We should address visual disabilities in children instead of only the childhood blindness. Diseases related to nutritional, communicable diseases should be addressed through strategies for achieving ‘Millennium Development Goals’. Facilities in African countries and countries with populations like India and China must be strengthened to address curable/preventable visual disabilities in children. Even though all efforts are done to strengthen, we will have 0.93 million blind children by 2020. Role of family physicians and paediatricians in trans-disciplinary approach to address visual disabilities in children is very crucial. If rational distribution of skilled human resource is not planned visual disabilities will not reduce effectively. Rehabilitation of visually disabled children should be integral part of addressing childhood blindness. All stakeholders including parents of children with visual disabilities should work together to achieve the goals. PMID:21369469
Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…
Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik
Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
...SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly, and Families...or mental handicaps, drug abuse, alcoholism, and...
Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
Intended to help Head Start programs recruit and include children with significant disabilities and their families, this guide offers Head Start staff tools to work more collaboratively to plan and implement integrated services for all children, especially children with significant disabilities. Following an introductory section, the guide…
Zhang, Jiabei; Griffin, Ann J.
The number of children diagnosed with autism is on the rise, and teachers are seldom prepared to teach children with autism in their classes. However, it is possible to successfully include children with autism in general physical education settings by understanding inclusive physical education, individualizing instruction, targeting…
Carlson, Brenda; Samels, Karen
This guidebook is designed to provide information on technology to teachers and service providers who work with children with special needs. It may also be helpful for parents and caregivers of young children. Topics include: (1) the definition of assistive technology; (2) the philosophy of using technology with young children and a rationale that…
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
seem to play a greater role in and sometimes take control of children's problem solving on this taskTowards Including Simple Emotions in a Cognitive Architecture in Order to Better Fit Children. Elliman1 (email@example.com) 1 School of Computer Science, 2 School of Psychology, U. of Nottingham
Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)
Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...
Mourembou, Gaël; Fenollar, Florence; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Angelique; Maghendji Nzondo, Sydney; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Zoleko Manego, Rella; Ehounoud, Cyrille Herve Bile; Bittar, Fadi; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg
Background Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile) were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7%) children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%), which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8%) and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6). Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ?5, 6–10 and 11–15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively) than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively). Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called “DEUX”. Mansonella sp. “DEUX” was detected only in febrile children. Conclusions/Significance Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. “DEUX” and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans. PMID:26484866
Odom, Samuel L., Ed.
Based on a groundbreaking 5-year research study conducted by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion, this book explores the barriers to and influences on inclusive education settings for young children. Topics covered include individualized instruction, family perceptions of inclusion, and cultural and linguistic diversity. The…
Greenstein, Doreen; And Others
This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…
Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R
Objectives (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Daslne), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Setting Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Patients Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2–16?years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionals’ reports about their children. Results 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30?months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Daslne, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representative of families of children with ASD overall. Conclusions ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. PMID:26341584
Grim statistics on poor children, homeless families, and child abuse belie our civic leaders' public assertions of love and concern for children. Children are often not well-served in their relationships with adults. Educators need to cooperate with others to create social policy that treats children as valued persons, not commodities. Includes…
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.
There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…
Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline
Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their inclusion. PMID:25202999
Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila
Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
Frazier, Billie H.
This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on adult children. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include aging parents, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…
In this commentary, developments related to conducting randomized controlled trials in authentic preschool settings that include young children with disabilities are discussed in relation to the Strain and Bovey study.
This briefing reports on the key findings from an ESRC funded study conducted in collaboration with ChildLine Scotland which utilised ChildLine’s unique caller information database to examine children’s concerns about ...
Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F
Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested. PMID:16968664
Docherty, S; Sandelowski, M
The focus in health-related research on children has shifted from seeking information about children to seeking information directly from them. Children, even as young as three years old, can give graphic descriptions and have excellent recall of experiences related to adverse events, such as illness and hospitalization. Children use scripts as the primary means of anticipating, comprehending, and re-creating real-life experience. The content, timing, number, and structure of interviews will influence the completeness, accuracy, and consistency of children's recall of events. Although at times conflicting, the findings from recent scholarship on children's narrative competence will assist researchers to select the interviewing strategies most likely to yield faithful representations of experience. PMID:10094302
Hawes, Hugh, Ed.; Scotchmer, Christine, Ed.
This book is designed for those who work with children and who believe that children, in schools and as family members, need to be considered partners in spreading health messages as well as benefiting from them. It contains the messages included in "Facts for Life," a handbook that presents practical, low-cost ways of protecting children's lives…
Burke, Vee; And Others
This report compares Hispanic children with non-Hispanic white and black children in regard to income and several factors related to the poverty of children, including: education of parents; age of parents; family size; and hours of work. Based on Census Bureau data, the report consists of six chapters which present the following: (1)…
Watson, Amy; McCathren, Rebecca
The authors present a checklist designed to help preschool and kindergarten administrators and teachers build confidence in their ability to be inclusive and to increase their awareness of the needs of children with disabilities. Teachers can use the checklist to prepare for the inclusion of a child with a disability. "Identifying potential…
Gasch, Audrey P.
will be able to help the caregivers better meet the needs of the child. Children with disabilities often have Director Anthony Lake said, "When you see the disability before the child, it is not only wrong for the child, but it deprives society of all that the child has to offer." (1) He strongly believes
Young children with chronic illness who attend our early childhood facilities and schools have very special needs. They are more likely to encounter academic challenges and to have peer and emotional difficulties than are their healthy peers. As well, their families are frequently undergoing intense stress. The challenge to educators is to ensure…
Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma
Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ? 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795
... Facts for Families WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Video Games and Children: Playing with Violence Understanding Violent Behavior In Children and Adolescents The News and Children The Influence Of Music And Music Videos Talking To Children ...
... Children Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common ...
... Professions Site Index A-Z Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine Children’s (pediatric) nuclear medicine imaging uses small amounts ... Children's Nuclear Medicine? What is Children's (Pediatric) Nuclear Medicine? Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging ...
Child & Youth Services, 2007
Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian
Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muńoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muńoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497
OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the same tasks of grief as adults, their unique psychological defences and evolving cognitive and emotional development make their grieving different from adults'. Understanding these unique childhood features will allow family physicians to more effectively help children through the tasks of acknowledging a death, working through the pain of that death, and accommodating it. CONCLUSIONS: With a framework for grief counseling that incorporates unique features of children's mourning, family physicians will be in a better position to assist their young bereaved patients. PMID:10626057
Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18 years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (n?=?120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (n?=?120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the child’s schoolteachers and classmates, and the child’s parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use healthy classmates as ambassadors to facilitate the normalization of social life in the hospital. For children with cancer, RESPECT contributes to expanding knowledge on rehabilitation that can also facilitate rehabilitation of other children undergoing hospitalization for long-term illness. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: file. NCT01772849 and NCT01772862 PMID:24229362
Roncevi?, Nevenka; Stojadinovi?, Aleksandra; Batrnek-Antoni?, Daliborka
According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non-governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop-in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street. PMID:24502109
Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... and plans for having children during your regular medical visits with your health care provider. These discussions ( ...
... Children/Pediatric > Chronic Pancreatitis in Children test Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...
Children And Grief. American Academy of Children & Adolescent Psychiatry Web site. http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_grief. July 2013. Accessed July 16, 2014. Helping Children ...
... e.g. medical emergencies, fire, alcohol, drugs, strangers, guns, etc.) When and how to answer the phone ... WatchingTV/Screen Time and Children Movies and Children Firearms and Children Children Online If you find Facts ...
... Find a Periodontist Gum Disease In Children Chronic gingivitis. aggressive periodontitis and generalized aggressive periodontitis are types ... children. Types of periodontal diseases in children Chronic gingivitis is common in children. It usually causes gum ...
Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.
Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)
The purpose of licensing is to provide protection in circumstances in which people are vulnerable and to mandate that positive services will be provided. The common denominator of human vulnerability in licensed children's services is the fact that the children are in the care of someone other than their families. Licensed services include family…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Boeckx, Roger L.
Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)
Verbov, J L
Common skin problems in 340 children routinely seen during a winter period, included napkin rashes in infants, atopic eczema throughout childrhood, and acne vulgaris in late childhood. Skin infections and psoriasis were also commonly seen. If possible, when topical steroid preparations more potent than hydrocortisone cream BPC are used in children, they should be used sparingly and for short periods only. PMID:135974
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda
The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…
Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John
Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early…
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...
The enrollment of children with ASD in public school settings has escalated in conjunction with the increased incidence of the diagnosis (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). Characteristics associated with ASD can present unique challenges for both children and teachers in the classroom. According to many researchers, positive teacher attitudes are one…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730
Texas Child Care, 2002
Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…
McNamee, Abigail Stahl, Ed.; And Others
Written by professional psychologists, the 10 articles collected in this bulletin focus on stressful experiences that, when inappropriately responded to, can result in developmental problems for children. Stress factors are conceptualized as being either direct or indirect, or internal or external. Articles are organized in terms of these four…
When there is something we want to know, we usually ask experts, but rarely do we ask children about their own childhood. This paper looks at children's perceptions and responses in relation to programming on children's television. Topics include: (1) what are children's programs?; (2) when do children become adults?; (3) criteria for quality; (4)…
Save the Children, Westport, CT.
This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…
Christian, Linda Garris
Children's grief differs from adults' grief. Rituals like funerals or memorial services can help children accept the finality of death. Intervention programs with counseling and play therapy for grieving children can be very helpful. Teachers must become informed about handling death to help children cope. A sidebar discusses how to help children…
... same age. The child will usually have normal intelligence. In older children, puberty may come late or ... treatment are rare. Common side effects include: Headache Fluid retention Muscle and joint aches Slippage of the ...
... live in our bodies. This includes bacteria and fungi. While most germs are harmless, some can cause ... children and adults when too much of a fungus called Candida grows in your mouth. A small ...
... well studied. They include strongyloidiasis , caused by a worm infection that is of particular danger for children ... immune system. It is acquired when larvae (immature worms) in soil contaminated with infected human feces come ...
McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.
Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…
Reyes, Augustina H.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…
MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy
Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of 'partially' immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138-13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151-6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017-10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075-7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144-0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598-23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057-0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477
... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
Cook, Alicia S.; McBride, Jean
Examines children's reactions to the divorce process and explores ways in which adults can promote growth and adjustment in children of divorce. Suggests ways in which parents, teachers, and counselors can help children. (RC)
... Your Child When To Seek Help For Your Child When Children Have Children When A Pet Dies When a Parent Has Cancer: Tips for Talking to Kids What Is Psychotherapy For Children And Adolescents? Understanding Your Mental Health ...
Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen Espańol Text Size Email Print Share Adopted Children & Discipline Article Body Some parents are ...
... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...
Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...
Challamel, M J; Mazzola, M E; Nevsimalova, S; Cannard, C; Louis, J; Revol, M
The clinical and polygraphic characteristics of narcolepsy in children were established on the analysis of 97 reported cases in children (including 12 personal cases). In idiopathic narcolepsies (77 cases) narcoleptic attacks occurred in 97% of the cases, cataplexy in 80.5%, hypnagogic hallucination in 39% and sleep paralysis in 29%; 13% of the children had the tetrad; dyssomnia was a prominent feature. Polygraphic data showed no significant differences between adults and children. In symptomatic narcolepsies (20 cases): cataplexy was the prominent feature occurring in 95% of the cases, 26% of the children had status cataplecticus; in these narcoleptic-cataplectic syndromes there was often an absence of polygraphic evidence of narcolepsy. Symptomatic narcolepsy should be suspected in cases where narcolepsy is detected in preteenage children, where cataplectic attacks are abnormally frequent, where there is an absence of polygraphic evidence of classical narcolepsy (although this criterion may not apply in the case of younger children) or where human leukocyte antigen typing for DR2 is negative. An association with a Niemann-Pick disease type C was found in 12 out of the 20 symptomatic cases, this association merits further study. PMID:7701194
The office of the Ombudsman for Swedish children, established within Radda Barnen (The Swedish Save the Children Fund) is occupied by five persons. Three of the staff are children's ombudsmen, one is an immigrant consultant, and one is a refugee consultant. The work of the ombudsman has six core aspects. First, attempts are made to strengthen the…
Kazdan, Jerome J.; McCulloch, J. Clement; Crawford, John S.
Endogenous uveitis in 117 children aged 15 years or under was investigated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, in a 12-year period from 1953 to 1964. This group included 55 children with anterior uveitis, 59 with posterior uveitis, and three with diffuse uveitis. An etiologic diagnosis could be made or the uveitis recognized as part of a definite clinical syndrome in approximately 47% of the 117 children. The commonest cause of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis and the commonest associated finding in anterior uveitis was juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic cyclitis of unknown etiology was a relatively common disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:6066889
Malchiodi, Cathy A.
Children's art not only provides a window to children's problems, it also gives them another language with which to share feelings and ideas. This book provides an overview of the multidimensional aspects of children's drawings, and is intended to assist therapists in working with children and their drawings. Chapter 1 discusses projective tests…
Patros, Philip G.; Shamoo, Tonia K.
Children's suicidal behavior is surrounded by controversy with no single theory to explain or assess vulnerable children. Since accidents are the leading cause of death among children it is possible that some of these deaths are suicides. Beliefs by parents and professionals that children are not capable of suicidal behavior are being disproved as…
Describes experiences of children and adolescents in South Africa who have been subjected to the violence of the apartheid state. Discusses detention of children and torture and assault of detained children. Against this backdrop, explores the effects of violence on children, psychological trauma, counseling interventions, and applications of…
Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.
The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…
Taylor, Anne; Campbell, Leslie
Describes "Architecture and Children," a traveling exhibition which visually involves children in architectural principles and historic styles. States that it teaches children about architecture, and through architecture it instills the basis for aesthetic judgment. Argues that "children learn best by concrete examples of ideas, not just from…
Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. ? Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Stoecklin, Vicki L.
This paper examines four key elements in the designing-for-all-children concept for school environments. Designing-for-all-children designs acknowledge that children pass through differing, yet recognizable, stages of development; and that children need usable environments free from physical and social barriers. Key elements address equitable use,…
Christian, Linda Garris
Examines young children's responses to and understanding of death. Discusses children's concepts of death; how their grief process differs from that of adults; stages of grief; factors affecting grief responses; acceptance of children's grief response; support for grieving children, especially funeral services and counseling; and preparing and…
A program of education and support is essential for children and their parent or adult caregivers when the children have experienced the death of a significant person. Children need guidance on how to deal with their profound feelings of grief. The purpose of this article is to give school nurses the ability to help children face the strange new…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA. PMID:9482324
Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758
Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D
Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308
Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Davies, Patrick T.
Building on the conceptual framework of emotional security theory (EST) , this study longitudinally examined multiple factors linking parental depressive symptoms and child internalizing symptoms. Participants were 235 children (106 boys, 129 girls) and their cohabiting parents. Assessments included mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms when children were in kindergarten, parents’ negative expressiveness when children were in first grade, children’s emotional insecurity one year later, and children’s internalizing symptoms in kindergarten and second grade. Findings revealed both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms were related to changes in children’s internalizing symptoms as a function of parents’ negative emotional expressiveness and children’s emotional insecurity. In addition to these similar pathways, distinctive pathways as a function of parental gender were identified. Contributions are considered for understanding relations between parental depressive symptoms and children’s development. PMID:23371814
Data on Maine's population of minority language children consists of three sections. The first contains summative data in tabular or graphic form on: the distribution of monolingual-English and bilingual children, including: children of limited English proficiency (LEP); distribution of languages spoken by school-aged children; current trends in…
Smutney, Joan Franklin, Ed.
This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on teaching gifted children in the regular education classroom. Featured articles include: (1) "Educating All Gifted Children for the 21st Century: Proposal for Training Regular Classroom Teachers" (Maurice D. Fisher and Michael E. Walters); (2) "Gifted Children in…
Agenda for Children, 2010
The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…
Scheer, Judith K.
This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…
Hesjedal, Elisabeth; Hetland, Hilde; Iversen, Anette Christine; Manger, Terje
Issues concerning interprofessional collaboration (IPC) for children at risk have become a priority globally as well as in Norway. By international standards, the Norwegian educational system is regarded as inclusive and collaborative in terms of the external services that support schools and pupils. However, a debate continues on how to best…
Muskin, Joshua A.
Supported by Save the Children, the Mali Community School project helped fund school construction in previously unserved villages and accommodated community priorities: instruction in Bambara rather than French, integration of local knowledge into traditional subject areas, and school schedules adapted to agricultural needs. Project evaluation…
Downing, J; Marston, J; Muckaden, MA; Boucher, S; Cardoz, M; Nkosi, B; Steel, B; Talawadekar, P; Tilve, P
The International Children’s Palliative Care Network (ICPCN) held its first international conference on children’s palliative care, in conjunction with Tata Memorial Centre, in Mumbai, India, from 10–12 February 2014. The theme of the conference, Transforming children’s palliative care—from ideas to action, reflected the vision of the ICPCN to live in a world where every child who needs it, can access palliative care, regardless of where they live. Key to this is action, to develop service provision and advocate for children’s palliative care. Three pre-conference workshops were held on 9 February, aimed at doctors, nurses, social workers, and volunteers, and focused around the principles of children’s palliative care, and in particular pain and symptom management. The conference brought together 235 participants representing 38 countries. Key themes identified throughout the conference included: the need for advocacy and leadership; for education and research, with great strides having been taken in the development of an evidence base for children’s palliative care, along with the provision of education; the importance of communication and attention to spirituality in children, and issues around clinical care, in particular for neonates. Delegates were continually challenged to transform children’s palliative care in their parts of the world and the conference culminated in the signing of the ICPCN Mumbai Declaration. The Declaration calls upon governments around the world to improve access to quality children’s palliative care services and made a call on the Belgian government not to pass a bill allowing children to be euthanised in that country. The conference highlighted many of the ongoing developments in children’s palliative care around the world, and as she closed the conference, Joan Marston (ICPCN CEO) challenged participants to take positive action and be the champions that the children need, thus transforming children’s palliative care. PMID:24761156
Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Huda, Tanvir; Zhou, Guohai; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Garde, Ainara; Moinuddin, Md; Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; El Arifeen, Shams; Larson, Charles; Ansermino, J. Mark
Background The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course. Methods We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested. Findings Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range) age of 1.02 (0.42–2.24), were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90). At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%), specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%), positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73%) and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%). Conclusion A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of this model in a community setting will be required before adoption into clinical practice. PMID:26580403
Best, John R.; Theim, Kelly R.; Gredysa, Dana M.; Stein, Richard I.; Welch, R. Robinson; Saelens, Brian E.; Perri, Michael G.; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.
Objective Our goal was to determine whether behavioral economic constructs—including impulsivity (i.e., steep discounting of delayed food and monetary rewards), the relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood), and environmental enrichment (i.e., the presence of alternatives to unhealthy foods in the home and neighborhood environments)—are significant pretreatment predictors of overweight children’s weight loss within family-based treatment. Method Overweight children (N = 241; ages 7–12 years; 63% female; 65% non-Hispanic White) enrolled in a 16-week family-based obesity treatment with at least one parent. At baseline, children completed a task to assess RRVfood and delay discounting measures of snack foods and money to assess impulsivity. Parents completed questionnaires to assess environmental enrichment. Results Children who found food highly reinforcing and steeply discounted future food rewards at baseline showed a blunted response to treatment compared with children without this combination of risk factors. High environmental enrichment was associated with treatment success only among children who did not find food highly reinforcing. Monetary discounting rate predicted weight loss, regardless of children’s level of RRVfood. Conclusions Investigation is warranted into novel approaches to obesity treatment that target underlying impulsivity and RRVfood. Enriching the environment with alternatives to unhealthy eating may facilitate weight loss, especially for children with low RRVfood. PMID:22924332
Saadeh, Rami; Klaunig, James
Children of different ages vary in their response to environmental stressors due to their continuous development and changes in their bodies’ anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Each age group of children has special biological features that distinguish their toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic characteristics from other age groups. The variability in responses extends to include children of the same age group. These intra- and inter-group differences in biological features explains the variability in responses to environmental exposures. Based on such differences in children’s responses to exposures, adverse health outcomes and diseases develop differently in children. One of these diseases that are common in children is asthma. Asthma is a complex respiratory chronic disease that is multifactorial in origin. This paper discusses how variability in certain factors among children contributes to asthma occurrence or exacerbation, and links these factors to asthma in children of different ages. The importance of this review is to provide an insight on factors affecting asthma prevalence among children. These factors are usually overlooked in clinical or public health practice, which might significantly affect asthma management, and decrease the predictability of asthma detection measures. Therefore, keeping these factors into consideration can significantly improve asthma treatment and assist in asthma prevention amongst susceptible populations. PMID:26715926
Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang
The relation between children’s lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3 - 8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children’s subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their deceit. Children’s conceptual moral understanding of lies, executive functioning, and theory-of-mind understanding were also assessed. Children’s initial false denials were related to their first-order belief understanding and their inhibitory control. Children’s ability to maintain their lies was related to their second-order belief understanding. Children’s lying was related to their moral evaluations. These finding suggest that social and cognitive factors may play an important role in children’s lie-telling abilities. PMID:18717895
FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT
on disasters, preparedness planning and identifying at-risk children. ? Long-term problems Some children may have long-term problems such as depression, prolonged grief and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Therefore, it is important to recognize... the signs of depression or PTSD in chil- dren. Symptoms of depression in children may include persistent sad or irritable moods, loss of interest in activities they once enjoyed, a significant change in appetite or body weight, oversleeping or difficulty...
Johnstone, B R; Bennett, C S
Lawn mowers cause severe injuries, particularly to the lower limbs in children. The study of 52 inpatient cases treated over 12 years shows that ride-on lawn mowers cause the most severe trauma, resulting in longer hospitalization. These children more often require further admissions for reconstructive surgery including free tissue transfer. These accidents can be avoided if young children are prevented from playing near or using power lawn mowers. PMID:2571329
Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287
Wise, M S; Lynch, J
Core symptoms of narcolepsy are similar in children compared with adults, but expression may be different due to more severe manifestations, maturational factors, and the significant impact of symptoms on behavior and academic performance. Diagnosis of narcolepsy in children is often challenging and requires a detailed history followed by polysomnography and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test. Management involves a comprehensive approach, including patient and family education and emotional support; behavioral strategies, such as good sleep hygiene and planned naps; and pharmacologic intervention. Despite dramatic progress recently in understanding the etiology of human narcolepsy through molecular genetic investigations, the disorder remains a chronic and often disabling disease with major impact on the lives of children and their families. PMID:11768782
Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.
Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…
Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.
Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key theme…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard
Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…
Flynn, Patricia; And Others
The booklet presents information and illustrations regarding bus transportation of handicapped children. The roles and responsibilities of drivers and aides are discussed as are such topics as seating arrangements, first aid measures (for falls and seizures), embarking and debarking procedures (including ways to encourage independence in walking),…
Wilke, Janet Stoeger, Comp.
This annotated guide is designed to provide assistance in the identification of resources useful in locating books about various subjects related to children or appropriate for various grade levels. The 17 sections include entries for 86 books and articles in and about the following areas: general subjects/all grade levels; best book lists;…
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
Hildebrand, Joan M.
This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)
Examines the role of playgrounds that use discarded items or "junk" as an integral part of kindergarten classes in an Israeli kibbutz. Suggests that play in the junkyard, by including the whole person--muscles and senses, emotion and intellect, individual growth and social interaction--can offer the experiential foundations on which children can…
Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.
Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…
McCaslin, Nellie, Ed.
This book collects the current thinking of fourteen of the leading practitioners in the field of children in theatre. Evident throughout the book is the theme that it is the creativity of the individual teacher or leader that makes for exciting results in drama by and for young people. Included are reminiscences, philosophies, teaching hints, and…
Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak
Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786
Townsend, John Rowe
Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…
Increasing numbers of children experience parental separation and formation of stepfamilies. Research into the impact of these family transitions on children's adjustment by family sociologists and psychologists has greatly increased; changes in research perspectives over the last two decades are discussed, including a focus on individual…
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
... Frequent physical complaints, such as headaches or stomachaches Abuse of drugs or alcohol; or Aggression towards other children Risk taking behaviors Depression or suicidal thoughts or behavior Some children of ...
... Order Your Child from Harper Collins Order Your Adolescent from Harper Collins Related Facts for Families Gangs and Children Children with Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents Stepfamily Problems Grandparents Raising ...
Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...
Milk and children ... children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...
Corbett, Susan Miller
Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)
... time together. Grandparents and Other Relatives Raising Children: Housing Needs and Challenges (Copyright © Generations United) - This fact sheet provides information about a specific type of housing program for grandparents and other relatives raising children, ...
... Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Fecal Incontinence in Children If your child has fecal or ... 2014 at 03:11:14 PM What Is Incontinence? Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children ...
... problems than children whose parents are not alcoholics. Alcoholism runs in families, and children of alcoholics are ... situation. Although the child tries to keep the alcoholism a secret, teachers, relatives, other adults, or friends ...
... adjust Most shy children, however, do well in relationships and in social settings once they are past an initial period of adjustment. Children who have difficulty establishing and maintaining relationships even after the ice-breaking period merit more ...
... Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...
... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Firearms and Children Quick Links Facts For Families Guide ... large numbers of children and adolescents killed by firearms. In order to prevent further deaths, it is ...
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...
Hulme, B.; Kenyon, J. R.; Owen, K.; Snell, M.; Mowbray, J. F.; Porter, K. A.; Starkie, S. J.; Muras, H.; Peart, W. S.
Eighteen children aged 6 to 17 years received 24 cadaveric renal transplants between January 1965 and July 1971, and a further child received a kidney donated by her father. 12 children are alive with good functioning grafts and another 2 children are alive on haemodialysis awaiting a further renal graft. The clinical problems of renal transplantation in children are discussed with particular reference to the side effects of immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:4558383
Kane, Dorothy Noyes
Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)
Assesses the competence of children (N=215) between the ages of 5 and 9 at addition by asking them to estimate the answers to addition sums. Reports that children at higher levels tend to produce more reasonable estimates than children at lower levels. Discusses the existence and nature of a zone of partial knowledge and understanding. Contains 31…
Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? · CS in children is rare. An estimated ... child or adolescent during this period. Editor’s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...
Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.
A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…
This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…
The Children of the Future project is a 3-year (1990-1993) study of the attitudes towards and experiences with computers of nearly 200 children between 7 and 12 years of age at 13 leisure centers, or after-school day care centers, throughout Sweden. The major aims of the project are to: (1) develop an educational method to help children work…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…
Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe
In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…
Garfinkel, Irwin, Ed.; And Others
Noting that successful social policies for children are critical to our nation's future, this book discusses the status of children in America and suggests that the nation's current policies may not be serving them well. Proposals for seven new social policies are discussed that deal with the following domains affecting children from birth through…
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
... And Music Videos Teen Suicide Talking To Your Kids About Sex Talking To Children About Terrorism And War Obesity In Children And Teens Home Alone Children Drinking Alcohol in Pregnancy (Fetal Alcohol ... good mental health a reality, consider donating to the Campaign for America’s Kids . Your support will help us continue to produce ...
Waldman, H B
Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices. PMID:9391713
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Sutherland, Zena; And Others
Designed for classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, the emphases in this book are on understanding children and their needs, on perspectives and background, on criteria and types of literature, and on artists and authors. The first part provides an overview of children's needs and interests,…
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
Sherman, Dianne, Ed.
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…
Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.
The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…
Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...
Franchi-Abella, Stéphanie; Cahill, Anne Marie; Barnacle, Alex M.; Pariente, Daničle; Roebuck, Derek J.
Various vascular and nonvascular hepatobiliary interventional radiology techniques are now commonly performed in children’s hospitals. Although the procedures are broadly similar to interventional practice in adults, there are important differences in indications and technical aspects. This review describes the indications, techniques, and results of liver biopsy, hepatic and portal venous interventions and biliary interventions in children.
Maintaining Children's Safety and Security on the Premises Policy V.2 June 18 2014 Owned by: Tracy/DepartmentResources/StudentServicesPoliciesandProcedures/EarlyYearsCentre /MaintainingChildren'sSafetyandSecurityonthePremisesPolicy June 2012 V.2 Impact Assessed: Update due: May 2015 #12;Policy 1 Title: Maintaining Children's Safety and Security on the Premises From: Early Years
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…
Towers, Richard L.
The purpose of this booklet is to raise the awareness of teachers and other school personnel about the needs and characteristics of the children of alcoholics and addicts and to explain what schools can do to help. The booklet discusses: (1) risk factors for children of alcoholics and substance abusers, including the psychological, emotional, and…
Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…
Watkins, Ruth V., Ed.; Rice, Mabel L., Ed.
The fourth volume in a series on communication and language intervention focuses on specific language impairments in children, and contains papers presented at a 1992 conference. Papers include the following: "Specific Language Impairments in Children: An Introduction" (Ruth V. Watkins); "Studies of Genetics of Specific Language Impairment" (J.…
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…
The problem of sex stereotyping in children's literature has been around for as long as the genre itself, but it was brought to the forefront because of the women's movement in the 1970s. From the 1700s, critics were aware of the problems that arose from children's literature and its portrayal of characters and ideas, including "Cinderella" and…
Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo
Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065
Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Sook-Jung
In this new and rapidly changing era of digital technology, there is increasing consensus among media scholars that there is an urgent need to develop measurement approaches which more adequately capture media use The overarching goal of this paper is facilitate the development of measurement approaches appropriate for capturing children’s media use in the digital age. The paper outlines various approaches to measurement, focusing mainly on those which have figured prominently in major existing studies of children’s media use. We identify issues related to each technique, including advantages and disadvantages. We also include a review of existing empirical comparisons of various methodologies. The paper is intended to foster discussion of the best ways to further research and knowledge regarding the impact of media on children. PMID:19763246
This article examines how older paediatric patients (10–18 years) initiate different actions, including the solicitation of parental assistance, to accomplish the task of answering clinicians’ symptom questions in three paediatric tertiary care clinics. Using the qualitative method of conversation analysis to examine children’s symptom accounts in 69 video-recorded outpatient intake visits, I describe four child-initiated strategies that preclude, solicit and limit parental assistance in the interactional environment of having difficulties in providing an answer. These strategies are: children’s own answer searches, children’s solicitations of corroboration, children’s solicitations of an answer, and children’s answer completions. Supported by the clinicians’ strong commitment to child-centredness, children manage to solicit parental assistance without losing the opportunity to present their own symptom accounts. PMID:19856490
The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...
White, Laura Santangelo
There is an increasing interest in the use of yoga for children to calm the mind and increase health and well being. Despite scant but increasing evidence supporting the efficacy of yoga in children, special yoga programs within schools are being developed for children and adolescents. This increasing popularity of the potential benefits of yoga may encourage parents to consider yoga for their children and request referrals or clarification of the purported effects. A description of the philosophical basis of yoga, the basic components of a yoga practice, safety concerns, and how to locate and evaluate a yoga program for children will be addressed. PMID:19916343
Stelter, Rebecca L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.
This study investigated how parental beliefs about children’s emotions and parental stress relate to children’s feelings of security in the parent-child relationship. Models predicting direct effects of parental beliefs and parental stress, and moderating effects of parental stress on the relationship between parental beliefs and children’s feelings of security were tested. Participants were 85 African American, European American, and Lumbee American Indian 4th and 5th grade children and one of their parents. Children reported their feelings of security in the parent-child relationship; parents independently reported on their beliefs and their stress. Parental stress moderated relationships between three of the four parental beliefs about the value of children’s emotions and children’s attachment security. When parent stress was low, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were not related to children’s feelings of security; when parent stress was high, however, parental beliefs accepting and valuing children’s emotions were related to children’s feelings of security. These findings highlight the importance of examining parental beliefs and stress together for children’s attachment security. PMID:21731472
Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM
Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta-agonists and other add on therapies such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control including reviewing the diagnosis and the removal of causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041
Patel, D R
Tobacco use by children and adolescents is a major health threat. A number of carcinogens and other harmful compounds have been identified in tobacco smoke. The major component, nicotine, is highly addictive. In India, approximately 5500 children and adolescents start using tobacco products daily, some as young as 10 years old. The majority of users have first tried tobacco prior to age 18. Children and adolescents are exposed to the harmful effects of nicotine from smoking or second hand smoke from others; and from use of smokeless tobacco. There is increased prevalence of respiratory disease, ear and sinus infections, asthma, oral disease, and many long-term complications such as cardiovascular disease and cancers due to tobacco use. Prevention and treatment strategies include behavioural approaches and pharmacotherapy. There is an increased urgency especially, for countries like India to address the problem of tobacco use by children and adolescents as the tobacco industry faces legal and public opinion obstacles in Western countries like United States. The medical practitioner can play an important role by implementing the preventive and treatment strategies in his or her practice. PMID:10798145
Nguyen, Simone P.
Cross-classified items pose an interesting challenge to children’s induction since these items belong to many different categories, each of which may serve as a basis for a different type of inference. Inductive selectivity is the ability to appropriately make different types of inferences about a single cross-classifiable item based on its different category memberships. This research includes five experiments that examine the development of inductive selectivity in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 272). Overall, the results show that by age 4 years, children have inductive selectivity with taxonomic and script categories. That is, children use taxonomic categories to make biochemical inferences about an item whereas children use script categories to make situational inferences about an item. PMID:22803510
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…
Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for family-friendly work environments, and help maintain the parental shadow system of care on which health care professionals depend. PMID:22013630
Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent
Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122
Squires, Robert H
Acute liver failure (ALF) in children differs from that observed in adults in both the etiologic spectrum and the clinical picture. Children, particularly very young ones, do not demonstrate classical features of encephalopathy and the definition of ALF has been revised to include patients with advanced coagulopathy, regardless of mental status. A significant number of these children will go on to require transplant or die. Etiologies vary by age with metabolic and infectious diseases prominent in the first year of life and acetaminophen overdose and Wilson's disease occurring in adolescents. In almost 50% of cases, however, the child has an indeterminate cause for ALF. Management requires a multidisciplinary approach and is directed at establishing the etiology where possible and monitoring, anticipating, and managing the multisystem complications that occur in children with ALF. Overall, short-term outcomes are better in children than adults but are dependent upon the degree of encephalopathy and diagnosis. PMID:18452115
Hiatt, R L
Over a period of 10 years, 160 children with cataracts underwent operation at the University of Tennessee Medical Center, Memphis. The surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of these patients was analyzed and studied. The optical rehabilitation included patients with glasses, intraocular lens implants, epikeratophakia, and contact lenses. Seventy three of these patients were chosen at random and reevaluated as to visual outcome, and 46 were subjected to a psychosocial test to evaluate their quality of life and their rehabilitation. Eighteen of these were also given a psychosocial test to evaluate the quality of life enjoyed by these children at an older age following treatment for the cataract. Surgical, optical, and psychosocial rehabilitation of such children is also discussed. This is the first report of the psychological evaluation of such children. The further needs of these children as they approach adulthood are discussed in detail. PMID:10360302
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…
... to discretionary grantees to help them implement their projects. It includes information on a variety of topics, including grants management, reporting, evaluation, sustainability, and more. VIEW THE TOOLKIT > ...
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Melton, Gary B.
Approaches to helping nondisabled elementary students examine their feelings in preparation for mainstreaming handicapped children are described, including simulations, activities to provide familiarity with braces and prostheses, use of handicapped adults as guest speakers, and discussions about handicaps. (CL)
Background Children of low socioeconomic position (SEP) generally have poorer diets than children of high SEP. However there is no consensus on which SEP variable is most indicative of SEP differences in children’s diets. This study investigated associations between diet and various SEP indicators among children aged 9–13?years. Method Families (n?=?625) were recruited from 27 Adelaide primary schools in 2010. Children completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires providing intake scores for fruit, vegetables, non-core foods, sweetened drinks, and healthy and unhealthy eating behaviours. Parents reported demographic information by telephone interview. Differences in dietary intake scores were compared across parental education, income, occupation, employment status and home postcode. Results Across most SEP indicators, lower SEP was associated with poorer dietary outcomes, including higher intake of non-core foods and sweetened drinks, and more unhealthy behaviours; and lower intake of fruit and vegetables, and fewer healthy behaviours. The number and type of significant SEP-diet associations differed across SEP indicators and dietary outcomes. Mother’s education appeared most frequently as a predictor of children’s dietary intake, and postcode was the least frequent predictor of children’s dietary intake. Conclusion Socioeconomic gradients in children’s dietary intake varied according to the SEP indicator used, suggesting indicator-specific pathways of influence on children’s dietary intake. Researchers should consider multiple indicators when defining SEP in relation to children’s eating. PMID:24674231
Hundreds of children participated in the annual Take Our Children to Work Day at Stennis Space Center on July 29. During the day, children of Stennis employees received a tour of facilities and took part in various activities, including demonstrations in cryogenics and robotics.
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Explores misconceptions about the place of the arts in early childhood education. Notes that children's creativity usually flourishes in a play-like atmosphere where children have the time, materials, opportunity, and social support to experiment. Suggests three ways to facilitate children's artistic growth and creative expression, and includes a…
Winston, Andrew S.; And Others
Presents three studies of children's ability to create and detect expressions of emotion in drawings. Compared to younger children, older children used more strategies, experimented with line and color, and were more likely to explore themes of death, aging, and illness. Includes sample drawings and statistical tables. (MJP)
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
Chawla, Jasneek; Waters, Karen Ann
Chronic snoring (?4 nights per week) is not benign. Otherwise healthy children with chronic snoring and evidence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy can be referred directly for adenotonsillectomy. Snoring children <30 months or with significant medical comorbidities should be referred for specialist sleep evaluation. Older children with intermittent snoring or without significant medical comorbidities can be managed with a combination of medical and surgical interventions listed herein. PMID:26333074
... air or in food Tobacco smoke Exercise Strong emotions Viral infections, such as the common cold ... right away. Emergency symptoms include: Difficulty breathing Bluish color to the lips and face Severe anxiety due ...
Jordan, Amy B
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents' ability to supervise their children's media use. Jordan concludes by considering the relevance and efficacy of today's media policy given the increasingly rapid pace of technological change. The need for research in informing and evaluating media policy, she says, has never been greater. PMID:21338012
Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)
Lee, Christine K; Jonas, Maureen M
Hepatitis C infection is a global health problem. Most infected children have not been identified. Perinatal transmission is the most common mode of acquisition. Liver disease owing to chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection progresses slowly in individuals infected early in life. Serious complications rarely affect patients during childhood. Successful treatment of HCV in adults has improved and recommendations have changed. Treatment in children should be deferred until direct-acting antivirals and interferon-free regimens are available to this population. If treatment cannot be deferred, regimens including peginterferon and ribavirin can be given to children with compensated liver disease. PMID:26600227
Taib, Nezar Ismet; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
BACKGROUND Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. METHODS The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate). A modified family map (genogram) was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) structured interviews were conducted with the children. RESULTS The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers), and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57%) of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%). Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSION Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs. PMID:24653656
Winter, Marcia A.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cummings, E. Mark
This multi-method study examined the association between family instability and children’s internal representations of security in the family system within the context of maternal communications about disruptive family events. Participants included 224 kindergarten children (100 boys and 124 girls) and their parents. Parents reported on the frequency of unstable family events, mothers reported their patterns of communication to children following disruptive events, and children completed a story-stem battery to assess their internal representations of family security. Consistent with predictions, heightened family instability was associated with less security in child representations. The implication of these results for notions of children’s security in the family system, including exploratory findings on the protective role of maternal communications for children’s representations, are discussed. PMID:20689722
Tabaku, Afrim; Bejtja, Gazmend; Bala, Silvana; Toci, Ervin; Resuli, Jerina
IntroductionMany reports regarding the effects of air pollution on children's respiratory health have appeared in the scientific literature. Some investigators found increases in persistent cough and phlegm, bronchitis, and early respiratory infections in communities with poor air quality. The purpose of this survey was to compare the pulmonary function of children living in urban area of Tirana city with children living in suburban area of the city. Material and methodsThis survey is carried out during 2004-2005 period on 238 children living in urban area and in 72 children living in suburban area, measuring dynamic pulmonary function. A questionnaire was used to collect data on sex, current respiratory symptoms, allergy diagnosed by the physician, parent education and smoking habit of parents, presence of animals, synthetic carpets and moulds in their houses. The selection of schools, and children included in this survey was done by randomized method. Also, we have measured and classic air pollutants. ResultsComparing the results of values of pulmonary function of two groups of children, we have shown that differences were significant ( p 0.001), whereas comparing symptoms were for cough ( p 0.011) and for phlegm ( p 0.032). The level of particulate matter (PM10) and total suspended matter (TSP) were over the recommended limit values, whereas the levels of other pollutants have resulted within recommended levels of World Health Organization (WHO) ConclusionsThe results of this survey suggest that air pollution is associated with respiratory health of children causing a slight decrease in values of pulmonary function in children of urban area compared with those of suburban area.
Bose-O’Reilly, Stephan; McCarty, Kathleen M.; Steckling, Nadine; Lettmeier, Beate
Acute or chronic mercury exposure can cause adverse effects during any period of development. Mercury is a highly toxic element; there is no known safe level of exposure. Ideally, neither children nor adults should have any mercury in their bodies because it provides no physiological benefit. Prenatal and postnatal mercury exposures occur frequently in many different ways. Pediatricians, nurses, and other health care providers should understand the scope of mercury exposures and health problems among children and be prepared to handle mercury exposures in medical practice. Prevention is the key to reducing mercury poisoning. Mercury exists in different chemical forms: elemental (or metallic), inorganic, and organic (methylmercury and ethyl mercury). Mercury exposure can cause acute and chronic intoxication at low levels of exposure. Mercury is neuro-, nephro-, and immunotoxic. The development of the child in utero and early in life is at particular risk. Mercury is ubiquitous and persistent. Mercury is a global pollutant, bio-accumulating, mainly through the aquatic food chain, resulting in a serious health hazard for children. This article provides an extensive review of mercury exposure and children’s health. PMID:20816346
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
A central goal of "America Reads Challenge" sites is to serve children who most need help in reading. These children can include Title I children, children with disabilities, linguistically and culturally diverse children, migrant children, and preschool children. This booklet provides tip sheets on finding and serving these children, so that they…
Gaur, Ajay; Gupta, Richa; Patel, GS
One-half of the world’s population lives in cities and towns; this is expected to increase to 70% by 2050. One in three urban dwellers lives in slums. As the urban population grows, so does the number of urban poor. Out of a billion children living in urban areas, approximately 300 million are suffering from exclusion or are at risk of exclusion. Urban poor children are devoid of basic rights of survival, development and protection and are marginalised in challenging conditions in overcrowded settlements. Rapid urbanisation and the consequent increase in urban population is one of the biggest challenges that developing countries, including India are facing. Thirty per cent (that is, 367.5 million) of India’s population of 1.23 billion live in urban areas. Moreover, this figure is increasing rapidly and is expected to reach 432 million (40%) by 2021. Rapid urbanisation has unfortunately outpaced development, and a large proportion (43 million) live in substandard conditions in slums. Now is the time to pay attention to the basic rights of the urban poor, especially the urban poor children, the most vulnerable group at the launching of 12th Five-Year Plan & National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) in India. PMID:23837083
Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy; Shier, Victoria
Mothers’ work hours are likely to affect their time allocation towards activities related to children’s diet, activity and well-being. For example, mothers who work more may be more reliant on processed foods, foods prepared away from home and school meal programs for their children’s meals. A greater number of work hours may also lead to more unsupervised time for children that may, in turn, allow for an increase in unhealthy behaviors among their children such as snacking and sedentary activities such as TV watching. Using data on a national cohort of children, we examine the relationship between mothers’ average weekly work hours during their children’s school years on children’s dietary and activity behaviors, BMI and obesity in 5th and 8th grade. Our results are consistent with findings from the literature that maternal work hours are positively associated with children’s BMI and obesity especially among children with higher socioeconomic status. Unlike previous papers, our detailed data on children’s behaviors allow us to speak directly to affected behaviors that may contribute to the increased BMI. We show that children whose mothers work more consume more unhealthy foods (e.g. soda, fast food) and less healthy foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, milk) and watch more television. Although they report being slightly more physically active, likely due to organized physical activities, the BMI and obesity results suggest that the deterioration in diet and increase in sedentary behaviors dominate. PMID:24491828
JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS
THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…
Rist, Marilee C.
The use of crack during pregnancy is producing tens of thousands of blameless children each year who, by biology and environment, are impaired. Describes the effects of crack on children and what can be done for crack-smoking mothers-to-be. Offers suggestions to school boards for providing a structured supportive learning environment for these…
Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…
Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.
This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, and…
Discusses what teachers must know to help children cope with loss (death, divorce, and moving), explaining that for most children, loss and fear go together, and noting that it is often the teacher who first identifies how difficult a loss is for a child. A sidebar presents tips on dealing with loss in the classroom (being attentive, sensitive,…
... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
Prevention Forum, 1990
The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…
Longden, Ken; And Others
Children of 2 different age groups (11-12, n=246; and 13-14, n=196) were asked to draw and write about dissolving in 2 different ways. Greater percentage of children at both ages gave accurate particle interpretation that accurate view of observable process. Consistency between two ways of looking at dissolving was not found to improve with age.…
Discusses the need for mathematics teaching to be matched to children's understanding rather than to the demands of mathematics. Illustrations are given from the results of testing British children by the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) Project, Chelsea College, University of London. (HM)
Arena, John I., Ed.; And Others
Describing methods for helping children with normal intelligence who manifest learning, perceptual, and/or behavior disorders as a result of minimal neurological or brain dysfunction, the compilation contains 22 papers. Articles are grouped into six categories: identifying the children, motor development, basic considerations, adapting the…
Dewalt, Mark W.; Erickson, Laurie
This study reviews the literature on the effects of television viewing on children, examines the preferences of children for television programs and commercials, and analyzes selected characteristics of these programs. A stratified sample of 1,416 students in grades 1-6 in six eastern states was polled on their viewing preferences in November of…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Blackledge, Adrian, Ed.
Contributors from Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, and the United States describe how primary-age children in these anglophone countries are learning in the language of their home. The book demonstrates that monolingual schooling in a multicultural society fails to meet the needs of bilingual children. It argues that linguistic minorities…
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…
Hodges, Michael H.
Many of today's youngsters are alienated, poor achievers with drug dependencies. Recent "liberating" developments for adults, such as simplified divorce procedures, have lessened adult input in children's lives. Support of children from public institutions wanes as political conservatism increases. Effective solutions are sorely needed on the…
CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...
Meyer, Sarah A.; Shore, Cecilia M.
Children's understanding of dreams as mental states was examined as an instance of their development of a "theory of mind." Thirty-five children between three and seven years of age were interviewed to determine how well they understood the reality, location, privacy, origin, and controllability of their own dreams, versus that of a fictional…
Cullinan, Bernice E., Ed.; Carmichael, Carolyn W., Ed.
This collection of articles about children's literature contains the following articles: "Books in the Life of the Young Child" and "Traditional Literature: Children's Legacy" by Bernice E. Cullinan, "Encouraging Language Growth" by John Warren Stewig, "Promoting Language and Concept Development" by Dorothy S. Strickland, "Fostering Understanding…
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Hĺkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lřdrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. PMID:25745042
Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…
Abelsohn, Alan R.; Sanborn, Margaret
Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide family physicians with a practical, evidence-based approach to screening for and preventing children’s exposure to lead. SOURCES OF INFORMATION MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to lead exposure and poisoning. We reviewed English-language articles published in 2003 to 2008. Most cited studies provide level 2 or 3 evidence. MAIN MESSAGE Lead is a developmental neurotoxin. Children are most commonly exposed and they are most vulnerable. Lead exposure has been associated with many cognitive and motor deficits, as well as distractibility and other characteristics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although children’s blood lead levels have declined considerably over the past 3 decades with removal of lead from gasoline and paint, children can still be exposed to lead from lead paint in older homes, toys, and other sources. Because post-exposure treatment cannot reverse the cognitive effects of lead exposure, preventing lead exposure is essential. CONCLUSION Family physicians have an important role in screening for children at high risk of lead exposure, and in educating families to prevent the exposure of children to lead. PMID:20547517
Monheit, Alan C.; Cunningham, Peter J.
Examines changes in children's health insurance status and utilization of health services in the past decade, using 1977 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey data and 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey data. Policies that could reduce the number of uninsured children (mandated employment-related coverage and incremental Medicaid…
A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…
Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert
Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
The official consumer website of: Visit ACFAS.org | About ACFAS | Información en Espańol Advanced Search Home » News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ingrown Toenails in Children Parents can help prevent a common and painful foot problem in children by ...
Dole, Patricia Pearl
Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
WITMER, HELEN L.
THREE MAJOR QUESTIONS ARE RAISED--(1) WHAT IS MEANT BY POVERTY AND TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF POVERTY DEPEND ON THE SORT OF MEASURING ROD USED. (2) HOW MANY AND WHAT PROPORTION OF THE NATION'S CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP IN POVERTY. AND (3) WHERE, GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY, ARE THESE CHILDREN OF THE POOR TO BE FOUND. POVERTY IS…
Sullivan, P B
Helicobacter pylori is the major cause of antral gastritis in children, however, it is not always associated with symptoms. The exception to this occurs in duodenal ulcer disease with which H. pylori is linked in children albeit less strongly than in adults. Duodenal ulcers do not recur in older children following eradication of H. pylori. The importance of asymptomatic carriage of H. pylori in children, particularly in relation to the duration of this infection and the subsequent development of gastric cancer, remain to be established. Helicobacter pylori is associated with both hypochlorhydria and persistent diarrhoea in children in developing countries, but the significance of this association is still unknown. Although there is no consensus on the optimal regimen for treating H. pylori infection in children, dual therapy with amoxycillin and bismuth subcitrate for 2 weeks followed by monotherapy with bismuth subcitrate for a further 6 weeks will eradicate H. pylori infection in the majority of children. Those who relapse may be treated with a repeat course plus metronidazole for 4 weeks. Compliance with such regimens is a problem and shorter treatment courses that are equally effective in children need to be defined. Similarly, studies are required on the influence of the intrafamilial reservoir of H. pylori infection on relapse after treatment and the need for whole family eradication therapy. PMID:8563051
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…
Previous approaches to the learning problems of American Indian children are viewed as inadequate. An alternative is suggested which emphasizes the problem solution strategies which these children bring to the school situation. Solutions were analyzed in terms of: (1) their probability; (2) their efficiency at permitting a present problem to be…
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…
Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D
The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and interviewers as well as refinement of the interview protocol to allow for more production of divergent questions by children may reveal additional effects of literary genre on children's learning of science through literature.
Raddish, Michele; And Others
Using interviews with parents and guardians, and the child where appropriate, this study compared feeding problems of children with disabilities in Kentucky with a sample of typical children. Subjects were 50 children ages 3-5; 25 children were without disabilities. In addition to interviews, data were collected from case records, medical…
Curley, Jami; Sherraden, Michael
Examines the history and current structure of "children's allowances" (cash grants from the government to families with children) around the world and particularly in the United States, to provide a framework for children's savings accounts--long-term savings and asset accumulation for all children. Considers public policy directions for these…
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on efforts to provide publicly funded health insurance to low-income children in the United States through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The articles summarize current knowledge and research about which children are uninsured and why, discuss ways to improve…
Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).
This collection of 16 papers attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of children in the nations of the Americas. The collection's five sections examine children's rights, perspectives of five parents from five different nations, children with disabilities in the legal system, promoting the rights of children through social…
Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and sometimes in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366
Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie
Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247
Goins, Brad; Cesarone, Bernard
Difficulties faced by homeless children include depression, low self-esteem, lack of sleep and nutrition, and feelings of shame and embarrassment. Challenges faced by schools in providing education to homeless children include: (1) keeping children in one school despite frequent family moves; (2) ensuring that children's health records are…
The assessment and management of pain in children has been essentially ignored until recently. Thankfully, these "dark ages of pain" are ending. The trauma nurse is an integral part of the pain management team and can have a positive impact on outcome by using a combination of relatively simple strategies. These include using multiple types of assessment to measure the severity of pain; providing adequate pain relief with a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions; and carefully monitoring and documenting the efficacy of all pain management approaches. PMID:9391359
Brown, Douglas C. S.
Arthralgia is joint pain unaccompanied by obvious clinical signs of arthritis or trauma. In most children and adolescents, the affected joint is the knee, hip, ankle, or less commonly an arm joint. Causes of arthralgia include arthritis; systemic disease; tumor; infection; growing pains; transient synovitis of the hip; osteochondroses; ostochondritis dissecans; traction syndrome; chondromalacia of the patella and post-traumatic synovitis. Some pains can be diagnosed with confidence with history, examination, X-ray, and laboratory studies. Other pains are vague, but careful observation of wasting and gait analysis may allow the physician to make a diagnosis. PMID:21283477
Children's Action Alliance, Phoenix, AZ.
The Children's Action Alliance (CAA) is a private nonprofit organization working on behalf of Arizona children. The CAA and other groups sponsor the Arizona Children's Campaign, whose goal is to influence public policy in such a way that the quality of children's lives will be improved as a result. This synopsis of CAA reports of the last several…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…
Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…
Sutherland, Zena; Arbuthnot, May Hill
This book, designed primarily for use in classes in children's literature in English and education departments and in library schools, colleges, and universities, provides an extensive survey of children's books. Part one, "Knowing Children and Books," examines children's needs, provides guidelines for book selection, and traces history and trends…
Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…
Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.
Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick
The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also. (IAH)
The present study explored children’s developing conceptions of the brain in order to enhance previous research and to contribute to debates regarding the nature of children’s naďve biological theories. 56 participants aged 5, 7 and 9-years-old were...
Raj, Manu; Kumar, R Krishna
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken. PMID:21150012
Haydocy, Kelci E; Yotebieng, Marcel; Norris, Alison
In Haiti, large numbers of vulnerable children and the country's particular historical context has led to a unique phenomenon known as the "restavčk" system. An estimated 300,000 Haitian children are restavčks, living as unpaid domestic servants. Child-welfare advocates describe the restavčk system as modern slavery, but researchers and advocates lack information about restavčk children's circumstances, particularly vis-ŕ-vis other children in Haiti. In a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample, we evaluated differences in well-being (school attendance, work responsibilities, physical abuse, and hunger) between restavčk children and: (a) all non-restavčk children; and (b) the poorest quintile of non-restavčk children. As compared to all Haitian children and the poorest Haitian children, restavčk children have statistically significantly lower school attendance rates and more labor responsibilities. However, restavčk children experience statistically significantly less physical abuse and less hunger than non-restavčk Haitian children. The restavčk system remains active in Haiti because poor families lack basic resources to support their children, and restavčk children are at risk for mistreatment due to their vulnerable social status. The surprising finding that restavčk children are better off in some respects than their non-restavčk peers highlights the desperate poverty in Haiti and suggests that structural changes for poverty reduction will be required before the restavčk system will end. PMID:25891309
Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains. PMID:25647865
Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M
Higher vegetable intake has been related to lower risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancers and obesity. Yet children consume fewer than the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables set forth by the USDA. Exposure to vegetables has successfully improved children's liking for and consumption of vegetables particularly for children younger than two years. In contrast, associative conditioning seems necessary for older children, especially with bitter vegetables. We review studies using both exposure and associative conditioning to teach children to like vegetables, including flavor-flavor learning and flavor-calorie learning. Recognizing these different processes helps reconcile discrepant literature and may provide techniques for increasing preferences for vegetables in children. Associative conditioning and exposure can be used by parents and others to enhance children's liking for and consumption of vegetables. PMID:26122752
While there are many outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. I describe a NASA-STScI-IDEAS funded outreach program I created for children using a telescope (including remote and robotic observations), hands-on astronomy demonstrations (often with edible ingredients). The target audience is seriously ill children with special medical needs and their families who are staying at the Long Island Ronald McDonald House in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments at local hospitals. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. A related program for hospitalized children has been started at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital.
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162
Introduction Obesity is the result of long-term energy imbalances, where daily energy intake exceeds daily energy expenditure. Along with long-term health problems, obesity in children may also be associated with psychosocial problems, including social marginalisation, low self-esteem, and impaired quality of life. Most obese adolescents stay obese as adults. Obesity is increasing among children and adolescents, with 16.8% of boys and 15.2% of girls in the UK aged 2 to 15 years obese in 2008. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of lifestyle interventions for the treatment of childhood obesity? What are the effects of surgical interventions for the treatment of childhood obesity? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 systematic reviews and RCTs that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following lifestyle interventions: behavioural, diet, and multifactorial interventions; physical activity; and bariatric surgery. PMID:21463538
Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J
• On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence Quality: B. PMID:26232464
... have trouble with pressure changes at takeoff and landing. The pain and pressure will almost always go ... suck on hard candy when taking off and landing. It helps with ear pressure. Most children can ...
Children who take avid pleasure in history told as a good story more often than not forsake it as adults. History has too often ceased to be a good story and become simply analytical, arid, tedious. (Author)
... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations?? . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...
.org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...
Childhood overweight/obesity (CHO) is a serious health concern for children and adolescents. Despite increased efforts to prevent CHO, prevalence rates have actually increased. Evidence suggests that parents are critical to successful interventions...
... about themselves Are more physically fit Have more energy Other benefits of exercise for children are: A ... know that being active will give them more energy, make their bodies stronger, and make them feel ...
... Practice Resources My Membership About the AAAAI Share | Cough in Children This article has been reviewed by ... MD, FAAAAI As a parent, hearing your child cough may make you feel uneasy. Yet an occasional ...
... only in adults. When these problems begin in childhood, they often become more severe when the child becomes an adult. Children with obesity are at risk for developing these health problems: High blood glucose (sugar) or diabetes High ...
This case study examined coping strategies and support systems utilized by 33 children of Hispanic migrant farmworkers from Fabens, Texas. The youth participated in the summer 2011 Creative Kids Incorporated Migrant Program in El Paso, Texas...
... Dietary Supplements and Nutraceuticals (Endocrine Practice) [945KB PDF] Probiotics and Children (Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition) [ ... Two Studies Explore the Potential Health Benefits of Probiotics (07/04/08) Traditional Chinese Herbs May Benefit ...
DeMarco, Romano T.
The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi. PMID:22013438
... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Children grow at different rates, so it isn't ... a reward Physical activity is also very important. Kids need about 60 minutes each day. It does ...
Schaaf, H S; Garcia-Prats, A J; Donald, P R
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global threat to children, as it often goes undiagnosed and leads to high morbidity and mortality. Active contact tracing leading to initiation of preventive therapy and early diagnosis with immediate effective treatment, whether it is drug-susceptible or drug-resistant TB, could reduce mortality and morbidity. In order to achieve this it is necessary to understand the currently available drugs, their role in treatment, their doses, and adverse effects. However, there is still limited pharmacokinetic data on antituberculosis drugs in children, few child-friendly formulations, and knowledge gaps regarding their pharmacodynamics. A discussion of the available antituberculosis drugs is presented, with a focus on their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, to provide reasoning for the currently recommended doses for children. More pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics studies, for both existing and novel drugs, are urgently needed to optimize dosing of antituberculosis drugs in children and for development of child-friendly formulations. PMID:26095192
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
... such as those found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils.) Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...
Peraica, Maja; Richter, Darko; Raši?, Dubravka
Mycotoxicoses are acute and chronic poisonings caused by mould toxins called mycotoxins. Although acute mycotoxicoses, caused by high mycotoxin levels in food are rare nowadays, they need to be described in order to inform physicians and other health care workers about their symptoms. Children are more sensitive to mycotoxins because of their lower body mass, higher metabolic rate, and underdeveloped organ functions and detoxication mechanisms. Some mycotoxicoses appear only in children, and some are more pronounced in children than in adults. Acute mycotoxicoses in children are reported poorly, mostly because they occur in the tropical regions with poor healthcare coverage. In developed countries healthcare authorities are more concerned about child exposure to low levels of mycotoxins with immunotoxic, genotoxic or carcinogenic properties. PMID:25720023
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... available. Children have a very high rate of metabolism. This gradually slows as they mature. The liver ... Newest Fact Sheets 111. Optimizing the HIV Care Environment 115. Adolescents and the HIV Care Continuum 114. ...
Pivetti-Pezzi, P; Accorinti, M; Abdulaziz, M A; La Cava, M; Torella, M; Riso, D
Ophthalmic and clinical analysis were carried out on 16 children and 122 adult patients affected by Behçet's disease (BD) to delineate the clinical features of BD in childhood and to investigate the differences between the expression of the disease in children and adults. The mean follow-up period was 7.8 and 7 years, respectively. Pediatric onset of BD was found in 7.6% of all the cases with a male:female ratio of 1.29:1. The complete type of the disease was observed in 50% of the children. No statistical significant differences were noted between children and adults in the incidence of oral aphthae, genital ulcers, skin lesions, arthritis, gastrointestinal involvement, neuropsychiatric symptoms and the presence of HLA-B51. Thrombophlebitis was associated with the onset of the disease in adult age (P=0.022). Uveitis alone or in combination with other major symptoms was the presenting sign in a higher percentage of children (P=0.077), As in adults, in children diffuse uveitis was the most common type of ocular inflammation, while ocular complications have been found mainly in children (P=0.021), who more frequently developed cataract, maculopathy and retinal detachment (P=0.024). Both adult and young male patients have shown a lower age at onset and higher rate of optic atrophy than females. In conclusion, no significant differences have been found between children and adults in the expression of the major and most of the minor symptoms of BD. Ocular involvement in childhood may be very severe, as was confirmed by the high frequency of diffuse uveitis and ocular complications. Young males, as adult males, showed an earlier onset of the disease and a worse ocular prognosis. PMID:8577084
Strasburger, Victor C
Advertising is a pervasive influence on children and adolescents. Young people view more than 40,000 ads per year on television alone and increasingly are being exposed to advertising on the Internet, in magazines, and in schools. This exposure may contribute significantly to childhood and adolescent obesity, poor nutrition, and cigarette and alcohol use. Media education has been shown to be effective in mitigating some of the negative effects of advertising on children and adolescents. PMID:17142547
Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S
The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830
Creswell, J. David
ORIGINAL ARTICLE Children with Diabetes Compared to Peers: Depressed? Distressed? A Meta-analysis to determine if children with diabetes differ from children without a chronic illness in a variety of domains children with diabetes to a comparison group. Outcomes included depression, anxiety, behavioral prob- lems
Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…
Kurbegov, Amethyst C; Sokol, Ronald J
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in many individuals. Children are more likely to develop chronic HBV infection as they demonstrate greater immunotolerance to the virus, and response to therapy in children remains disappointing. Three therapeutic agents for chronic HBV infection in children have been approved in the USA, including standard IFN-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir. IFN-alpha has been the most effective ( approximately 30% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] seroconversion; 10% hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] seroconversion), although benefits are primarily observed in children with alanine aminotransferase levels over two-times the upper limit of normal and must be weighed against significant side effects. Studies comparing the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in children treated with IFN-alpha and in untreated controls show that the rate of anti-HBeAb seroconversion tends to overlap in treated and untreated patients within a few years of follow-up, suggesting that IFN-alpha simply accelerates a spontaneous event. Lamivudine's virologic response rates mirror those of IFN-alpha (23-31% HBeAg seroconversion) with easier administration and a better safety profile but lower HBsAg seroconversion (2-3%) and high rates of drug resistance. Adefovir data show low rates of resistance and a good safety profile, but virologic response was limited to adolescent patients and was lower than that of lamivudine (16% HBeAg seroconversion; <1% HBsAg seroconversion). Entecavir and tenofovir, both approved therapies for adults with chronic HBV infection, are in trials for use in children. Future therapies will probably include these agents as well as combined therapies. Finally, watchful waiting of children is an option since current therapies are only 30% effective at best, although the long-term impact of therapy in childhood on rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. PMID:19210112
Children's Law Certificate Program Graduation Checklist Name: _________________________ VIP ID: _________________ Children's Law Certificate required courses (minimum of 4): · Students must complete at least four courses from the Children's Law
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.
Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…
Sahn, Benjamin; Bitton, Samuel
This article provides an overview of the evaluation and management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in children. The common etiologies at different ages are reviewed. Conditions with endoscopic importance for diagnosis or therapy include solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, polyps, vascular lesions, and colonic inflammation and ulceration. Diagnostic modalities for identifying causes of LGIB in children include endoscopy and colonoscopy, cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging, video capsule endoscopy, and enteroscopy. Pre-endoscopic preparation and decision-making unique to pediatrics is highlighted. The authors conclude with a summary of current and emerging therapeutic hemostatic techniques that can be used in pediatric patients. PMID:26616898
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
Lawrence, Rick L.
15-16 Verification of Children 02/16/15 2015 2016 Verification of Children You Support Student) you answered "yes" to the following question: Do you now have or will you have children who children includes housing, food, clothing, medical, dental care, childcare, money, gifts, etc. that you
Consulting those who use children’s services, both parents and children, has become a much more common approach to improving children’s services. This research briefing reports on some key findings of a consultation undertaken ...
Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer
Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073
Sekar, H R
In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the abomination of child labor. The government should provide monetary incentives to employers that do not use child labor and disincentives to those that do. PMID:12318359
van Breda, A
The current health status of Native American children is inseparable from the problems of the American Indian society. The dominant issues for these children and their health care providers are poverty and alcoholism, with the associated problems of diabetes, gastroenteritis, accidents, and fetal alcohol syndrome. The implications for pediatric nurses include cultural sensitivity and discharge planning as a way to prevention as well as advocacy of Native American children. PMID:2616231
Stoecklin, Vicki L.
There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…
Jensen, Signe M; Mřlgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André
Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700
Bandini, Linda G.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Curtin, Carol; Cermak, Sharon; Evans, E. Whitney; Scampini, Renee; Maslin, Melissa; Must, Aviva
Objectives To define food selectivity and compare indices of food selectivity among children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and typically developing children, and to assess the impact of food selectivity on nutrient adequacy. Study design Food selectivity was operationalized to include food refusal, limited food repertoire, and high frequency single food intake using a modified food frequency questionnaire and 3-day food record. Food selectivity was compared between 53 children with ASDs and 58 typically developing children ages 3–11 years. Nutrient adequacy was assessed relative to the Dietary Reference Intakes. Results Children with ASDs exhibited more food refusal than typically developing children (41.7% vs. 18.9% of foods offered, p < 0.0001). A more limited food repertoire was reported for children with ASDs than typically developing children (19.0 vs. 22.5 foods, p < 0.001). Only four children with ASDs and one typically developing child were reported to demonstrate high frequency single food intake. Children with a more limited food repertoire had inadequate intakes of a greater number of nutrients. Conclusions Our findings suggest that food selectivity is more common in children with ASDs than in typically developing children, and that limited food repertoire may be associated with nutrient inadequacies. PMID:20362301
Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong
We used a large sample of children (N ? 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study – Kindergarten Cohort to estimate kindergarten children’s academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. We were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)—as well as those of other groups of children—were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than non-disabled children. However, and over the subsequent five years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind non-disabled peers in their reading skills growth. We observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind non-disabled children in their mathematics skills growth. We also observed some consistency in “poor-get-poorer” effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socio-economic status (SES) families, who were African-American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behaviors problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Arcury, Thomas A.; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A.
Objective Document beliefs about the contribution of physical activity to preschool-aged children’s health held by Latino mothers in farmworker families, and delineate their perceived barriers or constraints that impose limits on preschool-aged children’s physical activity. Method Qualitative data obtained through semi-structured in-depth interviews (N=33) with mothers of preschool-aged children living in Latino farmworker families in North Carolina. Results Mothers universally agree that regular vigorous physical activity is good for preschool-aged children’s health, including obesity prevention. However, excessive physical activity can produce illnesses, as well as other physical and emotional problems, and should be limited. Mothers wanted their children to engage in more sedentary forms of activity because they believed it would benefit learning. Physical and chemical hazards in rural environments, distance to parks and play spaces, and lack of familiarity and concerns about neighbors constrained children’s physical activity. Conclusions Although physical activity is believed to be beneficial, strong cultural beliefs and real contextual barriers undermine preschool-aged Latino farmworker children’s level of physical activity. PMID:24522435
... children become conscious of the physical differences between boys and girls. Before their third birthday, most children are easily ... three, children can differentiate toys typically used by boys or girls and begin to play with children of their ...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...
Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; González-Nuńez, Hector; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; Garcia-Sanchez, Angel; Flores-Arias, Maria T.
USC-OSA is a student chapter whose objective is to bring Optics knowledge closer to the non-optics community. The activity developed at the Hospital school was one of the most important last year. It was consisted in a few Optics experiments and workshops with hospitalized children of different ages and pathologies. The experiments had to be adapted to their physical conditions with the aim of everyone could participate. We think this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and forget their illness for a while.
Pires, A M; Reis, A G; Grisi, S J
Symptoms of psoas muscular abscess in children are nonspecific and differential diagnosis is made among diseases included in childre?s acute hip pain syndrome, imaging tests being necessary for diagnostic confirmation. During the first semester of 1995, 48,550 children were examined in Pronto Socorro do Instituto da Criança do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Săo Paulo, four of them diagnosed as having psoas muscular abscess (2 females and 2 males, ages varying from 1 to 12 years). All of them had nonspecific clinical features and diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasound and/or computerized tomography. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated as the etiologic agent in 3 children, findings similar to the ones in literature. PMID:14688940
Garry, Vincent F
Prevention and control of damage to health, crops, and property by insects, fungi, and noxious weeds are the major goals of pesticide applications. As with use of any biologically active agent, pesticides have unwanted side-effects. In this review, we will examine the thesis that adverse pesticide effects are more likely to occur in children who are at special developmental and behavioral risk. Children's exposures to pesticides in the rural and urban settings and differences in their exposure patterns are discussed. The relative frequency of pesticide poisoning in children is examined. In this connection, most reported acute pesticide poisonings occur in children younger than age 5. The possible epidemiological relationships between parental pesticide use or exposure and the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes and childhood cancer are discussed. The level of consensus among these studies is examined. Current concerns regarding neurobehavioral toxicity and endocrine disruption in juxtaposition to the relative paucity of toxicant mechanism-based studies of children are explored. PMID:15236951
D'ius, P B
Beverages containing caffeine are consumed by most people in most countries most days. Consumption is mostly in beverages such as coffee, tea and some soft drinks, and smaller amounts from other foods such as chocolate. Children also consume caffeine, though in smaller amounts even relative to their smaller size. Many questions have been asked about possible health effects of caffeine and have been answered by scientific research. Studies on pregnant women consuming caffeine show no effects on the fetus, infants, or on development followed up to school age. There have been many studies on children of school age. For example, it has been shown that a single dose of 3 mg/kg is without appreciable effect on a variety of behavioral and physiological functions, and even 10 mg/kg, had only minimal effects, within the normal range of differences between the children without caffeine. While newborn infants metabolize caffeine slowly, children from less than 1 year to adolescence metabolize caffeine about twice as fast as non-smoking adults. The numerous studies showing safety of caffeine in adults, combined with the direct studies in children showing they are similar and not more susceptible to caffeine than adults, gives assurance that lifelong consumption of caffeine in foods and beverages, starting in childhood, is without deleterious effects on health. PMID:9214143
Caputo, R V
Fungal infections of the skin represent a relatively common problem in pediatric dermatology. Although fungal infections of the feet, nails, and groin are uncommon in the pediatric age group, fungal infections of the scalp are very common and must be diagnosed early because they may lead to permanent hair loss if left untreated. Perhaps the most significant change in fungal infections in children has occurred in tinea capitis, including the causative agent and the type of infection this organism may produce; these factors are focused upon in this article. Also discussed are infections caused by the yeast organisms Candida albicans and Pityrosporum orbiculare, as well as the deep mycoses, specifically chromoblastomycosis and cutaneous aspergillosis. PMID:2941199
A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...
Minnesota Kids Count, 1995
This newsletter issue focuses on welfare reform and programs that help low-income children in Minnesota, including articles on the basic values which should guide welfare reform; current welfare reform proposals; the cost of welfare; the role of charities and the religious community; an overview of programs in Minnesota which assist low-income…
A review of literature focuses on the literacy acquisition process of deaf children who acquire American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language and written English as a second language. Literacy in this context is defined broadly to include the context and culture in which reading and writing occur, referring to the strong connection between…
Yilmaz, Zuhal; Kubiatko, Milan; Topal, Hatice
Do world children draw nature pictures in a certain way? Range of mountains in the background, a sun, couple clouds, a river rising from mountains. Is this type of drawing universal in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper? The sample size from Czech Republic included 33 participants from two kindergartens. They were 5 and 6…
Black, Maggie, Ed.
Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…
Wolf, Kathy Goetz, Ed.
This serial "double issue" focuses on protecting children and supporting families through greater collaboration between child welfare services and family resource programs. The issue includes the featured articles: (1) "Making the Media a Constructive Force in Child Welfare" (Kathy Bonk), which discusses how the media and child welfare agencies…
Kane, Dorothy Noyes
Explored are children's vulnerability and the pediatrician's role in relation to the problems posed by air pollution. Research is noted to have included a search of biomedical literature over the past 10 years; attendance at medical meetings; conferences with air pollution researchers, environmental protection administrators, and specialists in…
Malchiodi, Cathy A., Ed.
Rich with case material and artwork samples, this volume demonstrates a range of creative approaches for facilitating children's emotional reparation and recovery from trauma. Contributors include experienced practitioners of play, art, music, movement and drama therapies, bibliotherapy, and integrative therapies, who describe step-by-step…
McHardy, Roberta J.; Blanchard, Pamela B.; de Wet, Catharina F.
In even the earliest studies of giftedness in young children (Burks, Jensen, & Terman, 1930; Hollingworth, 1926), researchers noted distinct character traits among gifted students, which included global awareness, sensitivity to complex issues, and a tendency to worry about injustice and dangers that often are beyond a child's control. Dabrowski…
In 2000, the Congress passed the Children's Health Act (PL 106-310), which authorized the National Children's Study (NCS), a long-term examination of the effects of environmental influences on the health and development of children. The NCS will include more than 100,000 children across the United States, following them from before birth until age 21. In 2007, NCS identified seven vanguard centers to develop a focused plan for recruitment with the geographically distributed and demographically varied research institutions selected.
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.
This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…
St. Amour, Melissa J.
Discusses a method for increasing elementary school children's multicultural awareness by sharing their own written stories in the context of multicultural children's literature. Describes how classroom activities can promote multicultural awareness through by allowing children to practice democracy, analyze the circumstances of one's life;…
This book presents games for children, teenagers, and adults, explaining how each game can help children develop in a holistic way. It begins by discussing tips for teaching games, how to deal with children who break the rules, and what type of equipment to use. The book provides help on how to approach play within each of the different age…
The author profiles two nineteenth-century architects of children's minds and children's spaces. More than any other two Americans Henry Barnard and Catharine Beecher defined children's educational spaces--the home and the school--and successfully specified how those spaces were to be organized and furnished, who was to govern those spaces, what…
Meese, Ruth Lyn
Research regarding children of intercountry adoption is limited, and most children of intercountry adoption have complex histories that may place them at risk for difficulty or failure in the classroom. Although the performances of some children from orphanage environments approximate those of chronological-age peers 2 to 4 years postadoption,…
Social Development Commission, Milwaukee, WI.
This publication presents data and descriptive information on the status of poor children and families in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). The analysis of the information suggests that the children are poor because their families are poor and that only providing their families with adequate employment and family supports will lift these children out of the…
While there are outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. Here I describe two NASA-IDEAS/STScI funded outreach programs I created for special needs children using telescope observations (including remote observations) and hands-on astronomy activities. The target audience is seriously ill children and their families who are staying at the Ronald McDonald House of Long Island in conjunction the children's medical treatments or children hospitalized at the Children's Medical Center at Winthrop University Hospital. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. I have also conducted a similar program in camps for special needs children. These programs should be expanded so that special needs children and their families are part of the IYA2009 activities.
Huckstadt, Lauren K.; Shutts, Kristin
How do preschool-age children evaluate people with disabilities, and does social contact make children more positive toward those who are different from them? To answer these questions, typically developing 3- to 5-year-old children completed tasks designed to measure their social preferences for, and judgments about the actions of, unfamiliar individuals with and without disabilities. Participants preferred pictures of typically developing children over children in wheelchairs, but did not prefer children who were described with disabilities over those who were described with mildly negative facts. In a third task, participants evaluated actions that violated norms more negatively than those that did not, regardless of whether the actors had a disability. Children’s participation in inclusion programs did not appear to affect their responses. We consider possible explanations for children’s responses – including the absence of social contact effects – in the discussion. PMID:24839306
Focuses on sculptures created by children related to dolls. Discusses different types of toys that inspire children and explains that students can learn about figure studies. States that students learn about topics such as posing and grouping figures. (CMK)
... Questions and Answers about Scoliosis in Children and Adolescents This publication defines scoliosis and provides information about ... it is diagnosed and treated in children and adolescents. You may be interested in contacting one or ...
... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us America's Children and the Environment is an EPA report that presents key information ...
understanding traumatic stress in Children ELLEN L. BASSUK, M.D. KRISTINA KONNATH, LICSW KATHERINE T. VOLK, MA February 2006 We are ... their willingness to share their expertise on traumatic stress and children.We would like to thank the ...
... of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children is an Escherichia coli (E. coli) infection of the digestive system. The ... of hemolytic uremic syndrome in children is an Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) infection of the digestive system. Normally, ...
Cottle, Thomas J.
A children's social health index calculated from six aspects of social health indicates that the social health of children is deteriorating in the areas of infant mortality, child abuse, child poverty, teenage suicide, and high school dropouts. (SH)
Presents early findings of an ongoing project to learn preschool and kindergarten children's understanding and expression of spirituality. Categorizes children's responses and discusses them in the context of theories that spirituality may be an innate feature of human consciousness. (JPB)
Orlow, S J
Although rare, melanomas do occur in children and adolescents. Pediatricians should be aware of the clinical features of melanoma and the risk factors for developing this malignancy. Children at high risk for melanoma should have at least annual cutaneous examinations in search of suspicious lesions. If a lesion is suspected of being a melanoma, it should be removed surgically and submitted for pathologic examination. Education of parents and children about the deleterious effects of ultraviolet light affords a means of counteracting the increasing incidence of melanoma at the grassroots level. The use of sunscreens, hats, and other protective clothing and the judicious timing of daily solar exposure should serve to prevent sunburning, limit tanning, and decrease the incidence of melanoma and other more common cutaneous malignancies, such as basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:7479430
Children with cerebral palsy have nervous system defects which lead to muscular spasticity and loss of coordination. Many of these children have great difficulty walking because certain muscles are in a constant state of contraction. Surgical techniques can lengthen muscles or tendons to improve the child's walking pattern, but it is vital to diagnose accurately the particular spasticity problem of each patient; the individual muscles causing the handicap vary greatly from child to child. It is difficult by physical examination alone to determine precisely which muscle groups are most involved. Biotelemetry has provided a solution. For the past two years, the Children's Hospital at Standord, assisted by NASA and the Stanford Biomedical Application Team, has been applying biotelemetry to the cerebral palsy problem.
Allergic diseases in children have increased significantly in recent years and now affect up to 35% of children. They are a major cause of morbidity in children. Although there is a genetic predisposition, it is the exposure to environmental allergens, irritants and infections that will determine the sensitization to different dietary and inhalant allergens. As the genetic and environmental factors that act on an immature cellular immune system are better elucidated and their roles established, the implementation of more enduring preventive efforts will be developed. However, at present, the best approach to the child at high risk for the development of allergies is to institute dietary and environmental control measures early to decrease sensitization, and to recognize and appropriately treat the evolving signs and symptoms of allergic disease. PMID:20084126
INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290
Shahid, Sukhbir K.
Rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of the mucous membranes of nose and paranasal sinus(es). 5–13% of upper respiratory tract infections in children complicate into acute rhinosinusitis. Though not life threatening, it profoundly affects child's school performance and sleep pattern. If untreated, it could progress to chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The pathogens involved in perpetuation of CRS consist of multidrug-resistant mixed microflora. CRS is challenging to manage and could further extend to cause eye or intracranial complications. In children, CRS diagnosis is often either missed or incomprehensive. Due to this, morbidity and strain on healthcare budget are tremendous. Flexible fiberoptic endoscopy has revolutionized management of CRS. Its utility in children is being increasingly recognized. Optimal management entails specific appropriate antimicrobials as well as treatment of underlying causes. The aim is to normalize sinus anatomy and physiology and regain normal mucociliary function and clearance. PMID:23762621
Piva, J P; Amantéa, S L; Zambonato, S; Maia, T R; Rosso, A; Giugno, K
OBJECTIVE: The authors describe their experience with theuse of intravenous Beta2 adrenergic (IV terbutaline) in patientsadmitted to a PICU with severe lower airway obstruction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of all admissions to a PICU was conducted in Santo Antonio Hospital in Porto Alegre (Brazil) during the winter of 1995. The files ofall the patients that were treated with intravenous Beta2 adrenergicas a bronchodilator were selected. The analysis included lengthof use, initial doses, maximal doses, associated phenomena,arterial blood gases and plasma level of potassium. RESULTS: During the three months of study 367 patients wereadmitted to the PICU and 38 (10.3%) used IV terbutaline. Thisgroup of patients had a mean age of 13.8-/+12.2 months old andused IV terbutaline for a mean length of 7.24-/+3.6 days. Theinitial rate of infusion was 0.55-/+0.25 mcg/kg/min with a meantherapeutic dose of 2.45-/+1.18 mcg/kg/min. Twelve patients(31.5%) had increase in their heart rate (over 180 bpm) thatprevented increases in the infusion rate. However this was atemporary effect. The patients under 12 months of age startedwith low infusion rates (0.45-/+0.22 mcg/kg/min), when comparedto children over 1 year old (0.57-/+0.3 mcg/kg/min), p <0.01. No patient developed pathologic heart rate attributed to the drug. The serum levels of potassium decreased significantly (p <0.01) only in the group of patients under 1 year (4.1-/+0.7 to 3.47-/+0.52 mEq/L), but this difference had no clinical relevance. COMMENTS: In view of these results the authors showed that the infusion of IV terbutaline in children is safe and presents alow risk if the criteria of administration and monitoring are followed. In this manner, IV terbutaline is an excellent therapeuticoption for children with severe lower airway obstruction andno response to the conventional treatment. PMID:14685585
Riedl, Katrin; Jensen, Keith; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael
An important, and perhaps uniquely human, mechanism for maintaining cooperation against free riders is third-party punishment. Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees, will not punish third parties even though they will do so when personally affected. Until recently, little attention has been paid to how punishment and a sense of justice develop in children. Children respond to norm violations. They are more likely to share with a puppet that helped another individual as opposed to one who behaved harmfully, and they show a preference for seeing a harmful doll rather than a victim punished. By 6 years of age, children will pay a cost to punish fictional and real peers, and the threat of punishment will lead preschoolers to behave more generously. However, little is known about what motivates a sense of justice in children. We gave 3- and 5-year-old children--the youngest ages yet tested--the opportunity to remove items and prevent a puppet from gaining a reward for second- and third-party violations (experiment 1), and we gave 3-year-olds the opportunity to restore items (experiment 2). Children were as likely to engage in third-party interventions as they were when personally affected, yet they did not discriminate among the different sources of harm for the victim. When given a range of options, 3-year-olds chose restoration over removal. It appears that a sense of justice centered on harm caused to victims emerges early in childhood and highlights the value of third-party interventions for human cooperation. PMID:26096976
Clements, D A
Varicella vaccines have been developed, studied, tested and used since the early 1970s, first in Japan and subsequently in Europe, the US, Asia and South and Central America. Varicella vaccination was first used to immunise Japanese children in cancer remission, as wild-type varicella disease is often fatal in immunocompromised individuals. Since then, it has been licensed for use in healthy children as well. There are 3 manufacturers of the vaccine: Biken (Japan), Merck and Co. (US) and SmithKline Beecham (Belgium). The Biken vaccine has been approved for use in Japan since 1986 (although it was developed and used for research purposes from 1974). The Merck and Co. vaccine was approved in the US in March 1995 and the SmithKline Beecham vaccine was first licensed for use in immunocompromised children in 1984 and for healthy children in Sweden in October 1994. All 3 vaccines are derived from the Oka (Japanese) strain obtained from an immunologically normal 3-year-old Japanese boy named Oka with wild-type disease. Aventis-Pasteur has also purchased the rights to the Oka strain but no published literature is available for review. Use of the varicella vaccine has been controversial because many argue that: (i) the disease is mild and not worth preventing; (ii) the long term immunity provided by the vaccine is unknown; and (iii) the average age of those with the disease will increase if the vaccine is used and hence there will be more complications in older patients and, therefore, more costs. Because of some outbreaks of secondary bacterial infections after varicella in children in US day care centres, vaccination of healthy children is required in some states. It will be interesting to see whether other countries adopt a similar recommendation as more families have 2 working parents. The financial benefit of the vaccine (keeping parents at work) may encourage more use of the vaccine and a subsequent recommendation for immunisation schedules. PMID:18034555
Knight, Jessica; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Meyer, Robert E.; Strauss, Ronald P.
Objective To compare academic outcomes between children with orofacial cleft (OFC) and children without major birth defects. Design and Setting In 2007–2008, we mailed questionnaires to a random sample of mothers of school-aged children with OFC and mothers of children without major birth defects (comparison group). The questionnaire included Likert-scale, closed-ended, and open-ended questions from validated instruments. We conducted bivariate and multivariable analyses on parent-reported educational outcomes and bivariate analyses on parent-reported presence of related medical conditions between children with isolated OFC and unaffected children. Patients/Participants A random sample of 504 parents of children with OFCs born 1996–2002 (age 5–12 years) were identified by the North Carolina Birth Defects Monitoring Program. A random sample of 504 parents of children without birth defects born 1996–2002 was selected from North Carolina birth certificates. Of the 289 (28.7%) respondents, we analyzed 112 children with isolated OFC and 138 unaffected children. Main Outcome Measures Letter grades, school days missed, and grade retention. Results Parents of children with isolated OFC reported more developmental disabilities and hearing and speech problems among their children than comparison parents. Children with isolated OFC were more likely to receive lower grades and miss more school days than unaffected children. Because of the low response rate, results should be interpreted cautiously. Conclusion Children with isolated OFC may have poorer academic outcomes during elementary school than their unaffected peers. Future studies are needed to confirm these results and determine whether these differences persist in later grades. PMID:24878348
Cohen, Elizabeth F.
The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the paper explores aspects of discipline associated with the diagnosis, as well as distributional pathologies resulting from the application of the diagnosis in potentially biased ways. PMID:19251776
Mills, Candice M; Elashi, Fadwa B
The current study examined some key developmental and individual differences in how elementary school-aged children evaluate sources of information. A sample of 130 children ages 6 to 9 years participated in a task designed to measure children's understanding of ways that claims can be distorted (i.e., biased decisions, skewed self-reports, and misleading persuasive claims). Children also completed several individual difference measures, including a brief intelligence task and an advanced social cognition measure (interpretive theory of mind). Overall, older children were less trusting and better than younger children at explaining the reasons to doubt sources that might provide distorted claims. Crucially, the results also suggest that beyond age, both general intelligence and advanced social cognitive skills play roles in children's ability to understand when and why they must doubt sources of distortion. PMID:24727295
This article examines children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour, focusing on the dynamics of power, knowledge and responsibility articulated by children. The empirical data discussed in this article are drawn from the study of Voices on Identity, Childhood, Ethics and Stimulants, which included interviews with 151 US and UK children, a subset of whom had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Despite their contact with psychiatric explanations and psychotropic drugs for their behaviour, children’s discursive engagements with the brain show significant evidence of agency and negotiated responsibility. These engagements suggest the limitations of current concepts that describe a collapse of the self into the brain in an age of neurocentrism. Empirical investigation is needed in order to develop agent-centred conceptual and theoretical frameworks that describe and evaluate the harms and benefits of treating children with psychotropic drugs and other brain-based technologies. PMID:23094965
Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope
To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…
Suggesting that children's books have become more adult in content and tone, this essay addresses problem of organization of children's library materials to provide access to adult readers. Extent of adult appeal in children's books, examples of "adulterated" nonfiction and fiction, and questions concerning organizational and attitudinal changes…
Silverman, Phyllis R.; Worden, J. William
Interviewed 120 children who experienced death of parent. Ninety-five percent had attended funeral. Shortly after death, children recalled little about funeral. Two years later, children reported that it was important to them that they had attended. Attendance helped them to acknowledge death, provided occasion for honoring parent, and made it…
Department of Justice, Washington, DC. National Drug Intelligence Center.
An increasing number of children in the United States are exposed to toxic chemicals because methamphetamine laboratories are being operated in or near their homes. In addition, these children often are abused or neglected by the parents, guardians, or others who operate these laboratories. The number of children found at seized methamphetamine…
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
The issue of children's conceptions of technology and technology education is seen as important by technology educators. While there is a solid body of literature that documents groups of children's understandings of technology and technology education, this is primarily focused on snapshot studies of children aged 11 and above. There is little…
Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…
Demb, Janet M.
Foster children (age 0-14, n=190) referred for mental health evaluations were compared to a subsample of 10 children identified as hyperphagic. These children displayed hyperactivity and poor impulse control, interpersonal skills, and communication skills. Mothers exhibited a high incidence of drug/alcohol abuse. Hyperphagia should alert…
Corsaro, William A.
The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…
Taylor, Jane L.
In order to promote the understanding of plants, nurture imagination, and provide a place for the enrichment and delight of children, the Michigan 4-H Children's Garden on the campus of Michigan State University has over 50 theme areas for children to experience. History, purpose, and projects are briefly described. (SAS)
Ogletree, Earl J.; Rameriz, Lester
Much of the research on the racial attitudes of young children suggests that black or dark skin color elicits negative attitudes, while white skin color is embraced by all children regardless of their skin color. The authors sought to determine if Puerto Rican children exhibited similar ethnic identification and color preference characteristics.…
Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.
A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)
Gessner, Bradford D.
The incidence of tuberculosis among Alaskan children under 15 was more than twice the national rate, with Alaska Native children showing a much higher incidence. Children with household exposure to adults with active tuberculosis had a high risk of infection. About 22 percent of pediatric tuberculosis cases were identified through school…
Voices for Illinois Children, 1998
This document consists of the three issues of the "Voices for Illinois Children" newsletter published during 1998. Voices for Illinois Children is a child advocacy group that works to make kids "count" in Illinois and to ensure that the basic needs of all children, families, and communities are met. These three newsletter issues explore topics…
Danielson, Kathy Everts
In the past, books for children treated death fearfully, morbidly, and didactically, but now children's literature treats death in a more realistic manner and is sensitive to its emotional aspects. Current theories suggest that children perceive death differently at various ages. G. P. Koocher (1973) used J. Piaget's cognitive stages as the basis…
Davis, Noel M.
During the past 20 years, depression has been recognized widely in children and adolescents. However, even with what is known today about depression, many children and adolescents remain undiagnosed. Early recognition is imperative to prevent further episodes that may continue into adulthood. Depression in children and adolescents affects social…
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
Jones, Elizabeth A.; Borgers, Sherry
Examined fears of fifth grade students and ways in which their parents perceived the fears. Responses from 66 students and 47 parents suggest that children have more fears than parents think they have. Children reported concerns over accidents, nuclear war, and death, while parents expected children to have more fears about scary movies, the dark,…
Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert
The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…
Althoff, Robert R.; Ayer, Lynsay A.; Crehan, Eileen T.; Rettew, David C.; Baer, Julie R.; Hudziak, James J.
It is crucial to characterize self-regulation in children. We compared the temperamental profiles of children with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP) to profiles associated with other CBCL-derived syndromes. 382 children (204 boys; aged 5-18) from a large family study were examined. Temperamental profiles were…
The National Children's Study (NCS) will be the largest long-term study of children's health and development ever conducted in the United States. The NCS will examine a broad range of environmental influences on children's health and development. It will follow approximately 10...
Jerles, Joe F.
Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…
The study summarized in this paper deals with the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous speech of approximately 150 children who are classified as mentally disabled; educable (I.Q. range 50-80). The performance of these mentally disadvantaged children is compared with the performance of 200 normally developing children by using a clinical…
Voices for Illinois Children, 1997
These two newsletter issues recount activities of Voices for Illinois Children to ensure that basic needs of children, families, and communities are met. The summer issue notes various bills in progress in the Illinois House, and looks at the lack of health insurance affecting more than 300,000 Illinois children. Child advocacy efforts are also…
Lekies, Kristi S.; Sheavly, Marcia Eames
Despite the rapidly growing interest in children's gardens and attention to the positive benefits of gardening for children, little is known about the ways in which young people actually form interests in gardening. Using a sample of 9- and 10-year-old children at a school garden site in New York State, this study examined the ways in which…
Micallef, Silvana; Prior, Margot
This study explored the arithmetic skills of 39 children with arithmetic learning difficulties (ALD), compared to two control groups, one consisting of normally achieving children matched to the ALD sample for chronological age (n =28), and another comprising younger normally achieving children matched to the ALD sample for arithmetic level (n…
Zhu, Liqi; Liu, Guangyi; Tardif, Twila
The study explored how Chinese children spontaneously explained the causes of illness. Two groups of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children from different socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds were recruited, with 30 children in each age group. A group of 30 college students were also recruited and their responses compared to those produced by the…
Altanis, Panagiotis; Goddard, Jim
This article gives an overview of the problem of street children in Greece, within the context of global research on street children. The article draws on preliminary findings from recent research on street children in the urban centre of Athens. This is an under-researched area, with weak policy responses to a problem associated with recent…
Wood you believe it? Children and young peoples perceptions of climate change and the role of trees ..................................................14 Children and young peoples sources of information about climate change ...............26 .............................................................................................................36 Children and young peoples perceptions of climate change and the role of trees, woods and forests
31 Children and Computers: New Technology-- Old Concerns Ellen A.Wartella Nancy Jennings Abstract concerns about the effect on children's development and well- being. Although we tend to see these issues. With the introduction of each of these technologies, proponents touted the educational benefits for children, while
ENGINEERING PLAY: CHILDREN'S SOFTWARE AND THE PRODUCTIONS OF EVERYDAY LIFE A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED of children's software as socially distributed and culturally heterogeneous processes. A diverse and multi-sited ethnographic corpus of data is foundational to this work: fieldnotes and videotapes of children's play
Kay, Mark A.
Understanding language development in children An innovative collaborative project at Stanford and cognitive development in children born preterm Dr Heidi Feldman discusses the research she and colleague Dr language comprehension in young children the `looking while listening' technique to the evaluation
Fawcett, Christine A.; Markson, Lori
Two-year-old children's reasoning about the relation between their own and others' preferences was investigated across two studies. In Experiment 1, children first observed 2 actors display their individual preferences for various toys. Children were then asked to make inferences about new, visually inaccessible toys and books that were described…
Rogers, Martin T.; Silverman, Linda Kreger
This brief paper offers guidelines on recognizing giftedness in young children based on a study of the developmental characteristics of 77 gifted and average children as reported in parent questionnaires. The questionnaire asked parents to describe their children's development during the first 36 months. Major findings indicated that: parents of…
Strife, Susan Jean
While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…
Young children, especially those of the preschool ages, are hypothesized to have greater exposures than do older children or adults to persistent organic pesticides and other persistent organic pollutants, including some compounds that may have endocrine-disrupting effects or d...
Farish, Jane M.
Young children may experience stress and emotional problems in reaction to natural and other disasters. This brochure presents a number of strategies for teachers and caregivers to use to help children cope with this stress. These strategies include: (1) providing reassurance and physical comfort; (2) being aware of separation anxiety; (3)…
Mantovani, John F.
This article reviews neuroimaging techniques such as cranial ultrasound, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging. Their roles in the care of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities include identification of high-risk infants, establishment of the diagnosis and prognosis in affected children, and enhancement of discussion…
Nuffield Foundation, London (England).
A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…
Bernstein, Phyllis F.; Roeser, Ross J.
The audiological assessment of 50 deaf blind children, 6 months to 14 years of age, in an outpatient setting is described, as are testing procedures and results. Etiological factors are given which include maternal rubella (accounting for 27 children), meningitis, prematurity, neonatal anoxia, and Rh incompatability. Discussed are the following…
Kimmel, Eric A.
Considers concepts of death and the afterlife presented in children's literature of previous centuries and in several recent books for children, including "The Farthest Shore" by Ursula Le Guin, "The Brothers Lionheart" by Astrid Lindgren, and "Song of the Pearl" by Ruth Nichols. (GT)
Social and economic problems facing U.S. children are reviewed, including poverty, hunger and homelessness, gaps in health and mental health services, infant mortality/morbidity, child abuse, drug use, and violence depicted in the mass media. Risk-taking behaviors that are children's responses and suggestions to remedy these problems are…
Habenicht, Donna J.; And Others
Analysis of the Kinetic Family Drawings (KFD) of black children offers counselors insight into children's perceptions of the black family that do not support traditional views. The KFD is a drawing of the child's family, including the counselee, doing something together. The child then explains the drawing and identifies each of the family…
Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dean
Interviews with 183 mothers of refugee families indicated a considerable range of stress-related reactions among displaced children, including sleeping and eating disorders, separation fears, and withdrawal or aggression. Children exhibited a significantly higher incidence of stress reactions if their mothers had difficulty coping with the stress…
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Board on Children, Youth, and Families.
This workshop coordinates with the publication of a volume of "The Future of Children." The goal of the workshop is to bring together researchers, policymakers, health providers, and law enforcement to review available research literature on children and domestic violence. Topics that were addressed include prevalence and effect of exposure to…
Montgomery, Edith; And Others
Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…
The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…
Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…
Committee on Children's Television, San Francisco, CA.
This document contains the transcripts from a workshop to investigate strategies to use in dealing with violence on children's television. The papers given by outside experts include: (1) "Effect of Television Violence on Children and Youth" by Michael Rothenberg, (2) "Implications of the Psychological Effects of Television Programming on Black…
Hamilton, Martha; Weiss, Mitch
Explains how to teach children to be storytellers, including retelling stories, choosing the story, learning the story, voice factors, facial expressions, audience participation, and stage fright. A sidebar lists sources for stories that are suitable for young children to retell. (LRW)
Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…
Diamond, Franna, Ed.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends from 1990 to 1994 in the well-being of Massachusetts' children. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being in five areas: (1) economic well-being of children and their families, including child poverty rate, family income, job loss, earnings of male high school dropouts and…
Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.
Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)
Beck, Irene C.
Examines important issues for parents to consider when dealing with children of divorce and discusses several problem points to avoid, including loyalty conflicts, good parent/evil parent, family secrets, and feeling cheated. Several suggestions for helping children cope are offered. (SM)
Cartwright, G. Phillip; Cartwright, Carol A.
The study was designed to determine the reward preference of a group of intermediate grade school children and to describe any differences which might exist in the preference patterns of these children when they were partitioned into groups according to grade level, sex, and intelligence level. The procedures including the use of the experimental…
Children's Bureau (DHEW), Washington, DC.
A HISTORY OF THE CONCERN FOR MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN BY THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU IS FOLLOWED BY DESCRIPTIONS OF ITS VARIOUS PROGRAMS. HEALTH SERVICES INCLUDE APPROPRIATION OF FUNDS FOR SPECIAL PROJECTS SERVING THE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED, PERSONNEL TRAINING THROUGH GRANTS TO UNIVERSITIES, GRANT PROGRAMS FOR MATERNITY AND INFANT CARE PROJECTS, AND…
Dawson, Sarah A.
This study examined the educational development of 22 children (ages 2 to 10), under the supervision of the Cochlear Implant Team of the Medical College of Virginia, who had received implants as a result of deafness (in most cases prelingual and congenital) from 6 months to 3 years prior to the study. Data included a review of the children's case…
Schwenck, Christina; Dummert, Friederike; Endlich, Darius; Schneider, Wolfgang
Several cognitive deficits associated with reading and mathematics problems have been identified. However, only few studies assessed the impact of these variables in children with combined problems in reading and arithmetics, and none of these studies included children with low IQ. This longitudinal study was designed to assess the impact of…
Cunningham, Denise D.
Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…
Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari
Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…
Next to chemical and farm workers, today's children are at the greatest risk from toxic chemicals. Through their normal play activities, children are exposed to a frightening array of toxic hazards, including lead, pesticides, arsenic, and unknown dangers from abandoned landfills and warehouses. Through a series of documented examples, the author…
Goldman, Lynn R.
Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…
Okoli, Rosemary Chinyere Babylaw
Concern for children’s safety and protection has become a global issue and has evoked considerable debate since the publication of the United Nations’ widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989. ...
Godwin, Marshall; Crellin, John; Mathews, Maria; Chowdhury, Nurun L.; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Law, Rebecca
Abstract Objective To determine how common it is for parents to give natural health products (NHPs) to their children, which NHPs are being used, why they are being used, and parents’ assessments of the benefits and side effects of NHPs. Design Survey. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants Parents waiting in their family doctors’ offices. Main outcome measures Parent and child demographic characteristics; pediatric chronic medical conditions affecting the children; prescribed medications, over-the-counter medications, and NHPs used by the children; why the medications and NHPs were being used, the dose, and parents’ assessments of the effectiveness and side effects; and where parents had heard about the NHPs, whether they had told their physicians that the children were taking the products, and where they had obtained the products. Results A total of 202 (53.4%) of the 378 eligible adults who were approached completed the survey. This represented 333 children. Mean (SD) age of the children was 5.1 (3.3) years. Overall, 28.7% of parents reported using nonvitamin NHPs for their children. A total of 137 children (41.1%) had taken NHPs (including vitamins); 61.1% of the NHPs being used were vitamins. The remainder fell under teas (primarily chamomile and green teas), echinacea, fish or omega-3 oils, and a large category of “other” products. These NHPs were most commonly used to improve general health, improve immunity, and prevent colds and infections. Approximately half of the parents (51.7%) believed their children had benefited from taking NHPs, and 4.4% believed their children had experienced adverse side effects. Slightly less than half of the parents (45.0%) had informed their physicians that their children were taking NHPs. Conclusion Overall, 45.5% of parents attending physicians’ offices reported using NHPs in their children. If vitamins are not included in the definition of NHPs, this rate drops to 28.7%. Parents most commonly use NHPs to maintain the general health of their children, to prevent colds, and to boost children’s immune systems. About half of the parents believed the NHPs helped, very few had noticed any side effects, and approximately half had informed their physicians that they were giving their children NHPs. PMID:23946043
...tests in reading, language arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child...language tests. (2) Reports from medical practitioners. (3) Reports from...of that facility, including nonmedical care, room, and board, as set forth in...
...tests in reading, language arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child...language tests. (2) Reports from medical practitioners. (3) Reports from...of that facility, including nonmedical care, room, and board, as set forth in...
...tests in reading, language arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child...language tests. (2) Reports from medical practitioners. (3) Reports from...of that facility, including nonmedical care, room, and board, as set forth in...
... care provided to children under Medicaid and the Children's Health Insurance Program, including recommendations for quality reporting by the States. The Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act... Children's Health Insurance Program. DATES: Comment Date: To be assured consideration, comments must...
Gevers, Dorus W. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Nanne K.; van Assema, Patricia
Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting. PMID:26024296
Demir, Özlem Ece; Fisher, Joan A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Levine, Susan C.
Narrative skill in kindergarteners has been shown to be a reliable predictor of later reading comprehension and school achievement. However, we know little about how to scaffold children’s narrative skill. Here we examine whether the quality of kindergarten children’s narrative retellings depends on the kind of narrative elicitation they are given. We asked this question in typically developing (TD) kindergarten children and in children with pre- or perinatal unilateral brain injury (PL), a group that has been shown to have difficulty with narrative production. We compared children’s skill in story retellings under four different elicitation formats: (1) wordless cartoons, (2) stories told by a narrator through the auditory modality, (3) stories told by a narrator through the audiovisual modality without co-speech gestures, and (4) stories told by a narrator in the audiovisual modality with co-speech gestures. We found that children told better structured narratives in the fourth, audiovisual + gesture elicitation format than in the other three elicitation formats, consistent with findings that co-speech gestures can scaffold other aspects of language and memory. The audiovisual + gesture elicitation format was particularly beneficial to children who had the most difficulty telling a well-structured narrative, a group that included children with larger lesions associated with cerebrovascular infarcts. PMID:24127729
Chen, Yongxiang; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe
This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children’s altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children’s prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children’s altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed. PMID:24265820
Piao, Jianmin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxi; Yu, Jinlu
During the onset of Moyamoya disease (MMD), progressive occlusion occurs at the end of the intracranial internal carotid artery, and compensatory net-like abnormal vessels develop in the skull base, generating the corresponding clinical symptoms. MMD can affect both children and adults, but MMD in pediatric patients exhibits distinct clinical features, and the treatment prognoses are different from adult patients. Children are the group at highest risk for MMD. In children, the disease mainly manifests as ischemia, while bleeding is the primary symptom in adults. The pathogenesis of MMD in children is still unknown, and some factors are distinct from those in adults. MMD in children could result in progressive, irreversible nerve functional impairment, and an earlier the onset corresponds to a worse prognosis. Therefore, active treatment at an early stage is highly recommended. The treatment methods for MMD in children mainly include indirect and direct surgeries. Indirect surgeries mainly include multiple burr-hole surgery (MBHS), encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS), and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS); direct surgeries mainly include intra- and extracranial vascular reconstructions that primarily consist of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Indirect surgery, as a treatment for MMD in children, has shown a certain level of efficacy. However, a standard treatment approach should combine both indirect and direct procedures. Compared to MMD in adults, the treatment and prognosis of MMD in children has higher clinical significance. If the treatment is adequate, a satisfactory outcome is often achieved. PMID:26180513
Hill, Wendell T.
or fainting spells Yes J No J ) Irregular heart beat or murmur Yes J No J ) Vomiting blood dark stools parents brothers and sisters and children if any ) Relationship Relationship A) Heart disease? Yes J No J) Diabetes Yes J No J O) Seizures Yes J No J G) Emphysema Yes J No J P) Stroke Yes J No J H) Heart Attack Yes
National Committee for Adoption, Inc., Washington, DC.
There is national concern for the estimated 100,000 "special needs" children who are not quickly adopted because of age, race, ethnic background, sibling relationship, medical condition, or physical, mental or emotional handicaps. That concern has been translated into concrete recommendations in the form of a model act written by the Department of…
Mold can seriously affect the health of children with asthma or allergies. Indoor air problems related to mold can be difficult to identify, but when several students who spend time in the same classroom area show allergic symptoms, it is important to consider mold and air quality. Failure to respond promptly can have serious consequences. (SM)
... Have Children When A Pet Dies When a Parent Has Cancer: Tips for Talking to Kids Transitioning From High School to College With A Psychiatric Illness: Preparation Tobacco And Kids The Depressed Child The Child With A Long-Term Illness ...
Coalition for Children and Youth, Washington, DC.
The purpose of this guide is to provide background and focus material for political action regarding several areas of concern related to children and their families: unemployment and the working parent, supports for family economic stability, health and family services, and the environment and the working parent. Each chapter presents brief…
Natale, Jo Anna
Two recent books, "When Good Kids Kill," by Michael D. Kelleher, and "Lost Boys," by James Garbarino, explore how children become killers and suggest ways to reduce our high-pressure society's epidemic levels of youth violence. Physically or psychologically distant parents and unaffirmative media messages are negative influences. (MLH)
Sutton, Thomas L.
Categorizing human rights into two classes, welfare rights and option rights, this article seeks to use the argument for ascribing and/or denying human rights to children as a vehicle for exploring the concepts involved with formulating an adequate theory of human rights, and further seeks to resolve some apparent contradictions within the child's…
Burrell, Andrew; Beard, Roger
This paper explores primary school children's ability to engage with "the power of the text" by tackling persuasive writing in the form of an advertisement. It is eclectically framed within genre theory and rhetorical studies and makes use of linguistic tools and concepts. The paper argues that writing research has not built upon earlier…
Bybee, Jane, Ed.
This book comprises articles exploring the origins and development of guilt and its relationship to adaptive behavior and mental illness in children. The articles are grouped in four sections, covering the nature of guilt; how guilt develops; inducing, instilling, and alleviating guilt; and guilt and adjustment. The articles are: (1) "How Does…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Estimates suggest that about 15% of all children have some form of mental disturbance. Potential causes can be of a physical, psychological, or environmental origin. Symptoms which indicate that a child needs professional help usually involve emotional overreaction to changes. Diagnosis of a child evidencing symptoms of mental illness should take…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
The paper examines the causes of violent and other antisocial behavior in children. Considered are the effects of heredity and environment, and the nature and prevalence of learning disabilities in persons with antisocial behavior are noted. Effects of temperament and its relationship to stress are discussed. The author cites findings on potential…
Davis, Ellen B.
A course in the production of plays for and with children for presentation at elementary schools is outlined. This course involves choosing the play and mounting the production. The performance objectives indicate the student will: develop the necessary stage disciplines to perform as a member of a production unit; reacquaint himself with a…
In this article the author situates the analysis of two popular children's books in theoretical frameworks emerging from American Indian Studies. Using a new historicist lens, she discusses Anne Rockwell's (1999) "Thanksgiving Day" and Laura Ingalls Wilder's (1935/1971) "Little House on the Prairie" and suggests that these…
Freeman, Evelyn B.; And Others
Presents brief annotations of 41 recently published children's books (for students in elementary and middle grades). Focuses on a myriad of voices: those echoing the past and illuminating the wonders of nature; introspective voices seeking to help readers know themselves and their place in the world; voices of great joy and laughter uplifting…
Jordan, Amy B.
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…
Warren, Judith L.
stream_source_info pdf_1551.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1191 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name pdf_1551.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Love Your Children Love your...
Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.
The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this “fetal origins” approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development. PMID:20407981
Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann
Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994
This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…
A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…
This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…
Merritt, John C.
Endogenous uveitis, with its ocular sequalae, accounts for a significant number of blind children in the world today. Even though these children are asymptomatic by ophthalmic history, they usually present with ocular pathology compatible with chronic intraocular inflammation. Although loss of vision is invariably due to cataract formation, fluorescein angiogram, binocular indirect ophthalmoloscopy, and fundus contact lens examination often reveal pathology of the optic nerve and retina, accounting for a significant degree of visual loss. While actual etiologic agents are usually not identified in the majority of children, toxoplasmosis, sarcoidosis, and childhood arthropathies occur with such high frequency that mention is made of these diseases. Conventional surgical procedures for ocular sequalae such as cataract and glaucoma, are known to yield poor results. Corticosteroids administered either topically, periocularly, or systemically appear to be of value in the treatment of these diseases, although control studies have not been done. Efforts to lessen the visual morbidity in these children should begin by a cross-fertilization of information between primary care physicians, pediatricians, and ophthalmologists. PMID:529323
This article briefly summarizes highlights from the Committee on Teaching About the United Nations (CATUN)-sponsored annual workshop, "A World Out of Balance: Searching for Answers Through Education" in New York City, February 4, 2005. The meeting focused on children worldwide who are struggling to survive child labor, child trafficking, child…
van Balen, Frank
Examines physical and psychological development of children conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), focusing on questions related to risk of congenital defects or mental retardation and impact on the parent-child relationship. Concludes that no serious problems have arisen concerning the physical and psychological development of IVF…
... the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them and the voices of their parents and caregivers. But about 2 or 3 out of every 1,000 children in the United States are born deaf or ...
A bibliography of books about American Indians provides annotations and evaluations by Indian educators and others for each book, and indicates grade level, and whether the book would be recommended for Indian children. Chapter 1 discusses organization of material and lists the evaluators. Chapter 2 addresses problems (inaccuracies, omission of…
This research looked at the population of children learning braille in Britain, where they are being educated, and issues concerned with teaching braille and with training of teachers of braille. A national postal questionnaire survey of local education authority (LEA) visual impairment (VI) advisory services and one specialist school for blind…
Faulkner, Dorothy, Ed.; Coates, Elizabeth, Ed.
This fascinating collection of international research offers fresh perspectives on children's creative processes and the expression of their creative imagination through dramatic play, stories, artwork, dance, music and conversation. Drawing on a range of research evidence from innovative educational initiatives in a wide variety of countries,…
Moore, Leslie C.
Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…
WYCKOFF, FLORENCE R.
A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED AS A MEMBER OF A FAMILY OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO MUST TRAVEL A GREAT DISTANCE TO WORK. THE WORKERS FOLLOW A SEASONAL COURSE, OFTEN THROUGH SEVERAL STATES, AND RETURN HOME AFTER THE CROP SEASON IS OVER. THERE ARE ABOUT 415,000 MIGRANT CHILDREN UNDER 14 YEARS OF AGE IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 1960 THE MIGRANT FARM WORKER…
Interviewing children is a critical element of the education reporter's daily work. However, practices for gaining access and avoiding harm and embarrassment vary widely depending on the news organization and individual reporter in question. This document aims to provide journalists with broad guidelines, but it stops short of advocating for the…
Bairagi, Anjana; Aronson, Daniel C.
Nontraumatic hemobilia is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in children. In the developing world, infections and inflammation are the two most common causes. Two patients are presented illustrating the diagnostic difficulties. Following recognition of the site of bleeding the surgery was successful in each case. After a review of the literature, a diagnostic workup is proposed. PMID:26171310
Jenkins, William A., Ed.
The articles in this publication are (1) "The Children's Literary Heritage" by Dora V. Smith; (2) "Some Approaches to Teaching Standard English as a Second Language" by Charlotte K. Brooks; (3) "Detroit Great Cities School Improvement Program in Language Arts" by Clarence W. Wachner; (4) "Teaching and Testing Critical Listening in the Fifth and…
Allen, Judy; And Others
This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…
... an hour of physical activity every day. Regular exercise helps children Feel less stressed Feel better about themselves Feel more ready to learn in school Keep a healthy weight Build and keep healthy bones, muscles and joints Sleep better at night As kids spend more time ...
In his remarks delivered at the Second National Symposium on Children and Television, Federal Communications Commissioner Nicholas Johnson charges that television is not adequately serving those 20 million Americans under the age of five. He scores the networks for the inane, if not actually harmful, nature of their programming and for the…
Micheli, Lyle J.
Children who actively take part in sports are susceptible to special injury risks because their bodies are still growing. Parents should keep both the child's individual physical and emotional makeup and the demands of the sport in mind when selecting an activity. Proper training methods and equipment are discussed. (PP)
Bolger, Molly S.; Kobiela, Marta; Weinberg, Paul J.; Lehrer, Richard
Reasoning about mechanisms is one of the hallmarks of disciplined inquiry in science and engineering, but comparatively little is known about its precursors and development. Children at grades 2 and 5 predicted and explained the motion of simple mechanical systems composed entirely of visible linkages (levers). Students' explanations of device…
Anderson, William; Groff, Patrick
In this collection of papers, the authors develop a set of premises regarding the need for elementary teachers to be trained in the discipline of literature. Sections discuss (1) the importance of literature in providing children with mythic touchstones by which to conceptualize and order experience, (2) the need to train elementary teachers to…
Lin-Fu, Jane S.
This publication is a guide to help social and health workers plan a preventive campaign against lead poisoning, a cause of mental retardation other neurological handicaps, and death among children. The main victims are 1- to 6-year-olds living in areas where deteriorating housing prevails. Among the causes of lead poisoning are: ingestion of…
A case study of an autistic child (now a successfully employed graduate student and author of the article) whose parents and teachers capitalized on her fixations and compulsions by using them in learning activities illustrates how the needs of drive of autistic children can be redirected to motivate successful academic achievement. (CB)
Hasenstab, M. Suzanne; Laughton, Joan
The use of cochlear implants in children with profound bilateral hearing loss is discussed, focusing on how a cochlear implant works; steps in a cochlear implant program (evaluation, surgery, programing, and training); and rehabilitation procedures involved in auditory development and speech development. (JDD)
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…
Nicholson, Julie; Kurnik, Jean; Jevgjovikj, Maja; Ufoegbune, Veronica
This study used discourse analysis to compare the language adults use to discuss contemporary children's play and children's narratives of their own play experiences. Adult discourse was analysed to determine whether they positioned children through deficit or strength and the attributions of responsibility embedded within their language choices…
Serrano, A C
Haloperidol is safe and effective in children for relieving psychotic symptoms associated with childhood autism, schizophrenia and mental retardation. It is the drug of choice for Tourette's syndrome, and may be useful in nonpsychotic hyperactive or aggressive children to control acute episodes, or when the stimulants normally useful in hyperactive children are ineffective. Such children taking haloperidol not only become calmer, but are often better able to respond to other modalities of therapy and to school instruction. Dosage, initially low, is increased gradually to minimize drowsiness and extrapyramidal symptoms, the most common side effects. Haloperidol in children is usually well-tolerated. PMID:6937455
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic sub-categories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were included because they exhibit prosodic and motor deficits. Children, especially those with SLI, showed the expected increase in omission errors in weak initial syllables. Movement patterning analyses revealed that speakers produced differentiated articulatory templates beyond the broad categories of iamb and trochee. Finally, weak-weak prosodic sequences that crossed word boundaries showed increased articulatory variability when compared with strong-weak alternations. The binary distinction between iamb and trochee may be insufficient, with additional systematic prosodic sub-categories evident, even in young children with SLI. Findings support increased interactivity in language processing. PMID:23137484
Gleason, T R; Sebanc, A M; Hartup, W W
The developmental significance of preschool children's imaginary companions was examined. Mothers of 78 children were interviewed about their children's social environments and imaginary companions (if their children had them). Results revealed differences between invisible companions and personified objects (e.g., stuffed animals or dolls) in terms of the pretend friends' stability and ubiquity, identity, and relationship with the child. Relationships with invisible companions were mostly described as sociable and friendly, whereas personified objects were usually nurtured. Mothers reported that personification of objects frequently occurred as a result of acquiring a toy, whereas invisible friends were often viewed as fulfilling a need for a relationship. Compared to children without imaginary companions, children with imaginary companions were more likely to be firstborn and only children. PMID:10902694
Rattaz, Cécile; Dubois, Amandine; Michelon, Cécile; Viellard, Marine; Poinso, François; Baghdadli, Amaria
There is a lack of knowledge about pain reactions in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), who have often been considered as insensitive to pain. The objective of this study was to describe the facial, behavioral and physiological reactions of children with ASD during venipuncture and to compare them to the reactions of children with an intellectual disability and nonimpaired control children. We also examined the relation between developmental age and pain reactions. The sample included 35 children with ASD, 32 children with an intellectual disability, and 36 nonimpaired children. The children were videotaped during venipuncture and their heart rate was recorded. Facial reactions were assessed using the Child Facial Coding System (CFCS) and behavioral reactions were scored using the Noncommunicating Children's Pain Checklist (NCCPC). A linear mixed-effects model showed that children's reactions increased between baseline and venipuncture and decreased between the end of venipuncture and the recovery period. There was no significant difference between groups regarding the amount of facial, behavioral and physiological reactions. However, behavioral reactions seemed to remain high in children with ASD after the end of the venipuncture, in contrast with children in the 2 other groups. Moreover, we observed a significant decrease in pain expression with age in nonimpaired children, but no such effect was found regarding children with ASD. The data reveal that children with ASD displayed a significant pain reaction in this situation and tend to recover more slowly after the painful experience. Improvement in pain assessment and management in this population is necessary. PMID:24040973
Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.
Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172
Notes caregivers' responsibility to protect children from too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation and the potential for melanoma. Provides suggestions on how to prevent children from sunburn and skin cancer, including the proper way to apply sunscreen. (MOK)
... cord tumors in children What are brain and spinal cord tumors in children? Brain and spinal cord tumors ... filled with CSF. Parts of the brain and spinal cord The main areas of the brain include the ...
Sorge, F; Gendrel, D
Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure. PMID:23199582