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Including Children Dependent on Ventilators in School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines for including ventilator-dependent children in school are offered, based on experience with six such students at a New York State school. Guidelines stress adherence to the medical management plan, the school-family partnership, roles of the social worker and psychologist, orientation, transportation, classroom issues, and steps toward…

Levine, Jack M.




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.



Including Children with Hearing Loss in Early Childhood Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…

Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.



Including Children with Mental Retardation in the Religious Community.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes practical strategies for promoting inclusion in religious programs. Strategies are provided for including children with mental disabilities, mild mental retardation, moderate mental retardation, and severe to profound mental retardation, and older students with mental retardation. Strategies are also provided for preparing…

Collins, Belva C.; Epstein, Ann; Reiss, Toni; Lowe, Verna



Kids Included through Technology Are Enriched: A Guidebook for Teachers of Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook is designed to provide information on technology to teachers and service providers who work with children with special needs. It may also be helpful for parents and caregivers of young children. Topics include: (1) the definition of assistive technology; (2) the philosophy of using technology with young children and a rationale that…

Carlson, Brenda; Samels, Karen


Children's Health  


Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...


An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.



Educators' Challenges of Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Mainstream Classrooms  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…

Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen



Including Young Children With "New" Chronic Illnesses in an Early Childhood Education Setting.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)

Fauvre, Mary



Ethical implications of including children in a large biobank for genetic-epidemiologic research: a qualitative study of public opinion.  


The National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies are considering initiating a cohort study of 500,000 people, including 120,000 children, to measure genetic and environmental influences on common diseases. A community engagement pilot study was conducted to identify public attitudes and concerns about the proposed cohort study, including the ethics of involving children. The pilot included 15 focus groups where the inclusion of children in the proposed cohort study was discussed. Focus groups, conducted in six cities, included 141 adults of different ages, incomes, genders, ethnicities, and races. Many of the concerns expressed by participants mirrored those addressed in pediatric research guidelines. These concerns included minimizing children's fear, pain, and burdens; whether to include young children; and how to obtain children's assent. There was little agreement about which children can assent. Some voiced concern about children's privacy, but most expected that parents would have access to children's study results. Some believed children would not benefit from participating, while others identified personal and societal benefits that might accrue. A few people believed that children's participation would not advance the study's goals. To successfully include children, proposed cohort study would need to address children's changing capabilities and rights as they grow and reach the age of consent. PMID:18189289

Kaufman, David; Geller, Gail; Leroy, Lisa; Murphy, Juli; Scott, Joan; Hudson, Kathy



[The comparative effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoidit is in the children].  


The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children. The study involved 67 children at the mean age of 6.9±2.7 years. Group 1 was comprised of 35 children given framycetin as topical therapy, the patients of group 2 were treated by the endonasal administration of a 2% silver proteinate solution. It was shown that the use of framycetin as a component of combined therapy of adenoiditis enhances the effectiveness of the treatment and compliance to therapy in comparison with the same parameters in the case of the application of traditional topical antibacterial preparations. PMID:25588492

Soldatski?, Iu L; Denisova, O A; Ivanenko, A M



Parents' Intervention Fidelity and Children's Joint Engagement: Dyads Including Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder who are Minimally Verbal  

E-print Network

learning and the time spent jointly engaged by their school-aged children with ASDlearning to accurately deliver these interventions during training and over time, specifically with school age-children with ASDlearning can positively impact parents’ behaviour (e.g. , reduce depression, enhance communication style, knowledge of ASD)

Patterson, Stephanie Y.



Widening the Circle: Including Children with Disabilities in Preschool Programs. Early Childhood Education Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on a groundbreaking 5-year research study conducted by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion, this book explores the barriers to and influences on inclusive education settings for young children. Topics covered include individualized instruction, family perceptions of inclusion, and cultural and linguistic diversity. The…

Odom, Samuel L., Ed.


The Balancing Act: Meeting the Needs of All Children Including an Adolescent with Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences and strategies used when meeting the needs of all their children, including an adolescent with disabilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative study design was employed. The study was conducted in two phases. (i) Secondary analysis of ecocultural interviews with 12…

Koch, Cecelia; Mayes, Rachel



Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

Greenstein, Doreen; And Others


Including Children with Selective Mutism in Mainstream Schools and Kindergartens: Problems and Possibilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is little research on inclusion of children with selective mutism in school/kindergarten. Moreover, few studies have tried to understand selectively mute children's interactions in the natural surroundings of their home and school/kindergarten. Five children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for selective mutism were video-observed in social…

Omdal, Heidi



Ethical implications of including children in a large biobank for genetic-epidemiologic research: A qualitative study of public opinion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Institutes of Health and other federal agencies are considering initiating a cohort study of 500,000 people, including 120,000 children, to measure genetic and environmental influences on common diseases. A community engagement pilot study was conducted to identify public attitudes and concerns about the proposed cohort study, including the ethics of involving children. The pilot included 15 focus groups

David Kaufman; Gail Geller; Lisa LeRoy; Juli Murphy; Joan Scott; Kathy Hudson



Children of Incarcerated Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the literature on children whose mothers are incarcerated in jails or prisons. These children typically experience a great many risk factors besides their mothers' incarceration, including poverty, drug and alcohol problems in their families, community violence, and multiple changes in caregivers. Children's lives are greatly disrupted when mothers are arrested, and most children show emotional and behavioral problems.

Barbara J. Myers; Tina M. Smarsh; Kristine Amlund-Hagen; Suzanne Kennon



White potatoes, including french fries, contribute shortfall nutrients to children's and adolescents' diets.  


To test the hypothesis that white potatoes (WP), oven-baked fries (OBF), and french fries (FF) contribute important nutrients within energy needs to children's and adolescents' diets, secondary analysis of 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 was conducted. Potato content of survey foods was determined using US Department of Agriculture recipe databases (Standard Reference (SR)-Link files). Nutrient content of potatoes was determined by linking SR codes to US Department of Agriculture food composition data. Daily nutrient intakes from potatoes were determined by applying the composition database to respondent's recall data. Sample-weighted data were analyzed; t tests assessed differences between age and sex groups. Results indicated that approximately 35% of children and adolescents consumed WP + FF + OBF; 18% consumed FF. Intakes were lower in children compared with adolescents (P < .01). Among adolescents, more boys than girls consumed FF (P < .05); boys ate larger amounts of WP + FF + OBF (134 g/d) and FF (100 g/d) (P < .01). Both WP + FF + OBF and FF provided 9% to 12% of total daily energy (but was within energy requirements in the highest consumers); 8% to 15% of daily fat (>75% monounsaturated fatty acids + polyunsaturated fatty acids); ? 10% dietary fiber, vitamin B(6), and potassium; 5% or greater thiamin, niacin, vitamin K, phosphorus, magnesium, and copper; and less than 5% sodium intake, for all sex -age groups. The combination WP + FF + OBF provided 5% or greater vitamin C for all sex-age groups and 5% or greater vitamin E and iron for most groups; FF provided 5% or greater vitamin E intakes for all. These cross-sectional data show that WP, including FF, provided shortfall nutrients within energy requirements to children and adolescents and, when consumed in moderate amounts, can be part of healthful diets. PMID:21530800

Freedman, Marjorie R; Keast, Debra R



Including Children with Special Educational Needs in Physical Education: Has Entitlement and Accessibility Been Realised?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…

Vickerman, Philip



Including children with special educational needs in physical education: has entitlement and accessibility been realised?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN often have fewer opportunities to access

Philip Vickerman



Urinary tract infection - children  


UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...


Treating Children as Individuals  


... Avoiding Driveway Dangers (Audio) Temper Tantrums Healthy Children Radio: Making Childhood Transitions Easier (Audio) Healthy Children Radio: Protecting Children From Sexual Abuse (Audio) Healthy Children ...


Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?  


Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested. PMID:16968664

Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F



Children Worldwide, 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…

Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.



Children’s Desire for Perioperative Information  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this investigation was to identify what perioperative information children want to be given by the medical staff. Methods As a first step we developed an instrument based on a qualitative study conducted with children in Great Britain, input from a focus group, and input from school children. On the day of surgery, 143 children aged 7-17 years old completed a 40-item assessment of desired surgical information and a measure of anxiety (STAIC). Parents completed a measure assessing their child’s temperament (EASI), and a measure of their own anxiety (STAI). Results Results indicated that the vast majority of children had a desire for comprehensive information about their surgery, including information about pain and anesthesia, as well as procedural information and information about potential complications. The most highly endorsed items by children involved information about pain. Children who were more anxious endorsed a stronger desire for pain information and lesser tendency to avoid information. Younger children wanted to know what the perioperative environment would look like more than adolescent children. Conclusions We conclude that the majority of children aged 7-17 years old who undergo surgery want to be given comprehensive perioperative information and healthcare providers should ensure adequate information regarding postoperative pain is provided. PMID:19762736

Fortier, Michelle A.; Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Rony, Rachel Yaffa Zisk; Perret-Karimi, Danielle; Rinehart, Joseph B.; Camilon, Felizardo S.; Kain, Zeev N.



Creative Experiences: An Arts Curriculum for Young Children Including Those with Special Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For use in any classroom or group setting for young children, this arts curriculum guide provides a total of 112 learning activities equally distributed across the areas of creative movement, drama, music, and visual arts. The activities are correlated with the Learning Accomplishment Profile (LAP), a developmental assessment instrument. Because…

Broughton, Belinda


Children & Race.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major aims of this book are to provide an account of racial attitude development in young children and to describe the effects of racism on the development of black children, specifically in the United Kingdom. The book draws freely on American and British research in an effort to illuminate the British experience. The first two chapters…

Milner, David


Snowflake Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…

Child & Youth Services, 2007



"Borderline" Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of the diagnosis "borderline" was evaluated with 16 children (6 to 13 years old) who were referred for comprehensive evaluation. None met DSM III criteria for borderline personality disorder. The borderline label had a negative impact on some children and was not helpful for treatment planning or disposition. (Author/SEW)

Gualtieri, C. Thomas C.; And Others



Comparison of Behavioral Profiles for Anxiety-Related Comorbidities including ADHD and Selective Mutism in Children  

PubMed Central

Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ? 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795

Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma



Bereaved children.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the same tasks of grief as adults, their unique psychological defences and evolving cognitive and emotional development make their grieving different from adults'. Understanding these unique childhood features will allow family physicians to more effectively help children through the tasks of acknowledging a death, working through the pain of that death, and accommodating it. CONCLUSIONS: With a framework for grief counseling that incorporates unique features of children's mourning, family physicians will be in a better position to assist their young bereaved patients. PMID:10626057

Schultz, K.



Romania's forgotten children.  


The problem of orphaned and abandoned children with AIDS living in Romania is examined. The threadbare existence of these children is depicted in descriptions and pictures. Romania is home to more than one-half of the children with AIDS in Europe and charitable donations and efforts are decreasing. The history of how this occurred is outlined, including Nicolae Ceausescu's attempt to make a perfect Romanian race in part by placing impure children into orphanages. Post-Ceausescu era policies and programs are shown to have not appreciably ameliorated the disaster. Individual efforts and new initiatives to help lessen the negative impact on these children's lives are highlighted. PMID:11365179

SoRelle, R



[Street children].  


According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109

Roncevi?, Nevenka; Stojadinovi?, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antoni?, Daliborka



Food allergy to gelatin in children with systemic immediate-type reactions, including anaphylaxis, to vaccines  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis to measles-mumps-rubella vaccines has been reported. We have suspected that most such reactions are caused by gelatin contained in the vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the relation between systemic allergic reactions to vaccines and the presence of anti-gelatin IgE, we measured anti-gelatin IgE in children who demonstrated allergy to gelatin-containing vaccines. Furthermore, to clarify the relation between allergic reactions

Masahiro Sakaguchi; Tetsuo Nakayama; Sakae Inouye



Children Now: Media Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children Now is an independent, nonpartisan organization, the goal of which is to ensure "that children grow up in economically secure families, where parents can go to work confident that their children are supported by quality health coverage, a positive media environment, a good early education, and safe, enriching activities to do after school." This section of the website features the group's research on children and the media. Recent reports posted here include one entitled, Digital Television: Sharpening the Focus on Children, which addresses the FCC's ruling that will "improve children's television as the nation's broadcasters make the transition to digital television (DTV)" by providing access to educational television programming that parents are able to identify as educational. Additional articles on media legislation affecting children are also posted here.


Inclusion on the Final Frontier: A Model for Including Children with Emotional and Behaviour Disorders (E/BD) in Canada  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a general move and support for inclusion of children with exceptionalities in the regular classroom, children with emotional and behavioural difficulties are often excluded. The paper describes an ecosystems model to facilitate the inclusion of children with emotional and behavioural difficulties in use in some schools in Canada. Results…

Heath, Nancy Lee; Petrakos, Harriet; Finn, Cindy A.; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; McLean-Heywood, Diane; Rousseau, Cecile



Precious Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion Website to the recently broadcast PBS documentary "Precious Children" provides insight into childhood life and education in mainland China. The site offers factual and cultural information about China, online essays about early education and childcare in China, video clips from the documentary, and an annotated list of online resources about children and education in China. Such a site could be a useful starting point for lesson plans designed to disrupt familiar cultural stereotypes.


Children’s Games 2  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 2 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Children’s Games 4  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 4 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Children’s Games 6  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 6 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Children’s Games 9  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 9 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Children’s Games 5  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 5 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Children’s Games 3  

E-print Network

Children’s Games 3 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... Province Name(s), age, sex, place of birth of performer(s) Tshi khrem (male, born 1986) Tshe dbang dbal ‘byod (male, born 1987) Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron Province...

Bkra shis bzang po



Association of Hypercholesterolemia Incidence With Antiretroviral Treatment, Including Protease Inhibitors, Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Children  

PubMed Central

Context Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. Objective To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Design Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). Participants A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Outcome Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ?220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Results Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs. ?400 copies/mL; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.90). Self-reported adherent subjects had higher risk. Conclusions PIs were significant risk factors for hypercholesterolemia. Higher viral load was protective and may reflect non-adherence. Further follow-up is critical to evaluate long-term consequences of chronic PI exposure and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18209684

Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John



MR features of the developing perianterior horn structure including subcallosal fasciculus in infants and children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  To describe the changes in the magnetic resonance (MR) signal of the perianterior horn structure (PAS) with increasing age,\\u000a we studied 69 infants and children aged between 3 days and 9.4 years (average: 2.8 years) without any neurological deficits.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  T1- and T2-weighted images and FLAIR (fluid attenuation inversion recovery) images were obtained in the axial plane. Based\\u000a on a comparison

Hidetsuna Utsunomiya; Yasuhiro Nakamura




The Division of Pediatric Psychiatry and Psychology in the Department of Pediatrics at Akron Children’s Hospital is pleased to announce an opening for a pediatric psychologist specializing in the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with chronic disease, and could include particular focus in diabetes , palliative care, sleep, feeding. The position involves development of pediatric psychology programs within outpatient hospital specialty clinics in which the psychologist would function as a member of an interprofessional team.


Gifted Children and Divorce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…

Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.



[Including children with cerebral palsy in the school --role of the school health team].  


It's dificult to elaborate a program of intervention/inclusion that can act as a standart for children with special learning disabilities, since their necessities are of their own; their resources, in mostof the situations, show disparity; and the problem presents different connotations for each family group. On the other hand, schools are organized differently, they have their physical conditions that more or less facilitate the mobility. They rarely manifest the ideal conditions; staff may or not be educated to work with and for these children; their acceptance and receptivity depend not only on training but also on the correct management of individual and collective expectations (closely influenced by the organizational culture of each establishment, the working experience of their professionals), among other factors. School health teams have different dynamics, with more or less liberty of intervention among the educative community, but assume a master role in this inclusion, since they have areas of knowledge of their own and because their intervention is due to the team spirit and cooperation. For these motives, any possibility of intervention must be personalized to the child and the family, with clear objectives that are real and feasible, elaborated as a partnership: school, family, teacher of special learning disabilities and the school health team. PMID:19685616

Baixinho, Cristina Lavareda



Towards Better Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Committee on Children's Television (CCT) supports Action for Children's Television (ACT) in its demands for no commercials on children's television and an improvement in programing for children. A survey of children's television in the San Francisco Bay Area determined that from 1961 to 1971, children's programing had declined in quality and…

Mundie, Paul J.


Children's Reading Strategies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…

Brown, Rexel E., Ed.



Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)

Boeckx, Roger L.



Mapping with Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Techniques for encouraging young children to discover the purpose and use of maps are discussed. Motor activity and topological studies form a base from which the teacher and children can build a mapping program of progressive sophistication. Concepts important to mapping include boundaries, regions, exteriors, interiors, holes, order, point of…

Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Warash, Bobbi Gibson


Children's Art Exhibitions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This theme issue of "InSEA News" is about children's art exhibitions and their cultural and educational contexts. The authors, from Canada, Australia, the United States, and Scotland, offer a variety of viewpoints about why, where, when, and how children's art exhibitions should be displayed. Issues discussed include who designs the exhibitions,…

Clark, Gilbert, Ed.



Wild Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…

Trotman, Helen



Children's crusade.  


There's at least $16 billion available to help more children get health care. But on Capitol Hill, there's a bitter dispute over how the money should be spent. Give the states the money, some say, and let them bolster novel health care programs such as Florida's Healthy Kids. Others want to expand Medicaid. PMID:10169020

Serafini, M W



"All children can and should have the opportunity to learn": general education teachers' perspectives on including children with autism spectrum disorder who require AAC.  


A qualitative online focus group methodology was used to investigate the experiences of five elementary school teachers (grades K-5) who had included in their general education classrooms children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: (a) the benefits of educational inclusion, (b) the negative impacts of educational inclusion, (c) the challenges of educational inclusion, (d) the supports for educational inclusion, and (e) recommendations for other teachers and individuals involved in the inclusion process. Participants primarily chose to focus on inclusion as a beneficial practice for all involved, but did describe a few barriers and challenges of inclusion. The results are discussed as they relate to these themes and with reference to published literature. Recommendations for future directions are also presented. PMID:19444682

Finke, Erinn H; McNaughton, David B; Drager, Kathryn D R



Gestures in Prelinguistic Turkish Children with Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…

Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda



The NIH Children’s School

Patient Information Publications NIH Clinical Center National Institutes of Health The NIH Children’s School The NIH Children’s School was established in 1953 to instruct school-age patients of the Clinical Center. An accredited satellite of the


[Violence against children].  


The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730

Daher, Michel



Helping Young Children Manage Stress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…

Texas Child Care, 2002



Biography about Children for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because today's children will be tomorrow's leaders, the writing of biographies especially for them is both a challenging and rewarding effort. There is the opportunity for influencing their young, impressionable minds by presenting the lives of heroes and heroines of an earlier period. In-depth, accurate research is vital, and material must be presented in such a way that the young

Polly Carver Jordan



Biography about Children for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Because today's children will be tomorrow's leaders, the writing of biographies especially for them is both a challenging and rewarding effort. There is the opportunity for influencing their young, impressionable minds by presenting the lives of heroes and heroines of an earlier period. In-depth, accurate research is vital, and material must be presented in such a way that the young

Polly Carver Jordan



Exploring the Social Impact of Being a Typical Peer Model for Included Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…

Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie



When Children Kill Children: The Search for Justice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines issues posed by cases involving murder of children by children, including the Bulger case in England and the Redergard case in Norway, which, though not typical, articulate how changes in notions of childhood mesh with change in major social institutions. Addresses concerns about pursuit of justice for children and analyzes relationships…

Asquith, Stewart



Afghanistan Children in Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…

Save the Children, Westport, CT.


Family size and children’s education in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the nationally representative 1994 Inter-Censal Demographic Survey are used to examine the association between family\\u000a size and children s schooling in Vietnam. The data provide information on several education measures for all children over\\u000a age 10, including children no longer residing in the household. Although a clear inverse bivariate association between family\\u000a size and children s school attendance

Truong Si Anh; John Knodel; David Lam; Jed Friedman



Diarrhea in children - diet  


... causes, including: Antibiotics Consuming too much fruit or fruit juice Food sensitivity Illness Infection Diet: What the child ... and vegetables sometimes help create more solid stool. Fruit juices can loosen stool. For some children, a return ...


Children and Dietary Supplements  


... months. In addition to herbs and dietary supplements, children use a wide range of complementary health approaches, including spinal manipulation and yoga. Further, a 2001 survey of 745 members of ...


The Immigrant Children of Katrina  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…

Reyes, Augustina H.



Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (3) total pedalcyclist…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.


Children. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (3) total pedalcyclist…

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.


Children's Literature and the Internet.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three papers and a listserv discussion about children's literature on the Internet include: "Potential Uses of the Net for Children's Literature in Schools" (Ashley Freeman); "Storytelling on the Net" (Barbara Poston-Anderson); "Writing on the Information Super-Highway--The Impact of the Net on Children's Literature: A Point of View" (Brian…



The Future of Children: Children and Computer Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Future of Children is a publication of The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and The Brookings Institution. The purpose of the site is "to promote effective policies and programs for children" by providing information and research findings. Available from this website is the journal of Children and Computer Technology, which focuses on children's use of computer technology both in school and at home. The articles "summarize the knowledge and research available on how the use of computers affects children's development, whether it increases or decreases the disparities between rich and poor, and whether it can be used effectively to enhance learning." The site describes "promising examples of computer use" and offers recommendations to improve children's access to computers. Other sections include a review of Federal Programs to Increase Children's Access to Educational Technology, a survey on What Children Think About Computers, and a glossary which gives definitions for selected terms and acronyms.


Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine  


... also very helpful. Often, a television with children's programming and/or children’s DVDs are available in the ... not all—imaging procedures are covered by insurance. Web page review process: Reviewed regularly by physicians with ...


Helping Young Children Learn  

E-print Network

Helping Young Children Learn: Promoting Early Brain Development Dr. Dorothy E. James Assistant, sex, religion, national origin, age, disability, genetic information or veteran status. #12;Helping Young Children Learn: Promoting Early Brain Development 1 Helping Young Children Learn: Promoting Early


Asthma in Children  


... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...


Children and Dietary Supplements  


... Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine Children and Dietary Supplements September 2012 Research has shown that many children ... disclaimer about external links More About Children and Dietary Supplements What the Science Says Other Clinical Digests Subscriptions ...


Vesicoureteric reflux in children  

PubMed Central

Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2%) had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last) for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8%) children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV) (46.8%), neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%), non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB) (21.5%), or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%). Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux. PMID:24311900

Kari, Jameela A; El-Desoky, Sherif M; Basnawi, Faten; Bahrawi, Ohood



Children's Television in Australia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews developments in the television industry in Australia with specific reference to children's television. Advertising regulations and research and publications related to children's television are also noted. (RAO)

Murray, John P.



Contact Allergy in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Contact allergy in children is more frequent than previously suspected. Certain contactants are characteristic of children\\u000a and may be responsible for unusual clinical presentations. Metals (jewelry, mobile phones), ingredients of pharmaceutical\\u000a and cosmetic products, para-phenylenediamine in tattoos, rubber additives (in shoes, toys, diapers, sports equipment, and\\u000a so on), plastics, resins (including those used in glues, orthopedic devices, electronic devices), and

Marie-Anne Morren; An Goossens


Young Children's Explorations: Young Children's Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as research…

Murray, Jane



Strengthening Children's Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the physical and mental growth of children are influenced by many environmental and familial factors, this paper explores improving the well being of children. The first part of the paper discusses child rearing, emphasizing three fundamental themes: creating an environment where children are born healthy and wanted; helping children

Albee, George W.


Facilitating Children's Grief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program of education and support is essential for children and their parent or adult caregivers when the children have experienced the death of a significant person. Children need guidance on how to deal with their profound feelings of grief. The purpose of this article is to give school nurses the ability to help children face the strange new…

Riely, Marsha



Children's Mental Health Surveillance  


... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...



Located in the foothills of the Wasatch Mountains, Primary Children's Hospital is the children's hospital for Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada, and Montana. Our 289-bed hospital is equipped and staffed to care for children with complex illness and injury. Primary Children's is owned by Intermountain Healthcare and is the pediatric specialty teaching hospital for the University Of Utah School of Medicine.


A Prospective Study of the Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Bacteraemia in Bangladeshi Children with Severe Malnutrition and Pneumonia Including an Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF Assay  

PubMed Central

Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758

Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus



Illinois Association for Gifted Children Journal, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on teaching gifted children in the regular education classroom. Featured articles include: (1) "Educating All Gifted Children for the 21st Century: Proposal for Training Regular Classroom Teachers" (Maurice D. Fisher and Michael E. Walters); (2) "Gifted Children in…

Smutney, Joan Franklin, Ed.



Experiences of Daycare Children of Divorce  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…

Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.



Behavioral and Personality Characteristics of Children With Reactive Attachment Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors compared behavioral and personality characteristics of children with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) with non-RAD children. Participants included parents of children with RAD (n = 21), parents of non-RAD children (n = 21), and some of the children (n = 20). The parents completed questionnaires regarding behavioral and personality characteristics of their children. Parents were also given the option

Sara Elizabeth Kay Hall; Glenn Geher



Systematic review of interventions in the management of overweight and obese children which include a dietary component.  


Background? The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate around the world and prevention has become a key public health objective. Treatment and management of those already overweight and obese must be aligned with the best available evidence on effectiveness, if the risk of obesity-related morbidity and mortality is yet be reduced. Diet plays a pivotal role in successful treatment of obesity but to date, there is limited evidence on which to base practice. Objectives? To identify and present the best available evidence on the optimal dietetic treatment and management of children and adolescent who are overweight or obese. Search strategy? Published English language literature was searched using the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PRE-MEDLINE, DARE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Current Concepts and Dissertation Abstracts. The databases were limited to English Language from 1975 until 2003. Government reports from the UK, USA and Australian were also searched and a hand search performed for the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia, International Journal of Obesity and the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Selection criteria? (i) Interventions that evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition or dietary interventions to treat or manage overweight and obesity; (ii) Children aged less than 18?years; and (iii) Participants were defined as overweight or obese by relative weight or a measure of body weight status, studies that reported body weight per se were excluded. Data collection and analysis? An experienced professional librarian searched the databases, and two trained research assistants independently identified studies for retrieval and assessed each article for inclusion. The included studies were critically appraised for methodological quality by two people independently. Data were extracted from the appropriate articles and when a discrepancy arose, a third party would arbitrate. Main results? There were 116 articles that met the inclusion criteria. While 49 articles described randomised controlled trials, they arose from 37 separate studies. There were 67 non-randomised trials. Meta-analyses were performed on eight studies that included both a dietary intervention component and an adequate control group and on four studies that had follow-up data. There was a high degree of heterogeneity between studies and this made comparisons between studies problematic. Interventions that include diet therapy generally result in significant weight loss, at least in the short term. Many studies were poorly designed and had no or only minimal follow up. The details of the dietary intervention were often inadequately described and dietary outcomes rarely reported, making repetition of the studies difficult. Reviewers' conclusions? There is an urgent need for high quality studies investigating the optimal dietary approach to management of paediatric overweight and obesity. These studies require adequate follow up to ascertain if weight loss can be sustained in the long term. Details of the dietary prescription, adherence to the dietary intervention and diet-specific outcomes need to be reported in order to inform best practice. PMID:21631781

Collins, Clare E; Warren, Janet M; Neve, Melinda; McCoy, Penelope; Stokes, Barrie



Pharmacogenomics in children.  


Historically genetics has not been considered when prescribing drugs for children. However, it is clear that genetics are not only an important determinant of disease in children but also of drug response for many important drugs that are core agents used in the therapy of common problems in children. Advances in therapy and in the ethical construct of children's research have made pharmacogenomic assessment for children much easier to pursue. It is likely that pharmacogenomics will become part of the therapeutic decision making process for children, notably in areas such as childhood cancer where the benefits and risks of therapy are considerable. PMID:25150881

Rieder, Michael




Children’s Hospital Central California is excited to announce a new clinical opportunity due to the expansion of our Pediatric Psychology department. Children’s Hospital Central California is a 354 bed not-for-profit, state-of-the-art free standing Children’s Hospital. As a vital member of our Pediatric Psychology team the primary focus of this position will be on providing consultation-liaison services to our various medical inpatient units. There will also be opportunities for providing assessment and therapy services for our subspecialty clinics.


Helping Children Cope with Disaster  

E-print Network

, expressive activities, education on disasters, preparedness planning and identifying at-risk children. ? Long-term problems Some children may have long-term problems such as depression, prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore..., it is important to recognize the signs of depression or PTSD in chil- dren. Symptoms of depression in children may include persistent sad or irritable moods, loss of interest in activities they once enjoyed, a significant change in appetite or body weight...

FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT



Children and Teens with Paralysis  


... Life > Children and Teens with Paralysis Children and Teens Living with Paralysis Any time a family member ... Read more. Books and Videos for Children and Teens Helping children understand paralysis, wheelchairs and disability can ...


Children with Incarcerated Parents Considering Children's Outcomes in  

E-print Network

Children with Incarcerated Parents ­ Considering Children's Outcomes in the Context of Complex CHILDREN, YOUTH & FAMILY CONSORTIUM #12;#12;CHILDREN'S MENTAL HEALTH eREVIEW: INCARCERATED PARENTS 1 Hanna-Truscott, CNM/Photographer Children with Incarcerated Parents ­ Considering Children's Outcomes

Amin, S. Massoud


Primary thrombocytosis in children  

PubMed Central

Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110

Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.



[Play olfactometry for children].  


The method presented includes recording of motor responses to odor stimulation reinforced by electric games. Game olfactometry was performed in 34 young children before and after adenotomy using a specially designed olfactometer which measured an increase in the threshold concentration of odor stimulation. As an olfactory stimulus we used 50% aqueous solution of dimethoxybenzene on identification threshold values. In parallel, we recorded the following physiological parameters: galvanic-skin response, pneumography and ECG. In order to develop a stable reflex, 23 children needed from 7 to 9 reinforcements and 8 children needed from 11 to 12 reinforcements. It was found that the level of identification threshold olfactory stimulation was directly proportional to the number of reinforcements. Our findings allow us to recommend the above method for clinical application. PMID:2588414

Morokhoev, V I



Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children  

PubMed Central

The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

Ambartsumyan, Lusine



Action for Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

Ranly, Donald P.


Transportation of Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet presents information and illustrations regarding bus transportation of handicapped children. The roles and responsibilities of drivers and aides are discussed as are such topics as seating arrangements, first aid measures (for falls and seizures), embarking and debarking procedures (including ways to encourage independence in walking),…

Flynn, Patricia; And Others


Children's Books. Book Reviews.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…

Moulton, Kate



Children and Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book collects the current thinking of fourteen of the leading practitioners in the field of children in theatre. Evident throughout the book is the theme that it is the creativity of the individual teacher or leader that makes for exciting results in drama by and for young people. Included are reminiscences, philosophies, teaching hints, and…

McCaslin, Nellie, Ed.


Neutrophilic Dermatoses in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic derma- toses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide

David R. Berk; Susan J. Bayliss



The effect of complex training on the children with all of the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of complex training on children with the deformities including forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis. The complex training program was performed for 6 month three times per week. The complex training improved posture as measured by forward head angle (FHA), forward shoulder angle (FSA), and angle between anterior superior iliac spine and posterior superior iliac spine (APA). In the present results, complex training might overcome vertebral deformity through decreasing forward head, rounded shoulder posture, and lumbar lordosis and increasing flexibility in the children. PMID:25061597

Park, Hae-Chan; Kim, Yang-Soo; Seok, Sang-Hun; Lee, Soo-Kyung



Ingrown Toenails in Children  


... News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ingrown Toenails in Children Parents can help prevent a common ... few simple tips. Foot and ankle surgeons say ingrown toenails are a common condition they treat in children. ...


Children's Mental Health  


Children's Mental Health For parents, the key to handling mental disorders of children is to recognize the problem and seek ... and treatments, and a complete evaluation by a mental health provider can determine whether a child needs help. ...


Adopted Children and Discipline  


... Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Adopted Children & Discipline Article Body Some parents ... Spectrum Disorders: What Every Parent Needs to Know Family Life Health Management - Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster ...


Cow's milk and children  


Milk and children ... children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...


Gum Disease in Children  


... types of gum disease in children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in ... cause the teeth to become loose. Signs of periodontal disease Four basic signs will alert you to ...


Treating Eczema in Children  


... HealthDay November 24, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Children's Health Eczema Steroids Transcript Atopic dermatitis, often called eczema, affects an estimated 10% of infants and children or more. A new report published ...


Emergency Care of Children  


... Care .” Q. What advice do you have for parents about children’s medical emergencies? A. Preventable injuries are the leading cause of childhood death and permanent injury. Child safety seats, bicycle helmets, ...


Tonsillectomies and children  


Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...


Medicines and Children  


... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...


Children with Essential Tremor  


... children with ET often feel different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect ... with others. Children with ET may withdraw from peer groups. They may refuse to try even the ...


Written for Children: An Outline of English Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…

Townsend, John Rowe


Central Corneal Thickness in Children  

PubMed Central

Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662



Antibiotic prescriptions in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: In the year surveyed, 511270 antibiotic prescriptions in 219 257 children were identified. In all, 52.9% of children received at least one antibiotic; this percentage decreased with age, ranging from 70.4% in children 1-2 years old to 35.8% in children >11 years old. Fifty-two per cent of inhabitants under the age of 15 years were treated with systemic antibiotics

D. Resi; M. Milandri; M. L. Moro; Viale Aldo Moro




The Department of Psychiatry, Boston Children’s Hospital is seeking a pediatric psychologist for a full-time position in the Medical Coping Clinic.The psychologist will provide outpatient consultation and therapy for children and adolescents diagnosed with acute and chronic medical conditions.Specific training and skills in the application of cognitive-behavioral therapy with children diagnosed with medical conditions is required.


Continuing Spanish in Grade Five: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational Spanish to Fifth-Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…

Thompson, Mary P.; And Others


Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

Wittman, Nora E.; And Others


Preservice Early Childhood Educators' and Elementary Teachers' Perspectives on Including Young Children with Developmental Disabilities: A Mixed Methods Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed methods study reports on the perspectives of 143 preservice early childhood educators (ECE) and 208 elementary teacher candidates (TC) on teaching children with developmental disabilities and delays (DDD) in inclusive classrooms. A questionnaire was administered which included items on demographic characteristics, experience, knowledge,…

Frankel, Elaine B.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.; Burbidge, Julie; Minnes, Patricia



A Study on Parents' and Educators' Perception on Including Young Children with High-Functioning Autism in General Education Settings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practice of inclusion, even the term itself, has been the subject of controversy over the last several decades. "Inclusion" has many interpretations, depending upon the student, educator, and setting. In my dissertation, I sought to find answers from parents and educators' regarding their perceptions on including young children

Baghdayan, Annie T.



Rainforest depiction in children’s resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses how rainforests are portrayed in children’s resources. Twenty books and 12 websites on rainforests, designed for pupils aged between 9 and 14 years, were examined to determine the types and range of animals depicted and how plant life in general is portrayed. The most commonly depicted animal was the orang-utan and other endangered animals featured strongly. Mammals

Jane Dove



Children's coping with venipuncture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children's strategies for coping with the pain and distress of venipuncture were examined in this descriptive study. Eighty five children (aged 5–13 years) were interviewed prior to and following blood collection. Prior to the procedure, children reported pain expectations and coping strategies that might be used. Self-reports of the pain experienced and coping strategies used were obtained immediately after the

Marilyn J. Hodgins; Janice Lander



Parental Smoking Affects Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)

Science News, 1978



Children and the Nintendo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…

Keller, Suzanne M.


Children and Welfare Reform.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…

Behrman, Richard E., Ed.



Colorado Children's Budget 2005  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…

Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005



Children's Play and Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…

Powell, Mark



Measuring Hope in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many times, I have heard people say something akin to the idea that hope is our children's chance for a better future. Appealing as this sentiment may be, however, very little psychological theory and research has addressed the topic of children's hope. The only related research has been that by Kazdin and his colleagues (1983), who described children's hopelessness in

C. R. Snyder


Writing in Preliterate Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dictated words and pictures by 48 young French children, aged 3 to 6 years, demonstrated that young children have the capacity to produce graphics that exhibit some of the characteristics of writing. Developmental stages in children's recognition that their own efforts were not true writing were identified. (SLD)

Gombert, Jean Emile; Fayol, Michel



Ear Infections in Children  


Home Health Info Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is an ear infection? ... fight new infections and also can affect their hearing. Top How can I tell if my child has an ear infection? Most ear infections happen to children before ...


Children's Rights: Monitoring Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…

Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.


Bone Health in Children  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...


Children's Understanding of Rivers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evidence from several media illustrates the ways children attempt to fit their observations into their own, known constructs. The contrast is drawn between adult concepts and children's misconceptions and the argument made that children would have more control over their learning with a "bottom-up" approach to teaching rather than the top down…

Mackintosh, Margaret



Bereavement Support for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…

Auman, Mary Jo



Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…

Aidman, Amy



Physical Activity for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an excerpt from "Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines for Children Ages 5-12 (2nd Edition)" by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. This excerpt outlines 4 guidelines in promoting age-appropriate physical activities for children with corresponding interpretations. Among other things,…

Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 2004



Social Policies for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that successful social policies for children are critical to our nation's future, this book discusses the status of children in America and suggests that the nation's current policies may not be serving them well. Proposals for seven new social policies are discussed that deal with the following domains affecting children from birth through…

Garfinkel, Irwin, Ed.; And Others


Children's Choices for 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…

Reading Teacher, 2008



Children's Theories of Motivation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.



Children in the States, 2000.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…

Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.


Exploring Fractal Geometry with Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…

Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt



Children in the States, 1999.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.


Children in the States, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report from the Children's Defense Fund lists statistics on child and youth well-being for each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) children participating in federally subsidized programs (including Title 1 Education for the Disadvantaged, bilingual education programs,…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.


Children in the States, 2001.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) child health, including uninsured children, low birth weight babies, infant deaths, and immunizations; (2) child care and early…

Judge, Amy, Comp.


Children of Alcoholics/Addicts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this booklet is to raise the awareness of teachers and other school personnel about the needs and characteristics of the children of alcoholics and addicts and to explain what schools can do to help. The booklet discusses: (1) risk factors for children of alcoholics and substance abusers, including the psychological, emotional, and…

Towers, Richard L.


School Adaptation of Roma Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…

Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo



[Gambling in children and adolescents].  


Gambling in children and adolescents is a serious and relatively common problem especially among Czech boys. Psychotherapy, family therapy and prevention are more important than pharmacotherapy here. The prevention includes also the restrictions of gambling availability. We present a brief case report and the instructions for the parents of children with a gambling problem. PMID:22026082

Nespor, Karel; Csémy, Ladislav



Measuring Children’s Media Use in the Digital Age  

PubMed Central

In this new and rapidly changing era of digital technology, there is increasing consensus among media scholars that there is an urgent need to develop measurement approaches which more adequately capture media use The overarching goal of this paper is facilitate the development of measurement approaches appropriate for capturing children’s media use in the digital age. The paper outlines various approaches to measurement, focusing mainly on those which have figured prominently in major existing studies of children’s media use. We identify issues related to each technique, including advantages and disadvantages. We also include a review of existing empirical comparisons of various methodologies. The paper is intended to foster discussion of the best ways to further research and knowledge regarding the impact of media on children. PMID:19763246

Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Sook-Jung



Experiences of blind children caregivers  

PubMed Central

Background: Teachers, parents and foundations should become objective-oriented for children with visual impairment so that learning and sensitization of necessary knowledge and skills for the behaviors of these children are assisted. Where there is impairment in the relations of children caregivers, their emotional security is disturbed and its effects will appear in their behaviors. Therefore, strong dependence on parents, teachers and other adults is the characteristics of most of the children with physical problems including blind children. Since use of the experiences of caregivers of these children increases their efficiency and life skills, this study was conducted aiming to understand the experiences of blind children caregivers in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This study was a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach to investigate the experiences of blind children caregivers including mothers and teachers. Four mothers of blind children and four caregivers of blind children were purposefully selected and interviewed from 2007 to 2009. Data were collected through interviews which were recorded on cassette tapes. The obtained data were analyzed using Collizzi method. Findings: The experiences of the blind children caregivers were divided into two groups of challenge and role. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that upon diagnosing the child’s blindness, the parents suffer from mental stress. At first, they deny the problem, but then they begin to come along and accept the blind child. At this time, they analyze the effective factors in keeping and educating the child. At the same time, they act in response to the child influenced by several factors including the role of the society. PMID:23833597

Fathizadeh, Nahid; Takfallah, Leila; Badrali, Narges; Shiran, Elaheh; Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Akhavan, Hamideh



Children of Conflict  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented by BBC Worldservice with the assistance of the UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) and the Human Rights Fund of the British Foreign and Commonwealth Office, this site features the harrowing tales of children caught in war zones across the world, told in their own words. Divided into sections which explore the different experiences of the children of conflict (child soldiers, wounded children, lost children, child-headed households, child workers), the site offers brief explanatory notes, numerous quotes, RealAudio selections in a variety of languages, transcripts, and letters from children. Links are provided throughout the site to sources for more information.


Yoga for children.  


There is an increasing interest in the use of yoga for children to calm the mind and increase health and well being. Despite scant but increasing evidence supporting the efficacy of yoga in children, special yoga programs within schools are being developed for children and adolescents. This increasing popularity of the potential benefits of yoga may encourage parents to consider yoga for their children and request referrals or clarification of the purported effects. A description of the philosophical basis of yoga, the basic components of a yoga practice, safety concerns, and how to locate and evaluate a yoga program for children will be addressed. PMID:19916343

White, Laura Santangelo



Services to Children and Young Adults. Library Service to Rural Children: A Look at Iowa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information and copies a report by Marlys Cresap and Marilyn Nickelsburg on a statewide conference of children's librarians. Highlights include a survey of children's services in Iowa libraries and presentations on the history and philosophy of children's services (Margaret Bush) and the role of children's librarians (Barbara…

Young, Diana, Ed.



Inductive Selectivity in Children’s Cross-classified Concepts  

PubMed Central

Cross-classified items pose an interesting challenge to children’s induction since these items belong to many different categories, each of which may serve as a basis for a different type of inference. Inductive selectivity is the ability to appropriately make different types of inferences about a single cross-classifiable item based on its different category memberships. This research includes five experiments that examine the development of inductive selectivity in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 272). Overall, the results show that by age 4 years, children have inductive selectivity with taxonomic and script categories. That is, children use taxonomic categories to make biochemical inferences about an item whereas children use script categories to make situational inferences about an item. PMID:22803510

Nguyen, Simone P.



Tense marking in children with autism  

E-print Network

A recent large-scale study identified a subgroup of children with autism who had a language profile similar to that found among children with specific language impairment (SLI). including difficulties with nonsense word repetition, an ability...

Roberts, Jenny A.; Rice, Mabel L.; Tager-Flusberg, H.



Children with health issues.  


All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for family-friendly work environments, and help maintain the parental shadow system of care on which health care professionals depend. PMID:22013630

Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D



Children's Voices: Reactions to a Criminal Justice Issue Picture Book  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…

Oslick, Mary Ellen



Children and environmental toxins.  


Environmental toxins have been shown to produce harmful effects in children, who may be exposed in the home, in public spaces, and by passive contact with adults. This review discusses common toxic substances, including lead, radon, tobacco smoke, asbestos, pesticides, mercury, carbon monoxide, and electric/magnetic fields. The focus is on identification, environmental abatement, and parent education. Practical suggestions for the primary care clinician in a community setting are emphasized. PMID:7777638

Little, D N



Oceans and Children's Literature  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reviews children's books on ocean topics, providing a brief synopsis and commentary on photos, diagrams, charts, as well as text. Recommends appropriate grade and reading levels, suggests how to use the books in the classroom, order of presentation to best stimulate questions and provide answers, suggests activities that prep for or follow-up books. Includes publisher, publication date, and ISBN, and links where books are available.


Key Facts about Children in Utah. Children and Families at Risk: A Status Report of Our Children, 1994.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…

Utah Children, Salt Lake City.


Parenting the Internet: Resources for Parents and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)

Bushong, Sara



Describing socioeconomic gradients in children’s diets – does the socioeconomic indicator used matter?  

PubMed Central

Background Children of low socioeconomic position (SEP) generally have poorer diets than children of high SEP. However there is no consensus on which SEP variable is most indicative of SEP differences in children’s diets. This study investigated associations between diet and various SEP indicators among children aged 9–13?years. Method Families (n?=?625) were recruited from 27 Adelaide primary schools in 2010. Children completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires providing intake scores for fruit, vegetables, non-core foods, sweetened drinks, and healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. Parents reported demographic information by telephone interview. Differences in dietary intake scores were compared across parental education, income, occupation, employment status and home postcode. Results Across most SEP indicators, lower SEP was associated with poorer dietary outcomes, including higher intake of non-core foods and sweetened drinks, and more unhealthy behaviours; and lower intake of fruit and vegetables, and fewer healthy behaviours. The number and type of significant SEP-diet associations differed across SEP indicators and dietary outcomes. Mother’s education appeared most frequently as a predictor of children’s dietary intake, and postcode was the least frequent predictor of children’s dietary intake. Conclusion Socioeconomic gradients in children’s dietary intake varied according to the SEP indicator used, suggesting indicator-specific pathways of influence on children’s dietary intake. Researchers should consider multiple indicators when defining SEP in relation to children’s eating. PMID:24674231



Peanut Allergies, Children and Pregnancy  


... Most providers also recommend that they avoid eating tree nuts (such as walnuts, cashews, pecans and pistachios) ... are allergic to at least one kind of tree nut (7) . Children and adults (including pregnant women) ...


Preparing "Normal" Children for Mainstreaming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approaches to helping nondisabled elementary students examine their feelings in preparation for mainstreaming handicapped children are described, including simulations, activities to provide familiarity with braces and prostheses, use of handicapped adults as guest speakers, and discussions about handicaps. (CL)

Melton, Gary B.



Talking with Children about Time.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides activities to help preschool children develop an understanding of the concept of time. Activities include making a sundial and a water clock or sand clock, as well as a time wheel of the months and seasons. (HTH)

Texas Child Care, 1995



Facilitating children's grief.  


A program of education and support is essential for children and their parent or adult caregivers when the children have experienced the death of a significant person. Children need guidance on how to deal with their profound feelings of grief. The purpose of this article is to give school nurses the ability to help children face the strange new world that follows the death experience. The review of literature defines commonly used terms, describes the mourning process experienced by children, and offers school nurses basic information about grief. The article presents the critical elements necessary for planning and implementing a 6-week grief education and support program that offers children and their parent or adult caregivers permission to grieve and the tools with which to process grief. PMID:12882604

Riely, Marsha



Essential medicines for children.  


Millions of children die every year before they reach the age of 5?years, of conditions largely treatable with existing medicines. The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines was launched in 1977 to make the most necessary drugs available to populations whose basic health needs could not be met by the existing supply system. During the first 30?years of the Model List of Essential Medicines, children's needs were not systematically considered. After adoption of the 'Better medicines for children' resolution by the World Health Assembly, things changed. The first WHO Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was drawn up by a Paediatric Expert Subcommittee and adopted in October 2007. The most recent, 4th Model List of Essential Medicines for Children was adopted in 2013. Data from country surveys show that access to essential medicines for children is still generally poor; much more work is needed. PMID:25613966

Hoppu, Kalle; Sri Ranganathan, Shalini



Philippines: street children, children at risk.  


Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are assassinating street children. PMID:12179307

Tantoco, F G



Adjustable sutures in children.  


Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284

Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G




The Patient and Family Wellness Center in the Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute is seeking an early-career psychologist for a clinically-focused faculty position. The Patient and Family Wellness Center was established in 2012 through a close partnership between the Cancer and Blood Disease Institute and Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology at Cincinnati Children’s. It is a comprehensive psychosocial clinical and research program for children, adolescents and young adults with cancer and blood diseases.


Global Children's Art Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Children's Art Gallery hosts a refreshing collection of children's artwork in a variety of formats. Each image can be enlarged and is accompanied by a flag indicating the country or countries where the artist lives. This site is a part of the Natural Child site, a site maintained by psychologist Jan Hunt that is devoted to an attachment parenting perspective, "in which all children are treated with dignity, respect, understanding, and compassion."


Does maternal employment influence poor children’s social development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various initiatives over the past 40 years have aimed to strengthen children’s early learning and social development. One policy theory—manifest in recent welfare reforms—postulates that requiring single mothers to work more outside the home will advance children’s well-being. We first examine whether young children’s social development is related to maternal employment among 405 women who entered welfare-to-work programs in 1998.

Bruce Fuller; Gretchen Caspary; Sharon Lynn Kagan; Christiane Gauthier; Danny Shih-Cheng Huang; Judith Carroll; Jan McCarthy



Children's Witnessing of Adult Domestic Violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social service professionals are more frequently identifying children who witness adult domestic violence as victims of that abuse. This article expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence. A total of 31 research articles that met established quality criteria were included in this review. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be




Children's Literature: The Great Excluded. Volume Two.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of essays is intended to stimulate writing, teaching, and study of children's literature by humanists. Among the included essays are: "Back to Pooh Corner,""Sophisticated Reading for Children,""Medieval Songs of Innocence and Experience,""Milton's 'Comus' as Children's Literature,""Fantasy in a Mythless Age,""Science Fiction and…

Butler, Francelia, Ed.


Nutritional Assessment of Children With Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regardless of which parts of the world they live in, most children will develop and grow at a similar rate if proper nutrition is ensured. Children from develop- ing countries are at risk for primary malnutrition. Children undergoing anticancer therapy are at higher risk for secondary malnutrition, including obesity and growth retardation. Periodic nutritional assess- ments are important for planning

Terezie Tolar Mosby; Ronald D. Barr; Paul B. Pencharz



Children in the States Data Book, 1998.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This data book from the Children's Defense Fund includes statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (number of children under age 18 and age 6, number of…

Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.


Concerned Parents Speak Out On Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research investigated parents' opinions about children's television (TV). Questionnaire respondents were mainly parents of children ages 2-6; mothers outnumbered fathers 9:1. Results included the findings that children watched TV an average of three hours a day; this varied little throughout the country and between those viewing Public…

Barcus, F. Earle


How Children Grieve: Implications for Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current literature about how children grieve and various implications for counseling are discussed. In reviewing the literature available concerning how children grieve, it is evident that the articles cover three distinct areas important for consideration. These include information that addresses children's developmental understanding of death…

McGlauflin, Helene


Unattended Children: An Engagement Policy that Works.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The unwritten policy of the Huntsville-Madison County (Alabama) Public Library for dealing with unattended children includes librarian involvement with the children, increased public awareness of the problem, and a priority on children's services. It is noted, however, that the library cannot serve as a day care operation. (MES)

Fuqua, Christopher



The Paradox of Children and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative or…

Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra



Children and IC  


... importance of dietary management. Other conservative therapies for children are self-help strategies such as: Calcium gylcerophosphate (Prelief) Yoga Relaxation techniques Pelvic floor physical therapy Oral IC ...


Impulsivity in overweight children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This study investigates whether or not obese children have a stronger tendency to act on impulse than normal weight children,\\u000a taking into account the multidimensionality and complexity of the impulsivity construct.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A performance based test (Matching Familiar Figure Test, MFFT), a child interview and questionnaire, and parental reports\\u000a were obtained from 56 overweight children and 53 normal weight children aged

Caroline Braet; Line Claus; Sandra Verbeken; Leen Van Vlierberghe



Gastroparesis in children  

PubMed Central

Historically, gastroparesis is characterized by delayed gastric emptying of fluids and/or solids without evidence of a mechanical gastric outlet obstruction. To provide a thorough, evidence-based overview of the diagnosis, treatment, outcome and future advances for gastroparesis in children, a web search (PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Clinical Evidence) was performed. Original articles and reviews were identified, examined and included as appropriate. The prevalence of gastroparesis is vague in adults and unknown in children. It is suspected on the presence of symptoms indicating gastric dysmotility (nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, failure to thrive, weight loss) and is confirmed on the demonstration of delayed gastric emptying. It can be assessed with various methods from which gastric emptying scintigraphy of a radiolabeled solid meal is considered as the golden standard. Therapeutic approaches include: dietary modifications, medical treatment (prokinetics, antiemetics, intrapyloric injection of botulinum toxin, enteral feeds via jejunostomy, total parenteral nutrition) and surgical interventions (laparoscopic placement of gastric pacemaker) aiming at alleviating symptoms and maintaining optimal nutritional status. Gastroparesis in children can be challenging to diagnose and treat. Specific protocols for the evaluation of gastric emptying and for a stepwise management are required to optimise future outcomes. PMID:24714281

Saliakellis, Efstratios; Fotoulaki, Maria



Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children  


... for all those affected by children ' s cancer. Search Soft Tissue Sarcoma in Children Soft tissue sarcomas in children are ... tissue sarcomas, the most common of which are rhabdomyosarcoma , osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma . Each year, approximately 900 ...


Nutrition for Children with Cancer  


... Treatment » Children and Cancer » When Your Child Has Cancer » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Share this Page Close ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ...


Children's media policy.  


Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents' ability to supervise their children's media use. Jordan concludes by considering the relevance and efficacy of today's media policy given the increasingly rapid pace of technological change. The need for research in informing and evaluating media policy, she says, has never been greater. PMID:21338012

Jordan, Amy B



Psychiatric Morbidity Among Street Children in Duhok  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. METHODS The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate). A modified family map (genogram) was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) structured interviews were conducted with the children. RESULTS The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers), and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57%) of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%). Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSION Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs. PMID:24653656

Taib, Nezar Ismet; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi



Getting Rid of Children's Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

As critics, we need to change how we look at children’s literature. When children’s books hit the headlines because of their popularity—such as Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton books or, more recently, J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series—the same questions always come up: are they really for children, are they good for children, how do we evaluate such books, why

Katharine Jones



Children's Clothes - Size and Selection.  

E-print Network

in height, weight and body measurements. Clothing for children is di vided into size classifications based on weight, height and body proportions. Children's sizes 2 through 6X are designed for boys and girls who are outgrowing baby roundness but still... have a baby's posture. When children no longer wear diapers, they are ready for children's sizes. Toddlers' and children's sizes 2 through 4 are based on the same weight and body measurements, but the children's sizes do not allow room for diapers...

Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia



Children's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the involvement of the National PTA in bringing about comprehensive school health programs in three areas: health education, health services, and school safety. A synopsis is included of selected resolutions related to school health issues that have been adopted by the National PTA. (IAH)

Abraham, Laura



Effects of air pollution on children’s pulmonary health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.

Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina



The shadow price of children.  


This article is a review of a thesis entitled "The Shadow Price of Children in Philippine Rural Households" presented by Ms. Teresa Cabanero at the University of the Philippines School of Economics. The thesis assumes that 1) households are units of production and consumption, and 2) children are special commodities which give consumers direct and potential satisfaction. The assumption on which it is based is that childbearing is to a great extent the result of rational economic decisions. Proceeding from this assumption, Cabanero sets out to arrive at an objective measure of the value of children to their parents by computing their "shadow price." This shadow price consists of the costs involved in rearing children both in terms of material goods as well as time spent by parents and older children. In effect, Cabanero has attempted to estimate for a rural community the net costs of rearing children in families of different sizes, incomes, and occupations. The value of the study, according to the reviewer, is its recognition of actual economic costs of children as the major concern of prospective parents. This criterion complements and therefore broadens previously established socioeconomic determinants of fertility, which include such factors as family income, age, education, work status, and place of residence. PMID:12309643

Pantoja-hidalgo, C



Cough in children.  


Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905

Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis



Dengue in children.  


Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease of expanding geographical range and increasing incidence. The vast majority of dengue cases are children less than 15 years of age. Dengue causes a spectrum of illness from mild fever to severe disease with plasma leakage and shock. Infants and children with secondary heterologous dengue infections are most at risk for severe dengue disease. Laboratory diagnosis of dengue can be established within five days of disease onset by direct detection of viral components in serum. After day five, serologic diagnosis provides indirect evidence of dengue. Currently, no effective antiviral agents are available to treat dengue infection. Therefore, treatment remains supportive, with emphasis on close hematological monitoring, recognition of warning signs of severe disease and fluid-replacement therapy and/or blood transfusions when required. Development of a dengue vaccine is considered a high public health priority. A safe and efficacious dengue vaccine would also be important for travelers. This review highlights the current understanding of dengue in children, including its clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, management and prevention. PMID:25225163

Verhagen, Lilly M; de Groot, Ronald



Weight Stigmatization in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine weight stigmatization among Hispanic American children. Fifty-five fifth grade students from a large, urban school district in Southern California were asked to rank six same- sex drawings of children with various physical characteristics (related to weight or disability) in order of friend preference (1 = the most preferred, and 6 = the least preferred

Melissa L. Wigginton; Lenny D. Wiersma; Clay P. Sherman; Daniela Rubin



International Children's Book Day  

E-print Network

International Children's Book Day April 2nd 2013 Folktales Storytelling & wORKSHOP By Barry Stewart Performing Arts Center 1080 SW 11th Street, Gainesville Peter Sís Award Winning Children's Book Author adult literature. A World of Stories A Storyteller Extravaganza with Tales from Around the World

Watson, Craig A.


Children and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…

Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others


Interaction and Children's Mathematics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interprets and contrasts children's mathematical interaction from the points of view of radical constructivism and of Soviet activity theory. Proposes a superseding model based on the interrelations between the basic sequence of actions and perturbation and the interaction of constructs. Supports the model by describing how children used…

Steffe, Leslie P.; Tzur, Ron



Researching Australian Children's Literature  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…

Saxby, Maurice



Culture and Children's Cosmology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…

Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.



Chest pain in children.  

PubMed Central

Chest pain is usually a benign symptom in children. The most common identifiable causes are musculoskeletal. Often, no cause can be identified. Cardiac disorders are uncommon causes of chest pain children. Most causes can be diagnosed from history and physical examination. Treatment should be directed at the underlying cause. For idiopathic chest pain, reassurance and regular follow-up examinations are important. PMID:8704491

Leung, A. K.; Robson, W. L.; Cho, H.



St. Louis Children's Hospital

The Psychology Department of St. Louis Children’s Hospital at Washington University Medical Center is pleased to announce 2 Postdoctoral Fellowship positions in Pediatric Psychology beginning September 2014. With a balance of in-depth and broad based training experiences, this one-year program will prepare fellows to work independently in the practice of pediatric psychology.


The Children's Advertising Battle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A number of relevant issues surround the arguments of both opponents and proponents of the Federal Trade Commission's proposals to ban or control certain advertising during children's television programs. Groups against regulatory action point out that parents, not children, are the consumers and have a right to free choice in their purchases.…

MacKie, Alexander


Children of Addicted Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique

Barry M. Lester; Linda L. Lagasse



Severe asthma in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most childhood asthma is mild\\/moderate and is easily controlled with regular use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and rescue bronchodilators. However, between 5% and 10% of children will have asthma that remains difficult to control despite high doses of appropriate asthma therapies. Children with ‘difficult to control’ asthma are responsible for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and health care costs

James Y Paton



Bipolar Disorder in Children  

PubMed Central

Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202



Children's Understanding of Homonyms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experiments examined the ability of 60 3-year-old children's ability to select homonym pairs and the extent to which they realized that homonyms represent 2 different categories. Results confirm that children have the metalinguistic skills necessary to identify homonym pairs and to realize they represent two different categories, suggesting…

Backscheider, Andrea A.; Gelman, Susan A.



Children as Art Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…

Szekely, George



Reframing Children's Spaces  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…

Duncan, Sandra



Children and Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…

Sampson, Delores



Educating Children with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The National Research Council formed a Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism and charged the committee with integrating the scientific, theoretical, and policy literature and creating a framework for evaluating the scientific evidence concerning the effects and features of educational interventions for young children with…

National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.


Investigating Children's Mathematics Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…

Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia



Urinary Incontinence in Children  


... asleep. Nighttime UI has also been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), OSA, and anxiety. Children also may inherit genes ... can appear as a constant dribbling of urine. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Children with ADHD are three times more likely ...


Children, Pesticides and Cancer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…

White, Alison



Explorations in Children's Writing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articles by four diverse educational innovators offer teachers some approaches to children's writing: (1) Eldonna L. Evertts advises that free self-expression should precede close attention to syntax and spelling; (2) James Britton, in four separate articles, points out: the intimate relationship between speech and children's processes of…

Evertts, Eldonna L., Ed.


Model Children's Code.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…

New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.


Children's Environmental Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site explores why and how children are more sensitive and susceptible to environmental pollutants than adults. It features information about causes of asthma and birth defects, the effects of heavy metals, and the environmental health and safety of schools. It also provides links to resources and organizations related to children's environmental health, current news and related resources.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction


Repeated Infections in Children  


... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...


Children's understanding of interpretation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevailing view in the study of children's developing theories of mind is that the 4-year-old's newfound understanding of false belief is the single developmental milestone marking entry into an adult “folk psychology.” We argue instead that there are at least two such watershed events. Children first develop a “copy theory” that equates the mind with a recording device capable

Christopher E. Lalonde; Michael J. Chandler




EPA Science Inventory

Protecting the health of children from environmental risks is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a part of the Agency's efforts to address children's health issues, EPA's Office of Research and Development, a leader in the area of hum...


Colorado Children's Budget 2012  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…

Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin



Arthritis in children.  


Chronic arthritis in children is uncommon. Careful clinical and laboratory studies over many years have defined subgroups of disease that have their characteristic pattern of joint development and disease course. The prognosis for children who have arthritis is generally excellent but it may take years of care by a variety of specialists to achieve optimum results. PMID:3899235

Craft, A W



Teaching Children of Catastrophe  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color and…

Gay, Geneva



Hepatic porphyrias in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinically overt hepatic porphyria is uncommon in children. The autosomal dominant acute hepatic porphyrias, acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), variegate porphyria (VP) and hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), are rarely present before puberty. Identification of asymptomatic children who have inherited these disorders is an important aspect of the management of the disease in their families and requires either enzymatic or DNA methods. Homozygous

G. H. Elder



Ethical Research with Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research with children is occurring within a climate of mounting international interest in listening to and consulting with children in ways that are respectful of them as competent informants of their own experience. This interest has occurred within "new times" of heightened accountability, regulation and surveillance of research. This climate…

Farrell, Ann



Children's Hospital Los Angeles

The Pediatric Psychology Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles (CHLA) consists of outpatient and inpatient hospital-based services that provide therapeutic support and intervention to children and families. The pediatric psychology postdoctoral fellows will participate in varied clinical activities with child and adolescent patients and their families.


Our Children at Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report is concerned with at risk children and youth. Synthesizing data based on country reports and case studies from 17 countries and 3 foundations, the report covers issues relating to the preschool, school age, and transition to work periods. At risk children and youth have become key issues not only from claims of social justice, but also…

Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.


How sex offenders lure children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-two incest and 50 pedophilic offenders, under sentence, were interviewed with respect to verbal and non-verbal strategies used to sexually seduce children. All sex offenders had received in-hospital treatment for six months to one year and were mostly non-defensive about various forms of enticement, exploitation or entrapment, including threats of harm, used to elicit eroticized responses from female children. A

Reuben A. Lang; Roy R. Frenzel



Neural Correlates of Children’s Theory of Mind Development  

PubMed Central

Young children show significant changes in their mental-state understanding as marked by their performance on false-belief tasks. Here we provide evidence for activity in the prefrontal cortex associated with the development of this ability. Event-related brain potentials (ERP) were recorded as adults and 4-, 5-, and 6-year-old children reasoned about reality and the beliefs of characters in animated vignettes. In adults, a late slow wave (LSW), with a left-frontal scalp distribution, was associated with reasoning about beliefs. This LSW was also observed for children who could correctly reason about the characters’ beliefs but not in children who failed false-belief questions. These findings have several implications including support for the critical role of the prefrontal cortex for theory of mind development. PMID:19466994

Liu, David; Sabbagh, Mark A.; Gehring, William J.; Wellman, Henry M.



The Influence of Parenting Styles on Children's Cognitive Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Based on a larger longitudinal project of family stress and children’s development, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate the relationships between parenting styles and children’s cognitive ability in families with young elementary school-aged children. Parents completed a self-administered survey on family experiences, including parenting styles. Children were interviewed at their schools where the Brief Intellectual

Amy E. Tiller; M. E. Betsy Garrison; Kathryn Cramer; Vicky Tiller


Children's Rights and Children's Voices in Contested Custody and Visitation Cases in Sweden and the US  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…

Pranzo, Diane



Status of Oregon's Children: 1998 County Data Book. Special Focus: Children's Health Care.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…

Children First for Oregon, Portland.


Salivary gland diseases in children  

PubMed Central

Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and some­times in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366

Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes



Children’s visual memory of packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elicit the visual memory of packaging that facilitates consumers’ identification and selection of products from store displays, children were asked to draw a cereal box and the results were compared with actual cereal boxes. Over 97 percent spontaneously drew a cereal box with a brand name and other brand related symbols. This may be the first time to have

James U. McNeal; Mindy F. Ji



Campaign for Our Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Campaign For Our Children was incorporated in November, 1987, as a not-for-profit organization to "organize, manage and conduct programs designed to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancies in Maryland..." Topics available on their web site include: adolescent pregnancy news flashes, teacher and parent resources, an "ask the expert" page, and chat pages where teachers and parents can discuss issues and strategies. The Teen Pregnancy Clock displays up-to-the-minute estimates of how many teen pregnancies and births have occurred this year. Users can preview and order CFOC materials directly from the web site. Several of the television and radio spots are available for display within a web browser.


Children's Death Concepts and Ethnicity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…

Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.



Children's Explanations of Family Resemblances.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…

Horobin, Karen D.


Children's Conceptions of the Brain   

E-print Network

The present study explored children’s developing conceptions of the brain in order to enhance previous research and to contribute to debates regarding the nature of children’s naïve biological theories. 56 participants aged 5, 7 and 9-years-old were...

McColl, Judith



Changing Children's Conceptions of Burning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines children's understanding of burning focusing on questions such as: "What are children's views of burning prior to and after instruction?," and "Do children's views become more scientific?" A significant difference was found in children's understanding before and after instruction. (Author/MM)

Gabel, Dorothy L.; Stockton, Jamie D.; Monaghan, Diane L.; MaKinster, James G.



Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…

McEntire, Nancy


Television and Very Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) has recommended that children younger than 24 months of age not be exposed to television. Nevertheless, television programs and home videos are increasingly produced for very young children. This article reviews the extant research concerning television and very young children with respect to the AAP recommendation. More very young children are currently watching television

Daniel R. Anderson; Tiffany A. Pempek



A Platform for Arizona's Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Children's Action Alliance (CAA) is a private nonprofit organization working on behalf of Arizona children. The CAA and other groups sponsor the Arizona Children's Campaign, whose goal is to influence public policy in such a way that the quality of children's lives will be improved as a result. This synopsis of CAA reports of the last several…

Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.


[Eosinophilic cystitis in children].  


Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare disease that frequently suggests a bladder tumour at presentation. It affects both children and adults and its pathophysiology remains unclear. EC usually shows a benign course, but serious complications can occur and relapsing forms have been described. It has rarely been reported in children and therefore, might be poorly known by physicians and underdiagnosed. We report a case that differs from other observations by its unusually rapid resolution, and review the literature on EC's diagnosis, treatment, and course in children. PMID:21489763

Cohen, J; Letavernier, B; Garel, C; Boubnova, J; Boudjemaa, S; Bensman, A



Vulnerable Children; Three Studies of Children in Conflict: Accident Involved Children, Sexually Assualted Children and Children with Asthma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…

Burton, Lindy


Identifying methamphetamine exposure in children  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642

Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.



How Children Learn To Write: Supporting and Developing Children's Writing in School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book outlines the processes involved when children learn to write, and it shows how certain strategies can improve children's progress in writing. Dealing with the age range 3-13, the book addresses issues of the gender gap, children with English as an additional language, and left-handedness. It includes ideas for assessment of writing. It…

Latham, Dorothy


"Children are sexually innocent": Iranian parents' understanding of children's sexuality.  


Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162

Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G



Expressive dimensions of pain catastrophizing: A comparative analysis of school children and children with clinical pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of the child’s pain catastrophizing in explaining (1) children’s self-reported tendency to verbally share their pain experience with others and (2) different dimensions of pain expression, as described by the mother and the father, including non-verbal and verbal communicative pain behaviour and protective pain behaviour. Participants were school children, children with chronic or recurrent pain, and

T. Vervoort; K. D. Craig; L. Goubert; J. Dehoorne; R. Joos; D. Matthys; A. Buysse; G. Crombez



Chronic stress, salivary cortisol, and ?-amylase in children with asthma and healthy children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined whether chronic stress is related to daily life levels of salivary ?-amylase (sAA), a marker for sympathetic activity, and cortisol in healthy children versus children with asthma.Children's sAA and cortisol levels were measured repeatedly over 2 days. Chronic stress measures included interviews with children about chronic home life stress and interviews with parents about one marker

Jutta M. Wolf; Erin Nicholls; Edith Chen



Children and HIV  


... in adults. An infant’s viral load usually declines after birth until age 4 or 5. Then it stabilizes. Children also respond differently to ARVs. They have larger increases in CD4 cell counts and more diverse CD4 ...


[Scalding injuries in children].  


During the years 1989-91, 88 children were hospitalized in the Burn Unit. 60 children, of whom 57 were under five years of age, suffered from scalds. All of the injuries happened at home and nearly 60% of the children received immediate treatment with cold water. The causes of the scalds were hot tap water, tea, coffee or boiling water. Half of the children did not need surgery and stayed in the unit from one to 61 days. Information on burns and scalds prevention and first aid must be given to parents at the Health Care Centres, on radio and TV, and in the newspapers. In order to reduce scalds from hot tap water, legislation should be considered which would limit the temperature of such water to maximum 60 degrees C. Health personnel who meet these problems should present the above information to the politicians. PMID:8322299

Sørensen, T H; Vindenes, H



Children and Parasitic Diseases  


... can affect children. Toxoplasmosis is spread by ingesting soil or litter-box contents with infectious cat feces. ... It is acquired when larvae (immature worms) in soil contaminated with infected human feces come into contact ...



Skip to Main Content Headlines Pediatric Oncology Branch Home > Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals > Training Headline Title Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals Psychologist Cook Children's Medical Center - Department: CCMC Psych-Op Adm


Exercise and children  


... Playing organized sports (such as soccer, basketball, and football) Younger children have a shorter attention span than ... or biking. Others prefer group sports, like soccer, football, or basketball. Choose an exercise that works well ...


Children with Learning Disorders  


... failure, but a common one is a specific learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder may make teachers and parents concerned about their ...


Cushing's Syndrome in Children  


... recovering from CS are able to resume normal physical activities within several weeks to months. Many children and adolescents recovering from CS experience changes in cognitive performance that can be stressful for both the child ...



Skip to Main Content Headlines Pediatric Oncology Branch Home > Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals > Training Headline Title Pediatric Psycho-Oncology Professionals Child/Pediatric Psychology Post-Doctoral Fellowship The Children's Hospital of


Children and Dairy Chemicals  


... to clean dairy facilities and equipment, especially dairy pipeline cleaners, pose a special risk for children. Rapid ... where the cleaner is pumped directly into the pipeline. This is childproof and protects adult workers from ...


Children's Mental Health  


... Makers  National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Español (Spanish) Share Compartir Children’s Mental Disorders: A ... Developmental Disabilities Information For... Media Policy Makers  Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...


Snowboarding injuries in children  

PubMed Central

Objective To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A major pediatric trauma centre. Patients A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. Interventions All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. Outcome measures Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. Results Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. Conclusions The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. PMID:11764877

Drkulec, John A.; Letts, Mervyn



Children and HIV  


... Care Act and HIV/AIDS Community Engagement Incarceration Immigration HIV/AIDS Care Continuum Funding Opportunities How To ... reach developmental milestones. Many children with HIV reach adolescence without issue, and maintain relatively intact immune systems. ...


Color Associations of Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)

Byrnes, Deborah A.



Protecting Children's Online Privacy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)

Kresses, Mamie



Dietary fat and children  


... such as those found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils.) Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...


Traveling with children  


... of all medications your child is taking. PLANES, TRAINS, BUSES Bring snacks and familiar foods with you. ... children. Check with them. Remember to ask airlines, train, or bus companies and hotels for guidance and ...


Children's Hospitals Directory  


... abuse and neglect Child life Conjoined twins separation Day care for children with special health care needs Dentistry ... physical therapy Respite care School-based health Sick day care (public) Speech therapy Substance abuse Support groups Transplant ...


Obesity in children  


Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...


Sedation Techniques for Children  


... mixed with oxygen and delivered through a small mask over the nose. Your child will be asked ... gas. Sometimes young children may reject wearing the mask. Nitrous oxide may not be the right type ...


Arthritis in Children  


... challenging. However, with care from a team of rheumatology professionals, most children with arthritis live full and ... JIA is used most by specialists in pediatric rheumatology, JRA is commonly used in the United States. ...


National Children's Study  


... the Director of NICHD to NCS Participants in Spanish Here is the Spanish version of the letter to all Vanguard Study ... to NCS Participants Letter to NCS Participants in Spanish View All Slides What is the National Children's ...


Children and Anesthesia  


Children and Anesthesia If your child is scheduled for surgery or a procedure involving anesthesia, you may be anxious about what will happen. ... the physician anesthesiologist to discuss what type of anesthesia will be used and how it will be ...


Chronic cough in children.  


The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830

Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S



Subglottic haemangioma in children.  


Our experience with the treatment of 23 cases of subglottic haemangioma in children at the Hospital for Sick Children is presented. Different modalities of treatment are mentioned, with particular emphasis on excision with laryngo-tracheoplasty and the use of CO2 surgical laser. In a self-limiting lesion, our present policy is to use the CO2 laser to accelerate the rate of regression while minimizing morbidity and mortality. PMID:3958591

Choa, D I; Smith, M C; Evans, J N; Bailey, C M



Cranioplasty in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective The objective was to assess the outcome and complications associated with different cranioplasty implant materials in children. Materials and methods A retrospective review was conducted of 28 consecutive cranioplasties carried out on 24 children between 1994 and 2001 (age range, 9 months to 15 years; minimum follow-up 18 months). The indications were: defect from previous craniectomy for trauma, tumour, infection or evacuation

V. A. Josan; S. Sgouros; A. R. Walsh; M. S. Dover; H. Nishikawa; A. D. Hockley



Necrotising pneumonitis in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

We retrospectively analysed the clinical features and outcome of children under 17 years of age with necrotising pneumonitis\\u000a (NP). The radiographs and CT scans of the chest of children under 17 years of age between July 1995 and March 1999 who had\\u000a complicating community-acquired pneumonia were reviewed. CT scans were obtained for persistent fever, respiratory distress\\u000a and sepsis despite empiric

Kin Sun Wong; Cheng Hsun Chiu; Kee Min Yeow; Yhu Chering Huang; Hui Ping Liu; Tzou Yien Lin



[Plasma hypertonicity in children].  


The plasma hypertonicity is a severe and quite frequent disorder in children. The most frequent causes are hypernatremia related conditions, even though other causes of hyperosmolarity, such as hyperglycaemia and exogenous solutes accumulation also occur. The management and treatment of this condition is delicate and requires a thorough understanding of the underlying hydro electrolytic disorder. The authors perform a theoretical review of plasma hypertonicity in children, focusing on the three most frequent associated conditions: hypernatremic dehydration, salt poisoning and hyperosmolar coma. PMID:20654264

Teixeira, Ana; Ribeiro, Augusto



Families Promoting Travel Skills for Their Children with Visual Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…

Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.



Possibilities and Quandaries for Young Children's Active Citizenship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: Concepts of children's citizenship are highly contested. Contemporary policy and rhetoric increasingly includes the concept of citizenship in relation to children, yet there is considerable ambiguity as to what children's citizenship actually means. Unlike other marginalized groups, it is not children claiming citizenship rights…

Phillips, Louise



Referential communication in children with autism spectrum disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated diminished performance in children with autism spectrum disorder, mirroring performance in everyday

Svenolof Dahlgren; Annika Dahlgren Sandberg



The impact of including writing materials in early childhood classrooms on the early literacy development of children from low?income families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of incorporating writing materials in all areas of the preschool classroom on the early literacy development of young children from low?income families. The researchers worked with six teachers in three preschool classrooms to incorporate literacy materials—particularly those materials that would allow children to express themselves through writing—throughout the classroom learning

Patricia Clark; Sherry Kragler



Preschool Children's Informal Division Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…

Blevins-Knabe, Belinda


Aggressive Behaviour in Early Elementary School Children: Relations to Authoritarian Parenting, Children's Negative Emotionality and Coping Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…

Chan, Siu Mui



A Randomized Controlled Study of Parent-assisted Children’s Friendship Training with Children having Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated Children’s Friendship Training (CFT), a manualized parent-assisted intervention to improve social skills\\u000a among second to fifth grade children with autism spectrum disorders. Comparison was made with a delayed treatment control\\u000a group (DTC). Targeted skills included conversational skills, peer entry skills, developing friendship networks, good sportsmanship,\\u000a good host behavior during play dates, and handling teasing. At post-testing, the

Fred Frankel; Robert Myatt; Catherine Sugar; Cynthia Whitham; Clarissa M. Gorospe; Elizabeth Laugeson



The State of the World's Children 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This UNICEF State of the World's Children report (last reviewed in the December 11, 1998 Scout Report) includes an appeal for a new international coalition on behalf of children. The report also summarizes progress made since the 1990 World Summit for Children and the challenges that remain. Included in the report are a number of photographs, maps, tables, and a glossary. A summary, features (a collection of children's own words on important issues), RealPlayer videos, and a .pdf version of the report are available form the main page.


Pharmacokinetics of ethionamide in children.  


Ethionamide (ETH), a second-line antituberculosis drug, is frequently used in treating childhood tuberculosis. Data supporting ETH dose recommendations in children are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters for ETH in children on antituberculosis treatment including ETH. ETH serum levels were prospectively assessed in 31 children in 3 age groups (0 to 2 years, 2 to 6 years, and 6 to 12 years). Within each age group, half received rifampin (RMP). Following an oral dose of ETH (15 to 20 mg/kg of body weight), blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h following 1 and 4 months of ETH therapy. The maximum serum concentration (C(max)), time to C(max) (T(max)), and area under the time-concentration curve from 0 to 6 h (AUC(0-6)) were calculated. Younger children were exposed to lower ETH concentrations than older children at the same mg/kg body weight dose. Age correlated significantly with the AUC after both 1 month (r = 0.50, P = 0.001) and 4 months (r = 0.63, P = 0.001) of therapy. There was no difference in the AUC or C(max) between children receiving concomitant treatment with RMP and those who did not. Time on treatment did not influence the pharmacokinetic parameters of ETH following 1 and 4 months of therapy. HIV infection was associated with lower ETH exposure. In conclusion, ETH at an oral dose of 15 to 20 mg/kg results in sufficient serum concentrations compared to current adult recommended levels in the majority of children across all age groups. ETH levels were influenced by young age and HIV status but were not affected by concomitant RMP treatment and duration of therapy. PMID:21788468

Thee, S; Seifart, H I; Rosenkranz, B; Hesseling, A C; Magdorf, K; Donald, P R; Schaaf, H S



Common visual problems in children with disability.  


Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073

Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer



Common visual problems in children with disability  

PubMed Central

Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073

Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer



Concurrent Assay for Four Bacterial Species Including Alloiococcus Otitidis in Middle Ear, Nasopharynx and Tonsils of Children with Otitis Media with Effusion: A Preliminary Report  

PubMed Central

Objectives To detect the prevalences of Alloiococcus otitidis, as well as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) and to simultaneously investigate the colonization of these bacteria in the nasopharynx and palatine tonsils of these patients. Methods The study included 34 pediatric patients with OME, and 15 controls without OME. In the study group, A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were investigated in the samples obtained from middle ear effusions (MEE), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and tonsillar swabs (TS), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional culture methods. Only the samples obtained from NPS and TS were studied with the same techniques in the control group. Results A. otitidis was isolated only in MEE and only with multiplex PCR method. A. otitidis, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae were identified in 35%, 8.8%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively, in 34 MEE. A. otitidis was not isolated in NPS or TS of the study and the control groups. Conclusion The prevalence of A.otitidis is high in children with OME and A.otitidis doesn't colonize in the nasopharynx or tonsil. PMID:22737288

Ta?tan, Eren; Yücel, Mihriban; Aydo?an, Filiz; Karakoç, Esra; Arslan, Necmi; Kantekin, Yunus; Demirci, Münir



Patterns of Brain Activation in Foster Children and Nonmaltreated Children During an Inhibitory Control Task  

PubMed Central

Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than the foster children across several regions including the right anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior occipital cortex including the lingual gyrus and cuneus during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540

Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Graham, Alice M.; Moore, William E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Mannering, Anne M.



Abdominal pain - children under age 12  


Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can ... kinds of pain: Generalized pain or pain over more than half ...


Talking to Children about Terrorism and War  


... possible preoccupation with violent movies or war theme video/computer games. Children who seem preoccupied or very stressed about ... Children After a Disaster #13 Children and TV Violence #47 The Anxious Child #54 Children and Watching ...


Deception of children in research.  


The aim of this article is to draw attention to an under-recognised but ethically important phenomenon involving the deception of children in research. The type of deception we are referring to is not planned deception that is part of the research design. Instead it is deception that occurs in individual cases where parents ask researchers not to reveal something about the research to their child. Our focus is children who do not have ultimate decisional authority-children around the ages of 7-14 years old who may have the cognitive capacity to understand but not to consent for themselves; children whose agreement is required but not sufficient to authorise research. We provide three illustrative scenarios for analysis. Then, we identify circumstances in which non-disclosure might be justified and set out reasons why providing information to non-competent children is ethically required. On this basis, we argue that non-planned deception requested by parents is very unlikely to be ethically acceptable. Finally, we recommend that guidelines should (a) require researchers to consider what to do if parents do not want to disclose information to a child and (b) clarify that the most ethical response is to simply not include that child in the research. PMID:24307618

Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn



Socialization of Children’s Recall and Use of Strategies for Coping with Interparental Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother–child discussion skills\\u000a and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children’s memory for those\\u000a strategies in a later recall interview, and children’s self-reported use of coping strategies in response to parental conflict\\u000a at home. Participants included 50, 9–12 year-old children (50% female, 11% Mexican-American, 81%

Paul A. MillerWendy; Wendy Kliewer; Jenifer Partch



Superficial fungal infections in children.  


Superficial fungal infections can involve the hair, skin, and nails. Most affected children are healthy, although immunosuppression is a risk factor for more severe presentation. Causative organisms typically are members of the Trichophyton, Microsporum, and Epidermophyton genera (dermatophytes), can be acquired from other infected humans, animals, or soil, and illicit a host inflammatory response. Nondermatophyte infections include pityriasis versicolor. In this article, the most common clinical presentations, diagnostic recommendations, and treatment algorithms for dermatophyte and nondermatophyte mycoses in children and adolescents are described. PMID:24636655

Hawkins, Danielle M; Smidt, Aimee C



Promoting medication adherence in children.  


The problem of getting children to follow a treatment regimen is widespread and is frustrating for physicians. The extent to which any patient adheres to a medical regimen is an essential determinant of clinical success. Strategies to improve adherence in children include using simplified drug regimens (e.g., once-daily dosing), pleasant-tasting medicines, liquid or other nonpill formulations, regular phone contact between parents and physicians, reminders, information counseling, self-management plans, and other forms of individualized supervision or attention. Physicians also can encourage adherence by providing a dearly written explanation or patient information sheets that list generic and brand names, dosage, schedule, duration, and common side effects and practical ways of coping with them. Physicians, children, and parents should develop a mutually agreed-upon treatment plan. Having the child participate in devising the plan improves adherence. PMID:16970023

Gardiner, Paula; Dvorkin, Lana



Hip fractures in children.  


Hip fractures account for <1% of all pediatric fractures. Most are caused by high-energy mechanisms, but pathologic hip fractures also occur, usually from low-energy trauma. Complications occur at a high rate because the vascular and osseous anatomy of the child's proximal femur is vulnerable to injury. Surgical options vary based on the child's age, Delbet classification type, and degree of displacement. Anatomic reduction and surgical stabilization are indicated for most displaced hip fractures. Other options include smooth-wire or screw fixation, often supplemented by spica cast immobilization in younger children, or compression screw and side plate fixation. Achievement of fracture stability is more important than preservation of the proximal femoral physis. Capsular decompression after reduction and fixation may diminish the risk of osteonecrosis. Osteonecrosis, coxa vara, premature physeal closure of the proximal femur, and nonunion are complications that account for poor outcomes. PMID:19264709

Boardman, Matthew J; Herman, Martin J; Buck, Brian; Pizzutillo, Peter D



Tribal children are most exploited - UNICEF.  


A workshop sponsored by the UN Children's Fund in the Philippines examined the status of the children of indigenous people and found that exploitation of the assets of indigenous people in the name of development has resulted in social inequalities that have damaged the indigenous children. As examples of the disregard for the human rights of the children, participants cited projects in Davao, Boracay, and Benguet that have displaced native children. These include mining schemes that have "raped" ancestral lands, large-scale agricultural enterprises, promotion of tourism, and creation of hydroelectric dams. The children rarely benefit at all from any of these projects as their families are moved from a position of isolated independence to one of exploited dependence. Social changes accompanying development ruin traditional culture without providing a better or even similar basis of existence. PMID:12348873


Children's Program Kit: Supportive Education for Children of Addicted Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Approximately one in four children in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. Countless other children are living in families in which there is illicit drug abuse. Growing evidence suggests that genetics and environmental factors can predispose children of substance abusing parents to behavioral problems…

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.


Impact of the Children's Television Act on Children's Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…

Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael


Why Children Misbehave discipline for young children lesson 3  

E-print Network

Why Children Misbehave discipline for young children lesson 3 Produced, color, national origin, sex, religion, age, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation. publication 350-112 #12;Lesson 3: Why Children Misbehave Note: Since it is awkward to refer to the child

Liskiewicz, Maciej


Making meaning: children’s perspectives expressed through drawings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of listening to children’s perspectives has been emphasised in a wide range of recent research, using a variety of strategies. This paper explores the use of drawing as a strategy to engage with young children around the topic of starting school. It describes the approaches we have used, examines the benefits and challenges we have encountered and discusses

Johanna Einarsdottir; Sue Dockett; Bob Perry



Teaching Young Children Self-Regulation through Children's Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…

Cooper, Patricia M.



Connecting Children's Stories to Children's Literature: Meeting Diversity Needs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses a method for increasing elementary school children's multicultural awareness by sharing their own written stories in the context of multicultural children's literature. Describes how classroom activities can promote multicultural awareness through by allowing children to practice democracy, analyze the circumstances of one's life;…

St. Amour, Melissa J.



Stereotypy in Young Children with Autism and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…

MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June



Teaching English to Migrant Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to assist the teacher in improving his teaching of English-as-a-second-language. It is particulary recommended for teachers of children whose mother tongue is Spanish. A preliminary test for teachers on English phonemes and identification of articulatory organs is included. The English sound system is described,…

Zamorano, E. Hector


Adult Children and Aging Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

Myers, Jane E.


Ecological Stewardship and Gifted Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In even the earliest studies of giftedness in young children (Burks, Jensen, & Terman, 1930; Hollingworth, 1926), researchers noted distinct character traits among gifted students, which included global awareness, sensitivity to complex issues, and a tendency to worry about injustice and dangers that often are beyond a child's control. Dabrowski…

McHardy, Roberta J.; Blanchard, Pamela B.; de Wet, Catharina F.



Where Do the Children Play?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adventure programs and philosophies can be an effective means for realizing violence prevention programming goals. Collaborative, noncompetitive activities help children develop a heightened sense of empathy and perspective, create and apply supportive behavioral norms, and in turn, improve conduct and climate in schools. Sample programs include

Kilty, Katie




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center




Protecting Children and Supporting Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This serial "double issue" focuses on protecting children and supporting families through greater collaboration between child welfare services and family resource programs. The issue includes the featured articles: (1) "Making the Media a Constructive Force in Child Welfare" (Kathy Bonk), which discusses how the media and child welfare agencies…

Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.



Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children  


... 1, a hormone that reflects GH levels. • Gh stimulation test. The child is given medicines that stimulate the pituitary to ... but serious side effects include • Severe headache with vision problems • A hip problem, ... For most children, the benefits of taking GH outweigh the risks. ...


Dietary Assessment in Pregnant Women and Children

In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.



EPA Science Inventory

A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...


Defining overweight and obesity - children  


... than 85% (85 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered at risk of being overweight. ... than 95% (95 out of 100) of other children their age and sex, they are considered overweight or obese.


Children and Complementary Health Approaches  


... disclaimer about external links Menu Children and Complementary Health Approaches On this page: Introduction Key Points Patterns ... care. Top Patterns on the Use of Complementary Health Approaches in Children According to the 2007 National ...


'Shocking' Obedience Found in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a Stanley Milgram type obedience experiment conducted with 192 Jordanian children ages 6-16. Seventy-three percent of the children responded via administering supposed dangerous electrical shocks to test subjects. (SL)

Science News, 1977



The Outcome of Psychotherapy With Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review quantitatively assesses the outcomes of psychotherapy with children. Seventy-five studies were examined in which children who received psychotherapy were compared with controls or children receiving another form of treatment. Results demonstrated that therapy with children is similar in effectiveness to therapy with adults; treated children achieved outcomes about two thirds of a standard deviation better than untreated children.

Rita J. Casey; Jeffrey S. Berman



Rhinosinusitis in Children  

PubMed Central

Rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinus(es). 5–13% of upper respiratory tract infections in children complicate into acute rhinosinusitis. Though not life threatening, it profoundly affects child's school performance and sleep pattern. If untreated, it could progress to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The pathogens involved in perpetuation of CRS consist of multidrug-resistant mixed microflora. CRS is challenging to manage and could further extend to cause eye or intracranial complications. In children, CRS diagnosis is often either missed or incomprehensive. Due to this, morbidity and strain on healthcare budget are tremendous. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopy has revolutionized management of CRS. Its utility in children is being increasingly recognized. Optimal management entails specific appropriate antimicrobials as well as treatment of underlying causes. The aim is to normalize sinus anatomy and physiology and regain normal mucociliary function and clearance. PMID:23762621

Shahid, Sukhbir K.



[Stab wounds in children].  


Injuries are the most serious health risk in children. Injuries are the main cause of death and long term disabilities in children. Fortunately, stab wounds in children are very rare in our country, but they are, in most cases, very serious injuries. Presenting 3 case reports, this article aims to show the danger of stab wounds and how easily sharp objects can penetrate human tissue. In two out of the three case reports, a foreign object was remained inside the wound. When dealing with such injuries, this possibility must be considered the wound must be carefully inspected. When a revision is necessary, it should be carried out using minimally invasive methods in order to save the child from suffering extensive wounding which would result from the classical open approach revision. PMID:22746076

Kucera, A; Zeman, L; Vyhnánek, M; Petr?, O; Kavalcová, L; Snajdauf, J



Multiple Sclerosis in Children  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh



Lyme disease in children.  


Lyme disease is an increasing health risk for children. Pediatricians should become familiar with the different clinical syndromes caused by the Borrelia burgdorferi. Appropriate antibiotic therapy must be initiated and follow-up of these children should be a part of the management as some may develop (tertiary) chronic borreliosis. Lyme disease should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of heart block, childhood arthritis and in undiagnosed peripheral and central nervous system disease. Serologic tests appear to be quite specific and sensitive in children with late stage disease in our experience. Newer diagnostic tests to detect infection during the early stage will optimize the management of Lyme disease and further decrease the incidence of long-term sequelae. PMID:2685925

Belani, K; Regelmann, W E



The Future of Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are a number of fine journals that deal with policies oriented toward children in the United States, and The Future of Children is certainly one of the best. The journal is a publication of The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and The Brookings Institution. On this site, visitors can read the current issue of the journal, and also browse their previous issues dating back to 1991. Each issue has a general theme, and past years have featured issues dealing with adoption, health insurance for children, caring for infants and toddlers, and domestic violence. For visitors who may be pressed for time, each issue contains an executive summary and article summaries. Additionally, users may also wish to sign up to receive their free e-mail newsletter.


Preventive interventions in families with parental depression: children’s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour  

PubMed Central

The aim is to document the effectiveness of a preventive family intervention (Family Talk Intervention, FTI) and a brief psychoeducational discussion with parents (Let’s Talk about the Children, LT) on children’s psychosocial symptoms and prosocial behaviour in families with parental mood disorder, when the interventions are practiced in psychiatric services for adults in the finnish national health service. Patients with mood disorder were invited to participate with their families. Consenting families were randomized to the two intervention groups. The initial sample comprised 119 families and their children aged 8–16. Of these, 109 completed the interventions and the baseline evaluation. Mothers and fathers filled out questionnaires including standardized rating scales for children’s symptoms and prosocial behaviour at baseline and at 4, 10 and 18 months post-intervention. The final sample consisted of parental reports on 149 children with 83 complete data sets. Both interventions were effective in decreasing children’s emotional symptoms, anxiety, and marginally hyperactivity and in improving children’s prosocial behaviour. The FTI was more effective than the LT on emotional symptoms particularly immediately after the intervention, while the effect of the LT emerged after a longer interval. The study supports the effectiveness of both interventions in families with depressed parents. The FTI is applicable in cultural settings other than the USA. Our findings provide support for including preventive child mental health measures as part of psychiatric services for mentally ill parents. PMID:20890622

Paavonen, E. Juulia; Toikka, Sini; Punamäki, Raija-Leena



Treating children’s cyclic vomiting  

PubMed Central

QUESTION One of my pediatric patients was diagnosed with cyclic vomiting syndrome, and the parents are understandably frustrated with the recurrent yet unpredictable episodes that control and disrupt their family life. Are there any effective treatments for this condition? ANSWER There is currently no evidence-based treatment regimen for cyclic vomiting syndrome. Pharmacologic remedies, according to anecdotal cases, retrospective reports, and open-label trials, have found that some antimigraine, antiemetic, prokinetic, and anticonvulsant agents have been effective. Management focuses on correct diagnosis of the syndrome, avoidance of potential triggers, prophylactic pharmacotherapy, and supportive care for children and their families during episodes. PMID:17872673

Chow, Shirley; Goldman, Ran D.



Academic Outcomes of Children With Isolated Orofacial Clefts Compared With Children Without a Major Birth Defect.  


Objective :? To compare academic outcomes between children with orofacial cleft (OFC) and children without major birth defects. Design and Setting :? In 2007-2008, we mailed questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of school-aged children with OFC and mothers of children without major birth defects (comparison group). The questionnaire included Likert-scale, closed-ended, and open-ended questions from validated instruments. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses on parent-reported educational outcomes and bivariate analyses on parent-reported presence of related medical conditions between children with isolated OFC and unaffected children. Patients/Participants :? A random sample of 504 parents of children with OFCs born 1996-2002 (age 5-12 years) were identified by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. A random sample of 504 parents of children without birth defects born 1996-2002 was selected from North Carolina birth certificates. Of the 289 (28.7%) respondents, we analyzed 112 children with isolated OFC and 138 unaffected children. Main Outcome Measures :? Letter grades, school days missed, and grade retention. Results :? Parents of children with isolated OFC reported more developmental disabilities and hearing and speech problems among their children than comparison parents. Children with isolated OFC were more likely to receive lower grades and miss more school days than unaffected children. Because of the low response rate, results should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion :? Children with isolated OFC may have poorer academic outcomes during elementary school than their unaffected peers. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and determine whether these differences persist in later grades. PMID:24878348

Knight, Jessica; Cassell, Cynthia H; Meyer, Robert E; Strauss, Ronald P



[Pseudoepileptic seizures in children].  


Pseudoepileptic seizures (pseudoseizures) are defined as episodic disturbances of behaviour with elements of epileptic seizures, but with atypical features and not accompanied by abnormal EEG discharges. They are frequently seen in patients with epilepsy, but also as the only disturbance of function. In children, the possible pathogenetic mechanisms are less understood than in adults. We present a series of cases, showing that an important factor in development of pseudoseizures lies in disturbances of communication between children and parents within the family. However, there are large interindividual variations in the most probable underlying mechanisms. Some recommendations as regards treatment are given. PMID:2024302

Uldall, P V; Berg, L S; Alving, J



Fractures in hospitalized children.  


Hospitalized children have multiple risk factors for fragility fractures, related to disease pathophysiology, treatments, nutritional status and immobilization. Recognition and treatment of these risk factors are important to prevent morbidity associated with fractures and to promote current and future bone health. Many knowledge gaps remain regarding the ideal nutrition, physical activity, and medication regimens needed to optimize bone health and reduce the risk of fractures over the life course. This article reviews the pathogenesis, risk factors, treatment and prevention strategies for fractures in hospitalized infants and children. PMID:22959479

Huh, Susanna Y; Gordon, Catherine M



Children, ADHD, and Citizenship  

PubMed Central

The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis in potentially biased ways. PMID:19251776

Cohen, Elizabeth F.



Vascular anomalies in children.  


The process of understanding and treating children with vascular anomalies has been hampered by confusing and occasionally incorrect terminology. The most important step when evaluating a maxillofacial vascular anomaly is to determine whether it is a tumor or a malformation. In most cases, this diagnosis can be made by history and physical examination. Selective radiographic imaging is helpful in differentiating vascular malformations or the extent of bony involvement and/or destruction. Children with vascular anomalies should be managed by an interdisciplinary team of trained providers who are committed to following, treating, and studying patients with these complex problems. PMID:22771277

Abramowicz, Shelly; Padwa, Bonnie L



Brain talk: power and negotiation in children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour  

PubMed Central

This article examines children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour, focusing on the dynamics of power, knowledge and responsibility articulated by children. The empirical data discussed in this article are drawn from the study of Voices on Identity, Childhood, Ethics and Stimulants, which included interviews with 151 US and UK children, a subset of whom had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Despite their contact with psychiatric explanations and psychotropic drugs for their behaviour, children’s discursive engagements with the brain show significant evidence of agency and negotiated responsibility. These engagements suggest the limitations of current concepts that describe a collapse of the self into the brain in an age of neurocentrism. Empirical investigation is needed in order to develop agent-centred conceptual and theoretical frameworks that describe and evaluate the harms and benefits of treating children with psychotropic drugs and other brain-based technologies. PMID:23094965

Singh, Ilina



Death: Realism in Children's Books.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…

Danielson, Kathy Everts


Poor Children in Rich Countries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a comparison of the poverty rates of families with children in six industrial countries. Discusses income and poverty, poverty among children, family poverty rates before and after taxes and income transfers, and conclusions. States that the poverty of children may affect long-term competitiveness with other countries. (RT)

Smeeding, Timothy M.; Torrey, Barbara Boyld



Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

Corsaro, William A.



Left Behind: Children of Soldiers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…

Jerles, Joe F.



Children's Perspectives about Pedagogical Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea that children are not objects nor subjects but participants constitutes children as social actors with a part to play in their own educational processes and research connected to these processes. As a consequence, there is growing awareness that knowledge about children should be constituted on the basis of listening and hearing them.…

Formosinho, Julia; Araujo, Sara Barros



Isometric Force Regulation in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isometric pinch force regulation was investigated in children and adults using a visuo-motor tracking paradigm. Younger children aged 5-7 years performed significantly worse than older children aged 9-11 years and adults in terms of an overall error score as well as a correlation score, which is believed to reflect the ability to predict the…

Lazarus, Jo-Anne C.; And Others



Tuberculosis among Children in Alaska.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…

Gessner, Bradford D.




EPA Science Inventory

The National Children's Study (NCS) will be the largest long-term study of children's health and development ever conducted in the United States. The NCS will examine a broad range of environmental influences on children's health and development. It will follow approximately 10...


Street Children in Contemporary Greece  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…

Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim



Chinese Children's Explanations for Illness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study explored how Chinese children spontaneously explained the causes of illness. Two groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds were recruited, with 30 children in each age group. A group of 30 college students were also recruited and their responses compared to those produced by the…

Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guangyi; Tardif, Twila



Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.



Children's Environmental Concerns: Expressing Ecophobia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…

Strife, Susan Jean



Children's Mathematics: Cognitively Guided Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book, with accompanying CD-ROMs, was written to help readers understand children's intuitive mathematical thinking and use that knowledge to help children learn mathematics with understanding. Based on more than twenty years of research, this book portrays the development of children's understanding of basic number concepts. Detailed…

Carpenter, Thomas P.; Fennema, Elizabeth; Franke, Megan Loef; Levi, Linda; Empson, Susan B.


Parent Perceptions of Children's Fears.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…

Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry



Contamination Sensitivity in Young Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Experiment 1, to examine contamination sensitivity, children ages 36 to 47 months were shown juice that had been in contact with a cockroach. In contrast to previous research suggesting that young children do not have the cognitive prerequisites to understand the invisible nature of contamination, most children indicated that the juice was not good to drink even though the

Michael Siegal; David L. Share



Librarian's Image in Children's Fiction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The image of the librarian has engendered much discussion among professional librarians. Children's fiction and picture books are good mediums in which to examine the image of the librarian, since they provide impressionable children some of their earliest cultural knowledge. Children's authors can supply powerful images by means of text and…

Kitchen, Barbara


Researching with Children: Ethical Tensions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need to reflect on both the processes and outcomes of the range of approaches aimed at promoting children's engagement in research, with the specific intent of listening to children's voices. This article considers some of the ethical tensions we have experienced when engaging children in research about their prior-to-school and school…

Dockett, Sue; Einarsdottir, Johanna; Perry, Bob



The Colorado Children's Book Award.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the Colorado Children's Book Award (CCBA), established in 1975 to allow children, rather than adults, to vote on their favorite books. The rules for book nomination and voting are explained in this paper and a short history of the award is given. The remaining portion of the paper reviews briefly each of the 12 children's…

Livo, Norma J.


Children's Responses to Literary Style.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study undertook to determine (1) whether teaching sixth grade children elements of style would increase their pleasure in listening to "The Hobbit," (2) whether children who learned the most about style would respond the most positively to Tolkien's style, and (3) what children's preferences would be for selected examples of Tolkien's style.…

Henze, Mary Vance


Temperamental Profiles of Dysregulated Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were…

Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Rettew, David C.; Baer, Julie R.; Hudziak, James J.



Carnegie Mellon University Children's School  

E-print Network

Carnegie Mellon University Children's School Policies for Non-Research Projects 2013 projects at the Children's School. Individuals must complete a project request form and submit it to Dr the nature and timing of projects to the Children's School staff. Because of tight scheduling


Carnegie Mellon University Children's School  

E-print Network

Carnegie Mellon University Children's School Policies for Non-Research Projects 2014 projects at the Children's School. Individuals must complete a project request form and submit it to Dr the nature and timing of projects to the Children's School staff. Because of tight scheduling


Children's Perception of Speaker Sex.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Determined how proficiently children identify gender of adults and children, based on whispered and phonated vowels. Compares performance with adult listeners. Both groups obtained simiiar average rates of accuracy when identifying gender based on preadolescent children's phonated vowels. Adults were more accurate when perceiving whispered vowels.…

Bennett, Suzanne; Montero-Diaz, Luisa



Quantitative analysis of children's microactivity patterns: The Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)\\/Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) was a population-based study designed to characterize children's exposure to residential pesticides and to evaluate the contribution of residential and children's activities to children's exposure. Families of 168 children were surveyed for residential use of pesticides and children's activities. From these homes, families of 102 children between the





Microsoft Academic Search

In a descriptive study of 103 Grade 1 children, including 16 longitudinal case studies, we investigated the use of mathematical structure across a range of mathematical tasks. Children's structural development was inferred from their imagistic representations, supported by analysis of problem-solving behavior during videotaped task-based clinical interviews. We describe with examples how internal representational systems change through four stages of

Joanne Mulligan; Anne Prescott; Michael Mitchelmore


Children of Divorce: Mending Broken Hearts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines important issues for parents to consider when dealing with children of divorce and discusses several problem points to avoid, including loyalty conflicts, good parent/evil parent, family secrets, and feeling cheated. Several suggestions for helping children cope are offered. (SM)

Beck, Irene C.




E-print Network

SUMMERPROGRAMSFORCHILDREN TUFTS CHILDREN'S THEATER MAGIC CIRCLE THEATER & CREATIVE ARTS DRAMA DANCE of three children's plays in repertory in the Balch Arena Theater. Magic Circle Theater emphasizes management. Each day, the Magic Circle program is structured to include time for workshops in acting, music

Dennett, Daniel


Policy Statements on Children, Youth, and Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication documents resolutions of the Council of Representatives of the American Psychological Association (APA) related to children, youth, and families. It includes resolutions on: (1) children's mental health as indicated in Public Law No. 89-97; (2) the national commitment to early child development; (3) corporal punishment in…

American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.


America's Poisoned Playgrounds: Children and Toxic Chemicals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Next to chemical and farm workers, today's children are at the greatest risk from toxic chemicals. Through their normal play activities, children are exposed to a frightening array of toxic hazards, including lead, pesticides, arsenic, and unknown dangers from abandoned landfills and warehouses. Through a series of documented examples, the author…

Freedberg, Louis


Audiological Assessment of Deaf-Blind Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…

Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.


Relating Preschool Quality to Children's Literacy Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…

Cunningham, Denise D.



Hearing Children's Voices in the Early Years  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article Hannah Mortimer explores how even very young children can be consulted and included when planning for their education and needs. This allows early years practitioners to ensure that the children they support have equal opportunities, feel involved and successful in their learning and play, and are given activities and interventions…

Mortimer, Hannah



Making Marks: Art Development in Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes stages of children's art development from scribbling to representations. Discusses ways to organize the space in the child care art center, and presents 11 art activities for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children; lists materials and teacher instructions for each activity. Includes suggestions for keeping clothes clean…

Texas Child Care, 2002



Atypical Visuomotor Performance in Children with PDD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…

Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter



What Shall We Tell the Children?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ways parents can help their children deal with information and emotions associated with the threat of nuclear war are offered in this paper. Also included is a list of actions that children can take to make their opposition to nuclear war known. (RH)

Bananas, Inc., Oakland, CA.


Creation of two children's speech databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sets of speech recordings were made from children talkers ranging in age from 5 to 18 years. One set was recorded via telephone channels (TEL) and the other using high-fidelity recording equipment (MIC). Special considerations and techniques required for the recording of speech from children are discussed. Also presented are (1) a description of the recording environment including ambient

J. D. Miller; Sungbok Lee; R. M. Uchanski; A. F. Heidbreder; B. B. Richman; J. Tadlock



What Do Our Children Like to Read?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As part of an ongoing study by William Paterson College, 700 New Jersey children (Grades 4-5) were surveyed about their reading interests. Age and sex remain the major factors influencing children's topic choices; some rural-urban differences were also found. Related primary grade findings are included. (SJL)

Feeley, Joan T.



The Decline in American Children's Fitness Levels.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)

Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.



Curriculum Design and Children's Learning at Church  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the relationship between curriculum design and children's learning in church. Participants in this study included 12 six-year-old children attending two different Sabbath school classes in the same Midwestern Seventh-day Adventist church. A traditional curriculum guided instruction in Class 1. "GraceLink," a new curriculum,…

Burton, Larry D.; Paroschi, Eliane E.; Habenicht, Donna J.; Hollingsead, Candice C.




EPA Science Inventory

Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...



ERIC Educational Resources Information Center


Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.


Focus on Fiction: Books for Older Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report on 1984 Drexel University/Free Library of Philadelphia conference on older children's literature includes Keynote address, "Portraits Beyond Pictures," by Jean Karl, Vice President and Director of Children's Book Department of the Atheneum; reports on author workshops; and Carolyn W. Field's acceptance speech on her receipt of Drexel…

Fein, Linda Abby; Mancall, Jacqueline C.



Seeking Solutions to Violence on Children's Television.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…

Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.


Brain Imaging in Children with Neurodevelopmental Disorders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews neuroimaging techniques such as cranial ultrasound, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging. Their roles in the care of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities include identification of high-risk infants, establishment of the diagnosis and prognosis in affected children, and enhancement of discussion…

Mantovani, John F.



Professional Noticing of Children's Mathematical Thinking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct "professional noticing of children's mathematical thinking" is introduced as a way to begin to unpack the in-the-moment decision making that is foundational to the complex view of teaching endorsed in national reform documents. We define this expertise as a set of interrelated skills including (a) attending to children's strategies,…

Jacobs, Victoria R.; Lamb, Lisa L. C.; Philipp, Randolph A.



A Principal's Guide to Children's Allergies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…

Munoz-Furlong, Anne



Teaching Chinese Children. A Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…

Nuffield Foundation, London (England).


Children with chronic conditions: Educators' views  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative, exploratory study was to identify the concerns and resource needs of educators for effectively teaching children with chronic health conditions. Semistructured audiotaped telephone interviews were conducted with 23 teachers and six principals from urban and rural public schools, grades K-12. The interview included questions in four areas: (a) experiences with children with chronic health conditions,

Ann Marie McCarthy; Janet K Williams; Lynn Eidahl



Children's Literature: An Issues Approach. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introducing children from kindergarten through junior high school to the joy and benefits of reading, this book examines children's literature and its treatment of important, sometimes controversial issues. Focusing on the personal and societal concerns of today's youth--including sexuality, divorce, heritage, abuse, and death--the book offers…

Rudman, Masha Kabakow


A Portrait of At-Risk Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social and economic problems facing U.S. children are reviewed, including poverty, hunger and homelessness, gaps in health and mental health services, infant mortality/morbidity, child abuse, drug use, and violence depicted in the mass media. Risk-taking behaviors that are children's responses and suggestions to remedy these problems are…

Gore, Tipper



Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming


Use of natural health products in children  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objective To determine how common it is for parents to give natural health products (NHPs) to their children, which NHPs are being used, why they are being used, and parents’ assessments of the benefits and side effects of NHPs. Design Survey. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants Parents waiting in their family doctors’ offices. Main outcome measures Parent and child demographic characteristics; pediatric chronic medical conditions affecting the children; prescribed medications, over-the-counter medications, and NHPs used by the children; why the medications and NHPs were being used, the dose, and parents’ assessments of the effectiveness and side effects; and where parents had heard about the NHPs, whether they had told their physicians that the children were taking the products, and where they had obtained the products. Results A total of 202 (53.4%) of the 378 eligible adults who were approached completed the survey. This represented 333 children. Mean (SD) age of the children was 5.1 (3.3) years. Overall, 28.7% of parents reported using nonvitamin NHPs for their children. A total of 137 children (41.1%) had taken NHPs (including vitamins); 61.1% of the NHPs being used were vitamins. The remainder fell under teas (primarily chamomile and green teas), echinacea, fish or omega-3 oils, and a large category of “other” products. These NHPs were most commonly used to improve general health, improve immunity, and prevent colds and infections. Approximately half of the parents (51.7%) believed their children had benefited from taking NHPs, and 4.4% believed their children had experienced adverse side effects. Slightly less than half of the parents (45.0%) had informed their physicians that their children were taking NHPs. Conclusion Overall, 45.5% of parents attending physicians’ offices reported using NHPs in their children. If vitamins are not included in the definition of NHPs, this rate drops to 28.7%. Parents most commonly use NHPs to maintain the general health of their children, to prevent colds, and to boost children’s immune systems. About half of the parents believed the NHPs helped, very few had noticed any side effects, and approximately half had informed their physicians that they were giving their children NHPs. PMID:23946043

Godwin, Marshall; Crellin, John; Mathews, Maria; Chowdhury, Nurun L.; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Law, Rebecca



Impact of Residential Greenness on Preschool Children’s Emotional and Behavioral Problems  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of the proximity to city parks and the influence of residential greenness on children’s emotional and behavioral problems. This cross-sectional study included 1,468 mothers of children (ages 4 to 6) who were residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. The mothers and their children were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The mothers reported on their parenting stress and their children’s mental health. Residential greenness was characterized as an average of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a 300 m buffer around each home address, and the proximity to city parks was defined as the distance from the subject’s residence to the nearest park. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association among the residence distances from city parks, greenness and children’s mental health problems. Farther residential distance from city parks was associated with worse mental health (except for the emotional problems subscale) in children whose mothers had a lower education level. More residential greenness was associated with worse mental health (more conditional problems and less prosocial behavior) in children whose mothers had a higher education level. These relationships have important implications for the prevention of emotional and behavioral problems in children. PMID:24978880

Balseviciene, Birute; Sinkariova, Liuda; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.



Facilitating Maltreated Children’s Use of Emotional Language  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4–9-year-old maltreated children’s spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children’s use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children’s use of emotional language. PMID:25243047




Developmental Outcomes of Internationally Adopted Children  

PubMed Central

This study followed the development of a sample of 106 (67 girls) internationally adopted children over a period of 18 months. Children were adopted from five birth regions, including China, Korea, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and other Asian countries. Mean age at adoption was 11 months. Mothers completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) at 6, 12, and 24 months post-adoption, assessing children's gross and fine motor, communicative, personal-social, and problem solving skills. Results revealed that the sample as a whole demonstrated linear improvement over time in most developmental domains, but children with initially low scores remained significantly lower than other children at the 18-month follow-up. At the first time point, communication was the domain where children most commonly experienced delays. Children with medical problems had significantly lower developmental scores than those without medical diagnoses. ASQ scores were unrelated to age at adoption, but significant differences by birth country region were found. Across most domains, children adopted from Eastern Europe showed generally lower scores than children adopted from other birth regions. PMID:23908583

Welsh, Janet A.; Viana, Andres G.



Children in the World.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book of charts documents the current situation of children in the less developed regions of the world. Data on population distribution by age and sex, urban growth, social and economic conditions, life expectancy, mortality, health and disease, nutrition, medical care, education, youth participation in the labor force of selected countries…

McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others


Building Blocks: Children  


Online Children's Games You'll need the latest Flash Player to play these games Boogie Band Studio Non-Flash version (Simon Says) ... Weather Race Non-Flash version Favorite Snacks Memory Game Non-Flash version I Feel Many Ways Non- ...


Chinese Children's Songs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Singing can be an enjoyable and effective way to motivate children to learn a second language. This booklet consists of contemporary and folk songs that are related to Chinese festivals, transportation, the family, seasons, Christmas and other topics. Each page gives the music to a song with the words in Chinese and in English. The songs are…

Kwok, Irene, Comp.


The Children of Conflict  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly summarizes highlights from the Committee on Teaching About the United Nations (CATUN)-sponsored annual workshop, "A World Out of Balance: Searching for Answers Through Education" in New York City, February 4, 2005. The meeting focused on children worldwide who are struggling to survive child labor, child trafficking, child…

Staley, Lynn



Children of the East.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is estimated that by the year 2010, 50 percent of the population of southeast Asia will be under 15 years of age. Based on a research project completed in 1993, this book provides a regional overview of the quality of life for these children, and is targeted not only at those with an academic and professional interest in child care and social…

Davis, Leonard


Children's Media Policy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

Jordan, Amy B.



Children of Sex Rings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines three major differentiating categories of children who were sexually abused by sex rings: level of fear, ability to trust, and disclosure confusion. Addresses denial and resistance regarding child sexual exploitation by a ring among practitioners in the child welfare system. (Author/BB)

Hunt, Patricia; Baird, Margaret



Children and Home Fires  


... fire department to meet them and learn about fire safety. Teach your children to tell you or a responsible adult when they find matches or lighters at home or school. Smoke alarms save lives. Install a smoke alarm near your kitchen, on each level of your home, near sleeping ...


Children's Media Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free

Amy B. Jordan



Science for Handicapped Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book consists of science activities for 11- to 16-year-old children who have physical disabilities. Part 1 presents information for teachers, parents, curriculum planners, and others who are interested in incorporating some science into the curriculum of the handicapped child. It outlines reasons for doing science, gives a suggested concept…

Jones, Alan V.


Improving: Services for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide to self-evaluation and improvement builds upon the advice given in the publication "A Guide to Evaluating Services for Children and Young People Using Quality Indicators" (HMIE, 2006) (A summary of the quality indicators is reproduced in Appendix I). Local authorities, agencies and professionals who have responsibilities for providing…

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2008



The Children Left Behind  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…

Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett



Mentally Ill Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…

Blai, Boris, Jr.


Paraquat Poisoning in Children  

PubMed Central

Four children with paraquat poisoning are described, with 2 fatalities. In one fatal case delay in treatment occurred as the nature of the ingested fluid was uncertain. A method for rapid detection of paraquat in the urine is referred to. The treatment of paraquat poisoning consists of immediate gastric lavage and forced osmotic diuresis. PMID:5427860

McDonagh, Brian J.; Martin, John



Exploring Children's Creative Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This fascinating collection of international research offers fresh perspectives on children's creative processes and the expression of their creative imagination through dramatic play, stories, artwork, dance, music and conversation. Drawing on a range of research evidence from innovative educational initiatives in a wide variety of countries,…

Faulkner, Dorothy, Ed.; Coates, Elizabeth, Ed.



Children of 2010.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the twenty-first century, no single racial or ethnic group will constitute a majority of young people in an increasing number of states and communities in the United States, and, therefore, children need to be prepared to share a society of diverse students, neighbors, and co-workers. This book addresses some of the issues involved in making…

Washington, Valora, Ed.; Andrews, J. D., Ed.


Kidney Stones in Children  


... types of fluids, such as soft drinks or drinks with caffeine, may cause substances in the urine to become ... regular amount of dietary calcium and limit salt intake. A thiazide diuretic medication ... soft drinks. Children who form uric acid or cystine stones ...


Children's Conceptions of Color.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses children's ideas about colored objects and colored shadows, with special attention to the organization of these ideas into mental models. The clarification of these models provides instructional tools that serve to assess and confront students' naive conceptions. Subjects were visitors to a science museum who engaged in interactive…

Feher, Elsa; Meyer, Karen Rice



Commentary: Political Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the 1988 film "A World Apart" as a focus for commentary on the controversial topic of involving children in political activism. Analyzes Hannah Arendt's writings for opinions on childhood activism, contrasting Arendt's views with those of Robert Coles. Gives examples from the desegregation crisis in the United States, China's Maoist…

Elshtain, Jean Bethke



The Children's Political Checklist.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this guide is to provide background and focus material for political action regarding several areas of concern related to children and their families: unemployment and the working parent, supports for family economic stability, health and family services, and the environment and the working parent. Each chapter presents brief…

Coalition for Children and Youth, Washington, DC.


How Children Grow.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…

National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.


Children's color trails.  


Color Trails for Children was developed in response to the need for instruments which minimize cultural bias in neuropsychological testing. The test, similar in format to Trail Making, was designed to provide an evaluation of speeded visuomotor tracking while minimizing the influence of language. The present research involves two exploratory studies which examine the relationship between Color Trails for Children and Trail Making, factors that may affect performance times, and discriminant validity. Results indicate that the tests appear to measure the same neuropsychological domains, and administration of Trail Making did not significantly alter performance times on Color Trails. Increasing age and IQ were related to quicker completion time for both tests. Females were found to complete Color Trails 2 and Trail Making Part B more quickly than males in this sample. Comparison between children diagnosed with learning disabilities, attention deficits, or mild neurological conditions and a preliminary standardization sample supported the discriminant validity of Color Traits to distinguish between normal controls and children with altered neuropsychological functioning. Comparison between clinical conditions indicated that Color Trails 2 was particularly sensitive in discriminating among the groups. Although further research is needed, results suggest that Color Trails has the potential to be an effective research and clinical tool in child neuropsychological assessment. PMID:14588688

Williams, J; Rickert, V; Hogan, J; Zolten, A J; Satz, P; D'Elia, L F; Asarnow, R F; Zaucha, K; Light, R



Muslim Children's Other School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

Moore, Leslie C.



Mold and Children's Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mold can seriously affect the health of children with asthma or allergies. Indoor air problems related to mold can be difficult to identify, but when several students who spend time in the same classroom area show allergic symptoms, it is important to consider mold and air quality. Failure to respond promptly can have serious consequences. (SM)

Tuscano, Antoinette



Antisocial Children: Why?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper examines the causes of violent and other antisocial behavior in children. Considered are the effects of heredity and environment, and the nature and prevalence of learning disabilities in persons with antisocial behavior are noted. Effects of temperament and its relationship to stress are discussed. The author cites findings on potential…

Blai, Boris, Jr.


Challenge in Children's Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States ranked ninth among 35 nations in an international study among students in reading, as reported by the Progress in International Reading Literacy. Standards keep going up for students in reading achievement. Literature books for children must be rewritten in keeping up with the times in a demanding school and societal environment.…

Ediger, Marlow


Chinese Folktales for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…

Kwok, Irene


Guilt and Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book comprises articles exploring the origins and development of guilt and its relationship to adaptive behavior and mental illness in children. The articles are grouped in four sections, covering the nature of guilt; how guilt develops; inducing, instilling, and alleviating guilt; and guilt and adjustment. The articles are: (1) "How Does…

Bybee, Jane, Ed.


Children, Teachers and Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this collection of papers, the authors develop a set of premises regarding the need for elementary teachers to be trained in the discipline of literature. Sections discuss (1) the importance of literature in providing children with mythic touchstones by which to conceptualize and order experience, (2) the need to train elementary teachers to…

Anderson, William; Groff, Patrick


Valve replacement in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

With increasing experience in the surgical management of children with congenital heart disease has come an increasing use of prosthetic valves. They have been employed in a wide variety of conditions ranging from simple congenital stenosis or incompetence to an essential part of repair of more complex disorders. As in adult cardiac surgery, there has been considerable debate over the

Martin J. Elliott; Marc de Leval



Pastor Emile's Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article outlines the efforts of one man in a war-ravaged country to make a radical difference in the lives of children that have suffered the consequences of civil strife. The author was leader of a Baptist denomination in Liberia throughout a period of a civil war that devastated the country. Despite personal and political turmoil, he is an…

Sam-Peal, Emile Desmond Ebun



Cultural Awareness for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

Allen, Judy; And Others


Preparing Children for Surgery \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

practice. Evidence: A search of three databases resulted in five syntheses and 53 research articles for critique using the United States Preventative Task Force (USPTF) criteria. The synthesis revealed that stress is higher in younger children, that stress of the parent and child is correlated, and there are specific stress points throughout a child's hospital experience that cause particular anxiety.

Kelley K. Lee


Children in the GDR.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The four chapters of this book and the many accompanying color photographs describe and portray comprehensive programs of socialist education provided for children in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). The introduction indicates the scope of educational objectives within national and international contexts. The first chapter of the book…



The Children's Vaccine Initiative.  


The Children's Vaccine Initiative (CVI), which was founded after the World Summit for Children held in New York in September 1990, had three goals: 1) immunization of all children; 2) research to determine the feasibility of a single-dose multivalent vaccine; and 3) introduction of new vaccines for infectious diseases. UNICEF, UNDP, WHO, the World Bank, and the Rockefeller Foundation co-sponsored the CVI. The following has been achieved since 1990: 1) coverage with 6 EPI vaccines has risen above 80% in many countries; 2) the number of vaccines in the research pipeline has increased; 3) there is better planning of the global vaccine supply; and 4) governments of developing countries are assuming more responsibility for national immunization. The new strategic plan for CVI, which is the work of experts from government, industry, and international organization, establishes the following goals: 1) development of greater consensus on priorities regarding vaccine development and application; 2) definition of needs and strategies for action; 3) communication of the health and economic value of vaccines; and 4) mobilization of resources. Executive Secretary Dr. Lee and CVI coordinator Roy Widdus are responsible for the new role for CVI. 4 million children die annually from diseases preventable by existing vaccines; another 8 million die annually from diseases that could be prevented by new vaccines. Measles, hepatitis B, and Hib vaccines are underused. Vaccines against rotavirus diarrhea and pneumococcal pneumonia should be available soon, while research continues on vaccines against malaria and HIV. PMID:12348372

Caddell, A



Curing Children's Cancer  


... last December, she's been treated for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) at the NIH Clinical Center. ALL is a cancer of the white blood cells, which fight infection. It is the most common cancer in children, representing 23 percent of all cancers among those ...


Development of IVF Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines physical and psychological development of children conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), focusing on questions related to risk of congenital defects or mental retardation and impact on the parent-child relationship. Concludes that no serious problems have arisen concerning the physical and psychological development of IVF…

van Balen, Frank



Game Technology and Children  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).


Cavernous Angioma and Children  


... neurologist to see if there might be an alternative medication. Children with even mild muscle weakness or decreased coordination resulting from a cavernous malformation bleed often have reduced physical stamina. It simply requires more energy to use legs that feel heavy or that ...


Lead Poisoning in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…

Lin-Fu, Jane S.



Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The care of children is increasingly driven by modern technology. With the use of artificial surfactants and new ventilatory methods, the survival of the majority of infants born at greater than 700 grams birth weight and a substantial portion of those 500 to 700 g at birth can be ensured. This ac...


Children's Response to Literature.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers many aspects of children's response to literature. Among the topics discussed are factors within the child (related to age, sex, and intelligence) that teachers and researchers agree may affect a child's enjoyment of literature; a research study on the relationship between story content and a child's psychological and…

Bard, Therese Bissen


[Prevention of perioperative venous thromboembolism in children].  


Venous thromboembolic events (VTE) occur in children at the time of surgery. Few guidelines about how to assess the risk and provide prophylaxis have been developed and published so far. It is uncertain if any of these guidelines have been adopted into clinical practice. The article discusses the specific differences of the haemostatic system throughout childhood, risk assessment, choice and dosing of antithrombotic agents, difficulties in drug monitoring and side effects of treatment including HIT. Current available recommendations and guidelines are summarized. Current evidence on which to base risk stratification and prevention of VTE for children undergoing surgery consists mainly of cohort studies, case series, case reports and expert opinion. Many suggestions are merely extrapolated from results from clinical trials in adults. Primary healthy children who undergo minor surgery including circumcision, herniotomy and appendectomy do not need antithrombotic prophylaxis. Children with multiple risk factors for VTE including severe underlying conditions and long-term immobilization, children with central venous lines and children with a history of VTE should be considered to receive VTE prophylaxis. Older children (Tanner II+) should be treated following adult guidelines. Standard unfractionated heparin and low molecular heparin are the most frequently recommended antithrombotic drugs. Decision for VTE prophylaxis must widely be based on individual risk assessment by experienced physicians. Newly developed scores and guidelines may provide assistance. Well designed clinical studies in children that provide proper evidence on risk assessment for VTE at the time of surgery and investigate safety and efficacy of antithrombotic prophylaxis/treatment are urgently needed. PMID:19898787

Streif, Werner



32 CFR Appendix B to Part 80 - Procedures for Special Educational Programs (Including Related Services) for Preschool Children...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...may be in need of special education and related services. ...or placement in a special education program. 2. Assessment...acuity. c. Social and emotional status, to include social...she is in need of special education and related services....



Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  


... on. Feature: Improving Children’s Health Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Past Issues / Summer ... their founding in 1998, the Centers for Children’s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research have been examining ...


The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

Ali, Emad



Teaching 'Yes' and 'No' responses to children with multiple disabilities through a program including microswitches linked to a vocal output device.  


The present study introduced two children (a boy and a girl of 9.2 and 12.3 yr. of age, respectively, with multiple disabilities) to an intervention program for establishing Yes and No responses in relation to preferred and nonpreferred stimuli and assessed the acquisition and generalization of those responses. The program involved the use of microswitches, which monitored the nonverbal Yes and No responses performed by the children and ensured that these responses produced the matching verbal utterances via a vocal output device. Analysis showed children acquired Yes and No responses in relation to the stimuli used for the intervention and, to a comparable degree, to the stimuli used for generalization checks as well. An interview of 30 educational staff of a center for persons with multiple disabilities indicated that they considered the presence of Yes and No verbal utterances preferable to the absence of such utterances, and thought that the utterances could be helpful for the children's response acquisition and would be useful and pleasing for staff and parents. General implications of the findings were discussed. PMID:16671596

Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Baccani, Simona



Predictors of preoperative anxiety in children.  


This study aimed to identify factors contributing to anxiety at induction of anaesthesia in children. One hundred and twenty children aged five to twelve years and scheduled for surgery requiring general anaesthesia were included. Children were interviewed and assessed prior to surgery. Parents completed anxiety measures prior to surgery and were interviewed after the induction of anaesthesia. The level of children's anxiety was determined at the time of induction of anaesthesia by the modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale. Factors associated with increased levels of anxiety in the children included increased number of people in the room at induction of anaesthesia; longer waiting time between admission at the hospital and induction of anaesthesia; negative memories of previous hospital experiences; and having a mother who does not practise a religion. Suggestions for implementation of the findings and for future research are provided. PMID:12635399

Wollin, S R; Plummer, J L; Owen, H; Hawkins, R M F; Materazzo, F



Interactivity in prosodic representations in children.  


The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were included because they exhibit prosodic and motor deficits. Children, especially those with SLI, showed the expected increase in omission errors in weak initial syllables. Movement patterning analyses revealed that speakers produced differentiated articulatory templates beyond the broad categories of iamb and trochee. Finally, weak-weak prosodic sequences that crossed word boundaries showed increased articulatory variability when compared with strong-weak alternations. The binary distinction between iamb and trochee may be insufficient, with additional systematic prosodic subcategories evident, even in young children with SLI. Findings support increased interactivity in language processing. PMID:23137484

Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie



Visual conversion reaction in children.  


Visual conversion reaction (VCR) is a psychosomatic illness that will occasionally be seen by optometrists and ophthalmologists. This paper discusses some of the possible aetiologies and manifestations of the condition. Investigation and management of children with suspected VCR is discussed. Four case histories are presented in which signs of VCR included amblyopia, reduced accommodation and a deterioration in handwriting. The visual field defects presented include a static quantitative anomaly. Such a defect has not previously been reported. PMID:2698460

Barnard, N A



Microscopy For Children: A Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a bibliography of books, videotapes, CD-ROMs and websites on microscopy and related topics, for children, their teachers, and parents. Books include curriculum guides and supplemental resources, and cover the following topics: the microscopic world, teaching microscopy, the microscope and specimen preparation, optics, and microscopy for primary grades. Each resource includes a full citation, recommended grade level, a brief summary, and ordering information.

Schooley, Caroline; Project Micro, Microscopy S.


[Helicobacter pylori infection in children].  


Knowledge about Helicobacter pylori infection in children continues to advance. While its prevalence appears to be falling in developed countries, it remains a major problem in developing nations. Its transmission pathway remains highly controversial. It has not yet been definitively elucidated, although the oral-oral route seems most probable. Infection is most often intrafamilial. Risk factors for infection are associated with low socioeconomic level, including overcrowding, unhygienic conditions, sharing beds in childhood, low maternal educational level. Infection in children differs from that in adults in three respects: symptoms, endoscopic appearance of the gastric mucosa, and histologic appearance of lesions. No study has established a clear association between recurrent abdominal pain and H. pylori infection. Nonetheless, in proven infections, recurrent abdominal pain is the most common marker. More recently, an association has been reported between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. The endoscopic aspect most suggestive of H. pylori infection in children is micronodular gastritis, but it is not specific to H. pylori infection. In children as in adults, H. pylori infection is always associated with histologic gastritis. Many questions about H. pylori remain unanswered, and numerous studies are still needed. PMID:18255252

Raymond, Josette; Bergeret, Michel; Kalach, Nicolas



[Helicobacter pylori infection in children].  


Helicobacter pylori infection is basically acquired during infancy. H. pylori is associated with a great number of pathologies including gastritis, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Its association with abdominal pain in children remains controversial. An association with iron deficiency anemia was recently described. The reference method for diagnosis still remains culture and histology of gastric biopsies realized during endoscopy. A few years ago, a lot of studies have shown the reliability of non-invasive tests (urea breath test 13C and the H. pylori stool antigen) for the diagnosis of the H. pylori infection in children. The treatment associating a proton pump inhibitor with two antibiotics (depending on the antimicrobial susceptibility when it's available) is recommended every time infection is proved. In children, the reinfection rate after H. pylori eradication is often higher than in adults. The eradication of H. pylori infection does not seem to produce the advent or the aggravation of gastro-oesophageal reflux oesophagitis. The eradication of this pathogen, in children as well as in adults, should theoretically lead to the disappearance of gastric cancer. PMID:16548242

Raymond, Josette; Kalach, Nicolas



Peripheral facial palsy in children.  


The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851

Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide



Efficacy of Blebs Detection for Preventive Surgery in Children’s Idiopathic Spontaneous Pneumothorax  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This retrospective, single-center study was designed to assess our management strategy based on blebs detection on the initial\\u000a CT scan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Children younger than aged 18 years presenting with a primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) between 2000 and 2007 in a University\\u000a Children’s Hospital (hospital Armand Trousseau, Paris, France) were included in this study.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Twenty-five children who presented with PSP were included. The

Nadia Nathan; Julia Guilbert; Michèle Larroquet; Marion Lenoir; Annick Clement; Ralph Epaud



Hunger among Inuit children in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background and objectives Inuit populations may be at increased risk for experiencing poor nutrition or hunger due to limited access and availability to food. The prevalence and correlates of parental perceptions of hunger among a nationally representative sample of Inuit children in Canada have not yet been reported. Design Data are from the 2006 Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS). Sociodemographic information, dietary behaviours and hunger status were parent-reported via a household interview for Inuit children aged 2–5 years (n=1,234). Prevalence of hunger was calculated among Inuit children by sociodemographic factors and by dietary behaviours. In addition, a multivariate logistic regression model was conducted to determine factors associated with parental perception of ever experiencing hunger. Results The prevalence of Inuit children in Canada aged 2–5 years ever experiencing hunger was 24.4%. Children who were reported to have experienced hunger consumed milk and milk products (p<0.001); fish, eggs and meat (p<0.05); fruits (p<0.001); and vegetables (p<0.001) significantly less often than never-hungry children. Fast food and processed foods, soft drinks and juice, and salty snacks, sweets and desserts were consumed as often as never-hungry children (all p>0.05). The majority (81%) of Inuit parents/guardians of ever-hungry children sought help from family or friends. Factors associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing hunger include sociodemographic characteristics (such as income and household size), living in an Inuit region and living in a community with cultural activities. Conclusion About 1 in 4 Inuit children were reported by their parents to have experienced hunger, and hunger was associated with region, sociodemographic and community factors. Future research could further examine the impact of ever experiencing hunger on the health status of Inuit children and their families in Canada. PMID:23620871

Findlay, Leanne C.; Langlois, Kellie A.; Kohen, Dafna E.



Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.  


Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should consider how neighborhood context differentially impacts the health and physical activity of children from various racial, ethnic and nativity backgrounds. PMID:24963898

Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert



Psychometric evaluation of the Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To measure the internal consistency and construct validity of the Children’s Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised (CITES-R).Method: 158 sexually abused children, ages 7–12, and a nonabusive parent or primary caretaker completed a series of measures, including the CITES-R. A subsample of 17 repeated the assessment after 1 to 2 months with intervening treatment.Results: Internal consistency for the CITES-R scales

Mark Chaffin; Shelli K. Shultz



A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…

Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda



Parental depressive symptoms and children’s sleep: the role of family conflict  

PubMed Central

Background We used a multi-method and multi-informant design to identify developmental pathways through which parental depressive symptoms contribute to children’s sleep problems. Environmental factors including adult inter-partner conflict and parent–child conflict were considered as process variables of this relation. Methods An ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of children (n = 268) participated (M age = 9.44 years, SD = 8.61 months). Children wore actigraphs for 7 consecutive nights and also reported on their sleep problems. Results Higher levels of maternal depressive symptoms were associated with children’s sleep/wake problems. Higher levels of paternal depressive symptoms were associated with shorter time in bed and fewer sleep minutes. Inter-partner conflict and parent–child conflict were mechanisms of effects in the associations between maternal depressive symptoms and children’s actigraphy-based and self-reported sleep problems. Conclusions Findings build on this scant literature and highlight the importance of identifying pathways of risk and familial and environmental influences on children’s sleep problems. PMID:22309313

El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J.; Bagley, Erika J.; Wetter, Emily K.



Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance in children.  


Various pathological conditions can cause fatty liver in children. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children has been known since 1983. However, NASH diagnosed in childhood does not have a favorable outcome. The pathological characteristics of NASH are significantly different between children and adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH is accompanied by insulin resistance, which plays a pivotal role in its pathophysiology in both children and adults. In NASH, a "two-hit" model involving triglyceride accumulation (first hit) and liver damage (second hit) has been accepted. Insulin resistance was found to correlate with changes in fat levels; however, it did not correlate with fibrosis or NAFLD activity score in children. Therefore, insulin resistance may be important in the first hit. Because there is obvious familial clustering in NASH, genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors including diet might be the second hit of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:25512797

Arata, Mikage; Nakajima, Junya; Nishimata, Shigeo; Nagata, Tomomi; Kawashima, Hisashi



Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and insulin resistance in children  

PubMed Central

Various pathological conditions can cause fatty liver in children. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in children has been known since 1983. However, NASH diagnosed in childhood does not have a favorable outcome. The pathological characteristics of NASH are significantly different between children and adults. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/NASH is accompanied by insulin resistance, which plays a pivotal role in its pathophysiology in both children and adults. In NASH, a “two-hit” model involving triglyceride accumulation (first hit) and liver damage (second hit) has been accepted. Insulin resistance was found to correlate with changes in fat levels; however, it did not correlate with fibrosis or NAFLD activity score in children. Therefore, insulin resistance may be important in the first hit. Because there is obvious familial clustering in NASH, genetic predisposition as well as environmental factors including diet might be the second hit of NAFLD/NASH. PMID:25512797

Arata, Mikage; Nakajima, Junya; Nishimata, Shigeo; Nagata, Tomomi; Kawashima, Hisashi



Young Children’s Emerging Ability to Make False Statements  

PubMed Central

This study examined the origins of children’s ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions (“Do you win/lose?”), recognition questions (“Do you have a bird/fish?”), and recall questions (“What do you have?”), which were hypothesized to vary in difficulty depending on the need for consciousness of falsity (less for outcome questions) and self-generation of an appropriate response (more for recall questions). The youngest children (2½ to 3½ years old) were above chance on outcome questions, but it was not until age 3½ that children performed above chance on recognition questions or were capable of maintaining false claims across question types. Findings have implications for understanding the emergence of deception in young children. PMID:21244149

Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.



Exercise and Children’s Intelligence, Cognition, and Academic Achievement  

PubMed Central

Studies that examine the effects of exercise on children’s intelligence, cognition, or academic achievement were reviewed and results were discussed in light of (a) contemporary cognitive theory development directed toward exercise, (b) recent research demonstrating the salutary effects of exercise on adults’ cognitive functioning, and (c) studies conducted with animals that have linked physical activity to changes in neurological development and behavior. Similar to adults, exercise facilitates children’s executive function (i.e., processes required to select, organize, and properly initiate goal-directed actions). Exercise may prove to be a simple, yet important, method of enhancing those aspects of children’s mental functioning central to cognitive development. PMID:19777141

Davis, Catherine L.; Miller, Patricia H.; Naglieri, Jack A.



Geographic Maldistribution of Primary Care for Children  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examines growth in the primary care physician workforce for children and examines the geographic distribution of the workforce. METHODS: National data were used to calculate the local per-capita supply of clinically active general pediatricians and family physicians, measured at the level of primary care service areas. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2006, the general pediatrician and family physician workforces expanded by 51% and 35%, respectively, whereas the child population increased by only 9%. The 2006 per-capita supply varied by >600% across local primary care markets. Nearly 15 million children (20% of the US child population) lived in local markets with <710 children per child physician (average of 141 child physicians per 100 000 children), whereas another 15 million lived in areas with >4400 children per child physician (average of 22 child physicians per 100 000 children). In addition, almost 1 million children lived in areas with no local child physician. Nearly all 50 states had evidence of similar extremes of physician maldistribution. CONCLUSIONS: Undirected growth of the aggregate child physician workforce has resulted in profound maldistribution of physician resources. Accountability for public funding of physician training should include efforts to develop, to use, and to evaluate policies aimed at reducing disparities in geographic access to primary care physicians for children. PMID:21172992

Lan, Jia; Chang, Chiang-hua; Goodman, David C.



Outcome in children from cryopreserved embryos.  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 91 children from cryopreserved embryos and 83 control children who were conceived normally had their development assessed using the Griffiths's scales of mental development. The controls (81 singletons and two twins) of a similar age, sex, and social class were selected from siblings, cousins, and peers of the cryopreserved embryo group (68 singleton, 20 twins, and three triplets). Children from cryopreserved embryos had a lower mean birth weight and mean gestational age and a higher proportion were born by caesarean section. One child from the cryopreserved embryo group had Down's syndrome, three had squints, and four had conductive hearing loss while in the control children, six had squints, and nine had conductive hearing loss. In both groups, including the child with Down's syndrome, the mean Griffiths's quotient was greater than the standard 100. In the children from cryopreserved embryos, the singleton and multiple birth subgroups had statistically similar assessment results. The mean (SD) Griffiths's quotient was 105.69 (13.55) in children from cryopreserved embryos and 108.18 (9.80) in controls at a chronological age of 25.08 (12.86) and 29.19 (14.65) months respectively. Overall, the development in children from cryopreserved embryos did not cause concern though formal testing had highlighted small differences compared with other children conceived normally and of a similar social class. PMID:7763057

Sutcliffe, A G; D'Souza, S W; Cadman, J; Richards, B; McKinlay, I A; Lieberman, B



[Epidemiological research on children's environmental health].  


In accordance with the Declaration of the Environment Leaders of the Eight on Children's Environmental Health (Miami Declaration) in 1997, the Japanese government (the Ministry of Environment, Japan) organized a commission tasked to discuss issues related to the present situation of the environmental health of children (Advisory Commission for Children's Environmental Health). Epidemiological research on children's environmental health has been recommended as one of the priority projects by the commission because the effects of environmental factors on children's health are clarified by only studies using children as subjects, particularly, a birth cohort study, and not by animal experiments. The Advisory Committee of Epidemiological Research on Children's Environmental Health was established in 2007 and decided to start a nationwide birth cohort study following up children from pregnancy to 12 years old. Under the Advisory Committee, a working group composed of scientific experts, including epidemiologists, toxicologists, obstetricians, orthopedists, and statisticians, was organized in 2008. Pilot studies are going to be conducted in several areas in Japan with the support of the working group. Study hypotheses will also be decided by the working group soon. The full-scale survey will start in 2010. PMID:19797846

Hasegawa, Manabu; Tsukamoto, Naoya



Nigeria: too many children?  


Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080

Mbachu, D



RAS diseases in children.  


RAS genes encode a family of 21 kDa proteins that are an essential hub for a number of survival, proliferation, differentiation and senescence pathways. Signaling of the RAS-GTPases through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is essential in development. A group of genetic syndromes, named "RASopathies", had been identified which are caused by heterozygosity for germline mutations in genes that encode protein components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Several of these clinically overlapping disorders, including Noonan syndrome, Noonan-like CBL syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, and Legius syndrome, predispose to cancer and abnormal myelopoiesis in infancy. This review focuses on juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a malignancy of early childhood characterized by initiating germline and/or somatic mutations in five genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway: PTPN11, CBL, NF-1, KRAS and NRAS. Natural courses of these five subtypes differ, although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapy option for most children with JMML. With whole-exome sequencing studies revealing few secondary lesions it will be crucial to better understand the RAS/MAPK signaling network with its crosstalks and feed-back loops to carefully design early clinical trials with novel pharmacological agents in this still puzzling leukemia. PMID:25420281

Niemeyer, Charlotte M



RAS diseases in children  

PubMed Central

RAS genes encode a family of 21 kDa proteins that are an essential hub for a number of survival, proliferation, differentiation and senescence pathways. Signaling of the RAS-GTPases through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first identified mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is essential in development. A group of genetic syndromes, named “RASopathies”, had been identified which are caused by heterozygosity for germline mutations in genes that encode protein components of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Several of these clinically overlapping disorders, including Noonan syndrome, Noonan-like CBL syndrome, Costello syndrome, cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I, and Legius syndrome, predispose to cancer and abnormal myelopoiesis in infancy. This review focuses on juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), a malignancy of early childhood characterized by initiating germline and/or somatic mutations in five genes of the RAS/MAPK pathway: PTPN11, CBL, NF-1, KRAS and NRAS. Natural courses of these five subtypes differ, although hematopoietic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative therapy option for most children with JMML. With whole-exome sequencing studies revealing few secondary lesions it will be crucial to better understand the RAS/MAPK signaling network with its crosstalks and feed-back loops to carefully design early clinical trials with novel pharmacological agents in this still puzzling leukemia. PMID:25420281

Niemeyer, Charlotte M.



Association of ambient air quality with children`s lung function in urban and rural Iran  

SciTech Connect

During the summer of 1994, a cross-sectional epidemiological study, in which the pulmonary function of children in Tehran was compared with pulmonary function in children in a rural town in Iran, was conducted. Four hundred children aged 5--11 y were studied. Daytime ambient nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter were measured with portable devices, which were placed in the children`s neighborhoods on the days of study. Levels of these ambient substances were markedly higher in urban Tehran than in rural areas. Children`s parents were questioned about home environmental exposures (including heating source and environmental tobacco smoke) and the children`s respiratory symptoms. Pulmonary function was assessed, both by spirometry and peak expiratory flow meter. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity--as a percentage of predicted for age, sex and height--were significantly lower in urban children than in rural children. Both measurements evidenced significant reverse correlations with levels of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter. Differences in spirometric lung function were not explained by nutritional status, as assessed by height and weight for age, or by home environmental exposures. Reported airway symptoms were higher among rural children, whereas reported physician diagnosis of bronchitis and asthma were higher among urban children. The association between higher pollutant concentrations and reduced pulmonary function in this urban-rural comparison suggests that there is an effect of urban air pollution on short-term lung function and/or lung growth and development during the preadolescent years.

Asgari, M.M.; Dubois, A.; Beckett, W.S. [Yale Univ. School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States); Asgari, M. [Shaheed Beheshti Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gent, J. [John B. Pierce Lab., New Haven, CT (United States)



Children and adolescents with complex regional pain syndrome: More psychologically distressed than other children in pain?  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Historically, in both adult and pediatric populations, a lack of knowledge regarding complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and absence of clear diagnostic criteria have contributed to the view that this is a primarily psychiatric condition. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that children with CRPS are more functionally disabled, have more pain and are more psychologically distressed than children with other pain conditions. METHODS: A total of 101 children evaluated in a tertiary care pediatric pain clinic who met the International Association for the Study of Pain consensus diagnostic criteria for CRPS participated in the present retrospective study. Comparison groups included 103 children with abdominal pain, 291 with headache and 119 with back pain. Children and parents completed self-report questionnaires assessing disability, somatization, pain coping, depression, anxiety and school attendance. RESULTS: Children with CRPS reported higher pain intensity and more recent onset of pain at the initial tertiary pain clinic evaluation compared with children with other chronic pain conditions. They reported greater functional disability and more somatic symptoms than children with headaches or back pain. Scores on measures of depression and anxiety were within normal limits and similar to those of children in other pain diagnostic groups. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, clinic-referred children with CRPS may be more functionally impaired and experience more somatic symptoms compared with children with other pain conditions. However, overall psychological functioning as assessed by self-report appears to be similar to that of children with other chronic pain diagnoses. Comprehensive assessment using a biopsychosocial framework is essential to understanding and appropriately treating children with symptoms of CRPS. PMID:23662291

Logan, Deirdre E; Williams, Sara E; Carullo, Veronica P; Claar, Robyn Lewis; Bruehl, Stephen; Berde, Charles B



International Children's Digital Library  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the International Children's Digital Library is "to have every culture and language represented so that every child can know and appreciate the riches of children's literature from the world community." It's a lofty goal indeed, and by looking over their website, visitors will find that they are well on their way to achieving this goal. So far, they have placed hundreds of books online, and visitors can click on "Read Books" to check out the fruits of their labors. Here they will find a selection of featured books, along with a drop-down menu that lets users look for books in dozens of languages. Of course, visitors can also click on a range of thematic listings, such as "real animal characters", "picture books", and "kid characters". Visitors can also learn how they can contribute to the ongoing work of the Library, and they may also wish to sign up for a free account while they are here.


Maxillofacial trauma in children.  


Pediatric trauma involving the bones of the face is associated with severe injury and disability. Although much is known about the epidemiology of facial fractures in adults, little is known about injury patterns and outcomes in children. The most common facial fractures were mandible, nasal and maxillary/zygoma. The most common mechanisms of injury are motor vehicle collisions, violence and falls. These fracture patterns and mechanisms of injury varies with age. Cranial and central facial injuries are more common among toddlers and infants, and mandible injuries are more common among adolescents. Although bony craniofacial trauma is relatively uncommon among the pediatric population, it remains a substantial source of mortality, morbidity and hospital admissions. Continued efforts toward injury prevention are warranted. An overview of various types of fractures and their management modalities is discussed, with case reports. How to cite this article: Mukherjee CG, Mukherjee U. Maxillofacial Trauma in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(3):231-236. PMID:25206176

Mukherjee, Chitrita Gupta; Mukherjee, Uday



Tracheobronchial intervention in children.  


Disorders of the major airways in children are often difficult to treat. Recent advances in interventional radiology are proving useful, for both assessment of the severity of the problem and treatment. Flexible bronchoscopy and bronchography are essential tools for diagnosis, intervention and follow-up. Echocardiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging may also be important for the evaluation of cardiovascular anomalies, which are often associated with airway obstruction. Surgery remains the first line of treatment for most congenital abnormalities of the airway and for cardiac anomalies that cause airway compression. Balloon dilatation and stenting are helpful in certain other conditions, as well as in children whose airway problem is not fully corrected by surgery. A multidisciplinary approach is required, with input from pediatric cardiothoracic surgeons, radiologists, radiographers, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, anesthesiologists, intensivists, physiotherapists and liaison nurses. PMID:15607850

McLaren, Clare A; Elliott, Martin J; Roebuck, Derek J



Parenting Practices, Parenting Style, and Children’s School Achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study, drawing on data from the 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning (SAEP), examined the predictive effects\\u000a of parenting practices and parenting style on children’s school achievement, and the predictive effects of parental expectations\\u000a and parental beliefs on parenting style for 6,626 respondents with children aged 5–18 years in Canada. Hierarchical multiple\\u000a regression analyses, after controlling for family socioeconomic

Shaljan Areepattamannil



Philosophy for Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When the author was first introduced to philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i, it made her cringe. She wasn't sure what it was all about, but it reminded her of a miserable past experience of sitting in a circle. Sitting in circles is the sort of activity that she tries to avoid in life. She was told that Dr. Thomas Jackson, aka Dr. J, would guide…

Kim, Angela



[Glaucoma in children].  


Epidemiology and etiopathogenesis of the infantile glaucoma are discussed. Presented is the particular symptomatology of: 1. glaucoma conditioned by isolated abnormalities of he Irido-corneal angle 2. glaucoma caused by an abnormal iride-corneal angle in the course of another developmental disturbances of the eye, 3. congenital glaucoma accompanying systemic diseases and 4. secondary glaucoma in children. Indications and methods of treatment of congenital glaucoma are also discussed with particular attention drawn to the results of surgical treatment. PMID:2625942

Palacz, O



Functional dyspepsia in children.  


Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a widely prevalent problem in pediatrics, reportedly occurring in 3% to 27% of children and accounting for considerable impact on quality of life and health care costs. FD is defined by the Rome III classification as persistent upper abdominal pain or discomfort, not related to bowel movements, and without an organic cause, that is present for at least 2 months prior to diagnosis. Abnormal sensory perception, motor dysfunction, and psychosocial factors have been implicated in the causation of FD. Hypersensitivity to gastric distension, delayed gastric emptying, antral hypomotility, and gastric dysrhythmia are some abnormalities that have been noted in FD. Diagnosis of FD is based on a thorough history and examination, and an appropriate selection of tests based on clinical judgment, the presence of alarm signs, and response to treatment. A positive diagnosis of FD helps to shift focus from further testing to treatment of symptoms. The majority of children with dyspepsia do not have mucosal lesions on endoscopy; hence, endoscopy is not mandatory for the diagnosis of FD. Helicobacter pylori is an uncommon cause of dyspepsia in children, and test and treat strategy is discouraged. Delayed gastric emptying may be present in up to 70% of children with dyspepsia. A biopsychosocial approach to treatment involving medications, psychological and social supports, and complementary therapies is advocated. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and prokinetics are commonly used first-line medications. PPIs are preferred when epigastric pain is the predominant symptom, whereas prokinetics may be chosen when postprandial fullness or early satiety is the main symptom. PPIs may be more efficacious and cost-effective than H2 blockers according to adult data. PMID:24716560

Ganesh, Meenakshi; Nurko, Samuel



Mastoiditis in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-seven children were seen over a 10-year period, 1984-1994, at two large pediatric referral centers with a diagnosis of mastoiditis. Twelve had acute infection and 45 had chronic manifestations. Clinical presentations and recovered bacterial pathogens were identical to those reported in earlier literature although the incidence of both acute and chronic mastoiditis has decreased markedly since 1950. The availability of

Camille N. Bitar; Evelyn A. Kluka; Russell W. Steele



Idiopathic megarectum in children.  


There is scant information about the management of idiopathic megarectum in childhood. Children with idiopathic megarectum referred to a single institution between 1994 and 1998 were identified prospectively. Those with Hirschsprung's disease or an anorectal malformation were excluded. The remaining patient group, 22 boys and 7 girls, had a median age of 8.0 years (range 3.5-14.0 y). Median duration of symptoms prior to referral was 2.0 years (range 0.4-11 y). Chronic soiling was the dominant complaint in 28/29 (97%) cases. 23 children had received regular stimulant laxatives for periods ranging from 1 month to 11 years, and 9 children had been treated with regular enemas. The degree of megarectum assessed by both abdominal palpation and plain radiography was: grade 1 (below umbilical level) n=6; grade 2 (at umbilical level) n=15; and grade 3 (above umbilical level) n=8. Hirschsprung's disease was specifically excluded by rectal biopsy in all cases and no patient had evidence of spinal dysraphism. Three boys with massive megarectums and intractable symptoms were treated by a staged Duhamel sigmoid pull-through with excellent functional results. Fifteen patients (52%) were treated by a single manual evacuation under general anaesthesia followed by a daily Bisacodyl 5-10 mg suppository. After a median follow-up of 16 months, 13 continue to respond well with a daily bowel action and no soiling (4 of the 13 have discontinued treatment and remain well). The remaining 11 patients (38%) have continued conventional treatment with oral laxatives but with limited success. Idiopathic megarectum is poorly described in children. It is more common in boys and is often resistant to laxative therapy alone. After appropriate preparation, treatment with stimulant suppositories can be effective. Surgery has a valuable role in selected patients with a massive megarectum. PMID:11370984

Godbole, P P; Pinfield, A; Stringer, M D



Growing pains in children  

PubMed Central

We review the clinical manifestations of "growing pains", the most common form of episodic childhood musculoskeletal pain. Physicians should be careful to adhere to clear clinical criteria as described in this review before diagnosing a child with growing pain. We expand on current theories on possible causes of growing pains and describe the management of these pains and the generally good outcome in nearly all children. PMID:17550631

Uziel, Yosef; Hashkes, Philip J



Young Children and Trust in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of the study was to examine differences in children's generalised trust and the maternal behaviour, child temperament, and demographic factors on the levels of trust in children. A total of 314 mothers and their children participated in the study. Results showed no evidence of sex differences in children's beliefs. Children

Alat, Zeynep



Children Take Learning into Their Own Hands.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the children's museum movement, exhibits common to children's museums, and the role of children's museums in providing interactive environments for young children to complement the learning that goes on in classrooms and at home. Provides contact information for five children's museums. (DR)

Farmer, David W.



[Eye movement disorders in children.  


The article includes review of literature on anatomy, physiology, symptoms of ocular movement and their disturbance in children. Differential diagnosis between early developmental disturbances of vision in the normal child and during the diseases of central nervous system is very hard. There is data on such pediatric neuro-ophthalmology complex disorders as nystagmus, paroxysmal tonic upgaze, opsoclonus, spasmus nutans, seizures (eyelid myoclonia, absences). PMID:24637828

Bobylova, M Iu; Mironov, M B; Mukhin, K Iu; Petrukhin, A S



Ankle arthroscopy in children  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Arthroscopy of the ankle has gained acceptance as a procedure for diagnosing and treating chronic and post-traumatic ankle problems. The senior author's perception is that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under-diagnoses anterior soft tissue impingement lesions in children. The purpose of this study was retrospectively to analyse the outcome of ankle arthroscopy in the paediatric age group. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between March 2005 and September 2007, 23 children underwent ankle arthroscopy for post-traumatic pathology. The indications for arthroscopy were failure of non-operative treatment for at least 12 weeks or a grade 3 or 4 osteochondral defect (OCD) on imaging. RESULTS At arthroscopy, OCDs were visualised in 12 cases and impingement lesions were seen in 17 ankles. MRI was performed in 8 of these 12 cases and only 1 suggested the possibility of an impingement lesion. Of the 17 cases of impingement seen on arthroscopy, 12 reported mechanical symptoms preoperatively and 4 were unstable on examination under anaesthetic. Eighteen of the twenty-three patients had complete relief of symptoms at 3 months. Eighteen children who were evaluated at one-year follow up had a mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score of 87. 5 (range: 49-100). CONCLUSIONS Ankle arthroscopy has a successful outcome in paediatric patients and the results are comparable with those reported in adult series. MRI was found to be insensitive for the diagnosis of soft tissue impingement of the ankle. PMID:21477438

Val Vasukutty, Nijil; Akrawi, Hawar; Theruvil, Bipin; Uglow, Mike



Mothers’ Caries Increases Odds of Children’s Caries  

PubMed Central

There are many determinants of children’s dental caries. We hypothesized that a mother’s untreated caries was associated with increased likelihood of her children’s untreated caries, after controlling for other factors. This population-based study was conducted in a rural, primarily Hispanic, California community. Interview and dental examination data for mother-child (children < 18 yrs old) dyads were analyzed. In a Generalized Estimation Equation (GEE) logit model for mothers (n = 179) and children (n = 387), maternal untreated caries was a statistically significant correlate of child’s untreated caries, odds ratio (OR) = 1.76 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.70), adjusted for demographic factors. This relationship did not change when behavioral and dental utilization factors were added to the model, OR = 1.85 (95% CI: 1.12, 3.07). Maternal untreated caries almost doubled the odds of children’s untreated caries and significantly increased child’s caries severity by about 3 surfaces. Caries prevention and dental utilization programs for mothers and their children should be increased. PMID:20505046

Weintraub, J.A.; Prakash, P.; Shain, S.G.; Laccabue, M.; Gansky, S.A.



Neurobehavioral effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure in children.  

E-print Network

??Studies of children living in agricultural communities have identified potential health risks associated with the chronic environmental exposure to pesticides, including neurologic impairment. Young children… (more)

Rectenwald, Heather J.



“You Are Such a Disappointment!”: Negative Emotions and Parents’ Perceptions of Adult Children’s Lack of Success  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Parents’ perceptions of their adult children’s successes (or lack thereof) may be associated in different ways with discrete negative emotions (e.g., guilt, anger, disappointment, and worry). Furthermore, mothers and fathers may vary in their reactions to children’s success in different domains. Method. Participants included 158 mothers and fathers from the same families (N = 316) and their adult child. Mothers and fathers evaluated their adult children’s successes in (a) career and (b) relationship domains. Mothers and fathers also reported on several negative emotions in the parent–child tie: guilt, anger, disappointment, and worry. Results. For fathers, perceptions of children’s poorer career success were associated with disappointment, anger, and guilt. Mothers’ perceptions of children’s lack of career success were associated with disappointment and worry. Mothers’ perceptions of children’s poorer success in relationships were associated with each of the negative emotions, with the exception of anger. Discussion. Parents experience emotions associated with unmet goals and future concerns in relationships with less successful children. Mothers may respond emotionally to career and relationship success, whereas fathers may respond emotionally primarily to their child’s career success. Findings underscore the importance of considering the context of parents’ negative emotional experiences in ties to adult children. PMID:23733857



21 CFR 369.9 - General warnings re accidental ingestion by children.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR accidental ingestion by children. Section 369.20 includes...this and all medicines out of children's reach. In case of a Poison Control Center right away,” or “Keep out of reach of children.” However, in...



Children’s Oncology Group’s 2013 Blueprint for Research: Rare Tumors  

PubMed Central

In the US, approximately 2,000 children are diagnosed with rare cancers each year, with 5-year survival ranging from <20% for children with advanced carcinomas to >95% for children with intraocular retinoblastoma or localized germ cell tumors. During the last years, 12 clinical studies have been successfully completed in children with retinoblastoma, liver tumors, germ cell tumors, and infrequent malignancies, including therapeutic, epidemiologic, and biologic studies. Current efforts are centered in the development of large international collaborations to consolidate evidence-based definitions and risk stratifications that will support international Phase 3 clinical trials in germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma, and other rare cancers. PMID:23255219

Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Krailo, Mark; Frazier, Lindsay; Chintagumpala, Murali; Amatruda, James; Katzenstein, Howard; Malogolowkin, Marcio; Spector, Logan; Pashankar, Farzana; Meyers, Rebecka; Tomlinson, Gail



Chronic daily headaches in children.  


Chronic daily headache (CDH) or highly frequent headaches are being recognised as an increasing problem. In adults it is estimated that up to 4% of the population has CDH, however, this number appears to be lower in children. The actual prevalence of CDH in children, however, has not been determined. The simplest definition of CDH is > 15 headache days per month. In the international headache society (IHS) criteria, only chronic tension-type headaches and chronic cluster headaches are recognised as CDH. Criteria for CDH have been suggested for adults that mirror the IHS criteria. In children, the majority of CDH appear to be migraine related. The next revision of the IHS criteria has been proposed to include chronic migraine as one of the CDH. Evaluation of CDH needs to include a complete history and physical examination to identify any possibility of the headache representing secondary headaches. Treatment and management involves a multi-tiered approach, which includes abortive therapy when the headache becomes more severe. With the precaution of avoiding overuse of analgesic medication, prophylactic therapy is used to help reduce the characteristics of the headache as well as the frequency and mild behavioural therapy. PMID:12667111

Hershey, Andrew D



Safeguarding Children and Vulnerable Adults Introduction  

E-print Network

illness, chronic or otherwise, including an addiction to alcohol or drugs; or iii) a reduction in physical and to protect children and vulnerable adults from harm as far as is possible and reasonable. Guidance exists

Aickelin, Uwe



EPA Science Inventory

Electrophysiological measures appropriate for use in neurotoxicity testing in children are reviewed. These methods include sensory evoked potentials (auditory brainstem, pattern-reversal visual, somatosensory) and event-related slow potentials (contingent negative variation and a...



EPA Science Inventory

Substantial effort has been invested in improving children?s health risk assessment in recent years. However, the body of scientific evidence in support of children?s health assessment is constantly advancing requiring continual updating of risk assessment methods. Children?s i...


Adaptive behavior in Chinese children with Williams syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disease characterized by compelling psychological phenotypes. The symptoms span multiple cognitive domains and include a distinctive pattern of social behavior. The goal of this study was to explore adaptive behavior in WS patients in China. Methods We conducted a structured interview including the Infants-Junior Middle School Students Social-life Abilities Scale in three participant groups: children with WS (n?=?26), normally-developing children matched for mental age (MA, n?=?30), and normally-developing children matched for chronological age (CA, n?=?40). We compared the mean scores for each domain between the three groups. Results Children with WS had more siblings than children in the two control groups. The educational level of the caregivers of WS children was lower than that of the control children. We found no differences in locomotion, work skill, socialization, or self-management between the WS and MA groups. WS children obtained higher scores of self-dependence (df?=?54, Z?=??2.379, p?=?0.017) and had better communication skills (df?=?54, Z?=??2.222, p?=?0.026) compared with MA children. The CA children achieved higher scores than the WS children for all dimensions of adaptive behavior. Conclusions WS children have better adaptive behavior skills regarding communication and self-dependence than normal children matched for mental age. Targeted intervention techniques should be designed to promote social development in this population. PMID:24708693



Improving care of dying children.  

PubMed Central

Every year about 5,000 children aged 0 to 14 years need hospice care in the United States. Children seem to know that they are dying, although this is difficult for parents to accept. Clear, empathic understanding is needed. Communication with clarity and understanding is imperative with the changes in goals from cure to palliation to comfort. The ideal place for most dying children is at home, where symptoms can be managed as effectively as in a hospital. PMID:7571589

Martinson, I M



Situation of children's rights in Isfahan city  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Taking care of children makes them happy, lively and healthy, and it makes the society healthy. Children's rights have been discussed for years and the United Nation General Assembly has two conventions to prevent children abuse, the Minimum Age Convention of 1973 and the Convention on the Rights of the Child on 1989 However, in spite of these international agreements, the statistics show that the cases of children abuse increased from 749 cases in 1960 to one million cases in 1995 in the Western countries Islamic republic of IRAN agreed this international agreement in 1993. This study investigated the nature, structure and process of children's right in the city of Isfahan. METHODS: The study is qualitative, using Content Analysis. The purpose of the study is to discover children's right nature, and to describe the existing condition. Sampling method was purposive (or judgmental) and continued until data collection was completed. Sample consisted of 43 children, parents and teachers or trainers. Data were collected by observing schools and other public communities and also by interviews which were recorded, transcribed, reviewed and coded in three steps using qualitative research methods, Thematic Analysis, to extract the main conception. RESULTS: The findings of observations and interviews classified in 260 codes and then joined together again to extract the main concepts and categories related to children's rights. This step lead to 12 categories and in the third step, four major categories including psychological and personality, physical, economic and cultural factors were extracted. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the findings of this study, it is recommended that parents, teachers and other significant figures in the children's life should receive education on the children's rights and needs in various fields to become capable of developing policies and plans in this regard. PMID:22224097

Ziaei, Shohreh; Abedi, Heidar Ali; Arbaban, Marzieh



Reactive attachment disorder in looked?after children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The great majority of children living in foster or residential care have been abused and neglected. Mental health problems are common and the nature of these problems may be rooted in early attachment relationships. The carers of 82 children in care in Scotland and 125 children from local schools completed questionnaires on mental health problems including Reactive Attachment Disorder. More

R. Millward; E. Kennedy; K. Towlson; H. Minnis



Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.



Administration for Children and Families: Early Head Start  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents an overview of the Early Head Start program. The objective of the Early Head Start program is to enhance the cognitive, social and emotional development of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, through the provision of comprehensive health,…

US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010



Protective Factors and Risk Factors in Preschool Aged Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Do resiliency or protective factors moderate risk factors in preschool aged children? This study looks at pre- and post-treatment data from 49 preschool children whose average age was 4 years old. The treatment included prevention and early intervention programs that promote emotional well-being and the development of healthy interpersonal relationships in children, ages birth to eight, and their caregivers. The

Monica R. Geist; P. Antonio; Olmos Gallo; Mary Grimmer; Daniel J. Mundfrom



Facing the Shortage of Children's Librarians: Updating the Challenge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the shortage of children's librarians based on a survey of professionals regarding training, recruitment, retention, and importance of children's librarians. Highlights include library school training and pertinent course offerings; career ladders for children's librarians; and staff recruitment as a reflection of the community,…

Somerville, Mary R.



Predicting Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Language Abilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children's vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method: Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children's exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were…

Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian



Increased Risk of Injury in Children with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this study was to examine injury risk in children with autism, ADD/ADD, learning disability, psychopathology, or other medical conditions. Children aged 3-5 years who participated in the National Survey of Children's Health were included. Six study groups were analyzed in this report: autism (n=82), ADD/ADHD (n=191), learning…

Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Chang, Jen Jen; Connors, Susan L.



Children's Understanding of Academic Tasks: Work, Play, or Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined differences in children's perceptions of school tasks. Found that even kindergarten children are able to understand the learning purpose of tasks if teachers include that information in their lesson presentations. Results suggest that in order to motivate children's learning, teachers should emphasize the learning aspects of tasks, and…

Marshall, Hermine H.



Referential Communication in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Referential communication was studied in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) including children with autism and Asperger syndrome. The aim was to study alternative explanations for the children's communicative problems in such situations. Factors studied were theory of mind, IQ, verbal ability and memory. The main results demonstrated…

Dahlgren, Svenolof; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren



Executive Function Deficits in Non-Retarded Autistic Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine differences between Taiwanese children with autism and their typically developing peers on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Twenty-six children with autism of normal IQ were included, and matched for chronological age with 52 controls. The WCST scores of the typically developing children were significantly higher for categories completed and percent conceptual

Bih-Ching Shu; For-Wey Lung; Allen Y. Tien; Bor-Chih Chen



Resources for Teaching Children About Africa. Catalog No. 155.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains bibliographies for teaching children about Africa as well as descriptions and rules of African games for American children. This collection of bibliographies supplements an earlier collection, "Selected Bibliographies for Teaching Children about Subsaharan Africa." The bibliographies included here were prepared in…

Schmidt, Nancy J.; And Others


Teaching Prelinguistic Communication Skills to School Age Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (PMT) is an intervention designed to teach young children to initiate nonverbal communication using vocalizations, gestures, and eye-gaze. Children are taught through social routines in their natural environment. Techniques include contriving an environment in which the children will be motivated to communicate and…

Franco, Jessica Hetlinger



Transporting Children With Special Health Care Needs (RE9852)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children with special health care needs should have access to proper resources for safe transportation. This statement reviews important considerations for transporting children with special health care needs and provides current guidelines for the protection of children with specific health care needs, including those with a tracheostomy, a spica cast, challenging behaviors, or muscle tone abnormalities as well as those

Poison Prevention


Guide to Children's Magazines, Newspapers, Reference Books. 1974 Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide, listing magazines and newspapers for children, encompasses a wide range of subjects, with those items starred which are appropriate for all ages, not just children. Also included in the guide is a list of reference books for children, categorized under atlases, biography, dictionaries, encyclopedias, fine arts and music, handbooks and…

Association for Childhood Education International, Washington, DC.


Kid's Catalog: An Information Retrieval System for Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an online public access catalog for children, called the Kid's Catalog. Design objectives include eliminating the barriers to information retrieval outlined in the research literature; being fun, interactive, and respectful of children's intelligence and creativity; motivating children with an expansive range of subjects and search…

Busey, Paula; Doerr, Tom