Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann
Discusses the ways in which families and children with developmental disabilities can attain "full citizenship" with a creed of positive contribution, great expectations, friendships, choices, and strengths. (BB)
Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…
...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section...PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to...
Collins, Belva C.; Epstein, Ann; Reiss, Toni; Lowe, Verna
This article describes practical strategies for promoting inclusion in religious programs. Strategies are provided for including children with mental disabilities, mild mental retardation, moderate mental retardation, and severe to profound mental retardation, and older students with mental retardation. Strategies are also provided for preparing…
Barker, Linda; Goldberg, Roberta
Directors of early childhood programs are the "frontline" for parents seeking admission for their children with identified special needs. In addition, developmental and behavioral issues that emerge after a child is enrolled in a program quickly come to the director's attention. Determining who can be included at a site, how to prepare the…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J.
In this article, the authors report that, although social attention to the education of children with special needs began in the late 1970s, education for children with autism is the greatest challenge in special education in China. They point out that most school-age children with autism are still kept out of both regular and special schools. In…
Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)
Sevencan, Adnan; Aygün, Ümit; ?nan, Ulukan; Ömero?lu, Hakan
The aim of this case series was to assess the data of 66 children (mean age 28 months) with a diagnosis of pulled elbow. The most common time interval of injury was 12-6?p.m. and spring was the peak season. Children younger than 2 years of age had a higher rate of atypical injury history. A successful reduction by supination and flexion maneuver was achieved at the first attempt in 57 of 66 patients. The patients admitted to the hospital within the first 2?h following the injury had a higher rate of successful reduction at the first attempt. The rate of radiographic examination was considerably high and a well-defined algorithm to avoid the complicacy in ordering a plain radiograph in such cases was suggested. All patients achieved full clinical recovery after a mean follow-up of 2 years, and recurrence was observed in 16 of 66 children. PMID:25856274
Zhang, Jiabei; Griffin, Ann J.
The number of children diagnosed with autism is on the rise, and teachers are seldom prepared to teach children with autism in their classes. However, it is possible to successfully include children with autism in general physical education settings by understanding inclusive physical education, individualizing instruction, targeting…
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
Patterson, Stephanie Y.
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder who are Minimally Verbal by Stephanie Yoshiko Patterson Master of Arts in EducationArts in Education by Stephanie Yoshiko Patterson ABSTRACT OF THE THESIS Parents’ Intervention Fidelity and Children’
Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)
Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...
Davis, Pauline; Hopwood, Vicky
Classroom observation and interviews with key people evaluated the participation and learning of 23 children with visual impairments in 17 mainstream primary schools in Britain. Resulting recommendations included: (1) provision of adequate additional support; (2) inclusion in the main learning processes taking place in the classroom; and (3) good…
Sharieff, W; Bhutta, Z; Schauer, C; Tomlinson, G; Zlotkin, S
Aims To examine the effect of the daily use of micronutrients (including zinc) or the same micronutrients plus heat inactivated lactic acid bacteria (LAB), on diarrhoea in children compared to placebo. Methods A triple blind randomised clinical trial in an urban slum of Karachi, Pakistan. Micronutrients (including zinc), micronutrients (including zinc and LAB), or placebo, were provided daily for two months to 75 young children (aged 6–12?months) identified at high risk for diarrhoea related mortality on the basis of history of at least one episode of diarrhoea in the preceding two weeks. The longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea was defined as the percentage of days a child had diarrhoea out of the days the child was observed. Results Mean longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea in the micronutrient–zinc group was 15% (SD?=?10%) child?days compared to 26% (SD?=?20%) child?days in the placebo group and 26% (SD?=?19%) child?days in the micronutrient–zinc–LAB group. The difference between the micronutrient–zinc–LAB and placebo groups was not significant. Conclusion The daily provision of micronutrients (including zinc) reduces the longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea and thus may also reduce diarrhoea related mortality in young children; heat inactivated LAB has negative effects in these children. PMID:16556612
Odom, Samuel L., Ed.
Based on a groundbreaking 5-year research study conducted by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion, this book explores the barriers to and influences on inclusive education settings for young children. Topics covered include individualized instruction, family perceptions of inclusion, and cultural and linguistic diversity. The…
Koch, Cecelia; Mayes, Rachel
Background: The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences and strategies used when meeting the needs of all their children, including an adolescent with disabilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative study design was employed. The study was conducted in two phases. (i) Secondary analysis of ecocultural interviews with 12…
Greenstein, Doreen; And Others
This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…
There is little research on inclusion of children with selective mutism in school/kindergarten. Moreover, few studies have tried to understand selectively mute children's interactions in the natural surroundings of their home and school/kindergarten. Five children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for selective mutism were video-observed in social…
... key part of asthma in children. Asthma and allergies often occur together. Some things that can bring on asthma symptoms ( triggers ) include: Animals (hair or dander) Dust, mold, and pollen Aspirin ...
Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R
Objectives (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Daslne), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Setting Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Patients Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2–16?years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals’ reports about their children. Results 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30?months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Daslne, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. Conclusions ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. PMID:26341584
The proper approach to children's writing from an educational point of view is discussed. The point is made that there is something fundamentally wrong with the current approach in children's writing. Current books on children's writing deal only with children's writing. It is recommended that any program which aims to be efficient in the teaching…
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363
In this commentary, developments related to conducting randomized controlled trials in authentic preschool settings that include young children with disabilities are discussed in relation to the Strain and Bovey study.
This briefing reports on the key findings from an ESRC funded study conducted in collaboration with ChildLine Scotland which utilised ChildLine’s unique caller information database to examine children’s concerns about ...
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 3 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 4 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 5 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 2 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 6 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 9 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual...
Acute Pancreatitis in Children Causes of Pediatric Acute Pancreatitis Many cases of acute pancreatitis occur in children who have ... not be identified. What are the symptoms of pancreatitis? Common symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. ...
School Libraries in Canada, 2001
Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…
To evaluate intellectual functions of epileptic children, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) was performed on 69 children with epilepsy, and the test results were compared with their clinical symptoms and electroencephalographical findings. Both verbal IQ (VIQ) and performance IQ (PIQ) were significantly lower in the symptomatic group than in the idiopathic or cryptogenic groups, and also significantly lower in patients receiving polytherapy than monotherapy. PIQ was significantly low in patients treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), in those with poor control of seizures, in clumsy children, and cases with poor performance on visuo-motor tests. In the last two categories of patients there was an increased difference between VIQ and PIQ (discrepancy), and profile analysis revealed an impairment in non-verbal cognition and visual organization. On EEG records the patients with frontopolar (Fp) or frontal (F) focus had a significantly lower PIQ and an increased discrepancy. Migration of the epileptic focus during the periodic monitoring of EEG was also an important factor for an increased discrepancy. Furthermore, profile analysis suggested the impairment of the functions of the cerebral cortex associated with epileptic foci. These results indicate that either motor disability, such as clumsiness and minor motor disturbance, or epileptic focus on EEG are important factors affecting the assessment of neuropsychological aspects in epileptic children. PMID:8579855
Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.
Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…
Baker, Betty Ruth
Drama can enhance creativity for young children. Opportunities to participate in dramatic play activities and creative dramatics should be included in the experiences for young children. Through creative dramatics and dramatic play, children develop cognitive, motor, social and emotional behaviors, and they develop aesthetic appreciation. Dramatic…
Children's folklore, the traditional formalized play activities of children, includes such speech play as riddles, games, jokes, taunts, retorts, counting-out rhymes, catches, jump-rope rhymes and many other such forms of verbal art. An initial attempt is made to study children's folklore on its own terms, not as a mechanism of enculturation for…
Vickerman, Philip; Blundell, Milly
According to Blatchford, learning support assistants (LSA) in schools within England comprise of a quarter of their workforce. In recent years, the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream school settings has seen significant rises. Furthermore, the English government has raised expectations on the amount of…
Philip Vickerman; Janine Kim Coates
Background: In recent years within the UK the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream physical education (PE) has escalated up the statutory and political agenda. Despite this increased focus in schools, empirical research demonstrates that inequalities still exist in relation to the readiness of government, teacher training providers, schools and PE teachers to deliver this agenda.
Wolf-Schein, Enid G.
This paper discusses assessment of autistic and deaf-blind children with such severe difficulties in communication that they are often labeled as untestable and subsequently misdiagnosed as severely to profoundly mentally retarded. It urges nonintrusive assessment and appropriate intervention as the most relevant procedures for helping this…
Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma
Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ? 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795
Stevenson, Harold W.
This book is a compilation of literature and research concerning how children learn. The first chapter is a historical introduction to research in learning that summarizes the major developments of the last 100 years and relates these developments specifically to children's learning. The main body of the text is divided into six major topics: (1)…
Child & Youth Services, 2007
Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…
The major aims of this book are to provide an account of racial attitude development in young children and to describe the effects of racism on the development of black children, specifically in the United Kingdom. The book draws freely on American and British research in an effort to illuminate the British experience. The first two chapters…
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian
Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muñoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muñoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497
Heath, Nancy Lee; Petrakos, Harriet; Finn, Cindy A.; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; McLean-Heywood, Diane; Rousseau, Cecile
Despite a general move and support for inclusion of children with exceptionalities in the regular classroom, children with emotional and behavioural difficulties are often excluded. The paper describes an ecosystems model to facilitate the inclusion of children with emotional and behavioural difficulties in use in some schools in Canada. Results…
Children Now is an independent, nonpartisan organization, the goal of which is to ensure "that children grow up in economically secure families, where parents can go to work confident that their children are supported by quality health coverage, a positive media environment, a good early education, and safe, enriching activities to do after school." This section of the website features the group's research on children and the media. Recent reports posted here include one entitled, Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children, which addresses the FCC's ruling that will "improve children's television as the nation's broadcasters make the transition to digital television (DTV)" by providing access to educational television programming that parents are able to identify as educational. Additional articles on media legislation affecting children are also posted here.
Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John
Context Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. Objective To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Design Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). Participants A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Outcome Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ?220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Results Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs. ?400 copies/mL; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.90). Self-reported adherent subjects had higher risk. Conclusions PIs were significant risk factors for hypercholesterolemia. Higher viral load was protective and may reflect non-adherence. Further follow-up is critical to evaluate long-term consequences of chronic PI exposure and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18209684
This companion Website to the recently broadcast PBS documentary "Precious Children" provides insight into childhood life and education in mainland China. The site offers factual and cultural information about China, online essays about early education and childcare in China, video clips from the documentary, and an annotated list of online resources about children and education in China. Such a site could be a useful starting point for lesson plans designed to disrupt familiar cultural stereotypes.
Drawing on materials from the New York Public Library, the National Yiddish Book Center, and the University of California Libraries, the Internet Archive has created this trove of digitized children's books. Currently, there are over 2,700 books available here and they include works like "Infant's cabinet of birds & beasts" from 1820 and "What the Moon Saw: And Other Tales" from 1866. On the left side of the page, visitors can take a look at the "Spotlight Item" and there is a tag cloud available here as well. Those persons looking for the most popular items can view the "Most Downloaded Items Last Week". Not surprisingly, some of these items include "Pinocchio" and "The Wonderful Wizard of Oz." Visitors are also welcome to receive updates from their forum here, and they can also chime in with their own questions.
Turnbull, Katherine; Bronicki, G. J. Buzz
Topic: Positive Perceptions of Disability BOTTOM LINE TIPS This second-grade science project focuses on two hypotheses: (1) teaching will help children know more about what to do when they are with someone who has signifi- cant disabilities..., and (2) teaching will help children be more comfortable with some- one who has significant disabilities. The first author’s friend, Kevin, had significant disabilities. Due to these disabilities, Kevin had few other friendships. The author wanted...
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
Helga Refsum; Finn Wesenberg; Per Magne Ueland
Plasma homocysteine was determined in 12 children with acute l\\\\m- phoblastic leukemia. The patients were investigated prior to chemother apy (stage I), during seven weeks of induction chemotherapy (stage II), and thereafter during intermittent high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX) therapy (stage III). The patients were followed for a period of three to 15 months, and the study included a total of 80
Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.
Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)
Calogero, Joanna M.
Focuses on why and how to integrate music education with children's literature. Discusses the use of the thematic approach. Describes a unit on animals, focusing on books to include in the unit. Includes a bibliography of children's books. (CMK)
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Brown, Rexel E., Ed.
This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…
The purpose of licensing is to provide protection in circumstances in which people are vulnerable and to mandate that positive services will be provided. The common denominator of human vulnerability in licensed children's services is the fact that the children are in the care of someone other than their families. Licensed services include family…
Boeckx, Roger L.
Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)
Evans, Ellis D.
Current knowledge and practice relating to young children's aesthetic development and education are reviewed in this state-of-the-art report. Beginning with a brief section highlighting theoretical problems and approaches to the psychological study of aesthetic response, the review subsequently describes three common strategies used in aesthetic…
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Bullock, Janis R.
Lonely children experience feelings of sadness, malaise, boredom, and alienation. Loneliness has immediate and long-term consequences and may be attributed to many different causes. Teachers can learn to recognize signs of loneliness and use a variety of approaches in the classroom to help the child feel better and work through the experience.…
... adult risk and protective factors. American Journal of Public Health 87(2): 241-248.; Buckner, J. et al (2004). Exposure to violence and low-income children's mental health: Directed, moderated, and mediated relations. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74(4):413-423.
Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara
A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395
School psychologists who contribute to the assessment of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are required by various Australian state government authorities to use standardised testing of cognitive skills, adaptive behaviour and some autism-based symptomatology to demonstrate the eligibility of those children for support funding in the…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie
This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…
Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda
The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…
Texas Child Care, 2002
Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
Save the Children, Westport, CT.
This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…
... live in our bodies. This includes bacteria and fungi. While most germs are harmless, some can cause ... children and adults when too much of a fungus called Candida grows in your mouth. A small ...
The author presents practical, specific suggestions for hepling young children have successful carpentry experiences. Selection of tools and materials as well as guides for their use and care are included. (Author/WY)
Three papers and a listserv discussion about children's literature on the Internet include: "Potential Uses of the Net for Children's Literature in Schools" (Ashley Freeman); "Storytelling on the Net" (Barbara Poston-Anderson); "Writing on the Information Super-Highway--The Impact of the Net on Children's Literature: A Point of View" (Brian…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (3) total pedalcyclist…
Kinsey Drouet Pistorius; Leslie L. Feinauer; James M. Harper; Robert F. Stahmann; Richard B. Miller
Analysis of qualitative interviews with ten female therapists who were currently working with sexually abused children resulted in two major themes. The themes included the impact of working with sexually abused children on the therapist's personal and professional life and coping with stresses associated with working with sexually abused children. The major finding in study was the relationship between the
The Future of Children is a publication of The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and The Brookings Institution. The purpose of the site is "to promote effective policies and programs for children" by providing information and research findings. Available from this website is the journal of Children and Computer Technology, which focuses on children's use of computer technology both in school and at home. The articles "summarize the knowledge and research available on how the use of computers affects children's development, whether it increases or decreases the disparities between rich and poor, and whether it can be used effectively to enhance learning." The site describes "promising examples of computer use" and offers recommendations to improve children's access to computers. Other sections include a review of Federal Programs to Increase Children's Access to Educational Technology, a survey on What Children Think About Computers, and a glossary which gives definitions for selected terms and acronyms.
... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...
... e.g. medical emergencies, fire, alcohol, drugs, strangers, guns, etc.) When and how to answer the phone ... for Families : #59 Children Online #37 Children and Firearms #54 Children and Watching TV See also: Your ...
... large numbers of children and adolescents killed by firearms. In order to prevent further deaths, it is important to remember the following: 1) We cannot gun-proof our children and adolescents. Children are playful ...
Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types of gum disease in children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...
... Month Fundraising Resources Events STORE DONATE Latest News Children's Tumor Foundation NF Camp on TV How I Spent My Summer Vacation: Interning at the Children’s Tumor Foundation NF Heroes on Television! NF Endurance Team to ...
Palmu, Sauli A; Auro, Sampo; Lohman, Martina; Paukku, Reijo T; Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, Yrjänä
Background Tibial fracture is the third most common long-bone fracture in children. Traditionally, most tibial fractures in children have been treated non-operatively, but there are no long-term results. Methods 94 children (64 boys) were treated for a tibial fracture in Aurora City Hospital during the period 1980–89 but 20 could not be included in the study. 58 of the remaining 74 patients returned a written questionnaire and 45 attended a follow-up examination at mean 27 (23–32) years after the fracture. Results 89 children had been treated by manipulation under anesthesia and cast-immobilization, 4 by skeletal traction, and 1 with pin fixation. 41 fractures had been re-manipulated. The mean length of hospital stay was 5 (1–26) days. Primary complications were recorded in 5 children. The childrens’ memories of treatment were positive in two-thirds of cases. The mean subjective VAS score (range 0–10) for function appearance was 9. Leg-length discrepancy (5–10 mm) was found clinically in 10 of 45 subjects and rotational deformities exceeding 20° in 4. None of the subjects walked with a limp. None had axial malalignment exceeding 10°. Osteoarthritis of the hip and/or knee was seen in radiographs from 2 subjects. Interpretation The long-term outcome of tibial fractures in children treated non-operatively is generally good. PMID:24786903
Henne, Heather M.; Tandon, Pooja S.; Frank, Larry D.; Saelens, Brian E.
Objective Identify non-distance factors related to children’s active transport (AT) to school, including parental, home, and environment characteristics. Understanding the factors related to children’s AT to school, beyond distance to school, could inform interventions to increase AT and children’s overall physical activity. Study Design Participants were in the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study, a longitudinal, observational cohort study of children aged 6 - 11 and their parents in King County, WA and San Diego County, CA between 2007-2009. Parents reported frequency and mode of child transport to school, perceived neighborhood, home and family environments, parental travel behaviors, and sociodemographics. Methods Children living less than a 20 minute walk to school were in this analysis. Children classified as active transporters (walked/bicycled to or from school at least once per week) were compared with those not using AT as often. Results Children using AT were older and had parents who reported themselves using active transport. Having a family rule that restricts the child to stay within sight of the parent or home and more parent working hours was related to lower odds of a child using AT. Conclusions Children’s AT to school is associated with parental AT to work and other locations. Interventions should be considered that enable whole family AT, ameliorate safety concerns and decrease the need for parental supervision, such as walking school buses. PMID:24999161
Hickson, Joyce; Gaydon, Vanessa
Interviewed approximately 25 street children in Johannesburg, South Africa, and social services and educational personnel providing services to these children. Street children had experienced stress within their family, school, and society. Many came from structurally disadvantaged homes. Approximately 90 percent were identified as learning…
Aletha C. Huston; Bruce A. Watkins; Dale Kunkel
Television occupies a large part of children’s time from an early age. Among its many functions, education, social learning (prosocial as well as antisocial), and selling products are well documented by research evidence. Commercial programming for children in the United States consists primarily of cartoons and entertainment shows; educational and informative programs are supplied by public broadcasting and, to some
Melton, G B
This paper argues that the assumption that parents and children have coextensive interests is sometimes erroneous. It is suggested that children's participation in decisions concerning them is ethically and legally permitted, or even demanded, in some situations. Initial research on children's concepts of their rights and their perception of their quality of life is reviewed. PMID:7114179
The office of the Ombudsman for Swedish children, established within Radda Barnen (The Swedish Save the Children Fund) is occupied by five persons. Three of the staff are children's ombudsmen, one is an immigrant consultant, and one is a refugee consultant. The work of the ombudsman has six core aspects. First, attempts are made to strengthen the…
"Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as research…
Epstein, Jeffery N.; Langberg, Joshua M.; Rosen, Paul J.; Graham, Amanda; Narad, Megan E.; Antonini, Tanya N.; Brinkman, William B.; Froehlich, Tanya; Simon, John O.; Altaye, Mekibib
Objective The purpose of the research study was to examine the manifestation of variability in reaction times (RT) in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to examine whether RT variability presented differently across a variety of neuropsychological tasks, was present across the two most common ADHD subtypes, and whether it was affected by reward and event rate (ER) manipulations. Method Children with ADHD-Combined Type (n=51), ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive Type (n=53) and 47 controls completed five neuropsychological tasks (Choice Discrimination Task, Child Attentional Network Task, Go/No-Go task, Stop Signal Task, and N-back task), each allowing trial-by-trial assessment of reaction times. Multiple indicators of RT variability including RT standard deviation, coefficient of variation and ex-Gaussian tau were used. Results Children with ADHD demonstrated greater RT variability than controls across all five tasks as measured by the ex-Gaussian indicator tau. There were minimal differences in RT variability across the ADHD subtypes. Children with ADHD also had poorer task accuracy than controls across all tasks except the Choice Discrimination task. Although ER and reward manipulations did affect children’s RT variability and task accuracy, these manipulations largely did not differentially affect children with ADHD compared to controls. RT variability and task accuracy were highly correlated across tasks. Removing variance attributable to RT variability from task accuracy did not appreciably affect between-group differences in task accuracy. Conclusions High RT variability is a ubiquitous and robust phenomenon in children with ADHD. PMID:21463041
Albee, George W.
Noting that the physical and mental growth of children are influenced by many environmental and familial factors, this paper explores improving the well being of children. The first part of the paper discusses child rearing, emphasizing three fundamental themes: creating an environment where children are born healthy and wanted; helping children…
Malchiodi, Cathy A.
Children's art not only provides a window to children's problems, it also gives them another language with which to share feelings and ideas. This book provides an overview of the multidimensional aspects of children's drawings, and is intended to assist therapists in working with children and their drawings. Chapter 1 discusses projective tests…
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Voices for Illinois Children, Chicago.
This position paper by Voices for Illinois Children describes alarming problems faced by Illinois children and proposes legislative and programmatic interventions. It is noted that the well-being of children in Illinois has deteriorated dramatically in the past 10 years, and that significant improvements in policies and programs for children are…
Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…
...STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Monitoring, Enforcement...include in its report children with disabilities who are enrolled in a... (c) In the case of children with disabilities enrolled by their...
...STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Monitoring, Enforcement...include in its report children with disabilities who are enrolled in a... (c) In the case of children with disabilities enrolled by their...
...STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Monitoring, Enforcement...include in its report children with disabilities who are enrolled in a... (c) In the case of children with disabilities enrolled by their...
A summary was provided of issues presented by Dr. Cynthia Lloyd in her chapter on investing in children from the 1994 volume "Population and Development: Old Debates, New Conclusions." Children in large families may miss the opportunities offered in a modernizing society. The possibilities for adverse consequences because of a large size of families include a smaller share of resources (time, income, and/or nutrition) among family members, limited access to public resources (health care and education), unequal distribution of resources among family members, and gender defined roles. Dr. Lloyd's review of the literature exposed the lack of emphasis on the impact of opportunity, equity, and intergenerational transfers on child welfare. Children's smaller share of resources had less impact on child welfare. Later-born and unwanted children were particularly vulnerable in large families. Unwanted children were usually later born or girls. The lack of investments in girl's education not only affected the limited earning power and opportunity to escape from gender restricting roles but also contributed to the perpetuation of the cycle of high fertility and gender discrimination. Family decisions about fertility and investments in children's education and nutrition can not be separated from the social context of culture, class, social custom, and level of socioeconomic development. Disadvantage is not assured in large families, but statistically more probable. Fewer children are more likely to be wanted and to receive better care. Societies should provide high quality family planning services, safe abortion services, and enforcement of primary school education requirements. Measures need to be adopted for promotion of schooling for girls that is sensitive to cultural norms. Laws must protect children's rights to economic support from both biological parents. Gender discrimination against women must be eliminated. PMID:12288919
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA. PMID:9482324
Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D
Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308
Miller, Carol; Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn
This study evaluated how 30 British primary school classes implemented inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in the curriculum's literacy hour. It examined resources, teaching techniques, timetabling, personnel, classroom organization, location, and training. Findings indicated most SEN students were included in literacy…
Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Davies, Patrick T.
Building on the conceptual framework of emotional security theory (EST) , this study longitudinally examined multiple factors linking parental depressive symptoms and child internalizing symptoms. Participants were 235 children (106 boys, 129 girls) and their cohabiting parents. Assessments included mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms when children were in kindergarten, parents’ negative expressiveness when children were in first grade, children’s emotional insecurity one year later, and children’s internalizing symptoms in kindergarten and second grade. Findings revealed both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms were related to changes in children’s internalizing symptoms as a function of parents’ negative emotional expressiveness and children’s emotional insecurity. In addition to these similar pathways, distinctive pathways as a function of parental gender were identified. Contributions are considered for understanding relations between parental depressive symptoms and children’s development. PMID:23371814
Scheer, Judith K.
This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…
Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.
Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…
Downing, J; Marston, J; Muckaden, MA; Boucher, S; Cardoz, M; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Talawadekar, P; Tilve, P
The International Children’s Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) held its first international conference on children’s palliative care, in conjunction with Tata Memorial Centre, in Mumbai, India, from 10–12 February 2014. The theme of the conference, Transforming children’s palliative care—from ideas to action, reflected the vision of the ICPCN to live in a world where every child who needs it, can access palliative care, regardless of where they live. Key to this is action, to develop service provision and advocate for children’s palliative care. Three pre-conference workshops were held on 9 February, aimed at doctors, nurses, social workers, and volunteers, and focused around the principles of children’s palliative care, and in particular pain and symptom management. The conference brought together 235 participants representing 38 countries. Key themes identified throughout the conference included: the need for advocacy and leadership; for education and research, with great strides having been taken in the development of an evidence base for children’s palliative care, along with the provision of education; the importance of communication and attention to spirituality in children, and issues around clinical care, in particular for neonates. Delegates were continually challenged to transform children’s palliative care in their parts of the world and the conference culminated in the signing of the ICPCN Mumbai Declaration. The Declaration calls upon governments around the world to improve access to quality children’s palliative care services and made a call on the Belgian government not to pass a bill allowing children to be euthanised in that country. The conference highlighted many of the ongoing developments in children’s palliative care around the world, and as she closed the conference, Joan Marston (ICPCN CEO) challenged participants to take positive action and be the champions that the children need, thus transforming children’s palliative care. PMID:24761156
Stauffer, Paula, Comp.
This resource guide for teachers of preschool children offers information about substance abuse and its prevention. Included are facts and figures, and the names, addresses, and telephone numbers of three resource organizations, groups and programs that focus on preschool children. Annotated bibliographic references to prevention materials include…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…
Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.
Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key theme…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…
Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon
In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…
Frankel, Elaine B.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Burbidge, Julie; Minnes, Patricia
This mixed methods study reports on the perspectives of 143 preservice early childhood educators (ECE) and 208 elementary teacher candidates (TC) on teaching children with developmental disabilities and delays (DDD) in inclusive classrooms. A questionnaire was administered which included items on demographic characteristics, experience, knowledge,…
Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287
... Life > Children and Teens with Paralysis Children and Teens Living with Paralysis Any time a family member ... Read more. Books and Videos for Children and Teens Helping children understand paralysis, wheelchairs and disability can ...
Horwitz, Sarah; Hoagwood, Kimberly
Until the 2001 Surgeon General's report there had been no acknowledgment of the need for a national plan for research priorities to improve services and reduce illness burden for children and adolescents with severe mental disorders. Barriers to services among those in need include individual and family factors, and clinician and service system factors. Additionally, little reserch is available on the impact of major policy reforms on children's ability to obtain efficacious care. Critical research gaps exist in a number of areas with the prevention and early intervention area representing a particularly important missed opportunity. PMID:12558010
Carr, Robin L.
The books listed in this annotated bibliography are intended to help children understand the reality of death and deal with the mystery and emotions that accompany it. Each entry indicates the genre and reading level of the book and provides a brief description of the attitude toward death that it conveys. The selections include fables, fantasy,…
Flynn, Patricia; And Others
The booklet presents information and illustrations regarding bus transportation of handicapped children. The roles and responsibilities of drivers and aides are discussed as are such topics as seating arrangements, first aid measures (for falls and seizures), embarking and debarking procedures (including ways to encourage independence in walking),…
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Examines the role of playgrounds that use discarded items or "junk" as an integral part of kindergarten classes in an Israeli kibbutz. Suggests that play in the junkyard, by including the whole person--muscles and senses, emotion and intellect, individual growth and social interaction--can offer the experiential foundations on which children can…
Yokota, Junko; Cai, Mingshui
Presents annotations of approximately 80 web sites that range in coverage from idiosyncratic and focused to diverse and comprehensive metasites. Notes categories of sites include: children's literature web guides; trade book publisher web sites; author/illustrator sites (metasites and individual); book review sources and teaching ideas; web sites…
Ranly, Donald P.
The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…
Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…
Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)
Peng, Chew Fong
The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…
McCaslin, Nellie, Ed.
This book collects the current thinking of fourteen of the leading practitioners in the field of children in theatre. Evident throughout the book is the theme that it is the creativity of the individual teacher or leader that makes for exciting results in drama by and for young people. Included are reminiscences, philosophies, teaching hints, and…
Snowden, Peggy L.
National trends and issues that concern gifted education are considered, focusing on the relationships among regular education, early childhood education, and education of young children who are gifted. Specific topics include: whole language and emergent literacy, whole group instruction and flexible grouping, cooperative learning, and…
Sarah Horwitz; Kimberly Hoagwood
Until the 2001 Surgeon General's report there had been no acknowledgment of the need for a national plan for research priorities to improve services and reduce illness burden for children and adolescents with severe mental disorders. Barriers to services among those in need include individual and family factors, and clinician and service system factors. Additionally, little reserch is available on
... common in children? No exact information about the incidence of kidney stones in children is available, but many kidney specialists ... have stones have an anatomic abnormality in their urinary tract. Kidney stones may have a genetic cause. In other words, ...
... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...
... 2012 Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little ... during the past 12 months. In addition to herbs and dietary supplements, children use a wide range ...
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
... 341 KB)????? Alternate Language URL Chronic Diarrhea in Children Page Content On this page: What is chronic ... about Diarrhea [ Top ] What causes chronic diarrhea in children? Many diseases and disorders can cause chronic diarrhea ...
... react differently from adults. Preschool children usually see death as temporary and reversible, a belief reinforced by cartoon characters who die and come to life again. Children between five and nine begin to ...
Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...
... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...
... content of self-expression such as art work, music and political views Developing and expressing your individual ... information see Facts for Families : Children Online #59 Music/Music Videos #40 Children and Watching TV #54 ...
Taking ibuprofen can help children feel better when they have colds or minor injuries. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Ibuprofen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
Gwilym P. Hosking
A retrospective study of 200 hydrocephalic children suggests that the incidence of fits in these children is approximately 30%. The need for frequent valve revision appeared to increase the tendency towards fits occurring, as did an aetiology of meningitis.
... because of harsh life experiences, but most are born that way. For some middle-years children, social situations and interactions can be terrifying. When they come in contact with new children, they rarely feel at ease. Typically, they ...
... learn along with their children, parents' actions, conversational style, and displays of emotion will change with each new youngster. Not only do parents change their style as they gain experience raising children, but each ...
Townsend, John Rowe
Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…
Xue, Jingchuan; Wu, Qian; Sakthivel, Sivasubramanian; Pavithran, Praveen V; Vasukutty, Jayakumar R; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Obesity has been recognized as a major global public health concern. In particular, childhood obesity is a major risk factor for other health issues, such as type 2 diabetes, in later stages of life. A few earlier studies have associated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with childhood obesity. There is limited information, however, on exposure to EDCs and childhood obesity in India. In this study, urinary levels of 26 EDCs were determined in 49 obese and 27 non-obese Indian children. Eleven EDCs, including 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP3), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·2H2O) were found in >70% of urine samples. No significant associations were found between childhood obesity and most target chemicals studied, except for 3,4-DHB, which showed a significant positive association. Urinary concentrations of 3,4-DHB were higher in obese children than in non-obese children, independent of age, sex, family income, parent education, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of several EDCs were higher in Indian children than the concentrations reported for children in the USA and China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report urinary concentrations of several EDCs in Indian children. PMID:25531816
Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.
Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…
This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,…
Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, presents data and facts concerning yearly publications (books, magazines, and textbooks), translations, and illustrations of Japanese children's literature. The report then discusses at length recent trends in children's literature and library activities for children in the past, present, and…
Because fantasy has a special role in the lives of children, the meaning and consequences of fantasy experiences in children's lives are central psychological questions. Although the scientific study of fantasy is in its infancy, it does seem to be the case that children with rich fantasy lives have better self-control and are less likely to be…
Notes that the Moscow Center for the Integration and Education of Refugee Children attempts to provide real schooling for refugee children displaced from the Chechen Republic. Suggests main task was to prepare the children for regular school, and to help them adapt to both their new school and their new home, Moscow. Hopes this experience may help…
The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…
Rowland, Thomas W.
This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…
Kane, Dorothy Noyes
Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)
Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…
Sherman, Dianne, Ed.
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.
This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children's…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005
The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…
Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.
A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…
Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Danièle; Roebuck, Derek J.
Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.
Maintaining Children's Safety and Security on the Premises Policy V.2 June 18 2014 Owned by: Tracy/DepartmentResources/StudentServicesPoliciesandProcedures/EarlyYearsCentre /MaintainingChildren'sSafetyandSecurityonthePremisesPolicy June 2012 V.2 Impact Assessed: Update due: May 2015 #12;Policy 1 Title: Maintaining Children's Safety and Security on the Premises From: Early Years
Auman, Mary Jo
The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…
Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe
In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…
West, Suzanne E.
Some basic principles are discussed that can help divorcing parents understand the feelings and behaviors of their children, and guidelines are suggested for parents wanting to help their children adjust to the divorce-induced changes in their lives. The process of divorce is discussed in terms of children's experience, cause and effect, and time.…
Krois, Deborah Helen
Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…
Barlow, Diane L.
The idea that children's books must present biological information accurately and in an effective manner that invites children to consider biology as a career is discussed. The reasons why biology books are so well represented among children's science books and how teachers use science trade books in the classroom are described. (KR)
Britain's Children Act 1989 draws together and simplifies existing legislation about children to produce a more practical and consistent legal code. The legislation's main provisions concerning children with special needs deal with child protection in independent schools; truancy; parent rights and responsibilities; government-sponsored day care;…
... rejected by peers if they exhibit disruptive or aggressive behavior. Still other children may hover on the fringes of one clique ... to feel unwelcome. They often tend to be aggressive or disruptive and very sensitive to ... children Neglected children, on the other hand, are not ...
The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This report from the Children's Defense Fund lists statistics on child and youth well-being for each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) children participating in federally subsidized programs (including Title 1 Education for the Disadvantaged, bilingual education programs,…
Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo
This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…
The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…
Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)
Donworth, M. Kristin
Describes the Rainbow Connection Summer Program for preschool homeless children in White Plains/Elmsford, New York. The five-week program involves children between three and five years old, providing free transportation and meals. Activities include games, crafts, and other means of promoting self-esteem and responsibility. Examines funding,…
Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…
Children's Book Council, New York, NY.
The 1975 Children's Book Showcase committee selected 27 children's books for their excellent quality and design. Each of these books is given a two-page spread in the Showcase catalog. Information about the books, which are arranged alphabetically by title, includes author, title, publisher, artist, editor, art director, designer, production…
Presented by BBC Worldservice with the assistance of the UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) and the Human Rights Fund of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this site features the harrowing tales of children caught in war zones across the world, told in their own words. Divided into sections which explore the different experiences of the children of conflict (child soldiers, wounded children, lost children, child-headed households, child workers), the site offers brief explanatory notes, numerous quotes, RealAudio selections in a variety of languages, transcripts, and letters from children. Links are provided throughout the site to sources for more information.
Haig Kouyoumdjian; Andrea R. Perry; David J. Hansen
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment, while parental expectations of children's overall future functioning were not predictive of parents'
Creuziger, Clementine G. K.
Studied the plight of marginalized children in urban Russia, including orphans, children with some family ties living in group homes, and street children. Found that changing public views toward these groups since WWII have led to a deterioration in lifestyle for these children, further contributing to criminal activity and poverty in urban areas.…
Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006
Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…
The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...
O'Brien, Margaret; Bachmann, Max O.; Jones, Natalia R.; Reading, Richard; Thoburn, June; Husbands, Chris; Shreeve, Ann; Watson, Jacqueline
Thirty-five children's trust pathfinders, local cross-sector partnerships, were introduced across England in 2003 to promote greater integration in children's services. Using administrative performance data, this paper tracks yearly trends in child service outputs and child well-being outcomes from 1997 to 2004 in these local areas, including the…
Harper, Felicity W. K.; Penner, Louis A.; Peterson, Amy; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Taub, Jeffrey
Pain/distress during pediatric cancer treatments has substantial psychosocial consequences for children and families. We examined relationships between children’s positive dispositional attributes, parents’ empathic responses, and children’s pain/distress responses to treatment procedures. Participants were 41 pediatric cancer patients and parents. Several weeks before treatment, parents rated children’s resilience and positive dimensions of temperament. Parents’ pre-treatment empathic affective responses to their children were assessed. Children’s pain/distress during treatments was rated by multiple independent raters. Children’s resilience was significantly and positively associated with parents’ empathic affective responses and negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Children’s adaptability and attention focusing also showed positive relationships (p<.10) with parents’ empathic responses. Parents’ empathic responses mediated effects of children’s resilience on children’s pain/distress. Children’s positive dispositional attributes influence their pain/distress during cancer treatments; however, these effects may be mediated by parents’ empathic responses. These relationships provide critical understanding of the influence of parent-child relationships on coping with treatment. PMID:22963185
Srinivasan, Shylaja; Misra, Madhusmita
On the basis of strong research evidence, hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially serious disorder in childhood that, if uncontrolled, can lead to a wide range of complications, including effects on growth and development. • On the basis of strong research evidence, Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children, accounting for greater than 95% of cases. It is caused by stimulating antibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, history, physical examination, and thyroid function tests help diagnose hyperthyroidism. The condition is characterized by suppressed serum thyrotropin and elevated serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Radioactive iodine (or technetium-99) uptake and serum thyroid antibody measurements help determine the cause of hyperthyroidism. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, treatment options for Graves' disease in children include antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine, and surgery. Antithyroid medications are commonly used as the first-line therapy in children. However, because of the low rates of spontaneous remission, most children eventually require permanent treatment with radioactive iodine or surgery. Of the available antithyroid medications, current guidelines recommend use of methimazole and not propylthiouracil because of the unacceptable risk of hepatotoxicity associated with propylthiouracil. • On the basis of strong research evidence, thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening endocrine emergency that should be suspected in children with hyperthyroidism who demonstrate evidence of systemic decompensation. • On the basis of strong research evidence, neonatal hyperthyroidism can occur in infants born to mothers with a history of Graves' disease due to transplacental passage of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies. PMID:26034254
Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM
Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta-agonists and other add on therapies such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control including reviewing the diagnosis and the removal of causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041
The Children's Book Online website has been online for eight years, and during that time it has grown immensely (largely due to the efforts of numerous volunteers from around the world and the able direction of its president, Guy Chocensky). The site contains full versions of dozens of classic children's books, including David Copperfield, Grampa in Oz, and Peter Rabbit. What is equally compelling is that a number of the books are available in a number of different languages, including Polish, Italian, German, Romanian, French, and Russian. Visitors will want to also join their electronic mailing list to be informed when new titles are added to the site, and to sign their online guestbook. The site also contains a few rarities that may be unfamiliar to contemporary readers, including The Bashful Earthquake by Oliver Herford (first published in 1898) and the lovely work, The Marquis of Carabas, painted by Edmund Evans.
Legare, Cristine H.; Schepp, Brooke; Gelman, Susan A.
Despite the well-established literature on explanation in early childhood, little is known about what constrains children’s explanations. State change and negative outcomes were examined as potential explanatory biases in the domain of naïve biology, extending upon previous work in the domain of naïve physics. In two studies, preschool children (N = 70, 3- to 5-year-olds) were informed of the distinct health outcomes of characters in four between-subjects conditions (i.e., becoming ill, recovering from illness, continuous health, and continuous illness) and asked to provide explanations. Whereas children in both studies provided relevant information for health outcomes, they more often explained outcomes that included a salient health state change. Presence of a state change also influenced the interpretation of potentially relevant information and improved memory for health outcomes. We discuss how biases in children’s explanations constrain children’s reasoning and may exacerbate difficulties with reasoning about important health-related topics such as illness prevention. PMID:25383046
Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent
Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014.
Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for family-friendly work environments, and help maintain the parental shadow system of care on which health care professionals depend. PMID:22013630
Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.
Bland, Laurel LeMieux
The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…
Gustafson, Brenda J.; Rowell, Patricia M.; Rose, Dawn P.
This research focused on 181 school children's (aged 5-13 years) responses to an Awareness of Technology Survey question intended to explore their conceptual knowledge of structural strength. The survey responses showed that the children had many productive ideas about structural strength prior to formal classroom instruction. After instruction, the children's ideas showed little overall change. The Discussion explores how the framework of the programme and professional development opportunities did not help the teachers to implement the programme. Suggestions for productive classroom experiences related to structural strength include: introducing children to a greater variety of building materials; assisting children to explore the physical and mechanical properties of materials; practising with vocabulary needed to describe properties of materials; providing opportunities to understand the pushes and pulls at work in a structure; and promoting design technology discourse.
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…
... to discretionary grantees to help them implement their projects. It includes information on a variety of topics, including grants management, reporting, evaluation, sustainability, and more. VIEW THE TOOLKIT > ...
Reviews children's books on ocean topics, providing a brief synopsis and commentary on photos, diagrams, charts, as well as text. Recommends appropriate grade and reading levels, suggests how to use the books in the classroom, order of presentation to best stimulate questions and provide answers, suggests activities that prep for or follow-up books. Includes publisher, publication date, and ISBN, and links where books are available.
Princeton University's virtual exhibit of past exhibits of children's book illustrations offers visuals and brief explanations geared towards children and adults. The easy-to-use website is divided into four virtual exhibits, that contain a portion of what the physical exhibits at the Cotsen Children's Library at Princeton University displayed. The four exhibits can be accessed by clicking on their links on the homepage. The "Water Babies" exhibit contains illustrations of swimming, and was meant as a respite for kids who couldn't escape the city's heat. Each illustration in the virtual exhibit is accompanied by a short synopsis of the book or publication it came from, and often a web link or reading suggestion for more information on the author, illustrator, or subject matter of the book. The "Magic Lantern" virtual exhibit contains illustrations of magic lanterns, a type of projector widely available for home use, that were the precursors to film and television, and which enthralled children and adults alike. The "Creepy-Crawlies" exhibit highlighted the many illustrations of insects in children's books and natural history. The insects in children's books were most often portrayed as evil or villainous. But, if visitors can put those feelings aside, they will find many beautifully rendered drawings. The physical "Beatrix Potter" exhibit coincided with the publication of the Beatrix Potter Collection of Lloyd Cotsen in 2004, and the virtual exhibit contains illustrations by Potter, and others, with whom the visitor can use for comparison, to see Potter's unique style.
Utah Children, Salt Lake City.
The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…
Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.
A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)
Texas Child Care, 1995
Provides activities to help preschool children develop an understanding of the concept of time. Activities include making a sundial and a water clock or sand clock, as well as a time wheel of the months and seasons. (HTH)
This article describes a number of strategies and social-emotional interventions for use with maltreated children. These include: structure to increase feelings of safety and security, positive behavior management techniques, and methods that foster social and emotional resiliency. (Author)
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)
Mielzy?ska, Danuta; Siwi?ska, Ewa; Kapka, Lucyna; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Merlo, Domenico Franco
Environmental exposure is a complex mixture of hazardous compounds with different mechanisms of toxicity. In case of concomitant exposure to carcinogenic substances--such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)--and to heavy metals--such as lead (Pb)--the level of DNA damage may be enhanced. Children are considered more vulnerable than adults to chemical toxicants because they take in more toxicants as a proportion of body mass and because of inherent biological growth and developmental factors. The objective of the study was to measure cytogenetic effects in Silesian children and to investigate their relation with the environmental exposure to PAHs and Pb. The examined population included 74 children 5-14-year-old who lived in two cities located in the most polluted centre of the Silesia province. Individual exposure to lead was assessed for each child by measuring lead in blood (PbB), and to PAH by measuring 1-hydroxypyrene in urine (1-OHP), urinary mutagenicity and DNA adducts in circulating lymphocytes. Biomarkers of genetic effects were assessed by measuring micronuclei (MN) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in children's peripheral lymphocytes. The mean levels of biomarkers of exposure were as follows: PbB 7.69 microg/dl, DNA adducts 9.59 adducts per 10(8) nt, 1-OHP 0.54 micromol/mol creatinine, and urinary mutagenicity presented as the number of revertants per mmol of creatinine: 485 for TA 98 and 1318 for YG1024. Mean value of MN was 4.44 per 1000 binucleated cells and SCE frequency ranged between 6.24 and 10.06 with a mean value of 7.87. The results suggest the influence of exposure to environmental agents on the induction of cytogenetic effects in peripheral lymphocytes of children: namely Pb on MN and PAHs on SCE. The sources of that exposure may be outdoor and indoor. Emissions from coal-burning stoves are important contributors to the total exposure to PAHs and Pb in Silesian children. PMID:16891332
Marais, Ben J
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major, but often unrecognised, cause of disease and death in young children from countries with high TB incidence rates among adults. It is also relevant to paediatricians in low-incidence countries, such as Australia, because of increased international travel, immigration and refugee resettlement. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the global TB disease burden, the natural history of disease in children, and offers guidance on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB in children. PMID:24548085
The Global Children's Art Gallery hosts a refreshing collection of children's artwork in a variety of formats. Each image can be enlarged and is accompanied by a flag indicating the country or countries where the artist lives. This site is a part of the Natural Child site, a site maintained by psychologist Jan Hunt that is devoted to an attachment parenting perspective, "in which all children are treated with dignity, respect, understanding, and compassion."
Robyn E Holliday; Karen M Douglas; Brett K Hayes
This study investigated memory trace strength and the eyewitness suggestibility effect in 5- and 9-year-old children. Children were first presented with a picture story and then, on the next day, were read a post-event summary containing a number of misleading details. Trace strength was manipulated by repetition of the original and\\/or the post-event details. Children were given either a standard
Carole R. Beal; Kelly L. Schmitt; Dawn J. Dekle
Previous studies have shown that young witnesses often guess when presented with a target-absent lineup. Three experiments were conducted with kindergarten children (5-year-olds) to investigate this tendency. After viewing a slide show of a staged theft, children were interviewed to assess their memory for the event and asked to identify the perpertrator. Children made false positive identification errors when viewing
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010
This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…
Hundreds of children participated in the annual Take Our Children to Work Day at Stennis Space Center on July 29. During the day, children of Stennis employees received a tour of facilities and took part in various activities, including demonstrations in cryogenics and robotics.
Faivre, Milton I.
Included in this booklet is an account of children's concepts of death at various ages. Specifically, the discussion examines the "average" or "normal" reaction of children from birth through 2 years; 3 through 5 years; 5 through 8 years; 9 through 10 years; and at 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years. Children's reactions to the death of a pet and…
Ryan, Susan; Weills, Cynthia
An evaluation of a Vietnamese program to include children with disabilities in preschools found it had a positive effect on the lives of the children and increased community awareness of issues related to children with disabilities. The need for in-depth teacher training and implementation of individualized education services is discussed.…
Family transitions such as parental separation and divorce create the necessity for individual decisions, e.g. regarding parental custody and the children's residence arrangements or regarding visiting access with the non-custodial parent. The present longitudinal study of 62 children is based on interviews with members of divorced families, including the children, and on the analysis of child psychiatric custody reports and
The unwritten policy of the Huntsville-Madison County (Alabama) Public Library for dealing with unattended children includes librarian involvement with the children, increased public awareness of the problem, and a priority on children's services. It is noted, however, that the library cannot serve as a day care operation. (MES)
Essa, Eva L.; Murray, Colleen I.
Explains how young children's understanding of death develops and how they react emotionally to death. Offers practical suggestions for discussing death with children and helping them cope with the death of someone they know. Includes a list of books for teachers and children on the subject. (MDM)
Sebesta, Sam L.; And Others
A study was conducted to discover the components of books that children prefer over and above those children's books that adults critically acclaim. Forty intermediate-level fiction books included in the "Children's Choices" listings for 1978 to 1980 were read by three adult researchers and classified according to A. Applebee's taxonomy of story…
Winston, Andrew S.; And Others
Presents three studies of children's ability to create and detect expressions of emotion in drawings. Compared to younger children, older children used more strategies, experimented with line and color, and were more likely to explore themes of death, aging, and illness. Includes sample drawings and statistical tables. (MJP)
A study examined young children's use of the Mandarin "jiu" in its adverbial form in conditional sentences. The language corpus included: (1) spontaneous speech samples of 66 children aged 4, 5, 6, and 7 years in 20 Taiwan locations and (2) story repetitions by 461 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds in 22 locations. The data indicate that children as young…
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra
Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative or…
Antshel, Kevin M.; Nastasi, Robert
An aspect of metacognition, metamemory (knowledge and awareness of one's memory) was investigated across time in preschool children with ADHD (n = 31) and a sample of age, sex, socioeconomic and IQ-matched typically developing children (n = 31). Only children with stable ADHD diagnoses were included. Participants were assessed on a variety of…
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
Levy, David L., Ed.
"Speak Out for Children" is the quarterly newsletter of the Children's Rights Council, Inc. (CRC), a children's rights and family preservation advocacy group. The feature articles for these four issues track the progress of the access/visitation grants included in the welfare reform legislation; the grants are to help establish and administer…
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were…
Stocker, J T
Although they account for only 1% to 4% of solid tumors in children, hepatic tumors and pseudotumors offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician seeing only an occasional case. Metastatic lesions such as neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, and lymphoma are the most common neoplasm seen in the liver, but 10 distinct primary tumors and pseudotumors of the liver occur with some regularity, and a few others may be seen rarely, including leiomyosarcoma, rhabdoid tumor, and endodermal sinus tumor. Five of these neoplasms--hepatoblastoma, infantile hemangio-endothelioma, mesenchymal hamartoma, undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma, and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of the biliary tree--occur only in children and are the major focus of the article. PMID:11218918
Fitzsimons, Roisin; van der Poel, Lauri-Ann; Thornhill, William; du Toit, George; Shah, Neil; Brough, Helen A
This review provides an overview of the use of antihistamines in children. We discuss types of histamine receptors and their mechanism of action, absorption, onset and duration of action of first-generation and second-generation H(1)-antihistamines, as well as elimination of H(1)-antihistamines which has important implications for dosing in children. The rationale for the use of H(1)-antihistamines is explored for the relief of histamine-mediated symptoms in a variety of allergic conditions including: non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis (AR) and conjunctivitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and whether they have a role in the management of intermittent and chronic cough, anaphylaxis, food protein-induced gastrointestinal allergy and asthma prevention. Second-generation H(1)-antihistamines are preferable to first-generation H(1)-antihistamines in the management of non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, AR, AE and CSU due to: their better safety profile, including minimal cognitive and antimuscarinic side effects and a longer duration of action. We offer some guidance as to the choices of H(1)-antihistamines available currently and their use in specific clinical settings. H(1)-antihistamine class, availability, licensing, age and dosing administration, recommended indications in allergic conditions and modalities of delivery for the 12 more commonly used H(1)-antihistamines in children are also tabulated. PMID:25147323
Saliakellis, Efstratios; Fotoulaki, Maria
Historically, gastroparesis is characterized by delayed gastric emptying of fluids and/or solids without evidence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. To provide a thorough, evidence-based overview of the diagnosis, treatment, outcome and future advances for gastroparesis in children, a web search (PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Clinical Evidence) was performed. Original articles and reviews were identified, examined and included as appropriate. The prevalence of gastroparesis is vague in adults and unknown in children. It is suspected on the presence of symptoms indicating gastric dysmotility (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, failure to thrive, weight loss) and is confirmed on the demonstration of delayed gastric emptying. It can be assessed with various methods from which gastric emptying scintigraphy of a radiolabeled solid meal is considered as the golden standard. Therapeutic approaches include: dietary modifications, medical treatment (prokinetics, antiemetics, intrapyloric injection of botulinum toxin, enteral feeds via jejunostomy, total parenteral nutrition) and surgical interventions (laparoscopic placement of gastric pacemaker) aiming at alleviating symptoms and maintaining optimal nutritional status. Gastroparesis in children can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Specific protocols for the evaluation of gastric emptying and for a stepwise management are required to optimise future outcomes. PMID:24714281
... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...
... Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Eating Disorders Among Adults - Anorexia Nervosa Eating Disorders Among Adults - Binge Eating Disorder Eating Disorders Among ...
Gras-Le Guen, Christèle; Launay, Élise
Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment. PMID:26165100
Herjanic, B M; Barredo, V H; Herjanic, M; Tomelleri, C J
Fourteen Black male, opiate addicts, their wives, and their children were studied intensively using psychiatric interviews and psychological tests. Their 32 children were compared to 37 pediatric clinic children. The children raised in a home where father is an opiate addict function cognitively less well than their father, and the teenagers show earlier and stronger antisocial trends than pediatric clinic peers. On the other hand, there is a surprising absence of other psychopathology that one might expect, taking into consideration the deviant environment from which they come. PMID:511395
... search for cures while improving diagnosis, treatment, and quality of life for children affected by cardiomyopathy. CCF actively works with federal agencies, medical societies, voluntary health organizations, ...
Presents American's with Disabilities Act guidelines for building school toilet facilities that serve children with disabilities. Several dimension charts are provided showing min/max measurements. (GR)
Jordan, Amy B
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents' ability to supervise their children's media use. Jordan concludes by considering the relevance and efficacy of today's media policy given the increasingly rapid pace of technological change. The need for research in informing and evaluating media policy, she says, has never been greater. PMID:21338012
... Policy AAP Policy Federal Advocacy Keeping Children Safe: Gun Violence Prevention Protecting Immigrant Children Promoting Children's Mental ... Critical Congenital Heart Disease (CCHD) Safe Storage of Firearms School Physical Education and Activity Teen Driving Requirements ...
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. PMID:25735946
As critics, we need to change how we look at children’s literature. When children’s books hit the headlines because of their popularity—such as Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton books or, more recently, J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series—the same questions always come up: are they really for children, are they good for children, how do we evaluate such books, why
Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina
IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.
Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate
Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic. The development of the child in utero and early in life is at particular risk. Mercury is ubiquitous and persistent. Mercury is a global pollutant, bio-accumulating, mainly through the aquatic food chain, resulting in a serious health hazard for children. This article provides an extensive review of mercury exposure and children’s health. PMID:20816346
Height, D I
Statistical patterns today reveal that an overwhelming majority of Black children are born to single, teenage mothers. In 1980, for example, 57 percent of births to those were to mothers 15-17 years of age. The infant mortality rates among such births is strikingly high and even for those infants who survive their first year of life, there are studies which show disproportionately high physical and mental deficits among the offspring of teenagers. Few adolescent mothers turn to the fathers of their children for help. They understand that these young men are rarely in a position to support a young mother and child since unemployment among Black male teenagers is in the 47 percent range. Large numbers of these young women never marry and, instead, head their own households in poverty. Others continue to live with mothers, sisters, or other relatives who may themselves be mothers, with children born out of wedlock. The cycle of dependency on public assistance, or low paying jobs is, thereby, passed on to second, and even third generations. Traditional family values must be strengthened if children born today are to be prepared to participate in our ever more complex, and technologically advanced society. Teenage parents who drop out of school, and are not prepared to participate fully in home and community responsibilities, are also unprepared to provide the goals, education, and skills needed by their children. PMID:3745497
Marsh, Merle; Alden, Sally Bowman, Ed.
The information highway is an exciting place for children and families to visit, explore, and learn together. This book teaches parents basic knowledge about the Information Highway and how to use it with children. The following topics are covered in this book: (1) What is the Information Highway? (2) What is Telecommunications?; (3) Why You &…
Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc
Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitive…
Witek, Joanna; Witek, Przemys?aw; Pa?kowska, Ewa
Insulin resistance is characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin. The hallmark of insulin resistance is decreased tissue glucose uptake despite normal or elevated insulin concentration. There has been an upward trend in the incidence of insulin resistance in developed countries, although in pediatric population it is difficult to assess. Both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of insulin resistance, namely increased diet caloricity and decreased physical activity. Gradually, this leads to adipose tissue build-up. The role of visceral adipose tissue is of particular importance, mainly due to its significant endocrine activity, leading to adverse metabolic effects. The most important consequences of insulin resistance in children include increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, which lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Children with insulin resistance can develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and sleep apnea syndrome. In case of female pediatric patients a higher incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is observed. Furthermore, the authors reviewed opinions on risk factors for insulin resistance, as well as direct and indirect insulin resistance assessment methods. The article presents the principles of primary and secondary prevention of insulin resistance in children, with particular allowance for dietary recommendations and recommendations to increase physical activity, and, in selected cases, current guidelines on pharmacological treatment. PMID:22248781
Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis
Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905
Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald
Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with secondary heterologous dengue infections are most at risk for severe dengue disease. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue can be established within five days of disease onset by direct detection of viral components in serum. After day five, serologic diagnosis provides indirect evidence of dengue. Currently, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat dengue infection. Therefore, treatment remains supportive, with emphasis on close hematological monitoring, recognition of warning signs of severe disease and fluid-replacement therapy and/or blood transfusions when required. Development of a dengue vaccine is considered a high public health priority. A safe and efficacious dengue vaccine would also be important for travelers. This review highlights the current understanding of dengue in children, including its clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, management and prevention. PMID:25225163
Cullinan, Bernice E., Ed.; Carmichael, Carolyn W., Ed.
This collection of articles about children's literature contains the following articles: "Books in the Life of the Young Child" and "Traditional Literature: Children's Legacy" by Bernice E. Cullinan, "Encouraging Language Growth" by John Warren Stewig, "Promoting Language and Concept Development" by Dorothy S. Strickland, "Fostering Understanding…
Galda, Lee; Ash, Gwynne Ellen; Cullinan, Bernice E.
Describes the multidisciplinary nature of children's literature as a field of study. Suggests research in children's literature encompasses a diverse set of methodologies and theoretical perspectives. Discusses research on text, research on child readers, contexts that support engagement, and research needs. (RS)
A number of relevant issues surround the arguments of both opponents and proponents of the Federal Trade Commission's proposals to ban or control certain advertising during children's television programs. Groups against regulatory action point out that parents, not children, are the consumers and have a right to free choice in their purchases.…
McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others
This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.
Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…
Rolfe, Sharne A.
This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
The National Research Council formed a Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism and charged the committee with integrating the scientific, theoretical, and policy literature and creating a framework for evaluating the scientific evidence concerning the effects and features of educational interventions for young children with…
... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others
This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…
Anderson, Sarah; Fulton, Arlene
Pointing out that stresses that children must deal with have increased in recent years while their sources of adult support have decreased, this paper defines stress, indicates sources of stress, describes coping patterns, lists signs of stress in children, and describes helping strategies through which adults, and teachers particularly, can…
Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret
Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517
Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color and…
Rist, Marilee C.
The use of crack during pregnancy is producing tens of thousands of blameless children each year who, by biology and environment, are impaired. Describes the effects of crack on children and what can be done for crack-smoking mothers-to-be. Offers suggestions to school boards for providing a structured supportive learning environment for these…
Fields, Rona M.
Presents a picture of the unrest in Israel and its surrounding areas as seen through the children's eyes who have grown up during the uprising. Interviews five children whose experiences are different due to the fact that they are either Palestinians in Israel, Palestinians outside of Israel or Israeli. (JS)
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
There is an urgent need to conduct research into the effects of political conflict on children growing up in South Africa. This paper discusses some international literature which may be relevant to researchers in this area. The first section briefly assesses the usefulness of the background literature on children in war and disaster situations. The second section outlines some of
Author stresses that child art has a different interpretation for adults than it does for children, and an understanding of child art can open our minds to better appreciation and respect for all art, all children, and all artists. (Author/RK)
Arena, John I., Ed.; And Others
Describing methods for helping children with normal intelligence who manifest learning, perceptual, and/or behavior disorders as a result of minimal neurological or brain dysfunction, the compilation contains 22 papers. Articles are grouped into six categories: identifying the children, motor development, basic considerations, adapting the…
WITMER, HELEN L.
THREE MAJOR QUESTIONS ARE RAISED--(1) WHAT IS MEANT BY POVERTY AND TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF POVERTY DEPEND ON THE SORT OF MEASURING ROD USED. (2) HOW MANY AND WHAT PROPORTION OF THE NATION'S CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP IN POVERTY. AND (3) WHERE, GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY, ARE THESE CHILDREN OF THE POOR TO BE FOUND. POVERTY IS…
In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…
Badzinski, Diane M.; And Others
Explores developmental (age) differences in meaning that children at four grade levels assign to count and relational quantifiers. Results indicated 92 percent of the children demonstrated understanding of all count quantifiers. For relational quantifiers, mean numerical values assigned to four terms followed expected patterns; understanding of…
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.
These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…
This article discusses how teachers and parents can help build children's communication skills. Children's language develops in predictable stages. Here, the author outlines these stages. She also gives suggestions to parents on how to help build their communication skills at home. Language learning takes place throughout the classroom. The author…
Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.
This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, and…
Paley, Vivian Gussin
This narrative details the responses of children and adults to a story about young children welcoming a boy with severe disabilities into their own story telling and re-enactment. Linking the act of story telling to the practice of the Hasidim, who would teach people to think about goodness by telling stories about holy men performing good works,…
Protecting the health of children from environmental risks is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a part of the Agency's efforts to address children's health issues, EPA's Office of Research and Development, a leader in the area of hum...
Examines possible solutions for improving the status of children in India. Suggests that there is a need to focus on child rights issues related to public awareness, attitudinal change, political commitment, mass sensitization, and outreach. Suggests an appropriate strategy for the restoration of the rights of children in India. (AA)
Benke, Mary Schaefer
Debates whether children are more susceptible to asbestos-related disease than adults. Addresses the issue of low-level exposure and disease. Discusses the regulatory measures taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Congress to protect children from the potential threat of asbestos exposure. (CW)
... Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Curing Children's Cancer Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version ... kids. They love to play together at The Children's Inn at NIH, where they stay when being treated. Often the kids ... 3 Number 3 Page 10
National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, Alexandria, VA.
One of several reports on the status of children conducted for the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, this document is based on data obtained from 5,274 telephone interviews of registered voters conducted in 7 states and the District of Columbia during February, 1992. It reports voter opinion on issues affecting…
Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.
Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…
Dole, Patricia Pearl
Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…
This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…
Steffe, Leslie P.; Tzur, Ron
Interprets and contrasts children's mathematical interaction from the points of view of radical constructivism and of Soviet activity theory. Proposes a superseding model based on the interrelations between the basic sequence of actions and perturbation and the interaction of constructs. Supports the model by describing how children used…
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. PMID:25745042
... asleep. Nighttime UI has also been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), OSA, and anxiety. Children also may inherit genes ... can appear as a constant dribbling of urine. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children with ADHD are three times more likely ...
Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…
A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…
Physicians for Social Responsibility
This site explores why and how children are more sensitive and susceptible to environmental pollutants than adults. It features information about causes of asthma and birth defects, the effects of heavy metals, and the environmental health and safety of schools. It also provides links to resources and organizations related to children's environmental health, current news and related resources.
Bianchi, Suzanne M.
Data in this population bulletin indicate that in comparison with children of previous generations, today's youngsters are apt to have fewer siblings, and more likely to come from a broken home, have a working mother, and pass time as a latchkey kid. More children are in child care than in the past, and there has been a significant move toward…
Ngom, N N
The principal themes that emerge from this interview are that in Senegal street children can be rehabilitated and educated to play effective roles in society. Differences should be made between street children who are categorized as unadaptable, the delinquents and those who are morally dangerous. The unadaptable child is one who has social or psychological problems; the morally dangerous child is one who runs the risk of becoming a delinquent because his social and economic environment and a delinquent child is the one who commits the violations by going against the law. Most problems at home lead children to become delinquents. The most common types of delinquencies committed by children are drug abuse, robbery, prostitution and involuntary accidents. Once caught in a delinquent act there are several alternatives; 1) "Action in Open Education" (AEMO) which is an organization that allows the children to remain at home with their families but places them either in school or finds them a job up until the age of 21; 2) the Placement Centers (CS) where children are interviewed comprehensively; at the CS they spend the day but return to their homes at night; 3) they are taken to jail and only released at the consent of AEMO; 4) they are tried before the Children's Court and if found guilty, they are placed in a jail for minors (13-18). There is a need to open special centers for delinquent children that offer education, training and a variety of cultural entertainment and sports. PMID:12283241
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
"Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…
Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
Intended for teachers, librarians, and administrators, this handbook explores the possibilities of implementing a "Children as Authors" project by using collaborative and integrative teaching strategies to motivate elementary school children to write. After describing the project and explaining its benefits, the handbook explores ways teachers and…
... tag Swimming Playing organized sports (such as soccer, basketball, and football) Younger children have a shorter attention span than older children. They may be active for only 10 - 15 minutes at a time. The goal is still a total of 60 minutes of ...
Derevensky, Jeffrey; Coleman, Elaine B.
The comparison of the fears of intellectually gifted and non gifted children found gifted children's fears to be consistent with their developmental level, realistic, and to display considerable frustration, helplessness, and pessimism concerning their future. Their fears reflected advanced cognitive and social awareness. (Author/DB)
Anderson, Daniel R.
This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…
Wilson, Ruth A.
Discusses the health-related implications of environmental hazards for children. Argues that low-income, minority communities are disproportionately affected, thus spurring the environmental justice movement which calls for equitable dealing with hazards. Suggests that children are at the greatest physical health risk, and that educators are in a…
Research with children is occurring within a climate of mounting international interest in listening to and consulting with children in ways that are respectful of them as competent informants of their own experience. This interest has occurred within "new times" of heightened accountability, regulation and surveillance of research. This climate…
Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia
A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
Gurland, Suzanne T; Glowacky, Victoria C
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over the long term for appealing activities. Individual difference analyses revealed that some children held operant theories of motivation, in which rewards were central, and others held hybrid theories, in which rewards were key, but some allowance was made for interest to be self-sustaining in the absence of inducements. Children's theories predicted their academic self-regulation. Their theories are discussed relative to an expert theory of motivation. PMID:21513944
Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D
The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634
Sood, Sunil K
The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. PMID:25999224
Song, Shige; Burgard, Sarah A.
Quadratic Growth Models of Children’s Height by Urban versusgrowth models, and controls for key household characteristics including urban-urban-rural difference in the intercept in the quadratic growth portion of the model
These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and interviewers as well as refinement of the interview protocol to allow for more production of divergent questions by children may reveal additional effects of literary genre on children's learning of science through literature.
Sara King; Daniel A. Waschbusch; William E. Pelham Jr; Bradley W. Frankland; Brendan F. Andrade; Sophie Jacques; Penny V. Corkum
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants\\u000a were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6–12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized\\u000a into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo and 21 participated after\\u000a receiving methylphenidate (MPH). Children were shown scenarios
Borys, Shelley; Ross, Michael
Children's interpretations of social experiences were compared to adults' interpretations of the same experiences in a study involving 151 children between 6 and 12 years of age and the mothers of a subsample of 43 of the children. Seventy-six participating children were asked to describe some of their social experiences and generate attributions…
Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).
This collection of 16 papers attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of children in the nations of the Americas. The collection's five sections examine children's rights, perspectives of five parents from five different nations, children with disabilities in the legal system, promoting the rights of children through social…
The number of children dependent on home mechanical ventilation has been reported to be increasing in many countries around the world. Home mechanical ventilation has been well accepted as a standard treatment of children with chronic respiratory failure. Some children may need mechanical ventilation as a lifelong therapy. To send mechanically ventilated children back home may be more difficult than adults. However, relatively better outcomes have been demonstrated in children. Children could be safely ventilated at home if they are selected and managed properly. Conditions requiring home ventilation include increased respiratory load from airway or lung pathologies, ventilatory muscle weakness and failure of neurologic control of ventilation. Home mechanical ventilation should be considered when the patient develops progressive respiratory failure or intractable failure to wean mechanical ventilation. Polysomnography or overnight pulse oximetry plus capnometry are used to detect nocturnal hypoventilation in early stage of respiratory failure. Ventilator strategy including non-invasive and invasive approach should be individualized for each patient. The author strongly believes that parents and family members are able to take care of their child at home if they are trained and educated effectively. A good team work with dedicated members is the key factor of success. PMID:26223874
Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie
Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247
Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and sometimes in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366
Goins, Brad; Cesarone, Bernard
Difficulties faced by homeless children include depression, low self-esteem, lack of sleep and nutrition, and feelings of shame and embarrassment. Challenges faced by schools in providing education to homeless children include: (1) keeping children in one school despite frequent family moves; (2) ensuring that children's health records are…
Campaign For Our Children was incorporated in November, 1987, as a not-for-profit organization to "organize, manage and conduct programs designed to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancies in Maryland..." Topics available on their web site include: adolescent pregnancy news flashes, teacher and parent resources, an "ask the expert" page, and chat pages where teachers and parents can discuss issues and strategies. The Teen Pregnancy Clock displays up-to-the-minute estimates of how many teen pregnancies and births have occurred this year. Users can preview and order CFOC materials directly from the web site. Several of the television and radio spots are available for display within a web browser.
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John
Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…
Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.
Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…
A 100-item test covering nine areas of superstitious belief administered with 10 control items to 1,749 Canadian and British children showed younger children and girls were more superstitious than older children and boys. Academically inclined children were less superstitious. Science-based education had little effect. Implications for Canadian…
In the ten-year period from 1990 to 1999, children's consumption has increased dramatically in proportion to family income. In 85% of urban families, children's average consumption is equal to one third or more of the family's income. Resources are being directed to children's food and dietary supplements, toys, travel, computers and other electronic equipment, and educational resources. Children perceive that
Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The International Criminal Court has outlawed as a War Crime, the conscription of children under 15 years of age. Nevertheless, there remain more than 300000 child soldiers active and enmeshed in psychopathic violence as part of both civil and international warfare. The typical profile of a child soldier is of a boy between the ages of 8 and 18 years, bonded into a group of armed peers, almost always an orphan, drug or alcohol addicted, amoral, merciless, illiterate and dangerous. Paediatricians have much to do to protect such war-enmeshed children, irrespective of the accident of their place of birth. Only by such vigorous and maintained advocacy can the world's children be better protected from the scourge of future wars. PMID:12654137
Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M
Higher vegetable intake has been related to lower risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancers and obesity. Yet children consume fewer than the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables set forth by the USDA. Exposure to vegetables has successfully improved children's liking for and consumption of vegetables particularly for children younger than two years. In contrast, associative conditioning seems necessary for older children, especially with bitter vegetables. We review studies using both exposure and associative conditioning to teach children to like vegetables, including flavor-flavor learning and flavor-calorie learning. Recognizing these different processes helps reconcile discrepant literature and may provide techniques for increasing preferences for vegetables in children. Associative conditioning and exposure can be used by parents and others to enhance children's liking for and consumption of vegetables. PMID:26122752
Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung
The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…
Brody, Leslie R.
Three studies explored age, sex, and individual differences in children's defensiveness about four feelings: happiness, anger, sadness, and fear. Also investigated was the relation between children's defensiveness and their mothers' comfort with and expression of feelings. Participants included children ranging in age from 4 through 11 years of…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
As a speech therapist working with children with severe communication disabilities, the author has had glimpses of some of the theological realities of such children. Several case examples are discussed against their social and cultural backgrounds, including attitudes to disability in general and communication disabilities in particular. The discussion then ventures to some examples of children and theology and some
Vieillevoye, Sandrine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
This study investigated the symbolic behavior and the self-regulation in dyads of children with intellectual disability and of normally developing children. Specifically, these processes were studied in link with the children's characteristics (mental age, linguistic level, individual pretend play level). The sample included 80 participants, 40…
In response to the development of a National Children's Agenda (NCA) to improve the well-being of Canada's children, this document presents specific policy goals to ensure the inclusion of children with disabilities and their families in the NCA. These goals include: (1) establishing inclusive values, rights and approaches for healthy child…
Susan Jean Strife
While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems—and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10–12) this research aimed to fill the scholarly gap in our understanding of children's environmental concerns by voicing children's
Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Pidgeon, Sarah; Sandmann, Sarah
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten. The condition presents classically with gastrointestinal signs including diarrhoea, bloating, weight loss and abdominal pain, but presentations can include extra-intestinal symptoms such as iron-deficiency anaemia, faltering growth, delayed puberty and mouth ulcers. Some children are at higher risk of developing coeliac disease, for example those with a strong family history, certain genetic disorders and other autoimmune conditions. If coeliac disease is suspected, serological screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres should be performed and the diagnosis may be confirmed by small bowel biopsy while the child remains on a normal (gluten-containing) diet. Modified European guidelines recommend that symptomatic children with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres more than ten times the upper limit of normal, and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 status, do not require small bowel biopsy for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Management of the disease involves strict adherence to a lifelong gluten-free diet, which should lead to resolution of symptoms and prevention of long-term complications. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the varied presentations of coeliac disease to ensure timely screening and early initiation of a gluten-free diet. PMID:26243121
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...
... Help Other Children Ewing Sarcoma Survivor Has Big Dreams Mother of Survivor: ‘Childhood Cancer is Forever’ Online ... Sites Bookstore ACS CAN Gift Shop Cancer Atlas Global Health Finish the Fight Press Room Mobile Site ...
... and imposes new demands. Planning ahead -- and involving children in the planning -- may lessen the stress of travel. ... reports and a list of all medications your child is taking. ... helps when travel delays meals or when the available meals don' ...
Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)
... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ... Research For More Information Acknowledgments What is a kidney stone? A kidney stone is a solid piece ...
Sørensen, T H; Vindenes, H
During the years 1989-91, 88 children were hospitalized in the Burn Unit. 60 children, of whom 57 were under five years of age, suffered from scalds. All of the injuries happened at home and nearly 60% of the children received immediate treatment with cold water. The causes of the scalds were hot tap water, tea, coffee or boiling water. Half of the children did not need surgery and stayed in the unit from one to 61 days. Information on burns and scalds prevention and first aid must be given to parents at the Health Care Centres, on radio and TV, and in the newspapers. In order to reduce scalds from hot tap water, legislation should be considered which would limit the temperature of such water to maximum 60 degrees C. Health personnel who meet these problems should present the above information to the politicians. PMID:8322299
... Playing organized sports (such as soccer, basketball, and football) Younger children have a shorter attention span than ... or biking. Others prefer group sports, like soccer, football, or basketball. Choose an exercise that works well ...
... growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to excess intake of fat or eating the wrong types of fat. Children over age of 1 should be offered low- ...
... down. A full appetite is often the last behavior to return after an illness. Children should be allowed to take their time returning to their normal eating habits. No specific diet is recommended for diarrhea, ...
Separation anxiety is the major difficulty (and anticipatory anxiety a secondary difficulty) in treating school phobic children, and must be dealt with in a coordinated effort by school therapists, teachers, and parents. (MB)
... her own style and needs, initially because of birth order and inborn traits, and later because of experiences. ... appropriately for their child's developmental age and needs. Birth order and family size also influence your children's development. ...
Goldstein, David; Kose, Gary
The effect of differential exposure to a referent on children's communication effectiveness was investigated with 40 boys and girls from grades K and 2 who were given one or three opportunities to explore a maze-like construction. (Author)
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
Schaaf, H S; Garcia-Prats, A J; Donald, P R
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat to children, as it often goes undiagnosed and leads to high morbidity and mortality. Active contact tracing leading to initiation of preventive therapy and early diagnosis with immediate effective treatment, whether it is drug-susceptible or drug-resistant TB, could reduce mortality and morbidity. In order to achieve this it is necessary to understand the currently available drugs, their role in treatment, their doses, and adverse effects. However, there is still limited pharmacokinetic data on antituberculosis drugs in children, few child-friendly formulations, and knowledge gaps regarding their pharmacodynamics. A discussion of the available antituberculosis drugs is presented, with a focus on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, to provide reasoning for the currently recommended doses for children. More pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies, for both existing and novel drugs, are urgently needed to optimize dosing of antituberculosis drugs in children and for development of child-friendly formulations. PMID:26095192
... basketball and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with ... biking. Group sports are another option, such as soccer, football, basketball, karate, or tennis. Choose an exercise ...
... Revised April 29, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 612 Children and HIV HOW SERIOUS IS HIV ... most pregnant women are taking ARVs. See fact sheet 611 for more information on pregnancy and HIV. ...
Schall, Jane; Harbaugh, Mary
Health authorities believe that formal instruction about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is crucial by grades 6 to 8. Teachers of primary children, however, need to be prepared to answer questions in a knowledgeable, reassuring way. Resources are listed. (MT)
... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that their mother and father will still be their parents and remain involved with them even though the ...
Daniel P. Shepardson
By creating their own journal pages, children are able to depict their ways of seeing and understanding the science phenomena, constructing or reconstructing the phenomena through their own lens of experience (Shepardson, 1997). In this article, the autho
van Balen, A T; Slijper, F E
Forty-three children with unexplainable low visual acuity were diagnosed to have psychogenic amblyopia. Twenty-eight children returned after a mean interval of 20 months. Sixteen children had a normal visual acuity, but 12 children again presented themselves with a low visual acuity that normalized rapidly under the influence of the same kind of persuasion that was used in the first examination. Psychological tests did not confirm the hypothesis of hysteria but the neurosomatic score was significantly high. The results of the psychological tests and the interviews of the parents suggest a neurotic conflict not on the basis of an oedipal conflict but on the basis of a conflict between the wish to express feelings of hostility and the wish not to lose the love of the parents. PMID:739348
... Many children who have language problems during the preschool years will also have some language problems or ... Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Child speech and language: preschool language disorders. Available at http://www.asha.org/ ...
... fluid behind the eardrum with a special instrument. Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) happens when fluid remains in ... in the middle ears of most children with chronic ear infections. Understanding how to attack and kill these biofilms ...
Uihlein, Lily C; Brandling-Bennett, Heather A; Lio, Peter A; Liang, Marilyn G
The objective of this study was to describe the clinical features of Sweet syndrome in children. Our study population consisted of seven children diagnosed with Sweet syndrome over a 22-year period. Age, sex, appearance and location of lesions, associated signs and symptoms, past medical history, pathology, and subsequent disease course were documented for each patient. Fever and typical lesions were reported in most of patients in our study. The majority of patients presented with less-typical findings, such as pustules, vesicles, bullae, oral ulcerations, atrophic scars, and evidence of pathergy. Of the seven children in our study, four were found to have a preceding nonspecific upper respiratory or gastrointestinal infection, and two were diagnosed with an underlying hematologic malignancy. Our results suggest that atypical lesions are relatively common in children with Sweet syndrome and that underlying malignancy is associated with a minority of cases of pediatric Sweet syndrome. PMID:22011318
... watching TV, working on a computer, or playing video games. Screen time is sedentary activity, meaning you are ... over age 2. Despite what ads may say, videos that are aimed at very young children do not improve their development.
Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.
Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)
... Urologic Conditions Search Conditions Common Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials ... for Children's Cancer Share About This Content The Urology Care Foundation is in the process of re- ...
... These young children may blur the distinction between reality and fantasy. An older child or adolescent may ... and discuss: the difference between make believe and reality, lying and telling the truth, the importance of ...
Vesicoureteric reflux is defined as the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into one or both ureters and often up to the kidneys, and mainly affects babies and infants. In severe cases dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces might be seen. Traditionally it was thought that only a low percentage of children have vesicoureteric reflux, but studies have suggested as many as 25-40% are affected. Guidelines recommend that the number of investigations for vesicoureteric reflux in children who have had a febrile urinary tract infection be reduced, but this approach is controversial. The recommendations also suggest that prophylactic antibiotics and surgery should be avoided in children with non-severe vesicoureteric reflux. In this Seminar I present data on the management of children with vesicoureteric reflux and give suggestions on how to navigate this difficult area. PMID:25164069
... and print a PDF version of this document . Sports help children develop physical skills, get exercise, make ... to play fair, and improve self-esteem. American sports culture has increasingly become a money making business. ...
Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... ATTACK !! MAINLY THROUGH CONTACT WITH SEWAGE OR THROUGH INSECTS THAT BITE OR STING!!! Monica_comic.qxd 3/ ... are STILL DELICATE AND VULNERABLE. DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY INSECTS ARE a MAJOR THREAT TO CHILDREN! PLAYING WITH ...
... the label. In the home: Keep cleaning fluids, bug poisons, and other chemicals out of a child's ... signs of deterioration, weakness, and damage. Keep an eye on your child around the playground. Teach children ...
... pressure from constipation drinks or foods that contain caffeine Sometimes, overly demanding toilet training may make children ... every 2 hours avoiding food or drinks with caffeine following suggestions for healthy urination, such as relaxing ...
Al-Hammad, Nouf S.
Objectives: To determine the dietary practices of Saudi cerebral palsy (CP) children. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the following information from parents of CP children: demographics, main source of dietary information, frequency of main meals, foods/drinks used for main meals and in-between-meals. Results: Parents of 157 CP children participated. Parents were divided into three, while children were divided into two age groups. The main sources of dietary information included popular media (46.5%) and dentist (36.3%). Most of the children had three meals (71.3%) or two meals (24.8%) daily. Choices for main meals included meats (68.8%), vegetables (65.6%), fruits (28.4%) and puddings (38.9%). The main three drinks choices with main meals included packed juices (59.9%), bottled water (58.8%) and fresh fruit juices (33.1%). The choices for in-between meals snacks included biscuits (61.1%), potato chips (51.6%), fruits (43.9%) and chocolates (41.4%). The choice of drinks with snacks was similar to that used with main meals. In cross-tabulation, older parents used meat (p=.03) and soft drinks (p=.04) more often for their children’s main meals. Older children were given meat (p=.004) and soft drinks (p=.04) more often with main meals. Older children were given potato chips as snacks more often than younger children (p=.02), and there was a trend towards use of chocolates as snacks in older children (p=.08). Conclusion: Parents of CP children need to be educated about dietary practices of their children especially in areas such as the use of packed juices, dairy products, soft drinks and chocolates. PMID:26430418
Bourne, Jenny; And Others
The number of black children "excluded" each month from schools in England and Wales is greatly out of proportion to their relative enrollment. Exclusion includes suspension for a fixed or indefinite term or expulsion from a particular school, and can include in-school exclusions of isolation. The term "black children" is taken to include various…
Hillis M.D., Argye E.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research and potential therapies are also discussed. PMID:17275656
Shah, C. P.; Smith, C. A.; Finkelstein, L.; Friendly, M.
One-third of all injuries seen at The Hospital for Sick Children's emergency department in 1977 resulted from falls; 10% of the children who had fallen were admitted. Falls from heights and those from the same level were of equal proportion (49%). Superficial injuries were most common. Family physicians may help prevent injuries due to falls by giving parents anticipatory guidance about their child's developmental stages and the risk situations that may be encountered at each level of development. PMID:21286518
J. N. Pohowalla
Conclusions Typhoid fever in children occurs commonly in this region. It is not difficult to recognise the disease if the condition is\\u000a borne in mind when dealing with a child suffering from fever of some days duration realising that the clinical picture as\\u000a seen in children is markedly different from the descriptions found in text-books of internal medicine.\\u000a \\u000a One looks with
Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph
Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277
Kumar, K T
People debating population growth in India and why adults in India choose to bear so many children seem to either not understand or overlook that people in India like children; the more the better. Indeed, children interest every Indian, with new mothers receiving advice on baby care from all quarters. The child is king in India, spoiled, but generally well-behaved. It could be that children receive so much attention from many loving relatives that they do not need to act out in order to get attention. Having a child is the focus and meaning of married life. Without a child, life loses its color and joy. Moreover, childless couples face the insecurity of not having children to care for them once they grow old. The author notes her failure to observe children who were poorly adjusted and sad because they habitually shared a bed with their parents. As concerned individuals ponder the perils of global population growth, they might consider the merit of the Indian view on the subject. PMID:12289895
Wightman, F; Allen, P; Dolan, T; Kistler, D; Jamieson, D
The auditory temporal resolving power of young children was measured using an adaptive forced-choice psychophysical paradigm that was disguised as a video game. 20 children between 3 and 7 years of age and 5 adults were asked to detect the presence of a temporal gap in a burst of half-octave-band noise at band center frequencies of 400 and 2,000 Hz. The minimum detectable gap (gap threshold) was estimated adaptively in 20-trial runs. The mean gap thresholds in the 400-Hz condition were higher for the younger children than for the adults, with the 3-year-old children producing the highest thresholds. Gap thresholds in the 2,000-Hz condition were generally lower than in the 400-Hz condition and showed a similar age effect. All the individual adaptive runs were "adult-like," suggesting that the children were generally attentive to the task during each run. However, the variability of threshold estimates from run to run was substantial, especially in the 3-5-year-old children. Computer simulations suggested that this large within-subjects variability could have resulted from frequent, momentary lapses of attention, which would lead to "guessing" on a substantial portion of the trials. PMID:2737011
Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.
This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…
Boehm, Steven S., Ed.
By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…
Sorscher, Nechama; Cohen, Lisa J.
The effect of parental Holocaust trauma on children's Jewish identity and Holocaust-related ideation was investigated through comparison of children of survivors with children of American Jews. The role of possible mediating factors, (the quality of parental communication style) was also assessed. Subjects included 40 adult children of Jewish…
Laverick, Deanna M.
This article discusses the benefits of including "children's eCulture" in school curricula. "Children's eCulture" is the culture of children as it relates to electronics and technology. Integrating children's eCulture into formal learning experiences allows teachers to promote multiple literacies in their students. The article will describe the…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
In order to examine the roles of mental age, social interaction, and communication in self-representation abilities, typically-developing children were compared with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Typically-developing children (TD, n = 66) and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, n = 20), including subgroups of autistic disorder…
Christofides, Anna; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Schauer, Claudia; Sharieff, Waseem; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Zlotkin, Stanley
Home-fortification of complementary foods with micronutrients (including iron) as Sprinkles is a new strategy to control iron deficiency and anaemia in developing countries. However, the most effective dose and form of iron is not known. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of various doses (12.5, 20 or 30 mg) and treatment methods (multi-micronutrient Sprinkles vs. ferrous sulphate drops) on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration after 8 weeks of treatment in anaemic children. In total, 133 anaemic Ghanaian children (Hb 70-99 g L(-1)) aged 6-18 months were randomly assigned to one of five daily interventions for 8 weeks. Out of the five interventions, four used Sprinkles, and one used iron drops. Of the four Sprinkles groups, three included 12.5, 20 or 30 mg of iron as ferrous fumarate, and one included 20 mg of iron as ferric pyrophosphate. The iron drops group included 12.5 mg of iron as liquid ferrous sulphate. Hb concentrations were measured at baseline, week 3 and week 8. The primary outcome measure was Hb concentration at 8 weeks after treatment. We compared differences in Hb and ferritin concentrations and prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia (Hb < 100 g L(-1) and soluble transferrin receptor concentrations >8.5 mg L(-1)) from baseline to 8 weeks within and between groups. Adherence and reporting of side effects (staining of the teeth, ease of use, diarrhoea and darkening of stools) were compared between groups. Mean change in Hb was 1.4 g L(-1) (SD = 1.8) (P = 0.0001). Change in Hb concentrations from baseline to 8 weeks was significant in all groups (P = 0.0001-0.0007), with no differences across groups. Geometric means of serum ferritin varied from 18.6 to 44.0 microg L(-1) at baseline. At week 8, these means were in the interval of 48.0-78.3 microg L(-1), with no group differences. Prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia decreased significantly from baseline to 8 weeks in all groups with the exception of the iron drops group, with no group differences. Adherence was lower in the drops group (64%) as compared with Sprinkles groups (84%). Greater staining of the teeth and less ease of use were reported in the drops group as compared with Sprinkles groups. A dose as low as 12.5 mg of iron as ferrous fumarate when provided as Sprinkles may be effective in anaemic children. PMID:16881929
Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.
We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children’s knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less likely to perform an action when the core meaning of a verb was in conflict with the frame in which it was presented; (2) Children enacted the core meaning of the verb with considerable accuracy in all conditions; and (3) Children altered their actions to include or not include explicit objects appropriately to the frame. The results suggest that 3-year-olds learning languages that present them with very different structural cues still show similar knowledge about and sensitivity to the core meanings of transitive and intransitive verbs as well as the implications of the frames in which they appear. PMID:21499789
Profiles college programs and accompanying facilities that offer housing for single mothers with children, including College of St. Mary in Omaha, Nebraska; College of Misericordia in Dallas, Pennsylvania; and Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. Includes a sidebar on the University of Dayton's renovated child care center. (EV)
The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…
Colbert, Margaret, Comp.
This document is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field by organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers. Major international and foreign awards of English speaking countries are included. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each award entry includes a brief history of the award and a list of all…
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.
Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…
Wasserman, R C; Hassuk, B M; Young, P C; Land, M L
In anecdotal reports, problems have been cited in the health care of physicians' children, but no systematic study of this issue has been attempted. Pediatricians in a community of high physician density were interviewed to determine whether and how the health care of physicians' children differs from that of children of equivalent socioeconomic status. Of the community's 33 pediatricians, 94% responded to items in a 45-minute structured interview, for which test-retest reliability was demonstrated. Systematic differences in the care of physicians' children included delayed help seeking and increased self-referral to specialists by parents, and poor documentation of psychosocial history, less detailed instruction giving, and a reluctance to discuss problem behavior by pediatricians. Reasons cited by pediatricians for these problems included inappropriate assumptions concerning the medical knowledge of the physician's family, confusion between the roles of healer and help seeker, and embarrassment about discussing personal issues with colleagues. Pediatricians and physician parents need to become aware of and communicate about the potential for problems in the health care of physicians' children. PMID:2919137
Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategies…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
Lawrence, Rick L.
15-16 Verification of Children 02/16/15 2015 2016 Verification of Children You Support Student) you answered "yes" to the following question: Do you now have or will you have children who children includes housing, food, clothing, medical, dental care, childcare, money, gifts, etc. that you
Consulting those who use children’s services, both parents and children, has become a much more common approach to improving children’s services. This research briefing reports on some key findings of a consultation undertaken ...
This UNICEF State of the World's Children report (last reviewed in the December 11, 1998 Scout Report) includes an appeal for a new international coalition on behalf of children. The report also summarizes progress made since the 1990 World Summit for Children and the challenges that remain. Included in the report are a number of photographs, maps, tables, and a glossary. A summary, features (a collection of children's own words on important issues), RealPlayer videos, and a .pdf version of the report are available form the main page.
Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer
Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073
With more children travelling by air, health care professionals should become more familiar with some of the unique health issues associated with air travel. A thorough literature search involving a number of databases (1966 to 2006) revealed very few evidence-based papers on air travel and children. Many of the existing recommendations are based on descriptive evidence and expert opinion. The present statement will help physicians to inform families about the health-related issues concerning air travel and children, including otitis media, cardiopulmonary disorders, allergies, diabetes, infection and injury prevention. An accompanying document (Information for Parents and Caregivers) is also available in this issue of Paediatrics & Child Health (pages 51-52) to help answer common questions from parents. PMID:19030341
Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Graham, Alice M; Moore, William E; Peake, Shannon J; Mannering, Anne M
Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540
Sekar, H R
In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the abomination of child labor. The government should provide monetary incentives to employers that do not use child labor and disincentives to those that do. PMID:12318359
Roff, Merrill; And Others
This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…
Mosin, I M; Moshetova, L K
Fifty children with Coats disease, aged 2 months to 12 years (mean age 8.25 +/- 2.72 years), were observed. Four stages are distinguished in the disease course: initial, moderate, advanced, and terminal. Treatment including extensive retinal argon laser coagulation, cryotherapy, scleral bucking, and subretinal liquid draining was carried out in 32 children (33 eyes). Stable anatomic results were attained in 97% eyes. Visual acuity of at least 0.02 was retained in 87.9% children. PMID:12096525
Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p < .05). Females, older children and Chinese were more knowledgeable about the efficacy of medicines. Furthermore, the socio-economic status, parents' education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p < .001). This study showed that children have misconception about medicines. The need for medicine education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education. PMID:23975718
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.
Objective Document beliefs about the contribution of physical activity to preschool-aged children’s health held by Latino mothers in farmworker families, and delineate their perceived barriers or constraints that impose limits on preschool-aged children’s physical activity. Method Qualitative data obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews (N=33) with mothers of preschool-aged children living in Latino farmworker families in North Carolina. Results Mothers universally agree that regular vigorous physical activity is good for preschool-aged children’s health, including obesity prevention. However, excessive physical activity can produce illnesses, as well as other physical and emotional problems, and should be limited. Mothers wanted their children to engage in more sedentary forms of activity because they believed it would benefit learning. Physical and chemical hazards in rural environments, distance to parks and play spaces, and lack of familiarity and concerns about neighbors constrained children’s physical activity. Conclusions Although physical activity is believed to be beneficial, strong cultural beliefs and real contextual barriers undermine preschool-aged Latino farmworker children’s level of physical activity. PMID:24522435
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
We used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort to estimate kindergarten children’s academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. We were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)—as well as those of other groups of children—were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than non-disabled children. However, and over the subsequent five years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind non-disabled peers in their reading skills growth. We observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind non-disabled children in their mathematics skills growth. We also observed some consistency in “poor-get-poorer” effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socio-economic status (SES) families, who were African-American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behaviors problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... like fever, fatigue, general ill feeling, change in behavior, ... eating or drinking? After eating greasy foods, milk products, ...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...
...merely to provide a single general intelligence quotient. 3. The evaluation shall...academic functioning, to include general intelligence. b. Visual and auditory acuity. c. Social and emotional status, to include social...
...merely to provide a single general intelligence quotient. 3. The evaluation shall...academic functioning, to include general intelligence. b. Visual and auditory acuity. c. Social and emotional status, to include social...
...merely to provide a single general intelligence quotient. 3. The evaluation shall...academic functioning, to include general intelligence. b. Visual and auditory acuity. c. Social and emotional status, to include social...
Soldatski?, Iu L; Sorokina, V-T A; Onufrieva, E K; Fedorova, O Iu; Pogosova, I E; Volod'kina, V V
The objective of the present work was to study the structure of voice disorders in children depending on the methods chosen to diagnose dysphonia. Medical histories of 1,451 children at the age varying from 2 months to 16 years were analysed. All of them were patients hospitalized for the first time between 1997 and 2007 to treat hoarseness caused by vocal cord nodules, functional or mutational dysphonia, chronic laryngitis, vocal cord paresis/palsy, recurring respiratory papillomatosis, vocal cord cystitis, and cicatrical laryngeal stenosis. It was shown that vocal cord nodules and functional dysphonia diagnosed in 53.1% and 12.2% of the children were the main causes of voice disturbances. The former condition was especially common in boys aged from 7 to 12 years engaged in intense sports activities while the latter prevailed in 5 to 12 year-old girls studying singing. It is concluded that measures are needed to increase awareness of both parents and teachers of psycho-emotionally labile children about causes of hoarseness and methods of its diagnosis. The use of the fibrolaryngoscopic technique makes it possible to elucidate the cause of dysphonia in children of any age starting from the first days of postnatal life. PMID:20517276
Equally called gifted, supergifted or with high potential, intellectually precocious children are characterised by a fast rhythm of development which is only achieved by 2 to 5% of children. It is only since 2002 that the French National Education System, following the Delaubier report, has recognized their existence and their abilities but also the difficult answer of the education system facing their specific needs. IQ tests remain the basic mean for identifying intellectual precocity but, better than the place determined by the IQ, the analysis of the developmental profile in terms of level or mental age allows a better understanding of each child in his specificity. These children present an affective and psychomotor development relatively less advanced than their intellectual development. This is named internal dyssynchrony. Besides, the discrepancy between their own rhythm of development compared to that of other children causes a social dyssynchrony, evident in their relationships with other children of the same age and facing the standard pace of progression imposed by the school. In order to help them manage their abilities linked to their intelligence, it matters firstly to identify and recognize them as precocious to help them fully express their personality and achieve their full potential. PMID:19733038
Christen, H J
Children are more likely than adults to be bitten by ticks and thus more likely to be infected by Borrelia burgdorferi. In a serosurvey the infection rate measured by immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies was 2.6%. In a prospective hospital-based multicentre study 169 children with Lyme neuroborreliosis were examined; the infection was diagnosed by detection of specific immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using an IgM capture ELISA. The yearly incidence of Lyme neuroborreliosis was 5.8 cases per 100,000 children aged 1-13. Facial palsy and lymphocytic meningitis account for nearly 90% of all cases with neuroborreliosis indicating striking differences in the clinical spectrum between children and adults. Lyme borreliosis proves to be the most frequently verifiable cause of acute peripheral facial palsy in children, causing every second case of this disorder in the summer and autumn. In cases of facial palsy, nearly all patients with a positive history of tick bite or erythema migrans in the head and neck region show ipsilateral subsequent facial nerve palsy, suggesting a direct invasion via the affected nerve by Borrelia burgdorferi. Lyme borreliosis is the third most frequent cause of lymphocytic meningitis in childhood. Inflammatory changes of the cerebrospinal fluid along with the presence of specific antibodies are mandatory for the diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis. High-dose intravenous penicillin G as well as third-generation cephalosporins prove to be effective in paediatric Lyme neuroborreliosis. PMID:8811167
Hacker, Leah E; Park, Jennifer M; Timpano, Kiara R; Cavitt, Mark A; Alvaro, Jeffrey L; Lewin, Adam B; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A
Objective: Although evidence suggests that hoarding may be associated with symptoms of ADHD, no study has examined this relationship in children. Method: Participants included 99 youth diagnosed with ADHD (and a parent) seen in a general outpatient psychiatry clinic. Children completed the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Child Version, the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Parents completed the Children's Saving Inventory and Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Rating Scale-Parent Version. Results: Inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were the only indicator that differentiated those with and without clinically significant hoarding. Symptoms of ADHD, but not nonhoarding obsessive-compulsive symptoms, significantly predicted hoarding. Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity were uniquely associated with individual hoarding features. Hoarding symptoms mediated the relationship between ADHD and oppositionality. Conclusion: These findings contribute to the growing literature about the association between hoarding and ADHD. (J. of Att. Dis. 2012; XX(X) 1-XX). PMID:22923782
Candice M. Mills; Frank C. Keil
This research examines the development of children’s understanding that people’s judgments may be skewed by relationships, and that situational factors may make it difficult to be impartial. One hundred and seventy-one adults and children between kindergarten and eighth grade heard stories about judges in contests with objective or subjective criteria for winning. In Experiment 1, by fourth grade, children rated
A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence. PMID:12348873
Paul, Siba Prosad; Rogers, Eleanor; Wilkinson, Rachel; Paul, Biswajit
The causes of febrile convulsions are usually benign. Such convulsions are common in children and their long-term consequences are rare. However, other causes of seizures, such as intracranial infections, must be excluded before diagnosis, especially in infants and younger children. Diagnosis is based mainly on history taking, and further investigations into the condition are not generally needed in fully immunised children presenting with simple febrile convulsions. Treatment involves symptom control and treating the cause of the fever. Nevertheless, febrile convulsions in children can be distressing for parents, who should be supported and kept informed by experienced emergency department (ED) nurses. This article discusses the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of children with febrile convulsion, and best practice for care in EDs. It also includes a reflective case study to highlight the challenges faced by healthcare professionals who manage children who present with febrile convulsion. PMID:25952398
Myers, Jane E.
This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…
Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.
This serial "double issue" focuses on protecting children and supporting families through greater collaboration between child welfare services and family resource programs. The issue includes the featured articles: (1) "Making the Media a Constructive Force in Child Welfare" (Kathy Bonk), which discusses how the media and child welfare agencies…
Based on actual, successful teaching and writing experiences, this book provides practical information on writing for children and teenagers. Part I, "A Practical Guide to Publication," includes discussions of (1) the writer's work habits and writing techniques; (2) characterization; (3) dialogue; (4) creating atmosphere, suspense, and emotion;…
Honig, Alice Sterling
This paper discusses creativity in young children and what teachers can do to support and promote it. Topics addressed in the paper include: (1) teacher interest in promoting creativity; (2) defining creativity; (3) creativity in the socioemotional domain; (4) the relationship between creativity and empathy for others; (4) bibliotherapy; (5)…
McHardy, Roberta J.; Blanchard, Pamela B.; de Wet, Catharina F.
In even the earliest studies of giftedness in young children (Burks, Jensen, & Terman, 1930; Hollingworth, 1926), researchers noted distinct character traits among gifted students, which included global awareness, sensitivity to complex issues, and a tendency to worry about injustice and dangers that often are beyond a child's control. Dabrowski…
Edgington, Ruth; And Others
Intended for parents helping their children with reading disabilities, the book describes specific activities in eight areas. The eight areas include general suggestions for the study period, hand and eye coordination activities, phonics training, ear training, reading, relaxation activities, muscle memory, writing, and spelling. Thirteen…
The curriculum guide for use with preschool handicapped children provides 28 activity units as well as general teaching suggestions. An initial section covers ideas for adapting activities to specific handicapping conditions including the visually impaired, hearing impaired, physically handicapped, and mentally disabled. Subsections also cover…
Lombard, Robert H.; And Others
Maintains that social studies teachers have used the traditions associated with civic and religious holidays to teach about historical events and culture. Asserts that holidays are becoming more culturally diverse. Presents a bibliographic essay including recommended children's literature on both religious and secular holidays. (CFR)
Bradley, R. C.
Designed for introductory courses in the study of exceptional children, the textbook is a collection of articles which examines extensively numerous aspects of areas of exceptionality. Specific topics covered include trainable and educable mentally handicapped, bright and gifted, visually handicapped, hearing impaired, speech handicapped,…
Ramsey, Patricia G.
Everyone in the United States lives in multiple worlds including work, home, community, school, and social and religious groups. Individuals also have a number of identities and behavioral repertoires that shift among contexts. However, some children and families experience more discontinuities between school and home than others. These gaps are…
Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.
This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…
INA HEINSBERGEN; JAN ROTTEVEEL; NEL ROELEVELD; ANDREE GROTENHUIS
The purpose of the present study was to identify the main risk factors for poor outcome in children with shunted hydrocephalus, including the timing of the operation. The medical records of patients born between 1984 and 1992, who had undergone shunt operation for hydrocephalus before 1994, were analysed retrospectively. The following data were collected: aetiology of hydrocephalus, other pathology in
Draws upon an interview with Louise Williamson, Director of the Children's Division of the Refugee Council, to examine care and welfare issues that should be dealt with separate from the legal process of seeking asylum, although in concert with legal procedures. Includes suggestions for improving existing practices, and a list of countries of…
POTTS, ALFRED M.; REDBIRD, HELEN M.
SINCE 1955 THE COLORADO STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION HAS OPERATED A PROGRAM OF SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR THE CHILDREN OF MIGRATORY AGRICULTURAL WORKERS. IN 1957 A 3-YEAR STUDY WAS FOUNDED TO INVESTIGATE "THE IMPROVEMENT OF SCHOOL ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION TO MEET THE NEEDS OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS." HEREIN ARE INCLUDED DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEMS…
Discusses possible ways of providing continuity of care for young children of working mothers, including industry - sponsored day nurseries, cooperative nursery schools, communal clusters where working and nonworking women share household tasks and child care, and expanded neighborhood day care. (MG)
Malchiodi, Cathy A., Ed.
Rich with case material and artwork samples, this volume demonstrates a range of creative approaches for facilitating children's emotional reparation and recovery from trauma. Contributors include experienced practitioners of play, art, music, movement and drama therapies, bibliotherapy, and integrative therapies, who describe step-by-step…
MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June
Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…
Social Development Commission, Milwaukee, WI.
This publication presents data and descriptive information on the status of poor children and families in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). The analysis of the information suggests that the children are poor because their families are poor and that only providing their families with adequate employment and family supports will lift these children out of the…
Sutterby, John A.; Frost, Joe L.
Warns about a potential epidemic of obesity among children in the United States and urges early childhood practitioners to provide outdoor play that increases children's physical activity, muscle strength, and coordination. Maintains that playgrounds should offer a variety of equipment that challenges children at different ability levels. Asserts…
Diamond, Karen E.; Musser, Lynn M.
The development of the Children's Attitudes Toward the Environment Scale--Preschool Version is reported. Construct validity of the scale was suggested by the pattern of relationships found between child and parent measures. Children's attitudes were not correlated with verbal ability, but with the degree to which children participated in…
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.
Approximately one in four children in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. Countless other children are living in families in which there is illicit drug abuse. Growing evidence suggests that genetics and environmental factors can predispose children of substance abusing parents to behavioral problems…
Peretz, Benjamin; Ram, Diana
The purpose of the study was to assess the preferences of parents and children regarding amalgam or tooth colored restoration material for the children's teeth and some associated factors. One hundred and 24 children aged 4 to 12 years of age (Mean age-7.3 +/- 2.4) who needed at least 1 dental restoration were selected for the study. After a dental examination, the parents were asked to complete a questionnaire requesting demographic information, preference of restoration material for their children's teeth, and influencing factors. The children were then asked to answer questions on which material they preferred and what influenced their decision. More parents preferred tooth colored restorations to amalgam restorations for their children's teeth. However, 12 percent of the parents preferred amalgam. For 40 percent of the parents, the restoration material did not matter. For most parents (76 percent), whether the tooth was primary or permanent did not influence their choice. The highest concern was given to the implications of a restoration material on the health of the body or the tooth. Half of the children preferred tooth colored restorations. For nearly 30 percent, the restoration material did not matter. Significantly, more younger children than older children noted the filling's visual prominence as an important factor (30 percent and 3 percent, respectively). Younger children were more influenced by their parents' preferences than older children. It is concluded that tooth colored restorations are preferred to amalgam by both parents and children. PMID:12613305
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…
A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...
In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.
David Mioduser; Sharona T. Levy; Vadim Talis
This study explores young children’s abstraction of the rules underlying a robot’s emergent behavior. The study was conducted\\u000a individually with six kindergarten children, along five sessions that included description and construction tasks, ordered\\u000a by increasing difficulty. We developed and used a robotic control interface, structured as independent concurrent rules. To\\u000a capture the children’s changing knowledge representations, we have employed a
Children with cerebral palsy have nervous system defects which lead to muscular spasticity and loss of coordination. Many of these children have great difficulty walking because certain muscles are in a constant state of contraction. Surgical techniques can lengthen muscles or tendons to improve the child's walking pattern, but it is vital to diagnose accurately the particular spasticity problem of each patient; the individual muscles causing the handicap vary greatly from child to child. It is difficult by physical examination alone to determine precisely which muscle groups are most involved. Biotelemetry has provided a solution. For the past two years, the Children's Hospital at Standord, assisted by NASA and the Stanford Biomedical Application Team, has been applying biotelemetry to the cerebral palsy problem.
Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041
Praino, María Laura; Berberián, Griselda; Torroija, Cecilia
The number of children who travel outside their home countries has increased dramatically.Whatever the reason for it, it involves exposure to an environment with characteristics that must be taken into account. Similarly, the transfer itself can generate anxiety in the family and presents the risk of vehicle-related injuries (which is the leading cause of death in children who travel). Parents will often seek for pre-travel advice. The aim of this paper is to review the recommendations to assess a family who is planning to travel with children. Initially,general recommendations will be addressed in the preparation of the trip and afterwards insect-borne diseases prevention. PMID:25622162
Tan, John W; Campbell, Dianne E
Allergic reactions to insect bites and stings are common, and the severity of reactions range from local reaction to anaphylaxis. In children, large local reaction to bites and stings is the most common presentation. Stings from insects of the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) are the most common cause of insect anaphylaxis; however, the proportion of insect allergic children who develop anaphylaxis to an insect sting is lower than that of insect allergic adults. History is most important in diagnosing anaphylaxis, as laboratory tests can be unreliable. Venom immunotherapy is effective, where suitable allergen extract is available, but is only warranted in children with systemic reactions to insect venom. Large local reactions are at low risk of progression to anaphylaxis on subsequent stings, and hence, venom immunotherapy is not necessary. PMID:23586469
Shahid, Sukhbir K.
Rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinus(es). 5–13% of upper respiratory tract infections in children complicate into acute rhinosinusitis. Though not life threatening, it profoundly affects child's school performance and sleep pattern. If untreated, it could progress to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The pathogens involved in perpetuation of CRS consist of multidrug-resistant mixed microflora. CRS is challenging to manage and could further extend to cause eye or intracranial complications. In children, CRS diagnosis is often either missed or incomprehensive. Due to this, morbidity and strain on healthcare budget are tremendous. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopy has revolutionized management of CRS. Its utility in children is being increasingly recognized. Optimal management entails specific appropriate antimicrobials as well as treatment of underlying causes. The aim is to normalize sinus anatomy and physiology and regain normal mucociliary function and clearance. PMID:23762621
Shields, Michael D; Doherty, Gary M
Chronic cough has been variably defined as a cough lasting longer than 3, 4 or 8 weeks. Many post viral or pertussis like illnesses are associated with prolonged coughing that resolves over time. Management involves first trying to make a diagnosis and identify the presence of any underlying condition. Targeted treatments can then be employed. Trials of treatments are often used to make a diagnosis. Because natural resolution of cough is so common any trial of treatment to confirm a diagnosis should be time limited and the treatment only restarted if the coughing returns. Only a small proportion of children with an isolated non-specific dry cough have asthma and care is needed not to over diagnose asthma. Children with chronic wet cough may have protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) that responds to a full course of antibiotics. Children with PBB failing to respond to treatment or with specific pointers should be investigated for specific causes of suppurative lung disease. PMID:23718990
Phadke, Shubha; Gowda, Mamatha
Increasing availability of DNA based tests in clinical practice has lead to widespread debate on the ethical issues involved. The wider usage of these tests in children has raised many questions regarding the ethics, validity of the request and its effects on childs psychosocial well-being. Though there have been much discussion with many studies attempting to address the issue, there is no consensus. Formulation of guidelines has been hampered by the diversity of tests available for varied indications and lack of research studying the effects of testing in children over a time. Some tests have valid indications with proven benefits over harms while others have less clear justification. We attempt to address this issue with the intent to sensitize the caregivers regarding various aspects to be considered before offering any genetic tests in children. PMID:24096840
Huckstadt, Lauren K.; Shutts, Kristin
How do preschool-age children evaluate people with disabilities, and does social contact make children more positive toward those who are different from them? To answer these questions, typically developing 3- to 5-year-old children completed tasks designed to measure their social preferences for, and judgments about the actions of, unfamiliar individuals with and without disabilities. Participants preferred pictures of typically developing children over children in wheelchairs, but did not prefer children who were described with disabilities over those who were described with mildly negative facts. In a third task, participants evaluated actions that violated norms more negatively than those that did not, regardless of whether the actors had a disability. Children’s participation in inclusion programs did not appear to affect their responses. We consider possible explanations for children’s responses – including the absence of social contact effects – in the discussion. PMID:24839306
... Getting help, information, and support For parents of children with ileostomies If your child has an ileostomy, ... be able to do the things that other children do. Most parents worry about their child’s life ...
... getting married may trigger renewed grief. Understanding how children and teens view death To help your child ... sadness of surviving parent(s) and caregivers Preschool-age children (three to six years) Are curious about death ...
School-age child development describes the expected physical, emotional, and mental abilities of children ages 6 to 12. ... PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT School-age children usually have smooth and ... However, their coordination (especially eye-hand), endurance, ...
... KB)????? Alternate Language URL Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Page Content On this page: What is irritable ... GI tract [ Top ] How common is IBS in children? Limited information is available about the number of ...
... than 85% (85 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered at risk of being overweight. ... than 95% (95 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered overweight or obese.
... to a Healthy Heart Healthier Kids Our Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...
... and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007 . (299KB PDF ) CDC National Health Statistics Report # ... among children aged 4–17 years in the United States: National Health Interview Survey, 2007–2012 . National health ...
Emphasizes the importance of parents' instilling in their children a love of poetry. Recommends works of poets such as Tennyson, Housman, and Wordsworth that are suitable for parents' reading aloud to children. (ARH)
Presents early findings of an ongoing project to learn preschool and kindergarten children's understanding and expression of spirituality. Categorizes children's responses and discusses them in the context of theories that spirituality may be an innate feature of human consciousness. (JPB)
Clements, D A
Varicella vaccines have been developed, studied, tested and used since the early 1970s, first in Japan and subsequently in Europe, the US, Asia and South and Central America. Varicella vaccination was first used to immunise Japanese children in cancer remission, as wild-type varicella disease is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Since then, it has been licensed for use in healthy children as well. There are 3 manufacturers of the vaccine: Biken (Japan), Merck and Co. (US) and SmithKline Beecham (Belgium). The Biken vaccine has been approved for use in Japan since 1986 (although it was developed and used for research purposes from 1974). The Merck and Co. vaccine was approved in the US in March 1995 and the SmithKline Beecham vaccine was first licensed for use in immunocompromised children in 1984 and for healthy children in Sweden in October 1994. All 3 vaccines are derived from the Oka (Japanese) strain obtained from an immunologically normal 3-year-old Japanese boy named Oka with wild-type disease. Aventis-Pasteur has also purchased the rights to the Oka strain but no published literature is available for review. Use of the varicella vaccine has been controversial because many argue that: (i) the disease is mild and not worth preventing; (ii) the long term immunity provided by the vaccine is unknown; and (iii) the average age of those with the disease will increase if the vaccine is used and hence there will be more complications in older patients and, therefore, more costs. Because of some outbreaks of secondary bacterial infections after varicella in children in US day care centres, vaccination of healthy children is required in some states. It will be interesting to see whether other countries adopt a similar recommendation as more families have 2 working parents. The financial benefit of the vaccine (keeping parents at work) may encourage more use of the vaccine and a subsequent recommendation for immunisation schedules. PMID:18034555
Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment [1, 2]. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected . Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations . They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished . By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers [6-8], and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously . However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children-the youngest ages yet tested-the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. PMID:26096976
Badenhop-Stevens, Nancy; Matkovic, Velimir
Adequate calcium intake and physical activity during childhood and adolescence may be an important factor in bone acquisition and primary prevention of osteoporosis. Inadequate calcium intake during the pubertal growth spurt, in particular, may compromise an individual's volumetric bone density and predispose children to bone fragility fractures. In addition, it may compromise an individual's ability to reach his or her genetic potential in bone mass acquisition, or peak bone mass. National standards have been set for optimal calcium intake for childhood and adolescence. Most children and teenagers do not meet these requirements; therefore, there is a strong need to influence their behavior to consume foods rich in calcium. PMID:15379174
Cohen, Elizabeth F.
The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis in potentially biased ways. PMID:19251776
Spilt, Jantine L; van Lier, Pol A C; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde
This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children’s social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported internalizing problems were assessed longitudinally in the fall and spring of Grades 2 and 3. Teacher reports of support to the child were assessed in Grade 2. Results showed that peer rejection impeded children’s social self-concept, which in turn affected the development of internalizing problems. Partial support was found for individual (but not classroom-level) teacher support to buffer the adverse effects of peer problems on children’s self-concept, thereby mitigating its indirect effects on internalizing problems. PMID:24936612
Mills, Candice M; Elashi, Fadwa B
The current study examined some key developmental and individual differences in how elementary school-aged children evaluate sources of information. A sample of 130 children ages 6 to 9 years participated in a task designed to measure children's understanding of ways that claims can be distorted (i.e., biased decisions, skewed self-reports, and misleading persuasive claims). Children also completed several individual difference measures, including a brief intelligence task and an advanced social cognition measure (interpretive theory of mind). Overall, older children were less trusting and better than younger children at explaining the reasons to doubt sources that might provide distorted claims. Crucially, the results also suggest that beyond age, both general intelligence and advanced social cognitive skills play roles in children's ability to understand when and why they must doubt sources of distortion. PMID:24727295
Oates, Kim; Peacock, Anthony
Thirty-eight children hospitalized because of physical abuse were compared with a control group. Abuse Ss had significantly lower mean scores than the comparison children on the verbal, performance and full scale scores of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence. (Author/CL)
Davis, Noel M.
During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…
An assessment battery, measuring multiple aspects of language, was administered to 29 children between 4 and 5 years of age who had been born prematurely. The children, who weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth after less than 37 weeks of gestation, were recruited from a cohort of children originally admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit…
Voices for Illinois Children, 1998
This document consists of the three issues of the "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter published during 1998. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These three newsletter issues explore topics…
Examines the historical blighting of African-American slaves' minds, which stripped them of their African culture. Examines the effect on African-American children, as well as other children of color. Offers suggestions for coping with the problems of modern schools in terms of respecting and teaching these children that the system is the problem,…
Dramatic play provides children an excellent way to express their feelings and perceptions of the world that surrounds them. It is also an alternative way for researchers and teachers to capture, understand, and interpret children's voices because of the difficulties that children have in expressing ideas through oral and written language. While…
Danielson, Kathy Everts
In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…
Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert
The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…
Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.
An increasing number of children in the United States are exposed to toxic chemicals because methamphetamine laboratories are being operated in or near their homes. In addition, these children often are abused or neglected by the parents, guardians, or others who operate these laboratories. The number of children found at seized methamphetamine…
Whitin, David J.
Argues that children need to be given regular opportunities to gather, organize, display, and interpret their own data. They should have regular opportunities to pose their own questions and represent the results in their own way. Offers five sample survey questions children can pose to each other and examples of data representation by children.…
Ladd, Gary W.; And Others
During the 1960s and 1970s an enormous amount of research was conducted to better understand children's social and intellectual development, and hundreds of educational programs for children and parents were initiated in hopes of improving conditions surrounding many of America's young children. By the middle 1970s, however, it became apparent…
Youngs, Bettie B.
This guide was written for children, to help them handle problems they might encounter, learn about other children and how they have handled similar problems, and learn what to do when things go wrong or when they feel misunderstood. In the introduction, children are assured that, even when they have problems, they can be happy again. The body of…
Spence, Melanie J.; Rollins, Pamela R.; Jerger, Susan
A study examined developmental changes in talker recognition skills by assessing 72 children's (ages 3-5) recognition of 20 cartoon characters' voices. Four- and 5-year-old children recognized more of the voices than did 3-year-olds. All children were more accurate at recognizing more familiar characters than less familiar characters. (Contains…
Strife, Susan Jean
While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…
Children's vulnerability asks for people taking up responsibility for children. In this contribution, three different ways of thinking on foundations of (ethical and spiritual) responsibility for children are discussed, namely, a liberalist, a social-constructivist and a naturalist paradigm. The author argues that cultural and natural elements are…
Evidence supporting the notion of advanced sensorimotor development in black children is presented in this report directed to school administrators, teachers, parents, and child caretakers. A discussion of selected research literature on early and advanced sensorimotor development in black children, institutional management of these children, and…
Barry S. Reynolds; Crighton D. Newsom; O. Ivar Lovaas
Autistic and normal children were trained to respond to a complex stimulus containing two auditory components. After the discrimination was acquired, the individual components were presented separately, allowing assessment of the extent to which the child's responding was controlled by one or both of the cues. The autistic children, unlike the normal children, provided evidence for stimulus overselectivity in that
Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori
Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…
Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry
Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…
Parkash, Dharam; Mathur, Puja
Discusses a study that focused on assessing with children the story outline for developing an animated story about children's fear of the dark. Describes interviews and observations that showed children's reactions to fear of the dark and their response toward the planned visuals for the animation. (LRW)