotoxin core antibody concentration and linear growth are unrelated in rural Malawian children aged 2-5 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental enteropathy is subclinical inflammation of the upper gastrointestinal tract associated with reduced linear growth in developing countries. Usually investigators have used biopsy or a dual sugar absorption test to assess environmental enteropathy. Such tests are time and resource intens...

  10. Children's Experiences of the First Year of Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a study with first grade children and their views on the primary school curriculum, as well as their influence on decision-making in school. The study was conducted with 20 six- and seven-year-old children in one primary school in Reykjavik, Iceland. The data gathered includes varied research methods such as group…

  11. California Report Card, 2002: Children's Critical Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jayleen; Dominguez-Arms, Amy

    Acknowledging the connection between children's well-being in their early years and their later academic success, this report card documents the well-being of young children in California with regard to their early care and education, health, family economic resources, and child safety. The report identifies state improvements and areas where…

  12. Narrative Skills, Cognitive Profiles and Neuropsychiatric Disorders in 7-8-Year-Old Children with Late Developing Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miniscalco, Carmela; Hagberg, Bibbi; Kadesjo, Bjorn; Westerlund, Monica; Gillberg, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Background: A community-representative sample of screened and clinically examined children with language delay at 2.5 years of age was followed up at school age when their language development was again examined and the occurrence of neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental disorder (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or autism…

  13. Media use by children younger than 2 years.

    PubMed

    Brown, Ari

    2011-11-01

    In 1999, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) issued a policy statement addressing media use in children. The purpose of that statement was to educate parents about the effects that media--both the amount and the content--may have on children. In one part of that statement, the AAP recommended that "pediatricians should urge parents to avoid television viewing for children under the age of two years." The wording of the policy specifically discouraged media use in this age group, although it is frequently misquoted by media outlets as no media exposure in this age group. The AAP believed that there were significantly more potential negative effects of media than positive ones for this age group and, thus, advised families to thoughtfully consider media use for infants. This policy statement reaffirms the 1999 statement with respect to media use in infants and children younger than 2 years and provides updated research findings to support it. This statement addresses (1) the lack of evidence supporting educational or developmental benefits for media use by children younger than 2 years, (2) the potential adverse health and developmental effects of media use by children younger than 2 years, and (3) adverse effects of parental media use (background media) on children younger than 2 years. PMID:22007002

  14. Couples as Partners and Parents over Children's Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Marcia J.; Pilkauskas, Natasha V.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how couple relationship quality and parental engagement are linked over children's early years--when they are infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. Our sample included 1,630 couples who were coresident over Years 1-3 and 1,376 couples who were coresident over Years 3-5…

  15. Laparoscopic upper pole heminephroureterectomy in children: Seven-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Marte, Antonio; Papparella, Alfonso; Pintozzi, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Minimally invasive surgery is the current approach to perform heminephroureterectomy (HN) in children. This can be obtained through a transperitoneal (TP) or a retroperitoneal approach. Here, we report our experience using a TP approach. Materials and Methods: From 2005 to 2014, 22 TP laparoscopic upper poles HN were performed at our institution. There were nine girls and 13 boys aged between 20 months and 6 years (mean age 3.9). Eight patients were diagnosed prenatally, 17 patients presented with urinary tract infection (UTI) and three with vomiting and failure to thrive. The indication for HN was reflux nephropathy and UTI in non-functioning upper pole in 19 patients and cystic dysplasia in 1 patient. The surgical technique involved the following steps: Cystoscopic recognition; positioning of 3-4 trocar (right HN); identification of the kidney (detachment of the colon); isolation and low ligation of the dilated ureter; decrossing from renal vessels; section of the parenchyma by LigaSure; haemostasis with clips and LigaSure; drain. Results: The mean operative time was 154 min (range: 81-220 min). All patients were discharged from the 2nd to 4th day. Neither major complication nor conversion was recorded. 1 patient presented leakage of urine for 7 days from the drainage which resolved spontaneously. At ultrasound follow-up, 5 patients showed a secondary perirenal cyst, 2-5 cm diameter that resolved spontaneously. Conclusion: The results indicate that laparoscopic upper pole heminephrectomy is the treatment of choice in cases of non-functioning dilated lower segments of duplicated kidneys. The use of laparoscopic approach offers a good working space, a good visual control of the vessels and allows a very low isolation of the ureteral stump which counterbalance the peritoneal violation. PMID:26712285

  16. Fecal Calprotectin in Healthy Children Aged 1-4 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qingling; Li, Feng; Wang, Junli; Shen, Lixiao; Sheng, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    Objective Calprotectin has been well emulated recently in adults as well as in children. The aim of this study was to assess fecal calprotectin concentrations in healthy children aged from 1 to 4 years. Methods Volunteers were enlisted from 3 nurseries. A brief questionnaire was used to ensure these children meet the inclusion criteria, and some clinical and sociodemographic factors were collected. Anthro software (version 3.1) was used to calculated Length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ), weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ), and weight-for-length Z-scores (WLZ) respectively. Fecal calprotectin was detected by a commercially available ELISA. Results In total 274 children were recruited, with age ranging from 1 to 4 years old. The median FC concentration was 83.19 μg/g [range 4.58 to 702.50 μg/g, interquartile range (IQR) 14.69–419.45 μg/g] or 1.92 log10 μg/g (range 0.66 log10 to 2.85 log10 μg/g, IQR 1.17 log10-2.62 log10 μg/g). All of the children were divided into three groups, 1–2 years (12–24 months), 2–3 years (24–36 months), 3–4 years (36–48 months), with median FC concentrations 96.14 μg/g (1.98 log10 μg/g), 81.48 μg/g (1.91 log10 μg/g), 65.36 μg/g (1.82 log10 μg/g), respectively. There was similar FC level between boys and girls. FC concentrations showed a downward trend by the growing age groups. A statistic difference was found in FC concentrations among groups 1–2 years, 2–3 years and 3–4 years (P = 0.016). In inter-groups comparison, a significant difference was found between children aged 1–2 years and children aged 3–4 years (P = 0.007). A negative correlation trend was found between age and FC concentration (Spearman's rho = -0.167, P = 0.005) in all the participants. A simple correlation was performed among WLZ, WAZ, birth weight, or birth length with FC, and there was no correlation being observed. Conclusion Children aged from 1 to 4 years old have lower FC concentrations compared with healthy infants (<1years), and higher FC

  17. Characterizing the thermodynamic and chemical composition factors controlling PM2.5 nitrate: Insights gained from two years of online measurements in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, Stephen M.; Huang, X. H. Hilda; Louie, P. K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the seasonal, diurnal, and episodic characteristics of aerosol nitrate concentrations in PM2.5 at a suburban receptor site in Hong Kong using an hourly MARGA sampled dataset. At the site, large spikes in the NO3- concentration have been observed in all seasons, and are easily overlooked in datasets examining 24 h average concentrations. As a key component to PM2.5, nitrate constituted between 5 and 12% of the mass concentration on average per month, but contributed up to 25% during some episodic cases spanning only a few hours. Seasonal variations of PM2.5 nitrate concentrations at the site were driven by temperature and excess [NH4+] in the aerosol, defined as the amount of ammonium in excess of that required for satisfying [NH4+]/[SO42-] = 1.5. The vast majority of winter nitrate data was associated with ammonium-rich aerosols ([NH4+]/[SO42-] > 1.5), with the diurnal variation tracking the availability of excess [NH4+]. Distinctly different than winter conditions, the summer nitrate data was in ammonium-poor regime and tracked nitric acid concentrations, a photochemical tracer. A regression analysis of measured nitrate with the excess [NH4+] shows good correlation in spring, summer and winter (R2: 0.72-0.81), with slopes greater than 0.7 indicating the majority of excess NH4+ is associated with PM2.5 nitrate. It was found that measured nitrate exceeded excess [NH4+] in samples of low excess [NH4+] availability, leading to our finding that nitric acid attaching to sea salt and crustal particles in the fine mode is a non-negligible route (constituting up to ∼20% of the PM2.5 nitrate in this study) to assimilate nitrate into the PM2.5 aerosol. Accounting for both this minor route and the ammonia + nitric acid route may prove useful in modeling efforts to capture PM2.5 nitrate measurement fluctuations, particularly during events of a large influx of alkali particles, such as dust storms.

  18. Magnesium metabolism in 4-year-old to 8-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium (Mg) is a key factor in bone health, but few studies have evaluated Mg intake or absorption and their relationship with bone mineral content (BMC) or bone mineral density (BMD) in children. We measured Mg intake, absorption, and urinary excretion in a group of children 4 to 8 years of age....

  19. Institutional Care and Iron Deficiency Increase ADHD Symptomology and Lower IQ 2.5-5 Years Post-Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring…

  20. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  1. 2,5-Dimethylfuran from ≈2.7 × 109-year-old Rupemba—Belingwe stromatolite, Rhodesia: Potential evidence for remnants of carbohydrates

    PubMed Central

    Sklarew, Deborah S.; Nagy, Bartholomew

    1979-01-01

    2,5-Dimethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, and C9—C20n-alkanes have been isolated from the kerogen of a Rupemba stromatolite. These furans could be the oldest known stable remnants of biological carbohydrates if it is possible to prove that their progenitors are as old as the rock. Experiments showed that it is improbable that these compounds are analytical artifacts or laboratory contaminations. Postdepositional contaminations caused by fluids flowing through the rocks seem doubtful because of minimal permeability, which is supported by petrographic observations. Contamination by diffusion also appears to be unlikely. Because the rock had a mild temperature history, these molecules could have survived since Archean time. Because of all the evidence, the furans and alkanes are quite likely biochemical fossils. PMID:16592603

  2. [Children's health. 40. Unacceptable that 14 million children die every year].

    PubMed

    Bergqvist, L P

    1987-10-01

    The 40th annual report of the UN Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) states that about 7 million of the 14 million children who die throughout the world each year could be saved by modern methods of health care and food supply. UNICEF's executive director James Grant points out that 40 years ago little international attention was given to mass death from starvation, but today any such crisis attracts the mass media, and people and governments act to avoid mass death. Undernourishment and epidemics continue to threaten the world's children and more than 280,000 children die from these causes each week. Even with the crises of the past two years in Africa there have been more deaths among children in India and Pakistan than in all of Africa's 46 countries together. Existing knowledge on cheap methods of improving the health of children in underdeveloped countries is sufficient to save at least 7 million children's lives each year. Many millions more could have a normal growth with better information on replacements on mother's milk, vaccinations and access to supplies of water, sugar, and salt for oral rehydration therapy. Just as important are the new technologies of the communications revolution which is taking place in underdeveloped countries. Most homes have a radio, and televisions are available in most villages and in many small communities there are schools and health workers. PMID:3424127

  3. 100 Years of Commitment to Children: Change and Continuity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Rima

    The Foundation for Child Development (FCD) is the oldest philanthropy in the nation focused on improving the life prospects of children. This booklet, produced for FCD's centennial, describes the organization's origins and changes during the past 100 years. The booklet's sections, which include photographs, quotes, and a timeline, are: (1) "The…

  4. Maternal Depression and Children's Attachment Representations during the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapolini, T.; Ungerer, J. A.; McMahon, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the impact of chronic and transient maternal depression on children's attachment representations at 4 years of age measured with the Attachment Story Completion Task (Bretherton, Ridgeway, & Cassidy, 1990). The impact of concurrent maternal depressive symptoms was also considered. A secondary aim was to…

  5. Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children: Five Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beidel, Deborah C.; Turner, Samuel M.; Young, Brennan J.

    2006-01-01

    Social Effectiveness Therapy for Children (SET-C) is a comprehensive behavioral treatment combining social skills training, peer generalization experiences, and individualized in vivo exposure for the treatment of social phobia in youth. SET-C results in positive treatment outcome and its effects are maintained at least 3 years later. In this…

  6. Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Saudi Arabian children younger than 5years of age.

    PubMed

    Almazrou, Yagob; Shibl, Atef M; Alkhlaif, Riyadh; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Anis, Sameh; Kandeil, Walid; Hausdorff, William P

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in Saudi Arabian children. This multicenter, prospective, clinical surveillance study included children under 5years of age, residents of one of the seven study health areas, who were brought to a study hospital with suspicion of IPD. Bacterial isolates from sterile site samples, collected less than 24h after hospital visit/admission, were identified, serotyped, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility. Between June 2007 and January 2009, 631 episodes of suspected IPD were recorded, and 623 were included in the analysis. One child (0.2%) had previously received one dose of a pneumococcal vaccine. Forty-seven episodes were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae and three for Haemophilus influenzae. The incidence of confirmed IPD cases was estimated to be 2.5-21.6 per 100,000 children (<5years). Among the 46 S. pneumoniae isolates serotyped and tested for antibiotic susceptibility, the most common serotypes were 5 and 23F (20% each), 6B (17%), and 1 and 14 (11% each). Sixty-three percent of isolates were multidrug-resistant. Vaccination of Saudi Arabian children with expanded-coverage conjugate pneumococcal vaccines containing serotypes 1 and 5 could have a substantial impact to prevent IPD in this population. PMID:26368823

  7. Ambient PM2.5, O3, and NO2 Exposures and Associations with Mortality over 16 Years of Follow-Up in the Canadian Census Health and Environment Cohort (CanCHEC)

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Paul A.; Hystad, Perry; Brook, Jeffrey R.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Jerrett, Michael; Goldberg, Mark S.; Pope, C. Arden; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Robert D.; Robichaud, Alain; Menard, Richard; Burnett, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies examining the associations between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality have considered multiple pollutants when assessing changes in exposure due to residential mobility during follow-up. Objective We investigated associations between cause-specific mortality and ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a national cohort of about 2.5 million Canadians. Methods We assigned estimates of annual concentrations of these pollutants to the residential postal codes of subjects for each year during 16 years of follow-up. Historical tax data allowed us to track subjects’ residential postal code annually. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for each pollutant separately and adjusted for the other pollutants. We also estimated the product of the three HRs as a measure of the cumulative association with mortality for several causes of death for an increment of the mean minus the 5th percentile of each pollutant: 5.0 μg/m3 for PM2.5, 9.5 ppb for O3, and 8.1 ppb for NO2. Results PM2.5, O3, and NO2 were associated with nonaccidental and cause-specific mortality in single-pollutant models. Exposure to PM2.5 alone was not sufficient to fully characterize the toxicity of the atmospheric mix or to fully explain the risk of mortality associated with exposure to ambient pollution. Assuming additive associations, the estimated HR for nonaccidental mortality corresponding to a change in exposure from the mean to the 5th percentile for all three pollutants together was 1.075 (95% CI: 1.067, 1.084). Accounting for residential mobility had only a limited impact on the association between mortality and PM2.5 and O3, but increased associations with NO2. Conclusions In this large, national-level cohort, we found positive associations between several common causes of death and exposure to PM2.5, O3, and NO2. Citation Crouse DL, Peters PA, Hystad P, Brook JR, van Donkelaar A

  8. Weight changes in children in foster care for 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Smith, Caitlin; Arnold, Janet S.; Fuentes, Jorge; Duan, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study of predominately racial/ethnic minority children in foster care (N = 360, birth to 19 years old) in Los Angeles, CA were to examine the (1) prevalence of obesity (≥ 95 percentile) and overweight/obese(≥ 85 percentile) upon entrance to foster care (T1) and after 1 year in foster care (T2); (2) comparison of high weight categories to national statistics; (3) relationship of changes in weight status to age, reason for entry into foster care, and placement. Methods Chi-square test and McNemar test comparing paired proportions were used to determine whether there were significant changes in the proportion of high weight categories between T1 and T2. Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test were used to evaluated the association between age, placement, and reason for foster care with the change in weight category. Changes in weight were categorized as (1) decreased in weight, (2) remained at overweight or obese, (3) increased in weight, or (4) remained normal. Results The proportion of obese and obese/overweight children between age 2 and 5 were significantly lower at T2 than T1. There were no significant changes in the prevalence of obesity for the total population at T2. Children age 6 or older had a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight/obesity compared to national statistics. Of children at all ages, 64.7% of children of all ages entered foster care with a normal weight and stayed in the normal range during their first year in foster care, 12.2% decreased their weight, 15.4% remained overweight or obese, and 7.7% increased their weight. Age and parental substance use was related to change in weight category from T1 to T2. Conclusions Children did not become more overweight or obese in foster care; however 28% of the children were obese or overweight upon entry into foster care. Children who are 6 years or older and obese upon entering foster care should be targeted for weight reduction. The pediatric community and child

  9. Characteristics and major sources of carbonaceous aerosols in PM2.5 in Emilia Romagna Region (Northern Italy) from four-year observations.

    PubMed

    Pietrogrande, Maria Chiara; Bacco, Dimitri; Ferrari, Silvia; Ricciardelli, Isabella; Scotto, Fabiana; Trentini, Arianna; Visentin, Marco

    2016-05-15

    The concentrations of organic and elemental carbon in PM2.5 aerosol samples were measured in two sites of Emilia Romagna (Po Valley, Northern Italy) in eight campaigns during different seasons from 2011 to 2014. Strong seasonality was observed with the highest OC concentrations during the cold periods (≈ 5.5 μg m(-3)) and the lowest in the warm months (≈ 2.7 μg m(-3)) as well as with higher EC levels in fall/winter (≈ 1.4 μg m(-3)) in comparison with spring/summer (≈ 0.6 μg m(-3)). Concerning spatial variability, there were no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between OC concentrations at the two sampling sites in each campaign, while the EC values were nearly twofold higher levels at the urban site than those at the rural one. Specific molecular markers were investigated to attempt the basic apportionment of OC by discriminating between the main emission sources of primary OC, such as fossil fuels burning - including traffic vehicle emission - residential wood burning, and bio-aerosol released from plants and microorganisms, and the atmospheric photo-oxidation processes generating OCsec. The investigated markers were low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids - to describe the contribution of secondary organic aerosol - anhydrosugars - to quantify primary emissions from biomass burning - bio-sugars - to qualitatively estimate biogenic sources - and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - to differentiate among different combustion emissions. Using the levoglucosan tracer method, contribution of wood smoke to atmospheric OC concentration was computed. Wood burning accounts for 33% of OC in fall/winter and for 3% in spring/summer. A clear seasonal trend is also observed for the impact of secondary processes with higher contribution in the warm seasons (≈ 63%) in comparison with that in colder months (≈ 33%), that is consistent with enhanced solar radiation in spring/summer. PMID:26925729

  10. Constraining the factor analytical solutions obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    Rotational ambiguity in factor analyses leads to solutions that are not always consistent with reality. The inherent non-negativity constraints in positive matrix factorization (PMF) help to prevent factor solutions from becoming overly unrealistic, but they are not sufficient to prevent unwanted rotations that could manifest in factors that should have similar compositions varying across multiple sites. The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from these sites from 2005 to 2010 were subjected to PMF to obtain factors representing sources of particulate matter. Eight factors were found to be common across these sites. These factors had profiles that varied greatly from one site to the other, suggesting that the PMF solutions were impacted by some rotational ambiguity. New features in the EPA PMF V5 program allow the use of a priori information to impose mathematical constraints that guide the evolution of the factor solutions. These constraints reduce the rotational space. In situations where major emissions sources are known and located in the neighborhood of receptors, or emissions inventories and literature source profiles exist, it is easy to use these profiles to force the factor solutions to conform to the expected signatures. In our case, reported source profiles were neither available nor applicable due to the large spatial span of potential sources and receptor sites. This work describes how such constraints can be generated and used in these complex situations. The fundamental principle explored in this work is the concept of 'stiffness' of PMF solutions to identify the desirable non-rotating factors.

  11. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients. PMID:25656458

  12. Air pollution and acute respiratory infections among children 0-4 years of age: an 18-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Darrow, Lyndsey A; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W Dana; Mulholland, James A; Tolbert, Paige E; Strickland, Matthew J

    2014-11-15

    Upper and lower respiratory infections are common in early childhood and may be exacerbated by air pollution. We investigated short-term changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations, including speciated particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory infections in young children. Daily counts of ED visits for bronchitis and bronchiolitis (n = 80,399), pneumonia (n = 63,359), and upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 359,246) among children 0-4 years of age were collected from hospitals in the Atlanta, Georgia, area for the period 1993-2010. Daily pollutant measurements were combined across monitoring stations using population weighting. In Poisson generalized linear models, 3-day moving average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and the organic carbon fraction of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were associated with ED visits for pneumonia and URI. Ozone associations were strongest and were observed at low (cold-season) concentrations; a 1-interquartile range increase predicted a 4% increase (95% confidence interval: 2%, 6%) in visits for URI and an 8% increase (95% confidence interval: 4%, 13%) in visits for pneumonia. Rate ratios tended to be higher in the 1- to 4-year age group compared with infants. Results suggest that primary traffic pollutants, ozone, and the organic carbon fraction of PM2.5 exacerbate upper and lower respiratory infections in early life, and that the carbon fraction of PM2.5 is a particularly harmful component of the ambient particulate matter mixture. PMID:25324558

  13. Air Pollution and Acute Respiratory Infections Among Children 0–4 Years of Age: An 18-Year Time-Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Darrow, Lyndsey A.; Klein, Mitchel; Flanders, W. Dana; Mulholland, James A.; Tolbert, Paige E.; Strickland, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Upper and lower respiratory infections are common in early childhood and may be exacerbated by air pollution. We investigated short-term changes in ambient air pollutant concentrations, including speciated particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), in relation to emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory infections in young children. Daily counts of ED visits for bronchitis and bronchiolitis (n = 80,399), pneumonia (n = 63,359), and upper respiratory infection (URI) (n = 359,246) among children 0–4 years of age were collected from hospitals in the Atlanta, Georgia, area for the period 1993–2010. Daily pollutant measurements were combined across monitoring stations using population weighting. In Poisson generalized linear models, 3-day moving average concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and the organic carbon fraction of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) were associated with ED visits for pneumonia and URI. Ozone associations were strongest and were observed at low (cold-season) concentrations; a 1–interquartile range increase predicted a 4% increase (95% confidence interval: 2%, 6%) in visits for URI and an 8% increase (95% confidence interval: 4%, 13%) in visits for pneumonia. Rate ratios tended to be higher in the 1- to 4-year age group compared with infants. Results suggest that primary traffic pollutants, ozone, and the organic carbon fraction of PM2.5 exacerbate upper and lower respiratory infections in early life, and that the carbon fraction of PM2.5 is a particularly harmful component of the ambient particulate matter mixture. PMID:25324558

  14. Hawaii Basic Data and Information Book on Children. Children: Five to Twelve Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, Dorothy G.

    Considered an indispensible aid to formulating policies and programs, this book of tables gives demographic and statistical information on 5- to 12-year-old Hawaiian children. The information provided concentrates on factors that are especially important in a 5- to 12-year-old's life: home, school, the economy, the peer group, health, and the…

  15. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for the Treatment of Localized and Locally Advanced Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer: 2,5 Year Outcome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solovov, V. A.; Dvoynikov, S. Y.; Vozdvizhenskiy, M. O.

    2011-09-01

    Introduction & Objectives: High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) has been shown to be a successful treatment for localised prostate cancer (PC). Here we have explored the effectiveness of the HIFU treatment for hormone-resistant prostate cancer (HRPC). Materials & Methods: 341 patients were treated in our center between September 2007 and December 2009; all of them showed treatment failure following hormone ablation. The median time before hormone-resistance was 20 (3-48) months. In the group with localised PC: number of patients 237, Gleason score ≤7, stage T1-2N0M0, age 69 (60-89) years, mean PSA before treatment 40,0 (5,8-92,9) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—39,3 (28-92) cc; in the group with locally advanced PC: number of patients 104, Gleason score ≤9, stage T2-3N0M0, age 72 (52-83) years, PSA before treatment 30,3 (20,1-60) ng/ml, mean prostate volume—41,2 (25-198) cc. HIFU was delivered under spinal anesthesia using the Ablatherm HIFU device (EDAP, France). Pre HIFU transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was performed for all patients. Mean follow-up time 18 months (3-30). Results: The median PSA level 12 months after HIFU treatment was 0,04 (0-2,24) ng/ml—localised PC, and for locally advanced disease—0,05 (0-48,4) ng/ml, at 18 months after HIFU treatment this was 0,2 (0,02-2,0) ng/ml for localised PC, and for locally advanced disease 0,18 (0,04-7,45) ng/ml. Patients with localised PC has 4,5% recurrence, those with locally advanced PC 20%. Kaplan-Meir analyses of the total group indicated that the risk of recurrence after 1 year follow-up was 10%, the risk of recurrence was 19% after 2 years of follow-up. Conclusions: Our initial experience shows that ultrasound ablation is safe, minimally invasive and effective as a treatment for localised and locally advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer.

  16. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m−2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (−14.4% vs −26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (−14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs −4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least

  17. Failure to immunize children under 5 years: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lochhead, Y J

    1991-02-01

    This paper aims to provide a critical review of the current literature related to immunization default in children under 5 years of age. The author has used a health belief model as the framework for analysis, examining each area in detail. The principle recommendations for practice are addressed and critically evaluated with a concluding summary of the main points raised and the author's recommendation for practice. PMID:2013653

  18. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    PubMed

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  19. Effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on executive function in children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Lambrick, Danielle; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Faulkner, James

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the effects of acute exercise on executive function in prepubescent children may be important for the enhancement of school performance. This study assessed the effect of an acute bout of continuous (CONT) or intermittent (INT), moderate-intensity treadmill exercise on executive function in young children. Twenty healthy children, mean (SD); age: 8.8 (0.8) years; height: 140 (9) cm; weight: 36 (11) kg; boys: n = 9, performed a graded-exercise test to determine maximal oxygen uptake, and two 15-min submaximal bouts of treadmill exercise; protocols were either CONT or INT. During CONT, participants ran at 90% of gas exchange threshold. During INT, participants performed six consecutive 2.5 min blocks of exercise, which were designed to reflect children's typical activity patterns, comprising 45 s at a heavy intensity, 33 s at a moderate intensity, 10 s at a severe intensity, and 62 s at a low intensity. Participants performed the Stroop task before the submaximal exercise bouts and after, at 1-, 15-, and 30-min intervals. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured cerebral perfusion and oxygenation. Regardless of condition, Stroop performance was improved at 1 min after compared to before, 54.9 (9.8) s versus 57.9 (11) s, respectively, p < .01, and improvements were maintained until 30 min after. NIRS (oxyhemoglobin, total hemoglobin) explained a significant amount of variance in the change in Stroop performance for INT only (49%, p < .05). An acute bout of exercise, of either an intermittent or continuous nature, improves executive function in children, and effects are maintained for ≤ 30 min following exercise cessation. Accordingly, it is recommended that children should engage in physical activity during periods of school recess. PMID:27314635

  20. Two and a half-year-old children are prosocial even when their partners are not.

    PubMed

    Sebastián-Enesco, Carla; Hernández-Lloreda, María Victoria; Colmenares, Fernando

    2013-10-01

    A total of 33 2.5-year-old toddlers were tested for proactive and selective prosocial responding in an iterated Prosocial Game with unfamiliar adult partners who were communicatively neutral and alternated their roles as actors and recipients every other trial. When children were actors, they were required to choose, at no cost to themselves, between a selfish option that delivered a reward to them only (1/0) and a prosocial option that delivered identical rewards to both themselves and their partners (1/1). When adult partners were actors, they consistently behaved prosocially (1/1) or selfishly (1/0) over 10 alternating trials, depending on test condition. An additional 17 children were used as a recipient-absent control group to test for self-oriented versus other-oriented prosocial preferences. This study shows that by 2.5 years of age, and in the particular context of the task administered, toddlers can display proactive, other-oriented prosocial behavior, but their prosocial responding is indiscriminate in that they fail to respond contingently to their partners' prosocial or selfish behavior in the previous trials. These findings lend further support to the view that human prosociality is in place early in development as a basic tendency to be nice to others. This inclination may be so strong that not even partners who are communicatively neutral or repeatedly selfish toward children can erode it. They also suggest that this precocious proactive prosociality may be independent of reciprocity in terms of both its developmental schedule and psychological scaffolding. PMID:23800679

  1. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  2. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  3. Object exploration in 3- to 7-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Sniegulska, Magdalena; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze free exploration of an unfamiliar, novel object in a semi-natural environment in 189 preschool children aged 3 to 7 years. The study used a purpose-built, novel, and complex stimulus object. Each child was shown the complex object lying on the floor and asked to explore it for 15 minutes. The child's behavior was video recorded. Age-dependent differences were found in the children's exploratory activity. No sex differences were found. Cluster analysis showed four main behavioral patterns that differed in their qualitative and quantitative parameters. Cluster membership was mainly age-dependent and not sex-specific. The results showed individual and developmental differences among the preschoolers with respect to their exploratory activity. This should be taken into account by school psychologists and teachers when designing the educational tasks and play situations. PMID:24597446

  4. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  5. Wildland fire management and air quality in the southern Sierra Nevada: using the Lion Fire as a case study with a multi-year perspective on PM(2.5) impacts and fire policy.

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Don; Cisneros, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Management of fire is an important and controversial policy issue. Active fire suppression has led to a backlog of fuels, limited the ecological benefits of fire, and reduced short-term smoke impacts likely delaying these emissions to future generations over a larger spatial extent. Smoke impacts can be expected to increase as fire size and intensity increase and the fuel backlog is consumed; whether through reintroduction of fire under desirable conditions or through stand replacing fire. Land Management Agencies would like to increase the use of naturally ignited fires to burn during favorable conditions as a way to reduce catastrophic fires. This study provides information about the levels of air quality impacts expected from these types of fires and discusses some of the policy controversies of managed fire that propagate inconsistencies between agencies and enter the public discourse. The Lion Fire, a primarily low intensity 8,370 ha fire that was extensively monitored for Particulate Matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), is used to quantify impacts to air quality. PM2.5 monitoring sites are used to assess exposure, public health impacts, and subsequently quantify annual air quality during a year with a fire that is within the historic normal fire size and intensity for this area. Ground level PM2.5 impacts were found to be localized with 99% of the hourly Air Quality Index readings in the moderate or good category for the sites impacted by the fire. PM2.5 concentrations at sites nearest the fire were below annual federal air quality standards for PM2.5 with annual 98th percentile at the most impacted sites (Johnsondale, Kernville, and Camp Nelson) of 35.0, 34.0, and 28.0 μg m(-3) respectively. Smoke impacts to PM2.5 concentrations were not found to reach the populated Central Valley. The findings suggest that this type of fire can be implemented with minimal public health impacts thus allowing an opportunity for air and fire managers to alter policy to

  6. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis. PMID:11856454

  7. Five year follow-up of epikeratophakia in children.

    PubMed

    Morgan, K S; Arffa, R C; Marvelli, T L; Verity, S M

    1986-04-01

    Epikeratophakia alters the anterior curvature of the cornea by the addition of a machine-carved donor lenticule. Since March 1980, 88 patients under eight years of age have had epikeratophakia, with at least six months of follow-up. Eighty percent of the original surgeries were successful; some failed grafts were replaced successfully, so that in all, 89% of the patients had successful grafts. The average increase in curvature of the cornea was 14.7 diopters, and the average spectacle overcorrection was +0.56 diopters. In these growing eyes, we documented a myopic shift of 1.5 diopters per year. Visual acuity results varied with the timing of refractive surgery, density of the amblyopia, and the parents' ability to maintain the patching schedule. The largest group of children were those who had unilateral traumatic cataracts. In this group, 7 of 15 patients who had surgery under 4 years of age had final verbal acuities of 20/40 or better. Long-term follow-up has demonstrated that epikeratophakia safely and successfully corrects refractive errors in aphakic children either as a primary procedure, or as a secondary procedure after cataract extraction. PMID:3517741

  8. Otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year

    PubMed Central

    Di Francesco, Renata Cantisani; Barros, Vivian Boschesi; Ramos, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of otitis media with effusion in children younger than 1 year and its association with the season of the year, artificial feeding, environmental and perinatal factors. Methods: Retrospective study of 184 randomly included medical records from a total of 982 healthy infants evaluated for hearing screening tests. Diagnosis of otitis media with effusion was based on otoscopy (amber-gold color, fluid level, handle of malleus position), type B tympanometric curves and absence of otoacoustic emissions. Incomplete medical records or those describing acute otitis media, upper respiratory tract infections on the assessment day or in the last 3 months, neuropathies and craniofacial anomalies were excluded. Data such as gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, type of feeding and day care attendance were compared between children with and without otitis media with effusion through likelihood tests and multivariate analysis. Results: 25.3% of 184 infants had otitis media with bilateral effusion; 9.2% had unilateral. In infants with otitis media, the following were observed: chronological age of 9.6±1.7 months; gestational age >38 weeks in 43.4% and birth weight >2500g in 48.4%. Otitis media with effusion was associated with winter/fall, artificial feeding, Apgar score <7 and day care attendance. The multivariate analysis showed that artificial feeding is the factor most often associated to otitis media with effusion. Conclusions: Otitis media with effusion was found in about one third of children younger than 1 year and was mainly associated with artificial feeding. PMID:26559603

  9. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  10. Treating feverish illness in children aged under five years.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Penny

    2014-12-01

    Fever is the most likely reason for a child to be taken to the doctor and, occasionally, the signs may indicate the start of serious illness. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has issued a quality standard for the care of feverish illness in children aged under five years, designed to ensure that no such cases are missed. Carers, usually parents, should be offered written and verbal advice if it is judged that they can safely take the child home and are happy to do so. The traffic light system is designed to assist assessment of the child on presentation and throughout the illness journey. PMID:25487400

  11. Magic Memories: Young Children's Verbal Recall after a 6-Year Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Fiona; Simcock, Gabrielle; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the first prospective study specifically designed to assess children's verbal memory for a unique event 6 years after it occurred. Forty-six 27- to 51-month-old children took part in a unique event and were interviewed about it twice, after 24-hr and 6-year delays. During the 6-year interview, 9 children verbally recalled the…

  12. Scholastic Adaptation and Socio-Cognitive Abilities of Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillain, Andre; Pry, Rene

    Building on the assumption that there is cognitive organization to social abilities, two studies analyzed stability and change of this organization in children. The first study focused on children who attended the first year and second year of nursery school, and the first year of elementary school. The second study focused on those children who…

  13. Liver Hydatid Cyst in Children (A 14-year Review)

    PubMed Central

    Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad, Ahmad; Kouranloo, Jaefar; Sadeghian, Nasser; Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Hasas-Yeganeh, Shaghayegh

    2011-01-01

    Objective Hydatid disease is still an important health hazard in the world. This disease is a parasitic infestation which is endemic in many sheep and cattle raising areas such as in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical appearance, diagnosis, and treatment of liver hydatid cyst in children. Methods This retrospective study evaluated 100 patients who were referred to Mofid Children's Hospital with liver hydatid cyst from March 1996 to March 2010. Medical records of 1 to 14 year old patients who had definitive liver hydatid cyst were included and analysis of variables such as age, gender, symptoms, diagnostic investigation, operative technique, hospital stay, mortality, morbidity and outcome of treatment were evaluated. Findings The patients consisted of 54 boys (54%) and 46 (46%) girls with an age range of 1-14 years (mean 11.8±4.6). The incidence rate increased by age. The patients had totally 110 cysts, right pulmonary lobe 81 (73%) cysts and left side had 29 (27%). Abdominal mass was the most common (50%) symptom. Abdominal sonography gave correct diagnosis in 94 (94%) patients. Conservative surgical treatment was carried out in 98 children. Two patients were treated medically as the cysts were small and calcified. The most common complication was wound infection in 3 cases. Mean length of hospitalization was 9 days. In 100% of our patients the type of parasite was Echinoccocus granulosus. The morbidity rate was 12% (prolonging external catheter drainage in 12 patients). There was only one (1%) mortality and 2 (2%) recurrences. Conclusion Due to the less invasive and high accuracy of liver sonography in diagnosis of hydatid cyst, we recommend it as the method of choice for the diagnosis in endemic regions. Surgery is the method of choice for treatment. PMID:23056818

  14. Lupus nephritis in Egyptian children: a 16-year experience.

    PubMed

    Elmougy, Atef; Sarhan, Amr; Hammad, Ayman; El-Refaey, Ahmed; Zedan, Mohammed; Eid, Riham; Laimon, Wafaa; Limon, Wafaa; Elrahman, Ashraf Abd; Elhussieni, Fatma; El-Sherbeny, Enas; Bakr, Ashraf

    2015-10-01

    We retrospectively evaluated the clinical features, histo-pathological patterns, treatment modalities, and outcome of children and adolescents with lupus nephritis (LN), followed-up in Lupus Clinic, Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Mansoura University Children's Hospital between January 1997 and December 2012. Out of 194 patients diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), LN was reported in 136 (70 %) patient, they were 27 males (20 %) and 109 females (80 %). The mean age at presentation was 12.5 ± 2.9 years, the mean duration of follow up was 4.1 years (range 2 months-12 years). Hematuria was present in 79 patients (58 %), proteinuria in 126 (92.6 %), 38 of them were in nephrotic range, while renal impairment was documented in 20 patients (15 %). Renal biopsy was done in 132 patients; diagnosis of class II, III, IV, V were 23, 25, 39, and 2 % respectively. Second renal biopsy was indicated in 58 patients (insufficient first biopsy 2, follow up in 45, lupus flare in 8, no response to therapy in 3 patients), while the third one was needed in only eight patients. Steroids were the commonest initial medications; used in 128 patients (63 alone and 65 with others) and cyclophosphamide was used in 64 patients. At the last follow-up visit; 19 % of patients lost follow-up, 45 % had complete remission, 21 % still had active disease, 1 % had end-stage renal disease, and 11 % died. In conclusion, in Egypt, childhood SLE is associated with frequent and severe nephritis at presentation, and this may be attributed to genetic, ethnic, or environmental factors. PMID:25491938

  15. Leprosy in children under fifteen years in Brazil, 2011.

    PubMed

    Levantezi, Magda; Moreira, Tadiana; Sena Neto, Sebastião; De Jesus, Aline Ludmila

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the occurrence of Hansen's disease in children under 15 years of age and to analyse the burden of disease in the same population in Brazil in 2011. This is a descriptive epidemiological study on the positive cases of Hansen's disease in minors below 15 years of age notified in Brazil. Data was collected from the Information System on Disease Notification for Hansen's disease cases, and the Brazilian Institute of Geographic Statistics for population data. The study's results showed that 2420 minors with Hansen's Disease in 2011 were distributed in 5565 cities, 692 cities registered the occurrence of 1-10 cases of the disease, a total of 1489 cases (61%); 35 cities showed 15 to 25 cases, 544 (22.5%); and eight cities notified 25 cases or more, totalling 87 cases (16%), therefore, about one third of the Hansen's disease cases in minors under 15 years in Brazil in the year of 2011 are concentrated in 43 Brazilian cities. PMID:25255615

  16. Chinese and Australian Year 3 Children's Conceptual Understanding of Science: A Multiple Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tao, Ying; Oliver, Mary Colette; Venville, Grady Jane

    2012-01-01

    Children have formal science instruction from kindergarten in Australia and from Year 3 in China. The purpose of this research was to explore the impact that different approaches to primary science curricula in China and Australia have on children's conceptual understanding of science. Participants were Year 3 children from three schools of high,…

  17. The Development of a Scale to Measure Empathy in 8- and 9-Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garton, Alison F.; Gringart, Eyal

    2005-01-01

    Empathy has been suggested to facilitate effective collaborative problem solving in children. The current study adapted the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI, Davis, 1980), a well-validated empathy measure for adults, for use with children aged 8 and 9 years. Four hundred and thirteen school children aged between 7;11 and 9;11 years completed…

  18. Nutrient intakes of 2- to 10-year-old American children: 10-year trends.

    PubMed

    Albertson, A M; Tobelmann, R C; Engstrom, A; Asp, E H

    1992-12-01

    Nutrient intakes of American children aged 2 to 10 years were compared for the years 1978 and 1988 using a unique nutrient assessment system designed and developed by the Nutrition Department at General Mills. This system integrated data from three sources: 14-day food consumption diaries collected from 4,000 households in the Market Research Corporation of America Menu Census panel surveys; serving-size data from the spring 1977 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey; and nutrient data from the Michigan State University Nutrient Data Bank. The results indicate that energy and macronutrient intakes remained fairly constant over the 10-year period. Average daily vitamin and mineral intakes were lower in 1988 than in 1978 for the majority of those studied; however, most nutrient levels remained over 100% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). For more than 50% of the population, the intakes of calcium, vitamin B-6, and zinc were below the RDAs. Our findings indicate the need for continued monitoring of the impact of changing food consumption patterns on the diets of American children. PMID:1452963

  19. A 2-year longitudinal nutritional survey of 405 Northumberland children initially aged 11.5 years.

    PubMed

    Hackett, A F; Rugg-Gunn, A J; Appleton, D R; Eastoe, J E; Jenkins, G N

    1984-01-01

    Children (405), initially of average age 11.5 years, recorded all food and drinks consumed for three consecutive days (with an interview on the fourth day) on five separate occasions over a 2-year period. Food tables (Paul & Southgate, 1978) enabled nutrient intakes to be calculated. The data collected were found to be of high reliability (Hackett et al. 1983). The mean energy intakes showed broad agreement with other recent British dietary surveys but were well below those recorded in the prewar study by Widdowson (1947) and the FAO/WHO (1973) recommended levels. They were slightly below the current Department of Health and Social Security (DHSS; 1979) recommended intakes. Over the 2-year period, the energy intake of the boys increased by 13% compared with an increase of only 7% in the girls. The iron and vitamin A intakes of all groups of children were low compared with current recommendations (DHSS, 1979). This seems to be a result of falling energy intake. Mean calcium intakes were also only marginally in excess of the recommended intake, and those of most of the girls would fall below the recommendation if the proposal to end the fortification of flour (DHSS, 1981) is implemented. PMID:6317011

  20. Breastfeeding and cognitive development of children: assessment at one year of age.

    PubMed

    Hoque, M M; Ahmed, N U; Khan, F H; Jahan, R; Yasmeen, H N; Chowdhury, M A

    2012-04-01

    Breastfeeding is the fundamental component of child survival strategy. It significantly influences neurological development of children. The study was conducted to assess whether exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding improves children's cognitive development, including low birth weight (LBW) babies, in a developing country setting like Bangladesh. This observational study was done on a cohort of newborn infants who were discharged from the special care baby unit of Dhaka Shishu Hospital during January 2006 to December 2008 with proper counseling about exclusive and prolonged breastfeeding. Their neuro-developmental follow-up was started at 4 weeks postnatal age and continued at 3-monthly intervals up to 1 year of age. At each visit, cognitive development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID II). Cognitive development was compared between the babies of exclusive vs. non exclusive breastfeeding, normal weight vs. low birth weight and male vs. female babies. A total of 105 cases were successfully followed-up during this period. Out of these 47(44.8%) babies were exclusively breastfed up to 6 month of age and 58(55.2%) were in nonexclusive group. Overall Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) was slightly more (108.40 ± 23.06 vs. 103.23 ± 19.87) in the exclusive breast fed babies in comparison to nonexclusive breast fed babies, but was significantly more in babies having birth weight >2.5 kg in comparison to those having birth weight of <2.5 kg. Other parameters of cognitive development were more or less same in both normal and LBW groups. Mental and motor development was same in both boys and girls. In behavior ratings, cooperation was significantly high (5.89 ± 2.54 vs. 4.71 ± 3.13, p=0.05) and vocalization (5.89 ± 1.07 vs. 4.58 ± 1.16) was also high, though not significant, in girls than boys. PMID:22561777

  1. Sources and temporal variations of constrained PMF factors obtained from multiple-year receptor modeling of ambient PM2.5 data from five speciation sites in Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M.; Su, Yushan; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Rastogi, Ankit K.; Brook, Jeff; Hopke, Philip K.

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS) network operates five fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation sites in Ontario. Data from 2005 to 2010 from these sites were subjected to constrained positive matrix factorization (PMF) to obtain factors of particulate matter pollution. Eight factors were found to be common across the sites. These constrained factors were particulate sulfate and nitrate, aged combustion aerosols, biomass/wood combustion, non-ferrous metal smelting, crustal matter, steel works, and road salt. Other factors found at these sites were largely related to local sources in their respective neighbourhoods. Diagnostic results from constraining the PMF factors could be used to select the appropriate post-PMF analyses as they reveal the factors that were expected to have regional or local sources. Interpretation of the spatial trends of factors was guided by the extent of similarity of target ratios across the five sites as determined by their coefficient of variation (C.V.). On average, particulate sulfate had PM2.5 mass contributions that ranged from 7% (Wallaceburg) to 36% (Simcoe) and nitrate species ranged from 7% (Simcoe) to 23% (Windsor). A clear low rural - high urban divide for particulate nitrate was also observed. These non-uniform impacts across the sites indicate that a single representative location is not suitable for studying PM2.5 in Ontario. Temporal variations showed greater abundance of particulate sulfate in the summer and particulate nitrate in the winter respectively. Yearly median values of the sulfate factor that is largely energy-related have been declining for most sites since peaking in 2007. A trajectory ensemble model, simplified quantitative transport bias analysis (sQTBA) was used to identify potential source regions of the constrained sulfate and nitrate factors while radial plots of the conditional probability function (CPF) were used to explore the more locally-sourced factors. The US Midwest, east

  2. Control of breathing in children with mild sleep apnea: A six-year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Amber; Costy-Bennett, Seres; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Fregosi, Ralph F.

    2010-01-01

    We previously showed that children (average age 9 y) with mildly elevated obstructive apnea-hypopnea indices (OAHI) retained CO2 at rest. Here, we report the results of a six-year follow up study on 14 children from that study. Lung ventilation rate (VE) and the partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) were measured during hypercapnic challenge. OAHI fell from 7.5 ± 4.7 to 2.5 ± 1.8 from age 9 to age 15 (P < 0.001), despite an increase in BMI from 20 ± 4.6 to 26 ± 5.7 (P < 0.0001). Eupneic VE increased from 4.1 ± 0.31 to 5.9 ± 0.4 L/min/m2 (P< 0.01), while PET CO2 fell from 44.1 ± 0.8 to 33 ± 1.0 mmHg (P< 0.001). The VE - PETCO2 obtained during hypercapnia was left-shifted, such that VE at a PETCO2 of 50 mmHg increased from 24 L/min at age 9, to 36 L/min at age 15. Central respiratory drive did not change. We hypothesize that somatic growth of the pharynx coupled with a regression of tonsillar tissue mass with age lead to enlargement of the upper airway lumen, a reduction in airway resistance and increased respiratory airflow at a given level of ventilatory drive. PMID:19574325

  3. Portion Size Variably Affects Food Intake of 6-year-old and 4-year-old Children in Kunming, China

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lindsey; Conroy, Katharine; Wen, Hongmei; Rui, Li; Humphries, Debbie

    2015-01-01

    Age and portion size have been found to influence food intake in American children but have not been examined in an international context. This study evaluated the association between age and the effects of portion size on the food intake of kindergarteners in Kunming, China. Using a within-subjects crossover design in a classroom setting, 173 children in two age groups, mean age 4.2 years and 6.1 years, were served a predefined reference, small (-30%) and large (+30%) portion of rice, vegetables, and a protein source during lunchtime over three consecutive days. Each portion was weighed before and after the meal to determine amount of food consumed. Linear mixed modeling, controlling for repeated measures and clustering by classroom, was used to compare food intake under small and large portion size conditions to the reference portion. Children ate significantly less food when served small portions. When served a large portion, 6-year-old children increased food intake while 4-year-old children decreased food intake in comparison to the reference portion. Findings indicate that portion size affects food intake in Chinese children 4- to 6-years old. Older children show larger increases in food intake with increased portion size than do younger children. PMID:23702260

  4. Small Poppies: Highly Gifted Children in the Early Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Miraca U. M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the underidentification of young highly-gifted children and describes the developmental differences in highly-gifted children. Issues in the identification of young highly-gifted children are addressed, along with suggestions for teacher nomination, parent nomination, ability and achievement testing, and appropriate placements of…

  5. Resiliency: A Comparison of Construct Definitions Arising from Conversations with 9 Year Old - 12 Year Old Children and Their Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, John; Johnson, Bruce; Howard, Sue; McGuire, Alex

    Much research has focused on the concept of resilience, which is defined as the process of, capacity for, or outcome of successful adaptation despite challenging circumstances. To examine resilience in school children, small group interviews were conducted with 9-12 year-old children (N=125) drawn from five primary schools in South Australia. The…

  6. Tracing Children's Vocabulary Development from Preschool through the School-Age Years: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over…

  7. The changing pattern of children's dialysis and transplantation over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Goh, D; Evans, J H; Houston, I B; Mallick, N P; Morton, M J; Johnson, R W; Postlethwaite, R J

    1994-10-01

    The changing treatment and outcome for children with chronic renal failure (CRF) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) was assessed in children referred to the only paediatric unit in the North West Region of England between 1968 and 1988. There were 108 children. Referrals in consecutive 5-year time periods increased from 9 to 41 over the 20 years with the overall incidence of new referrals less than 15 years old reaching 8.5 per million childhood population in 1983-87, whilst the proportion of children under 5-years increased from 0% to 22%. The survival rate was better in those commencing RRT in the later years: 5-year survival 56% for the 1968-72 cohort vs 88% for 1978-82. The increasing number of referrals particularly among young children, coupled with improved survival rates have considerable implications when determining the provision of care for children with ESRD. PMID:7834914

  8. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48 %) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22 %) for rotavirus A, 36 (8 %) for Shigella spp., 17 (4 %) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2 %) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11 %) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5 %) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100 %), and 30 (83 %) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100 %) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94 %) isolates of E. coli and (78 %) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47 %) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44 %) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  9. Opening and Closing Interactive Spaces: Shaping Four-Year-Old Children's Participation in Two English Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payler, Jane

    2007-01-01

    This paper draws on an ESRC-funded study (Payler, 2005) of the sociocultural influences on learning processes of 10 four-year-old children in their second year of the Foundation Stage in England (DfEE, 2000). The children, very close in age, were in one of two early years settings: a pre-school playgroup with a largely invisible pedagogy…

  10. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  11. The relationship between cognition and action: performance of children 3 1/2-7 years old on a Stroop-like day-night test.

    PubMed

    Gerstadt, C L; Hong, Y J; Diamond, A

    1994-11-01

    One hundred and sixty children 3 1/2-7 years of age (10 M, 10 F at each 6-month interval) were tested on a task that requires inhibitory control of action plus learning and remembering two rules. They were asked to say "day" whenever a black card with the moon and stars appeared and to say "night" when shown a white card with a bright sun. Children < 5 years had great difficulty. They started out performing well, but could not sustain this over the course of the 16-trial session. Response latency decreased from 3 1/2 to 4 1/2 years. Children < 4 1/2 years performed well when they took very long to respond. To test whether the requirement to learn and remember two rules alone was sufficient to cause children difficulty, 80 children 3 1/2-5 years old were tested on a control version of the task ("say 'day' to one abstract design and 'night' to another"). Even the youngest children performed at a high level. We conclude that the requirement to learn and remember two rules is not in itself sufficient to account for the poor performance of the younger children in the experimental condition. PMID:7805351

  12. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  13. The First Year Inventory: A Longitudinal Follow-Up of 12-Month-Old to 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M.; Baranek, Grace T.; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R.; Crais, Elizabeth R.

    2013-01-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory--regulatory and social--communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of…

  14. Mixed foods are similarly categorized by 8-13 year old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food search in a computerized 24-h dietary recall (24hdr) for children should be easiest when the categories reflect children's categorization of foods, in contrast to professional categories. This study assessed how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled mixed foods (e.g., fried rice, l...

  15. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Who Do Not Develop Phrase Speech in the Preschool Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrelgen, Fritjof; Fernell, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Mats; Hedvall, Asa; Persson, Clara; Sjölin, Maria; Gillberg, Christopher; Kjellmer, Liselotte

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty about the proportion of children with autism spectrum disorders who do not develop phrase speech during the preschool years. The main purpose of this study was to examine this ratio in a population-based community sample of children. The cohort consisted of 165 children (141 boys, 24 girls) with autism spectrum disorders aged…

  16. Interview Stories: Early Years Practitioners' Experiences with Children with Speech, Language and Communication Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mroz, Maria; Letts, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with 50 early years practitioners, exploring their experiences with children with speech, language and communication needs (SLCN). A narrative approach was taken to elicit information on the children they were working with who had these needs. This included characteristics of the children's behaviour, how they were…

  17. The Effects of Three Years of Piano Instruction on Children's Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    1999-01-01

    Examines the effects of 3 years of piano instruction on children's cognitive abilities. Finds that children's general cognitive and spatial abilities improved significantly, but those improvements were only temporary. Believes that the positive effects on the children's cognitive abilities were dependent upon their dedication to learning the…

  18. Five- to 8-Year-Old Emirati Children's and Their Teachers' Perceptions of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buldu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 5- to 8-year-old Emirati children's and their teachers' perceptions of war. Data for this study were collected through drawings and semi-structured interviews. A phenomenological procedure was used to analyze the data. Younger children could not articulate the details of the specific nature of war. Many children defined war as…

  19. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  20. Trajectories of Resilience during Dyadic Task Performance among Children Six to Seven Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mykkänen, Arttu; Kronqvist, Eeva-Liisa; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse resilience displayed by young children in dyadic task performance situations. Data were collected by videotaping children (aged six to seven years; N?=?40) during a geometrical task performance. Results describe ways in which children confronted the challenges during task performance, and the order in which the…

  1. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  2. Collaborative Problem Solving in Five-Year-Old Children: Evidence of Social Facilitation and Social Loafing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arterberry, Martha E.; Cain, Kathleen M.; Chopko, Stephanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Children's problem solving while working by themselves or with a partner was investigated to explore whether young children are susceptible to social facilitation and social loafing. Five-year-olds were asked to complete easy or hard puzzles, either alone or with a partner. Half of the children were given instructions indicating that their…

  3. Seasonal and Daily Variation in Physical Activity among Three-Year-Old Finnish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Tammelin, Tuija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Watt, Anthony; Villberg, Jari; Kettunen, Tarja; Mehtälä, Anette; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess seasonal, daily, and gender variations in children's physical activity (PA). ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers were used to record the three-year-old children's PA levels for five consecutive days in autumn and winter. Complete data for both seasons were obtained for 47 children. Despite a…

  4. Contemporaneous and 1-Year Longitudinal Prediction of Children's Prosocial Behavior from Sympathy and Moral Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malti, Tina; Gummerum, Michaela; Buchmann, Marlis

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relations of children's (M age = 6.4 years) prosocial behavior to sympathy and moral motivation. Mothers and kindergarten teachers rated children's prosocial behavior. The authors measured sympathy via self- and adult reports. Moral motivation was assessed by children's attribution of…

  5. Learning Benefits of Self-Controlled Knowledge of Results in 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Laroque de Medeiros, Franklin; Kaefer, Angelica; Tani, Go

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results (KR) would generalize to children. Specifically, the authors chose 10-year-old children representative of late childhood. The authors used a task that required the children to toss beanbags at a target. One group received KR…

  6. Children of Methadone-Maintained Mothers: Three-Year Follow-Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.; And Others

    The physical and neurobehavioral findings at 3 years of age for 39 children born to mothers on methadone- maintenance and 23 children born to drug-free comparison mothers are reported. The methadone children had a higher incidence of head circumferences less than the third percentile, nystagmus/strabismus, and otitis media. No differences were…

  7. The Relationship among 100% Juice Consumption, Nutrient Intake, and Weight of Children 2-11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inconsistent research findings have led to continued debate over the potential associations between 100% juice consumption (JC), nutrient intake,and weight in children. The objective is to investigate the associations between JC, nutrient intake, and weight in children. Children 2 to 11 years of a...

  8. Are Abusive Fractures in Young Children Becoming Less Common?: Changes over 24 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, John M.; Larson, Ilse A.; Abdoo, Denise; Singaracharlu, Sujatha; Takizawa, Carolina; Miller, Cindy; Goodman, T. R.; Schwartz, Dana; Grasso, Susanne; Ellingson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the proportion of fractures rated as abusive in children less than 36 months of age evaluated at a regional pediatric hospital increased over a 24-year period from 1979 to 2002. Fractures were chosen as an example of serious injuries in young children. Methods: Medical records were abstracted for all children less…

  9. Fantasy Play, Language and Cognitive Ability of Four-Year-Old Children in Guyana South America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taharally, L. C.

    A controlled study involving 60 randomly selected 4- to 5-year-old children from Guyana (South America) assessed whether providing the opportunity for fantasy play to children in nursery schools that do not provide such opportunity would have an effect on the children's level of symbolic, language, and cognitive ability. Subjects included 20…

  10. Classification of 3-Year-Old Children with and without Mild Learning Problems: A Cognitive Differentiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia Strong; Fletcher, Kathryn L.

    2001-01-01

    Three-year-old children (n=41) with mild learning problems and 41 typical children were given a battery consisting of seven simple cognitive tasks shown to contribute toward the differentiation of children with and without mild learning problems. Picture identification, oppositional concepts, identity discrimination, and semantic…

  11. Zinc homeostasis in 1-4 year olds consuming diets typical of US children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few data have evaluated Zn balance in young children after the first year of life. Our objective was to study the relationships among Zn intake, absorption, endogenous faecal excretion, and retention in a group of healthy children. Thirty children, aged 15–48 months, were studied on a diet represent...

  12. Minnesota's Fiscal Years 1998-1999 Budget: An Opportunity for Children & Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferys, Marcie

    This report presents the Children's Defense Fund's (CDF) recommendations for spending the fiscal year 1998-1999 Minnesota state budget surplus. The intent of the CDF plan is four-fold: (1) emphasizing long-term investments in children's well-being; (2) address children's immediate health and safety concerns; (3) contribute to the continued…

  13. Outcomes for Drug-Exposed Children Four Years Post-Adoption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P.; Needell, Barbara

    1996-01-01

    Prenatally drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children adopted as infants and older children were compared four years after adoption on a range of outcome indicators. Drug-exposed and not drug-exposed children were alike on most outcome indicators, and parental satisfaction with the adoption was high and equivalent for parents of both groups. (TJQ)

  14. [Electrical burns in children. 3 years of case histories].

    PubMed

    Caneira, E; Serafim, Z; Duarte, R; Leal, M J

    1996-01-01

    The Burn Unit of Dona Estefânia Hospital admitted a total of 454 patients from January 1992 to January 1995, 24 of these patients suffered from electric shock. Of these 24 patients 3 suffered burns in the mouth, 15 in one or both hands and 6 multiple burns. In 19 patients the burns were up to 1%. A description is made of 5 cases, male children between the ages of 9 and 13 years, which were deemed severe. The incidents occurred outdoors with different voltages and in activities considered of ludic or experimental nature: two on the roof of a house, two with railway cables and one with an electrical cable in a port zone. The burnt areas vary between 4% and 70%, all of them 2nd and 3rd degree, with hospitalization lasting from 36 to 116 days. In addition to early and coordinated medical and rehabilitative treatment, according to individual needs, a description is also made of the cutaneous sequelae (deforming cicatrices, bridles), neurologic and psychologic sequelae, with emphasis on a patient who underwent amputation of the lower left leg and 4th and 5th ranges of the right foot. It was concluded that measures should be taken in education and legislation to prevent these accidents. Relevance is given to the need for a multidisciplinary team and specialized center for the treatment of these patients. PMID:9254529

  15. Interstitial Lung Disease in Children Younger Than 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Paolo; Bush, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a highly heterogeneous group of rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although our understanding of chILD remains limited, important advances have recently been made, the most important being probably the appreciation that disorders that present in early life are distinct from those occurring in older children and adults, albeit with some overlap. chILD manifests with diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and nonspecific respiratory signs and symptoms, making exclusion of common conditions presenting in a similar fashion an essential preliminary step. Subsequently, a systematic approach to diagnosis includes a careful history and physical examination, computed tomography of the chest, and some or all of bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage, genetic testing, and if diagnostic uncertainty persists, lung biopsy. This review focuses on chILD presenting in infants younger than 2 years of age and discusses recent advances in the classification, diagnostic approach, and management of chILD in this age range. We describe novel genetic entities, along with initiatives that aim at collecting clinical data and biologic samples from carefully characterized patients in a prospective and standardized fashion. Early referral to expert centers and timely diagnosis may have important implications for patient management and prognosis, but effective therapies are often lacking. Following massive efforts, international collaborations among the key stakeholders are finally starting to be in place. These have allowed the setting up and conducting of the first randomized controlled trial of therapeutic interventions in patients with chILD. PMID:27245831

  16. Color-Object Interference in Young Children: A Stroop Effect in Children 31/2-61/2 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevor, M.B.; Diamond, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Stroop color-word task cannot be administered to children who are unable to read. However, our color-object Stroop task can. One hundred and sixty-eight children of 31/2-61/2 years (50% female; 24 children at each 6-month interval) were shown line drawings of familiar objects in a color that was congruent (e.g., an orange carrot), incongruent…

  17. The First Year Inventory: a longitudinal follow-up of 12-month-old to 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Turner-Brown, Lauren M; Baranek, Grace T; Reznick, J Steven; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R

    2013-09-01

    The First Year Inventory is a parent-report measure designed to identify 12-month-old infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder. First Year Inventory taps behaviors that indicate risk in the developmental domains of sensory-regulatory and social-communication functioning. This longitudinal study is a follow-up of 699 children at 3 years of age from a community sample whose parents completed the First Year Inventory when their children were 12 months old. Parents of all 699 children completed the Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool version and the Developmental Concerns Questionnaire to determine age 3 developmental outcomes. In addition, children deemed at risk for autism spectrum disorder based on liberal cut points on the First Year Inventory, Social Responsiveness Scale-Preschool, and/or Developmental Concerns Questionnaire were invited for in-person diagnostic evaluations. We found 9 children who had a confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder from the sample of 699. Receiver operating characteristic analyses determined that a two-domain cutoff score yielded optimal classification of children: 31% of those meeting algorithm cutoffs had autism spectrum disorder and 85% had a developmental disability or concern by age 3. These results suggest that the First Year Inventory is a promising tool for identifying 12-month-old infants who are at risk for an eventual diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. PMID:22781058

  18. Children's Legal Status After the International Year of the Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerckhoff, Richard K.

    This paper discusses issues concerning legal protection and the legal rights of children, child law in the United States and in Europe, and attitudes of lawyers and child specialists regarding proposed changes in child protection and child rights laws. Several issues were identified. (1) How can children receive additional legal protection without…

  19. A Program for Five-Year-Old Migrant Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The program designed during the Institute for Kindergarten Teachers and Aides of Migrant Children is presented. Emphasis is placed on the concept that in order to learn anything, young children must have direct sensory experience related to the idea to be learned. It is pointed out that basic to all activities is an understanding of child…

  20. Musical Nurture in the Early Years of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Samuel D.

    Children are naturally musical and should be musically educated. Music provides a unique way for children to grow intellectually, emotionally and socially. Music fulfills an inner drive to express feelings and experiences in a symbolic, abstract, creative, and acceptable manner which is positive and valued. Musical nurture should begin within the…

  1. Children's Defense Fund Annual Report, 1997. Celebrating 25 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This 25th anniversary annual report of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF) describes the work the organization has done to advocate for and educate the United States about the needs of children. The report begins by identifying the CDF's Board of Directors, Fund Management Team, dedication message from the CDF's current president, and the…

  2. Can Young Children Make Active Choices? Outcomes of a Feasibility Trial in Seven-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne; Rose, Elizabeth; Parker, Helen; Smith, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This project evaluated the feasibility of a child-centred 24-week physical activity intervention. The "Play5" strategy encourages children to choose to play vigorously five times a day for about as long as school recess. The seven-year-old children were randomised to control (n = 176) or intervention groups (n = 132). Data were collected at…

  3. Epileptiform activity in the electroencephalogram of 6-year-old children of women with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Syam, Unnikrishnan Krishnan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To study the epileptiform discharges (EDs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 6-8-year-old children of women with epilepsy (WWE). Materials and Methods: All children born to women with epilepsy and prospectively followed up through the Kerala Registry of Epilepsy and Pregnancy (KREP), aged 6–8 years, were invited (n = 532). Out of the 254 children who responded, clinical evaluations and a 30-min digital 18 channel EEG were completed in 185 children. Results: Of the 185 children examined, 37 (20%) children (19 males, 18 females) had ED in their EEG. The EDs were generalized in 7 children, and focal in 30 children. The EDs were present in the sleep record only of 16 (43%) children and in the awake record only of 6 (16%) children. Out of the 94 children for whom seizure history was available, 7 children (7.4%) had seizures (neonatal seizures: 4, febrile seizure: 1, and single nonfebrile seizure: 2) and none had history of epilepsy or recurrent nonfebrile seizures. The odds ratio (OR) for occurrence of ED in the EEG was significantly higher for children of WWE [OR = 3.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.3-6.0] when compared to the published data for age-matched children of mothers without epilepsy. There was no association between the occurrence of ED and the children's maternal characteristics [epilepsy syndrome, seizures during pregnancy, maternal intelligence quotient (IQ)] or the children's characteristics [antenatal exposure to specific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), birth weight, malformations, IQ]. Conclusion: Children of WWE have a higher risk of epileptiform activity in their EEG when compared to healthy children in the community though none had recurrent seizures. PMID:27570381

  4. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  5. Adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular risk factors in 9-10-year-old Indian children: relationships with birth size and postnatal growth.

    PubMed

    Krishnaveni, G V; Veena, S R; Wills, A K; Hill, J C; Karat, S C; Fall, C H D

    2010-12-01

    Lower birthweight, and rapid childhood weight gain predict elevated cardiovascular risk factors in children. We examined associations between serial, detailed, anthropometric measurements from birth to 9.5 years of age and cardiovascular risk markers in Indian children. Children (n = 663) born at the Holdsworth Memorial Hospital, Mysore, India were measured at birth and 6-12 monthly thereafter. At 9.5 years, 539 (255 boys) underwent a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test, and blood pressure (BP) and fasting lipid concentrations were measured. Insulin resistance was calculated using the HOMA equation. These outcomes were examined in relation to birth measurements and changes in measurements (growth) during infancy (0-2 years), 2-5 years and 5-9.5 years using conditional s.d. scores. Larger current weight, height and skinfold thickness were associated with higher risk markers at 9.5 years (P < 0.05). Lower weight, smaller length and mid-arm circumference at birth were associated with higher fasting glucose concentrations at 9.5 years (P ⩽ 0.01). After adjusting for current weight/height, there were inverse associations between birthweight and/or length and insulin concentrations, HOMA, systolic and diastolic BP and plasma triglycerides (P < 0.05). Increases in conditional weight and height between 0-2, 2-5 and 5-9.5 years were associated with higher insulin concentrations, HOMA and systolic BP. In conclusion, in 9-10-year-old Indian children, as in other studies, cardiovascular risk factors were highest in children who were light or short at birth but heavy or tall at 9 years. Greater infant and childhood weight and height gain were associated with higher risk markers. PMID:22318657

  6. Theory of mind skills 1 year after traumatic brain injury in 6- to 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Stancin, Terry; Wade, Shari L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the longer-term effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on theory of mind (ToM) skills of children who were between the ages of 5 and 7 years at the time of injury. Fifty-two children with orthopaedic injury, 30 children with moderate TBI, and 12 children with severe TBI were evaluated approximately 1 year post-injury (mean age=6.98 years, SD=0.59, range=6.02-8.26). Children with severe TBI did not engage in representation of first- and second-order mental states at a developmental level comparable to their peers, suggesting stagnation or lack of development, as well as regression of putatively existing ToM skills. Age, task-specific cognitive demands, and verbal abilities were strong predictors of ToM performance. However, even after taking those factors into account, children with severe TBI had poorer ToM performance than children with orthopaedic injuries. PMID:20307379

  7. Natural Course of Allergic and Nonallergic Rhinitis After 2 Years in Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Chung, Sochung; Hong, Seok-Chan; Kim, Jin Kook; Cho, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Allergic and nonallergic rhinitis are very common disease for children, however, little is known about their natural courses in the general population. The purpose is to evaluate the natural course of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis in children. Methods. We analyzed data from Snoring Child Cohort of 178 children (107 boys and 71 girls). All children entered the study at the age of 7 years (range, 6.5 to 7.4 years). Questionnaires regarding chronic rhinitis, a skin prick test (SPT) for 5 inhalent allergens, and specific IgE for 2 dust mites were administered. Children were classified into 4 groups: allergic rhinitis (rhinitis, positive SPT), nonallergic rhinitis (rhinitis, negative SPT), sensitization only (no rhinitis, positive SPT), and control (no rhinitis, negative SPT). We repeated follow them annually, and analyzed the data of first and third year for this study. Results. Finally, the data of 122 children were analyzed. Among 18 children with allergic rhinitis at 7 year, 13 (72%) became sensitization only after 2 years and 5 (28%) were remained having allergic rhinitis. Five out of 19 children (26%) with nonallergic rhinitis developed into allergic rhinitis and 7 (37%) into control at 9 years. Twenty-four out of 28 children (86%) with sensitization only at 7 years remained the same at 9 years. Among 57 control children at 7 year, 2 (4%) developed into allergic rhinitis, 7 (12%) with nonallergic rhinitis, and 16 (28%) with sensitization only at 9 years. Conclusion. The status of chronic rhinitis and allergen sensitization is ever-changing in children. PMID:27095517

  8. Two to ten years: developmental trajectories of joint attention in children with ASD who received targeted social communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Gulsrud, Amanda C; Hellemann, Gerhard S; Freeman, Stephanny F N; Kasari, Connie

    2014-04-01

    This study follows 40 children who were participants in a randomized controlled early intervention trial (Kasari et al.) from early childhood (2-5 years of age) to elementary school age (8-10 years). To fully utilize the available longitudinal data, the general linear mixed model was the primary analytical approach. The growth trajectories of joint attention skills (pointing, coordinated joint looking, and showing) and expressive language outcomes in these children were estimated based on five time points during the measurement period. The children were grouped by diagnosis at the last follow-up (autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), no diagnosis) and by their original treatment group assignment (joint attention, symbolic play, control), and differences between these groups were evaluated. Results showed that joint attention skills of coordinated joint looking and showing increased over time, and pointing to share interest increased over the first year measured and decreased thereafter. These trajectories were influenced by both original treatment assignment and diagnostic status at follow-up. In addition, a cross-lagged panel analysis revealed a causal relationship between early pointing and later language development. This study highlights the longitudinal and developmental importance of measures of early core deficits in autism, and suggests that both treatment and ASD symptomatology may influence growth in these skills over time. PMID:24550145

  9. Sustained Effects of Incredible Years as a Preventive Intervention in Preschool Children with Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posthumus, Jocelyne A.; Raaijmakers, Maartje A. J.; Maassen, Gerard H.; van Engeland, Herman; Matthys, Walter

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated preventive effects of the Incredible Years program for parents of preschool children who were at risk for a chronic pattern of conduct problems, in the Netherlands. In a matched control design, 72 parents of children with conduct problems received the Incredible Years program. These families (intervention group) were…

  10. Development of Inferencing Skills in 5 to 7 Year Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne, V.; Ramasamy, K.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of inferencing in five to seven year old children. The subjects consisted of thirty typically developing children of five, six and seven years, distributed into three groups of ten. Four sets of material were prepared and for each two types of questions were constructed. The questions being of literal…

  11. Emotional Development in Children with Different Attachment Histories: The First Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochanska, Grazyna

    2001-01-01

    Examined relationship of security of attachment to development of fear, anger, and joy over child's first 3 years. Found that attachment groups differed in trajectories of emotional development, with differences apparent at 14 months. Resistant children were most fearful and least joyful. Over the second and third years, secure children became…

  12. The Prevention of Depression in 8- to 9-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooney, Rosanna; Roberts, Clare; Kane, Robert; Pike, Lisbeth; Winsor, Amber; White, Julia; Brown, Annette

    2006-01-01

    The outcomes of a new universal program aimed at preventing depressive symptoms and disorders in 8- to 9-year-old children are presented. The Positive Thinking Program is a mental health promotion program based on cognitive and behavioural strategies. It is designed to meet the developmental needs of children in the middle primary school Years 4…

  13. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  14. Predictors of Reading Development in Deaf Children: A 3-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, Fiona E.; Harris, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    The development of reading ability in a group of deaf children was followed over a 3-year period. A total of 29 deaf children (7-8 years of age at the first assessment) participated in the study, and every 12 months they were given a battery of literacy, cognitive, and language tasks. Earlier vocabulary and speechreading skills predicted…

  15. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally; Cheung, Yin Bun; Cueto, Santiago; Glewwe, Paul; Richter, Linda; Strupp, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Many children younger than 5 years in developing countries are exposed to multiple risks, including poverty, malnutrition, poor health, and unstimulating home environments, which detrimentally affect their cognitive, motor, and social-emotional development. There are few national statistics on the development of young children in developing countries. We therefore identified two factors with available worldwide data--the prevalence of early childhood stunting and the number of people living in absolute poverty--to use as indicators of poor development. We show that both indicators are closely associated with poor cognitive and educational performance in children and use them to estimate that over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential. Most of these children live in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. These disadvantaged children are likely to do poorly in school and subsequently have low incomes, high fertility, and provide poor care for their children, thus contributing to the intergenerational transmission of poverty. PMID:17208643

  16. [School attendance of children with trisomy 21. A 4-year experiment].

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Roth, M P

    1983-04-28

    Four years ago a class was started with 8 children from 7 to 11 years of age with Down's syndrome. The classroom is in a state school. The children lived at home. They were with the other children of the school for several classes and for lunch. Like other children they learned reading, writing and arithmetic. Psychomotricity was emphasized. The children's I.Q. and behavior were studied before entering the class. After 24 to 30 months every child was able to read and write. Their I.Q.'s were retested after 4 years and the results were far better than previously. The children gained confidence and began to cope very well at school and outside school. PMID:6306812

  17. Association between the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity screening tool and cardiovascular disease risk factors in 10-year old children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Kimbo Edward

    Purpose. To examine the association of the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) screening tool, a behaviorally based screening tool designed to assess the obesogenic family environment and behaviors, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in 10-year old children. Methods. One hundred nineteen children were assessed for body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and resting blood pressure. A continuous CVD risk score was created using total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and WC. The FNPA survey was completed by parents. The associations between the FNPA score and individual CVD risk factors and the continuous CVD risk score were examined using correlation analyses. Results. Approximately 35% of the sample were overweight (19%) or obese (16%). The mean FNPA score was 24.6 +/- 2.5 (range 18 to 29). Significant correlations were found between the FNPA score and WC (r = -.35, p<.01), BMI percentile (r = -.38, p<.01), %BF (r = -.43, p<.01), and the continuous CVD risk score (r = -.22, p = .02). No significant association was found between the FNPA score and TC:HDL (r=0.10, p=0.88) or MAP (r=-0.12, p=0.20). Conclusion. Children from a high-risk, obesogenic family environment as indicated with a lower FNPA score have a higher CVD risk factor profile than children from a low-risk family environment.

  18. The cultural and linguistic diversity of 3-year-old children with hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne; Ching, Teresa Y C

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children's communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  19. The spectrum of chronic kidney disease (stages 2-5) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Bhimma, Rajendra; Adhikari, Miriam; Asharam, Kareshma; Connolly, Catherine

    2008-10-01

    The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children in developing countries remains unknown, due to the lack of a national data-reporting system. We undertook a retrospective study of all children < 16 years old in our hospital, which is the tertiary referral centre for children with complex kidney disorders, to analyse the spectrum of CKD (stages 2-5) from 1994-2006. Six hundred and fifty-three children with kidney disorders were screened for CKD; 286 (44.0%) were < 5 years old. Of these, 177 (62%) were male, 202 (70.6%) were black, 77 (26.9%) were Indian, five (1.8%) were mixed race and two (0.7%) were white. One hundred and twenty-six children had CKD (stages 2-5); 55 (43.7%) were < 5 years olds; 41 (74.5%) were male. There were 71 (56.3%) that were > 5 years old, 42 (59.2%) were male. The commonest cause of CKD (stages 2-5) in all children was nephrotic syndrome, comprising 30.9% in children < 5 years old and 40.8% in children > 5 years old. Within the observation period of 11 years, end-stage kidney disease was diagnosed in 20 children; only nine had been on long-term dialysis, and seven qualified for transplantation. Five (25%) children had died, four from sepsis during dialysis and one from tuberculosis after receiving a transplant. We concluded that lack of resources, late referrals, and high cost of renal replacement therapy in developing countries leads to poor outcome in CKD. PMID:18548285

  20. Evaluation of immune responses to an oral typhoid vaccine, Ty21a, in children from 2 to 5 years of age in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur R; Choudhury, Feroza K; Khanam, Farhana; Saha, Amit; Sayeed, Md Abu; Salma, Umme; Lundgren, Anna; Sack, David A; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2014-02-19

    Young children are very susceptible to typhoid fever, emphasizing the need for vaccination in under five age groups. The parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine is not immunogenic in children under 2 years and the oral Ty21a vaccine (Vivotif) available in capsular formulation is only recommended for those over 5 years. We studied immune responses to a liquid formulation of Ty21a in children 2-5 years of age. Since children in developing countries are in general hypo responsive to oral vaccines, the study was designed to determine if anti-helminthic treatment prior to vaccination, improves responses. In a pilot study in 20 children aged 4-5 years, the immune responses in plasma and in antibody in lymphocyte secretions (ALS) to the enteric coated capsule formulation of Ty21a was found to be comparable to a liquid formulation (P>0.05). Based on this, children (n=252) aged ≥ 2-<3 years and ≥3-<5 years were randomized to receive a liquid formulation of Ty21a with and without previous anti-helminthic treatment. The vaccine was well tolerated with only a few mild adverse events recorded in <1% of the children. De-worming did not improve immune responses and both age groups developed 32-71% IgA, IgG, and IgM responses in plasma and 63-86% IgA responses in ALS and stool specimens to a membrane preparation (MP) of Ty21a. An early MP specific proliferative T cell response was also seen. We recommend that safety and efficacy studies with a liquid formulation of the vaccine are carried out in children under five, including those less than two years of age to determine if Ty21a is protective in these age groups and applicable as a public health tool for controlling typhoid fever in high prevalence areas of typhoid fever including Bangladesh. PMID:24440210

  1. [Voiding dysfunction in children aged five to 15 years].

    PubMed

    Karaklajić, Dragana; Peco-Antić, Amira

    2004-01-01

    Voiding dysfunction in children was analyzed in 91 patients in a period from January 1st to October 1st 1998. Most of the patients had functional voiding disorder (92.31%), and only 7.69% manifested monosymptomatic night enuresis. The number of girls was bigger in the group of patients with voiding dysfunction while the boys were predominant in the group with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis. More than a half of children with functional voiding disorder had repeated urinal infections (58.23%), incontinence (93.49%), need for urgent voiding (68.13%), and vesicoureteral reflux (47.61%). The most common type of voiding dysfunction was urge syndrome/urge incontinence. The incidence of dysfunctional voiding disorder was more often in children with scaring changes of kidney which were diagnosed by static scintigraphy. PMID:15794052

  2. [Evaluation of school children's health status in Lublin during the years 1969-1988].

    PubMed

    Borzecki, Z; Ziemińska, M; Ostapczuk, J; Swies, Z; Borzecki, A

    1990-01-01

    The research has been carried out in the primary schools of Lublin. The state of health of children and youth has been evaluated in the course of 20 years. Together there have been analyzed 48,416 (28.7%) health cards of children classified to dispensary groups. The total number of children and youth in primary schools is 168,614. There has been found: a) an increase in the number of children suffering from sight disorders on the average by 3% each 5 years; b) a considerable increase (71.2%) in locomotive organ diseases; c) the least number of children and youth classified to dispensary groups was in the years 1974-1975 (25.3%) and in 1979-1980 (24.41%) in comparison with the earlier years 1969-1970 (31.15%) and the later ones 1984-1985 (32.49%) and 1987-1988 (29.99%). PMID:1670011

  3. Hearing thresholds, tinnitus, and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Båsjö, Sara; Möller, Claes; Widén, Stephen; Jutengren, Göran; Kähäri, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Investigate hearing function and headphone listening habits in nine-year-old Swedish children. Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted and included otoscopy, tympanometry, pure-tone audiometry, and spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAE). A questionnaire was used to evaluate headphone listening habits, tinnitus, and hyperacusis. Study sample: A total of 415 children aged nine years. Results: The prevalence of a hearing threshold ≥20 dB HL at one or several frequencies was 53%, and the hearing thresholds at 6 and 8 kHz were higher than those at the low and mid frequencies. SOAEs were observed in 35% of the children, and the prevalence of tinnitus was 5.3%. No significant relationship between SOAE and tinnitus was found. Pure-tone audiometry showed poorer hearing thresholds in children with tinnitus and in children who regularly listened with headphones. Conclusion: The present study of hearing, listening habits, and tinnitus in nine-year old children is, to our knowledge, the largest study so far. The main findings were that hearing thresholds in the right ear were poorer in children who used headphones than in children not using them, which could be interpreted as headphone listening may have negative consequences to children’s hearing. Children with tinnitus showed poorer hearing thresholds compared to children without tinnitus. PMID:27329351

  4. Longitudinal changes in individual symptoms across the preschool years in children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I; Breaux, Rosanna P

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of individual Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.) symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) across the preschool years in children with ADHD. It also evaluated whether preschool symptoms vary in their ability to discriminate children who later meet criteria for ADHD from typically developing children. ADHD and ODD symptoms were assessed annually in 75 ethnically diverse children (46 boys) who presented with behavior problems at age 3 and met criteria for ADHD 3 years later, and in 51 typically developing children (26 boys). Children with ADHD generally exhibited stable levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity but increases in several symptoms of inattention. Most ADHD symptoms showed at least fair utility in discriminating children with and without ADHD; however, 3 symptoms of inattention (carelessness, losing things, and forgetfulness) and 1 symptom of hyperactivity/impulsivity (blurting out answers) had relatively poor utility. These symptoms demonstrated only somewhat greater utility at age 4, but by the age of 5 were better able to classify children. Children with ADHD exhibited increases in several ODD symptoms, including symptoms related to negative affect. Although most symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity appear to extend well down to age 3, more developmentally appropriate symptoms of inattention may be required to develop more sensitive assessments for 3- and 4-year-old children. PMID:24697647

  5. Cultural differences in visual object recognition in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Megumi; Smith, Linda B

    2016-07-01

    Recent research indicates that culture penetrates fundamental processes of perception and cognition. Here, we provide evidence that these influences begin early and influence how preschool children recognize common objects. The three tasks (N=128) examined the degree to which nonface object recognition by 3-year-olds was based on individual diagnostic features versus more configural and holistic processing. Task 1 used a 6-alternative forced choice task in which children were asked to find a named category in arrays of masked objects where only three diagnostic features were visible for each object. U.S. children outperformed age-matched Japanese children. Task 2 presented pictures of objects to children piece by piece. U.S. children recognized the objects given fewer pieces than Japanese children, and the likelihood of recognition increased for U.S. children, but not Japanese children, when the piece added was rated by both U.S. and Japanese adults as highly defining. Task 3 used a standard measure of configural progressing, asking the degree to which recognition of matching pictures was disrupted by the rotation of one picture. Japanese children's recognition was more disrupted by inversion than was that of U.S. children, indicating more configural processing by Japanese than U.S. children. The pattern suggests early cross-cultural differences in visual processing; findings that raise important questions about how visual experiences differ across cultures and about universal patterns of cognitive development. PMID:26985576

  6. The Cultural and Linguistic Diversity of 3-Year-Old Children with Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the cultural and linguistic diversity of young children with hearing loss informs the provision of assessment, habilitation, and education services to both children and their families. Data describing communication mode, oral language use, and demographic characteristics were collected for 406 children with hearing loss and their caregivers when children were 3 years old. The data were from the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study, a prospective, population-based study of children with hearing loss in Australia. The majority of the 406 children used spoken English at home; however, 28 other languages also were spoken. Compared with their caregivers, the children in this study used fewer spoken languages and had higher rates of oral monolingualism. Few children used a spoken language other than English in their early education environment. One quarter of the children used sign to communicate at home and/or in their early education environment. No associations between caregiver hearing status and children’s communication mode were identified. This exploratory investigation of the communication modes and languages used by young children with hearing loss and their caregivers provides an initial examination of the cultural and linguistic diversity and heritage language attrition of this population. The findings of this study have implications for the development of resources and the provision of early education services to the families of children with hearing loss, especially where the caregivers use a language that is not the lingua franca of their country of residence. PMID:22942315

  7. Choice Books for Children: The Pick of Last Year's Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sally Ann

    1992-01-01

    A member of the Caldecott Award committee reviews recommended children's books published in 1991. Annotations are provided for 13 historical novels for middle-graders and young adults and 47 picture books that focus on folklore and fairytales, human values, celebrations, and the environment. A bibliography is included. (EAM)

  8. 500 Years of Spanish Exploration and Settlement: Children's Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Jason L.; Verlaan, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    The nation's classrooms have become more diverse, and children of Hispanic heritage represent a large and an important part of this multicultural mosaic. Events such as the commemoration of Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage offer teachers the opportunity to reflect on important events of the past and connect them to students'…

  9. Developing Resilient Children: After 100 Years of Montessori Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Meg

    2008-01-01

    In this millennium, educators are faced with a number of issues that Dr. Maria Montessori could not have predicted. Today, students are different from the children Dr. Montessori observed in her "Casa dei Bambini." They are influenced by technology in all its forms. Some suffer from medical problems such as complex food allergies, which wreak…

  10. Drug Ingestions in Children 10-14 Years Old: An Old Problem Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomerantz, Wendy; Gittelman, Michael; Farris, Sarah; Frey, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    To determine changes in rates of drug ingestions in 10-14 year old children in our country, a retrospective chart review of 10-14 year olds hospitalized for drug ingestion between 1993-1995 and 2000-2004 was performed. Odds ratios and Chi-square were used for analyses. From 1993-1995 there were 92.8 ingestions/100,000 children/year; from 2000-2004…

  11. The speed of information processing of 9- to 13-year-old intellectually gifted children.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaoju; Dan, Zhou; Shi, Jiannong

    2013-02-01

    In general, intellectually gifted children perform better than non-gifted children across many domains. The present validation study investigated the speed with which intellectually gifted children process information. 184 children, ages 9 to 13 years old (91 gifted, M age = 10.9 yr., SD = 1.8; 93 non-gifted children, M age = 11.0 yr., SD = 1.7) were tested individually on three information processing tasks: an inspection time task, a choice reaction time task, an abstract matching task. Intellectually gifted children outperformed their non-gifted peers on all three tasks obtaining shorter reaction time and doing so with greater accuracy. The findings supported the validity of the information processing speed in identifying intellectually gifted children. PMID:23654024

  12. Predictors of School Readiness in Five- to Six-Year-Old Children from an Australian Longitudinal Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Margot; Bavin, Edith; Ong, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on school readiness (SR) and its predictors in five- to six-year-old children from a prospective, longitudinal study of children from eight months to seven years (the Early Language in Victoria Study--ELVS). The ELVS children came from a representative sample of children recruited though the State Government Infant and Child…

  13. Profile and outcome of neuroblastoma with convertional chemotherapy in children older than one year: a 15-years experience.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak; Marwaha, R K; Trehan, Amita; Rao, K L N; Gupta, Vishal

    2008-02-01

    The clinical profile and outcome of neuroblastoma in 103 children, older than one-year is presented. 74 had Stage IV, 27 Stage III and one patient each had Stage I or II disease. Treatment included chemotherapy followed by surgical resection/debulking. Radiotherapy was administered to those with residual tumor. Chemotherapy consisted of OPEC (vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatin and etoposide). The caretakers of 54 (52.4%) children either did not opt for or defaulted therapy, whilst 3 patients died before chemotherapy could be initiated. Of the remaining 46 patients, the tumor progressed during therapy in 19 (41.3%). Relapse of disease was documented in 22 (47.8%) cases. Merely 4 (8.7%) children are disease free for a period of 16.5+/-6.7 months. Majority of children presented with advanced disease and the outcome was dismal with conventional non-myloablative chemotherapy. PMID:18310793

  14. Dientamoeba fragilis prevalence coincides with gastrointestinal symptoms in children less than 11 years old in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ögren, J; Dienus, O; Löfgren, S; Einemo, I-M; Iveroth, P; Matussek, A

    2015-10-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is a protozoan with a debated role in gastrointestinal (GI) disease. Although correlated to GI symptoms, no virulence factors have been described. In this study, we evaluated the cause of GI symptoms in children at two schools, with children aged 1 to 10 years, in the county of Jönköping, Sweden. D. fragilis infection correlated to GI symptoms in children and Enterobius vermicularis correlated to D. fragilis infection. PMID:26173693

  15. Are Two Years Better than One Year? A Propensity Score Analysis of the Impact of Head Start Program Duration on Children's School Performance in Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Xiaoli; Leow, Christine; Hahs-Vaughn, Debbie L.; Korfmacher, Jon; Marcus, Sue M.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a nationally representative sample, this study examined Head Start children's school outcome differences by the end of Kindergarten between children who attended Head Start program for two years and the ones who attended for one year. Propensity scores were used to match children who experienced different durations of the program…

  16. Parents' reports of disturbed sleep in 5-7-year-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Smedje, H; Broman, J E; Hetta, J

    1999-08-01

    Parents' reports on 1844 five to seven year olds from the general population were used to provide a detailed update about prevalence and correlates of sleep disturbances in children. Five different sleep disturbances were focused on: difficulty falling asleep, reported in 5.6% of the children; night waking in 15.5%; snoring in 7.7%; nightmares in 3.1%, and bedwetting in 5.3% of the children. Coexisting sleep disturbances were frequent in children with difficulties falling asleep, night waking and nightmares, but bedwetting usually emerged as a singular sleep disturbance. Nightmares were associated with serious health problems or handicaps, sleep problems in conjunction with life events, and female gender. Snoring as well as bedwetting were associated with reports of "very active" children. In 6.7% of the total sample, parents had previously consulted the healthcare services for a sleep problem in their child. These children had reports of colic during infancy, eczema, serious health problems or handicaps, current snoring and current nightmares. Only 1.1% (n = 21) of the children were said to have a present need to remedy sleep problems. The reports on these children included coexisting sleep disturbances, previous consultations for sleeping problems, parents' perceptions of "very active" children, diagnoses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and major life events which had triggered sleep problems. In conclusion, although sleep disturbances are common in 5-7-y-old children, parents seldom express a need to remedy sleep problems in their children of this age. PMID:10503686

  17. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  18. Behavioral Profiles in 4-5 Year-Old Children: Normal and Pathological Variants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Jan-Olov; Bergman, Lars R.; Earls, Felton; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2004-01-01

    Normal and psychopathological patterns of behavior symptoms in preschool children were described by a classification approach using cluster analysis. The behavior of 406 children, average age 4 years 9 months, from the general population was evaluated at home visits. Seven clusters were identified based on empirically defined dimensions:…

  19. Ten-Year Research Update Review: Psychiatric Problems in Children with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plioplys, Sigita; Dunn, David W.; Caplan, Rochelle

    2007-01-01

    The research on epilepsy, a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by seizures, psychopathology, cognitive, and linguistic problems among children in the age group of 0 to 18 years is reported. Early identification of children with epilepsy (CWE) and the development of multidisciplinary management strategies would advance relevant clinical…

  20. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  1. Words, Shape, Visual Search and Visual Working Memory in 3-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vales, Catarina; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    Do words cue children's visual attention, and if so, what are the relevant mechanisms? Across four experiments, 3-year-old children (N = 163) were tested in visual search tasks in which targets were cued with only a visual preview versus a visual preview and a spoken name. The experiments were designed to determine whether labels facilitated…

  2. Cognitive and Temperament Clusters in 3- to 5-Year-Old Children with Aggressive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakimura, Jean N.; Dang, Michelle T.; Ballard, Kelley B.; Hansen, Robin L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the co-occurrence of cognitive problems and difficult temperament characteristics in children aged 3 to 5 years exhibiting aggressive behavior. Methods: Thirty-one children with high ratings on the Aggressive Behavior subscale of the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist or Teacher Report Form were recruited from a…

  3. Conflict in the Dyadic Play of 3-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Marion; Roy, Carolyn; Jacobs, Anne; Macaluso, Mery; Peyton, Vicki

    1999-01-01

    Examined the nature of conflicts among young preschoolers. Observed 184 three-year-olds in a dyadic play situation. Found that children's conflicts arose in the context of ongoing play and were brief. Concluded that by age 36 months, most children have acquired the skills to play positively with a peer. (JS)

  4. Development of Phonological Sensitivity in 2- to 5-Year- Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.; Barker, Theodore A.

    1998-01-01

    Phonological sensitivity was examined in 238 children ages two to five years from middle-to-upper-income families and 118 children from lower-income families across different levels of linguistic complexity. Overall, results indicated an increase in phonological sensitivity with age, as well as increasing stability and significant social class…

  5. Moral and Social Development: Teachers' Knowledge of Children's Learning and Teaching Strategies in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Brownlee, Joanne; Walker, Sue; Cobb-Moore, Charlotte; Johansson, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The intention of the analysis in this paper was to determine, from interviews with 11 early years' teachers, what informed their knowledge of children's learning and teaching strategies regarding moral development. Overall, the analysis revealed four main categories: definitions of moral behaviour, understanding of children's learning, pedagogy…

  6. Phonological Development of Two-Year-Old Monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-Speaking Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Raquel; Smith, Bruce L.

    1987-01-01

    Phonetic and phonological analysis of spontaneous speech of six 2-year-old monolingual Puerto Rican Spanish-learning children revealed several sound usage patterns similar to those found in English and other language-learning children, supporting the claim that certain universal patterns exist in phonological development. (Author/CB)

  7. "My Family and Friends": Six- to Twelve-Year-Old Children's Perceptions of Social Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Molly; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated perceptions of social support of 249 children of 6-12 years. Data indicated that subjective impressions about social support can be measured with reliability and validity and that children understand and care about the quality and differentiation of support. (RJC)

  8. Effect of Rearing Environment on the Feeding Pattern of under Two Years Old Nigerian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asekun-Olarinmoye, Esther Olufunmilayo; Lawoyin, Taiwo Olubanke; Asekun-Olarinmoye, Ifeoluwapo Oyebola

    2011-01-01

    With economic pressures on families increasing, more women are working outside the home leaving their children in day care centres. In a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study, the feeding pattern in two groups of children under two years old, cared for in two different rearing environments: home environment and day care centres, was…

  9. Improving Children's Lives, Transforming the Future--25 Years of Child Rights in South Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Despite rapid economic growth in South Asia, strong inequalities persist and children pay a heavy price. This publication examines latest trends and data on children in the eight countries of the region. It highlights what has been achieved in the 25 years since the adoption of the Convention on the Rights of the Child--and what remains to be done.

  10. Behaviour and Skills in Six-Year-Old Children in a "High Risk" Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knivsberg, Ann-Mari; Iversen, Synnove; Nodland, Magne; Reichelt, Karl-L

    2007-01-01

    Problem behaviour hampers learning and the normal development of skills and competencies. The children in focus in this article from Norway are six-year-olds with persistent problem behaviour. Early identification of these children is imperative for the implementation of structured educational interventions. Knowledge about their behaviour and…

  11. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  12. Puerto Ricans in Children's Literature and History Texts: A Ten-Year Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This is a collection of articles in which the treatment of Puerto Ricans in published children textbooks over the past 10 years is reviewed. The collection is preceded by an editorial responding to an "American Educator" article branding the Council on Interracial Books for Children as a "leftist extremist" organization. The articles which follow…

  13. Factors that Influence Vocabulary Development in Two-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Klee, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background: This research explored the relative impact of demographic, cognitive, behavioural, and psycholinguistic factors on vocabulary development in two-year-old children. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two children (24-30 months) were tested on expressive and receptive vocabulary, cognitive development, word learning and working memory…

  14. Behavior Predictors of Language Development over 2 Years in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Karen D.; Mirenda, Pat; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This exploratory study examined predictive relationships between 5 types of behaviors and the trajectories of vocabulary and language development in young children with autism over 2 years. Method: Participants were 69 children with autism assessed using standardized measures prior to the initiation of early intervention (T1) and 6 months…

  15. A Measure of Inspection Time in 4-Year-Old Children: The Benny Bee IT Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sarah E.; Turley, Christopher; Nettelbeck, Ted; Burns, Nicholas R.

    2009-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) measures speed of information processing without the confounding influence of motor speed. While IT has been found to relate to cognitive abilities in adults and older children, no measure of IT has been validated for use with children younger than 6 years. This study examined the validity of a new measure of IT for preschool…

  16. Internationally Adopted Children in the Early School Years: Relative Strengths and Weaknesses in Language Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to determine the relative strengths and weaknesses in language and verbal short-term memory abilities of school-age children who were adopted from Eastern Europe. Method: Children adopted between 1;0 and 4;11 (years;months) of age were assessed with the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second…

  17. Recovering from 30 Years of War: Refugee Women and Children in Angola.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children, New York, NY.

    After 30 years of war, Angola faces the challenge of creating a civil society. This report presents key findings of a visit to Angola, December 1-13, 1996, by the Women's Commission for Refugee Women and Children. The report describes conditions facing women and children affected by war in Angola, addresses the return process of refugees from…

  18. Two-Year-Old Children Differentiate Test Questions from Genuine Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Gerlind; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Children are frequently confronted with so-called "test questions". While genuine questions are requests for missing information, test questions ask for information obviously already known to the questioner. In this study we explored whether two-year-old children respond differentially to one and the same question used as either a genuine question…

  19. 3-Year-Old Children Make Relevance Inferences in Indirect Verbal Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Cornelia; Grassmann, Susanne; Tomasello, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Three studies investigated 3-year-old children's ability to determine a speaker's communicative intent when the speaker's overt utterance related to that intent only indirectly. Studies 1 and 2 examined children's comprehension of indirectly stated requests (e.g., "I find Xs good" can imply, in context, a request for…

  20. Grains are similarly categorized by 8- to 13-year-old children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study assessed how 8- to 13-year-old children categorized and labeled grain foods and how these categories and labels were influenced by child characteristics. The main hypotheses were that children categorized foods in consistent ways and these food categories differed from the professional fo...

  1. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure: A Comparison of 2-Year-Old Children in Parental and Nonparental Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Josephine V.; Bakeman, Roger; Coles, Claire D.; Platzman, Kathleen A.; Lynch, Mary Ellen

    2004-01-01

    Effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and parental versus nonparental care on outcome at 2 years of age were examined. The sample included 83 cocaine-exposed and 63 nonexposed children and their caregivers; 49 and 34 of the cocaine-exposed children experienced parental and nonparental care, respectively. Prenatal drug exposure was not related…

  2. Pyramid Educational Method for 3 to 6-Year-Old Children: Theory and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Kuyk, Jef J.

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Pyramid method, an educational method for 3- to 6-year-olds. The Pyramid method seeks to improve young children's chances for a successful primary school career, particularly among ethnic minorities (of Turkish, Moroccan, Cape Verdian, and Surinam origins) and Dutch children of poorly educated parents.…

  3. Food Safety Knowledge and Behaviours of Children (5-7 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eves, Anita; Bielby, Gill; Egan, Bernadette; Lumbers, Margaret; Raats, Monique; Adams, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine knowledge of food hygiene amongst young children (5-7 years), and facilitators and barriers to application of knowledge. Few studies exist that explore the knowledge and attitudes of young children towards food hygiene. This is an important age group, as it is a time when attitudes and…

  4. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  5. Cultivating the Genius of Black Children: Strategies to Close the Achievement Gap in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Debra Ren-Etta

    2016-01-01

    There has been much attention given to the opportunity gap between white and minority students, especially African American children. Using research and years of experience "Cultivating the Genius of Black Children" is able to break down the cultural influences on learning style and provides a practical approach to helping Black children…

  6. Children Treated for Nocturnal Enuresis: Characteristics and Trends over a 15-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kushnir, Jonathan; Kushnir, Baruch; Sadeh, Avi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal Enuresis (NE) is one of the most prevalent childhood disorders and has significant negative psychosocial impact on the child and family. Objective: To assess the characteristics of children with NE and trends over a 15-year period. Methods: The study included 18,677 children [11,205 (60%) boys and 7,472 (40%) girls] referred…

  7. Losing Our Way? The Downward Path for Outdoor Learning for Children Aged 2-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on three related empirical studies in the South West of England: a survey of outdoor experiential learning opportunities, examining attitudes, practice and aspirations of practitioners and children in educational and care settings for children between 2-11 years within a rural county; a follow-up series of five case studies; and…

  8. Can 2- and 3-Year-Old Children Be Trained to Perform Visual Perception Tasks?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Children aged 2 and 3 years were exposed to a novel paradigm designed to train visual perception skills. The results indicate that children of this age could be trained to perform both percept deprivation and percept diagnosis tasks. Results are discussed with reference to engagement, a precursor to an adult-like understanding of perception.

  9. Emergence of White-Lie Telling in Children between 3 and 7 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang

    2002-01-01

    Examined white-lie-telling behavior in 3- to 7-year-olds using task whereby the experimenter asked "Do I look OK for the photo?" with or without a visible mark on his nose. Found that most children in the experimental condition told white lies. Undergraduates viewing children's videotaped responses could not discriminate white-lie tellers from…

  10. Getting an Early Start: Communication about Sexuality among Mothers and Children 6-10 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluhar, Erika; Jennings, Tanya; DiIorio, Colleen

    2006-01-01

    Little information exists on communication about sexuality between parents and preadolescent children. This study collected qualitative data on family sexuality communication from 3 focus groups conducted with African American mothers of 6-10 year old children. Two broad themes emerged from the data: "Beyond the Birds and the Bees" and "Let's Talk…