Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik
Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)
Pavi?, Renata; Trnini?, Viktorija; Kati?, Ratko
The aim of the study was to assess the development of motor abilities in elementary school fifth- to eighth-graders (age 11-14 years) according to sex, age and physical activity. Study sample included 312 subjects divided according to age and sex into four groups: male subjects aged 11-12 (n = 93) and 13-14 years (n = 84); and female subjects aged 11-12 (n = 65) and 13-14 years (n = 70). Then, differences in basic motor abilities between children included (experimental group) and those not included (control group) in swimming training were analyzed. In male fifth- and sixth-graders, experimental group was superior to control group in the variables of trunk repetitive strength, sprint, flexibility and coordination, while in male seventh- and eighth-graders experimental group showed better performance than control group in agility, aerobic endurance and explosive throw and jump strength. In female fifth- and sixth-graders, experimental group proved superior to control group in the variables of explosive strength, coordination, trunk strength and aerobic endurance, whereas in female seventh- and eighth-graders experimental group had better performance in coordination, endurance, explosive strength, speed and flexibility. Discriminative analysis of motor variables between male and female subjects revealed male subjects to be superior in explosive strength, throw strength in particular, coordination and aerobic endurance, whereas female subjects showed better performance in the variables of flexibility and movement frequency, leg movement in particular. Study results showed the formation of appropriate motor system determining achievement of top results in swimming to be influenced by swimming training from age 11 to 14. In male children, motor system was found to integrate coordination/agility, aerobic endurance and explosive strength, whereas in female children it integrated coordination in terms of cortical movement regulation, aerobic endurance, explosive strength and psychomotor speed. PMID:18982758
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira
In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young
The authors examined factors related to preschool children's reasoning about including a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in different play activities. They hypothesized that children's inclusion decisions would be influenced by features of the physical environment, attention to issues of fairness and equity, and individual child…
Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen
Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…
In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, the…
; Nottingham, NG7 2RD UK Introduction Emotions are an important aspect of human behavior that shouldTowards Including Simple Emotions in a Cognitive Architecture in Order to Better Fit Children's Behavior Roman V. Belavkin1,2 (firstname.lastname@example.org) Frank E. Ritter2 (email@example.com) David G
Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.
There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…
Wisconsin at Madison, University of
will be asked to bring the children out of their homes so they can be assessed by UNICEF workers. The workers. A young boy with a pair of crutches is lined up with the rest of the children getting ready to enter
Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila
Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
Beverly Barrett Dahms
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common condition in infants and children and has many clinical mimics. Most pediatric pathology departments process many mucosal biopsies from the proximal gastrointestinal tract to evaluate the presence or absence of reflux esophagitis. Since this subject was last reviewed in the 1997 edition of Perspectives in Pediatric Pathology devoted to gastrointestinal diseases in children
Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363
Schlene, Vickie J.
Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)
This briefing reports on the key findings from an ESRC funded study conducted in collaboration with ChildLine Scotland which utilised ChildLine’s unique caller information database to examine children’s concerns about ...
Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.
Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…
Hawes, Hugh, Ed.; Scotchmer, Christine, Ed.
This book is designed for those who work with children and who believe that children, in schools and as family members, need to be considered partners in spreading health messages as well as benefiting from them. It contains the messages included in "Facts for Life," a handbook that presents practical, low-cost ways of protecting children's lives…
Barbara C Galland; Edwin A Mitchell
Sleep problems in children are very common and affect both the child and parents. The common problems are bedtime resistance, delayed sleep onset and frequent night waking. This review summarises current non-pharmacological practices and intervention options to aid healthy children sleep. Children may benefit from good sleep hygiene practices, which include a consistent routine for bed and consistent bedtime, a
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 6 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 3 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 2 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 4 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 5 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Bkra shis bzang po
Children’s Games 9 Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) Tshi khrem and Tshe dbang play local children's and other games while explaining the rules and procedures for the games. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual... ) Game Name of recorder (if different from collector) Bkra shis bzang po (Carver) Date of recording 18 November 2009 Place of recording Bang smad Village, Bang smad Township, Nyag rong County, Dkar mdzes Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Si khron...
Young children with chronic illness who attend our early childhood facilities and schools have very special needs. They are more likely to encounter academic challenges and to have peer and emotional difficulties than are their healthy peers. As well, their families are frequently undergoing intense stress. The challenge to educators is to ensure…
Vickerman, Philip; Blundell, Milly
According to Blatchford, learning support assistants (LSA) in schools within England comprise of a quarter of their workforce. In recent years, the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream school settings has seen significant rises. Furthermore, the English government has raised expectations on the amount of…
Jürg C. Streuli; Margot Michel; Effy Vayena
The United Nations Convention of Children’s Rights (UNCRC) introduced in 1989 has generated a global movement for the protection\\u000a of children’s rights and has brought about a paradigm change in how children are perceived. Pediatric healthcare professionals\\u000a are interacting with children and therefore with children’s rights on a daily basis. However, although at least 18 of the\\u000a 54 articles are
The results of a survey conducted during the 1968-1969 school year by the State of Idaho Department of Education are reported. Twenty six thousand and forty three children with special handicaps were identified according to type of problem. Each counties' numerical delineation of children with learning problems, speech difficulties, hearing…
Gualtieri, C. Thomas C.; And Others
The use of the diagnosis "borderline" was evaluated with 16 children (6 to 13 years old) who were referred for comprehensive evaluation. None met DSM III criteria for borderline personality disorder. The borderline label had a negative impact on some children and was not helpful for treatment planning or disposition. (Author/SEW)
Children's School December 2010 Director's Corner: Fostering Interaction & Cooperation The Children decisions, as well as to support families in fostering their children's development, I will share - promoting children's social skills for diverse adult and peer relations, including listening, turn
Masahiro Sakaguchi; Tetsuo Nakayama; Sakae Inouye
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis to measles-mumps-rubella vaccines has been reported. We have suspected that most such reactions are caused by gelatin contained in the vaccines. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the relation between systemic allergic reactions to vaccines and the presence of anti-gelatin IgE, we measured anti-gelatin IgE in children who demonstrated allergy to gelatin-containing vaccines. Furthermore, to clarify the relation between allergic reactions
Since Indian antiquity there is documentation of educational practice that sometimes favoured the inclusion of children with impairments. European schools in India, starting c. 1605, brought little recorded innovation until the late 18th century. Admission of a weak?minded boy to the Madras Military Orphan Asylum by Andrew Bell in the 1790s suggests a new openness in European?led schools, with later
This article reports on children's experiences of hospitalization. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 11 children aged between seven and 14 years from four paediatric units in England. The children identified a range of fears and concerns, which included: separation from parents and family; unfamiliar environment; investigations and treatments; and loss of self-determination. The children's loss of self-determination over personal needs exacerbated their fears and concerns. It needs to be recognized that compliance with hospital routines is a variable, which influences children's reaction to hospitalization. The findings clearly indicate that children need adequate information tailored to their needs, that their views are sought in the planning and delivery of their care and that hospital environments need to be made more child-centred. Interventions designed to reduce children's stress during hospitalization are not only likely to decrease their stress at the time, but also likely to influence how future experiences are appraised and managed. PMID:17101624
This companion Website to the recently broadcast PBS documentary "Precious Children" provides insight into childhood life and education in mainland China. The site offers factual and cultural information about China, online essays about early education and childcare in China, video clips from the documentary, and an annotated list of online resources about children and education in China. Such a site could be a useful starting point for lesson plans designed to disrupt familiar cultural stereotypes.
LYON, THOMAS D.; AHERN, ELIZABETH C.; SCURICH, NICHOLAS
We describe a Bayesian approach to evaluating children’s abuse disclosures and review research demonstrating that children’s disclosure of genital touch can be highly probative of sexual abuse, with the probative value depending on disclosure spontaneity and children’s age. We discuss how some commentators understate the probative value of children’s disclosures by: confusing the probability of abuse given disclosure with the probability of disclosure given abuse, assuming that children formally questioned about sexual abuse have a low prior probability of sexual abuse, misstating the probative value of abuse disclosure, and confusing the distinction between disclosure and nondisclosure with the distinction between true and false disclosures. We review interviewing methods that increase the probative value of disclosures, including interview instructions, narrative practice, noncontingent reinforcement, and questions about perpetrator/caregiver statements and children’s reactions to the alleged abuse. PMID:22339423
Ingrid Sutherland; Oren Ledder; Joe Crameri; Andrew Nydegger; Anthony Catto-Smith; Timothy Cain; Mark Oliver
Purpose To document the demographics, mechanisms and outcome of traumatic pancreatitis in children at a single large tertiary referral\\u000a centre in Australia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods We undertook a 10-year retrospective audit of children admitted to the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia with\\u000a a hospital coded diagnosis which included pancreatic injury between 1993 and 2002. Data included patient demographics, source\\u000a of admission, mechanism of injury,
Discusses three major ways in which nature helps children develop. Discusses observations of theorists and researchers, including Maria Montessori, that nature stimulates children's powers of observation, fosters creativity, and instills a sense of peace and being at one with the world. Offers recommendations, including protecting nature,…
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
Baixinho, Cristina Lavareda
It's dificult to elaborate a program of intervention/inclusion that can act as a standart for children with special learning disabilities, since their necessities are of their own; their resources, in mostof the situations, show disparity; and the problem presents different connotations for each family group. On the other hand, schools are organized differently, they have their physical conditions that more or less facilitate the mobility. They rarely manifest the ideal conditions; staff may or not be educated to work with and for these children; their acceptance and receptivity depend not only on training but also on the correct management of individual and collective expectations (closely influenced by the organizational culture of each establishment, the working experience of their professionals), among other factors. School health teams have different dynamics, with more or less liberty of intervention among the educative community, but assume a master role in this inclusion, since they have areas of knowledge of their own and because their intervention is due to the team spirit and cooperation. For these motives, any possibility of intervention must be personalized to the child and the family, with clear objectives that are real and feasible, elaborated as a partnership: school, family, teacher of special learning disabilities and the school health team. PMID:19685616
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Jodi A. Mindell
Many children experience some type of sleep problem. Often, these are transient problems with no long-lasting sequelae. But in certain cases, sleep problems may significantly impact on functioning and well-being. Sleep disorders in children can be classified into two major categories. Dyssomnias include those disorders that result in difficulty either initiating or maintaining sleep or involve excessive sleepiness. Parasomnias are
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
The daily reality of working with a group of young children presents many demands for adults in early childhood programs. There are the ongoing chores of caretaking and cleaning up, planning and providing an engaging curriculum, communicating with families and coworkers, and the ever-growing pressures for outcomes, assessment, and documentation to…
Akerskog, Gunnar; Soderlund, Jan
There is a common opinion among eye specialists and opticians that children's glasses often are not shaped for optimal fitting. A fundamental reason for this is the lack of data for the shaping of the bows, with the result that most children's glasses are reduced copies of adult's glasses. This report describes a photogrammetric method for collection of primary data for manufac-turing bows for children. An ordinary amateur camera was equipped with a stereo-adapter. With a few arrangements, such as projecting a pattern on the face and keeping the hair away from the ears, 600 children were photographed. A calibration photograph was exposed at the beginning and end of each film or when the equipment had been transported or otherwise disturbed. The photographs were measured in a stereocomparator and the coordinates analytically corrected for distortion. After determination of model coordinates the requested geometric information, such as pupillar distance, eye-ear distance, location of the bridge of the nose etc, was calculated. The shapes of average noses were presented as profile plots.
The outcome is good with early treatment. There is a risk this problem will come back. When a hole or tear in the bowel occurs, it must be treated promptly. If not treated, intussusception is almost always fatal for infants and young children.
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara
A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395
Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda
The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…
Turnbull, Katherine; Bronicki, G. J. Buzz
) teaching does help children feel that they know more about what to do when they are with someone who has severe mental retardation and needs dialysis; and (2) teaching does help children feel more comfortable with someone who has severe mental... I was in preschool 6 years ago and he was in a primary classroom next door. That was before he needed dialysis. I got to see him every day when I was 2 and 3 years old. I learned that people with mental retardation were more like me than...
The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730
Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie
This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
The term inclusion has been subject to extensive debate in terms of its definition, interpretation and delivery in relation to children with special educational needs (SEN) in physical education (PE). This study explores the views and experiences of teacher trainers in their role of preparing secondary PE trainees for the inclusion of children with SEN. The data are analysed on
The enrollment of children with ASD in public school settings has escalated in conjunction with the increased incidence of the diagnosis (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). Characteristics associated with ASD can present unique challenges for both children and teachers in the classroom. According to many researchers, positive teacher attitudes are one…
Wainman, Briony; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Walker, Sue; Brownlee, Jo; Cobb, Charlotte; Whiteford, Chrystal; Johnsson, Eva
Previous research has emphasized the importance of active citizenship in the early years for the development of a tolerant and cohesive Australian society. This paper presents findings related to young children's beliefs about exclusion based on gender and race. The findings draw from a larger study exploring the development of children's moral…
Jaudes, P K; Diamond, L J
Child neglect is the most prevalent form of maltreatment; more children die of neglect than of abuse. Neglect has been found to be more prevalent than physical abuse among the population of children with chronic illnesses. Data from a retrospective chart review illustrate the ways in which neglect affected 61 children with chronic illnesses. Types of neglect include medical care neglect, educational neglect, abandonment, emotional neglect, and physical neglect. The state Child Protection Agency was notified of neglect in 67 instances. Two children died subsequent to neglect. Sixteen children were abandoned; 12 of these children were abandoned in the hospital. More than half (37) of the reports resulted in change of custody for these children. All of these children suffered from short-term morbidity and some from long-term morbidity due to neglect. Neglect can be a serious and consequential problem for children with chronic illness. PMID:3717102
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
When there is something we want to know, we usually ask experts, but rarely do we ask children about their own childhood. This paper looks at children's perceptions and responses in relation to programming on children's television. Topics include: (1) what are children's programs?; (2) when do children become adults?; (3) criteria for quality; (4)…
Examines issues posed by cases involving murder of children by children, including the Bulger case in England and the Redergard case in Norway, which, though not typical, articulate how changes in notions of childhood mesh with change in major social institutions. Addresses concerns about pursuit of justice for children and analyzes relationships…
... Pediatrics (ABP) in 1992 developed a subspecialty in pediatric emergency medicine to further advance research and education for the ... care of children, including conducting research and teaching pediatric emergency medicine. More than 1,000 doctors have become board- ...
... intake diary Urodynamics testing Therapeutic solution testing (lidocaine, bicarbonate, and heparin instilled into the bladder) Validated symptom ... IC include: DMSO (RIMSO-50) Therapeutic solution (lidocaine, bicarbonate, and heparin) Challenges Facing Children with IC Conveying ...
The author presents practical, specific suggestions for hepling young children have successful carpentry experiences. Selection of tools and materials as well as guides for their use and care are included. (Author/WY)
... Media Policy Makers Â National Center Homepage Children's Mental Health Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... problems can continue into adulthood. Public health includes mental health A new report from the Centers for Disease ...
Schwerdtle, Barbara; Kanis, Julia; Kahl, Lena; Kübler, Andrea; Schlarb, Angelika A
Background A solid diagnosis of sleep disorders in children should include both self-ratings and parent ratings. However, there are few standardized self-assessment instruments to meet this need. The Children’s Sleep Comic is an adapted version of the unpublished German questionnaire “Freiburger Kinderschlafcomic” and provides pictures for items and responses. Because the drawings were outdated and allowed only for qualitative analysis, we revised the comic, tested its applicability in a target sample, and suggest a procedure for quantitative analysis. Methods All items were updated and pictures were newly drawn. We used a sample of 201 children aged 5–10 years to test the applicability of the Children’s Sleep Comic in young children and to run a preliminary analysis. Results The Children’s Sleep Comic comprises 37 items covering relevant aspects of sleep disorders in children. Application took on average 30 minutes. The procedure was well accepted by the children, as reflected by the absence of any dropouts. First comparisons with established questionnaires indicated moderate correlations. Conclusion The Children’s Sleep Comic is appropriate for screening sleep behavior and sleep problems in children. The interactive procedure can foster a good relationship between the investigator and the child, and thus establish the basis for successful intervention if necessary. PMID:23620683
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (3) total pedalcyclist…
Reyes, Augustina H.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…
Essential Tremor (ET) Children with Essential Tremor a guide for parents and other caring adults Growing up with ET Most children ... be treated differently from their peers. Children with ET may have difficulty with: • Eating and drinking without ...
Children's storytelling technologies 1 Running head: CHILDREN'S STORYTELLING TECHNOLOGIES Children technologies for young children. We would particularly like to acknowledge Benjamin Bederson and Juan Pablo the Royal Institute of #12;Children's storytelling technologies 2 Technology for their project leadership
The special medical needs of children make it essential that pediatricians be prepared for radiation disasters, including 1) the detonation of a nuclear weapon; 2) a nuclear power plant event that unleashes a radioactive cloud; and 3) the dispersal of radionuclides by conventional explosive or the crash of a transport vehicle. Any of these events could occur unintentionally or as an act of terrorism. Nuclear facilities (eg, power plants, fuel processing centers, and food irradiation facilities) are often located in highly populated areas, and as they age, the risk of mechanical failure increases. The short- and long-term consequences of a radiation disaster are significantly greater in children for several reasons. First, children have a disproportionately higher minute ventilation, leading to greater internal exposure to radioactive gases. Children have a significantly greater risk of developing cancer even when they are exposed to radiation in utero. Finally, children and the parents of young children are more likely than are adults to develop enduring psychologic injury after a radiation disaster. The pediatrician has a critical role in planning for radiation disasters. For example, potassium iodide is of proven value for thyroid protection but must be given before or soon after exposure to radioiodines, requiring its placement in homes, schools, and child care centers. Pediatricians should work with public health authorities to ensure that children receive full consideration in local planning for a radiation disaster. PMID:12777572
Our Children, 1995
This adaptation of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) booklet "Safeguarding Your Children" discusses cooperative efforts of communities, schools, and homes to protect children from violence. (SM)
Michele Peterson-Badali; Stephany L. Morine; Martin D. Ruck; Naomi Slonim
Children’s rights to nurturance and self-determination have been included in social policy agendas for many years. Children’s and parents’ attitudes concerning children’s rights are likely an important determinant of whether rights on paper actually serve to protect the well-being of children, yet there is little research on factors associated with support for children’s rights. This study examined maternal (parenting style,
‘Exploration' is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as research conflicts with ‘new sociology’ perspectives positioning children as social actors. These tensions have driven a small-scale
‘Exploration' is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as research conflicts with ‘new sociology’ perspectives positioning children as social actors. These tensions have driven a small-scale
Che Kan Leong
The goal of this study was to predict children’s spelling from their performance on pseudohomophone choice and rhyme matching\\u000a tasks. A total of 222 nine- to twelve-year-old children in grades 4, 5, and 6 participated. The children were given, individually,\\u000a a computerized pseudohomophone choice task with 30 item pairs in two conditions, and a computerized rhyme matching task with\\u000a 68
"Exploration" is recognised as research behaviour; anecdotally, as an early years' teacher, I witnessed many young children exploring. However, young children's self-initiated explorations are rarely regarded as research by adult researchers and policy-makers. The exclusion of young children's autonomous explorations from recognition as research…
Kuntz, Patricia S.
A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…
Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…
Describes experiences of children and adolescents in South Africa who have been subjected to the violence of the apartheid state. Discusses detention of children and torture and assault of detained children. Against this backdrop, explores the effects of violence on children, psychological trauma, counseling interventions, and applications of…
Ducey, Richard V.
This report examines a growing submarket, the children's video marketplace, which comprises broadcast, cable, and video programming for children 2 to 11 years old. A description of the tremendous growth in the availability and distribution of children's programming is presented, the economics of the children's video marketplace are briefly…
Children’s Mental Health Surveillance National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities Division of Human Development and Disability What are ... gov CDC issues first comprehensive report on children’s mental health in the United States A new report from ...
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA. PMID:9482324
Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D
Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308
Wild, R N
16 children with adder bites were admitted to hospital in Southampton in the years 1969--77. Two children were severely poisoned; these 2, and a 3rd, fulfilled suggested criteria for antivenom administration but they recovered without it. Three children had no treatment, and 9 children no analgesia. Prolonged morbidity was not seen in these children. Careful observation in hospital was the most important factor in management, with early clinical improvement obviating the need for antivenom. Images Fig. 1 PMID:475416
Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.
Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…
S. K. Fernbach; R. B. Glass
The radiological studies of 18 children with biopsy proved Burkitt's lymphoma were analyzed retrospectively. Before therapy the genitourinary tract was evaluated in 15 children by excretory urography, sonography, computerized tomography and\\/or gallium citrate scintigraphy. Genitourinary abnormalities were detected in 9 children. Changes due to tumor included renal or ureteral displacement in 4 children, hydronephrosis in 3 and intraparenchymal masses in
Agenda for Children, 2010
The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…
What Children Can Teach Us: Developing Digital Libraries for Children with Children Allison Druin Children Can Teach Us 2 Abstract At the University of Maryland, an interdisciplinary team of researchers children (ages 7-11) to design new digital libraries for children. Working with children has led to new
Peterson, Pam; Clark, Bob
Presented is the Indiana Department of Public Instruction's Childfind program to identify and locate all handicapped children ages 0 to 21 within the state. Sections are devoted to the following program aspects: Planning (including interagency involvement, preliminary market research, and manpower organization and planning); execution (including…
Ewa Dabrowska; Susan K. Wismer
Understanding of risk views in multiethnic Canadian society may be enhanced by including perceptions of a closed, ethno-religious Old Order Mennonite (OOM) community, farming along the most contaminated tributary of the Grand River, Ontario, Canada. This study represents the first time that these Old Order women have participated in any research. For this exploratory study, qualitative methods were the preferred
This is an exploratory study suggesting ways of analysing challenges for developing countries in the move to greater inclusion of disabled children and young people in learning. The paper focuses on pedagogical challenges to realising more inclusive education. Pedagogy encompasses not only the practice of teaching and learning, but also the ideas…
Collins, Clare E; Warren, Janet M; Neve, Melinda; McCoy, Penelope; Stokes, Barrie
Background? The prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents is increasing at an alarming rate around the world and prevention has become a key public health objective. Treatment and management of those already overweight and obese must be aligned with the best available evidence on effectiveness, if the risk of obesity-related morbidity and mortality is yet be reduced. Diet plays a pivotal role in successful treatment of obesity but to date, there is limited evidence on which to base practice. Objectives? To identify and present the best available evidence on the optimal dietetic treatment and management of children and adolescent who are overweight or obese. Search strategy? Published English language literature was searched using the electronic databases CINAHL, MEDLINE, PRE-MEDLINE, DARE, COCHRANE, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Current Concepts and Dissertation Abstracts. The databases were limited to English Language from 1975 until 2003. Government reports from the UK, USA and Australian were also searched and a hand search performed for the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia, International Journal of Obesity and the Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Selection criteria? (i) Interventions that evaluated the effectiveness of nutrition or dietary interventions to treat or manage overweight and obesity; (ii) Children aged less than 18?years; and (iii) Participants were defined as overweight or obese by relative weight or a measure of body weight status, studies that reported body weight per se were excluded. Data collection and analysis? An experienced professional librarian searched the databases, and two trained research assistants independently identified studies for retrieval and assessed each article for inclusion. The included studies were critically appraised for methodological quality by two people independently. Data were extracted from the appropriate articles and when a discrepancy arose, a third party would arbitrate. Main results? There were 116 articles that met the inclusion criteria. While 49 articles described randomised controlled trials, they arose from 37 separate studies. There were 67 non-randomised trials. Meta-analyses were performed on eight studies that included both a dietary intervention component and an adequate control group and on four studies that had follow-up data. There was a high degree of heterogeneity between studies and this made comparisons between studies problematic. Interventions that include diet therapy generally result in significant weight loss, at least in the short term. Many studies were poorly designed and had no or only minimal follow up. The details of the dietary intervention were often inadequately described and dietary outcomes rarely reported, making repetition of the studies difficult. Reviewers' conclusions? There is an urgent need for high quality studies investigating the optimal dietary approach to management of paediatric overweight and obesity. These studies require adequate follow up to ascertain if weight loss can be sustained in the long term. Details of the dietary prescription, adherence to the dietary intervention and diet-specific outcomes need to be reported in order to inform best practice. PMID:21631781
Feinman, S; Entwisle, D R
Facial recognition ability was studied with 288 children from 4 grades--first, second, third, and sixth--who also varied by sex race, and school type, the last being segregated or integrated. Children judged whether each of 40 pictures of children's faces had been present in a set of 20 pictures viewed earlier. Facial recognition ability increased significantly with each grade but leveled off between ages 8 and 11. Blacks' performance is significantly better than whites', and blacks are better at recognizing faces of whites than whites are at recognizing blacks. Children from an integrated school show smaller differences recognizing black or white faces than children from segregated schools, but the effect appears only for children of the integrated school who also live in mixed-race neighborhoods. PMID:1269316
Aleshina, E I; Gubonina, I V; Novikova, V P; Vigurskaia, M Iu
To examine the state of the biliary system, a study of properties of bile "case-control") 100 children and adolescents aged 8 to 18 years, held checkup in consultative and diagnostic center for chronic gastroduodenitis. BMI children were divided into 2 groups: group 1-60 children with obesity (BMI of 30 to 40) and group 2-40 children with normal anthropometric indices. Survey methods included clinical examination pediatrician, endocrinologist, biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, alkaline phosphatase level, total protein, bilirubin, lipidogram, glucose, insulin, HOMA-index), ultrasound of the abdomen and retroperitoneum, EGD with aspiration of gallbladder bile. Crystallography bile produced by crystallization of biological substrates micromethods modification Prima AV, 1992. Obese children with chronic gastroduodenita more likely than children of normal weight, had complaints and objective laboratory and instrumental evidence of insulin resistance and motor disorders of the upper gastrointestinal and biliary tract, liver enlargement and biliary "sludge". Biochemical parameters of obese children indicate initial metabolic changes in carbohydrate and fat metabolism and cholestasis, as compared to control children. Colloidal properties of bile in obese children with chronic gastroduodenita reduced, as indicated by the nature of the crystallographic pattern. Conclusions: Obese children with chronic gastroduodenitis often identified enlarged liver, cholestasis and biliary dysfunction, including with the presence of sludge in the gallbladder; most often--hypertonic bile dysfunction. Biochemical features of carbohydrate and fat metabolism reflect the features of the metabolic profile of obese children. Crystallography bile in obese children reveals the instability of the colloidal structure of bile, predisposing children to biliary sludge, which is a risk factor for gallstones. PMID:25911906
Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287
Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Antila, Eeva; Korhonen, Jussi; Rättyä, Johanna; Serlo, Willy
Trampolines for home use have become common in Finland during the past ten years, being especially favored by children. Trampoline jumping is beneficial and constructive physical exercise, but poses a significant risk for injuries. The most common injuries include sprains and strains. During summertime, trampoline injuries account for as many as 13% of children's accidents requiring hospital care. Fractures are by far the most common trampoline injuries requiring hospital care. Injuries can be prevented by using safety nets. Only one child at a time is allowed to jump on the trampoline. PMID:22880376
Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M; Mahler, Michelle B; Bussel, James B
Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110
Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.
Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110
Muiesan, Paolo; Vergani, Diego; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina
Liver transplantation (LT) is now a standard treatment for children with end-stage liver disease with excellent 1- and 5-year survival. This has been achieved through improvement of surgical techniques and anti-rejection treatment and management. The donor pool for children has been extended by the use of cut-down, split, living-related and, recently, non-heart-beating donor and isolated hepatocyte transplantation. Though the majority of transplanted children enjoy an excellent quality of life, there remain a high number of possible complications, including short-term primary non-function, vascular and biliary problems, bowel perforation, severe rejection, infection, hypertension and long-term renal impairment, chronic rejection, de novo autoimmunity, lymphoproliferative disease and cancer, most of which are related to anti-rejection drug toxicity. Hence, the focus of research for paediatric LT should be induction of tolerance, avoiding long-term immunosuppression and its toxicity. PMID:17161491
The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835
In the past decade there has been both an increase in the number of children who receive nursing care in their communities rather than in hospitals, and an increasing willingness to listen to children. This qualitative study used Clark’s Mosaic approach to elicit children’s views of community children’s nursing. Twenty-one children took part in total, with seven children making up
Stawicki, Christine, Comp.
Organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers present awards to authors of outstanding children's books. The 60 award organizations are arranged alphabetically. For each entry, a brief history of the award and a year-by-year listing of winning authors, titles, and publishers are included. Illustrators are named when the award…
Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak
Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786
Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.
Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…
Hildebrand, Joan M.
This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)
McCaslin, Nellie, Ed.
This book collects the current thinking of fourteen of the leading practitioners in the field of children in theatre. Evident throughout the book is the theme that it is the creativity of the individual teacher or leader that makes for exciting results in drama by and for young people. Included are reminiscences, philosophies, teaching hints, and…
Peng, Chew Fong
The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…
Baghdayan, Annie T.
The practice of inclusion, even the term itself, has been the subject of controversy over the last several decades. "Inclusion" has many interpretations, depending upon the student, educator, and setting. In my dissertation, I sought to find answers from parents and educators' regarding their perceptions on including young children…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard
Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…
Wittman, Nora E.; And Others
This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…
Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662
Chronic Pancreatitis in Children What symptoms would my child have? Frequent or chronic abdominal pain is the most common ... will develop diabetes in adolescence. Who gets chronic pancreatitis? Those at risk for chronic pancreatitis are children ...
... cured. But worldwide, ALL remains the leading cancer-killer of children. "Madelen has the riskiest type of ... calls transplants a blunt, toxic tool for fragile young children. "They represent a cutting edge treatment for ...
Reading Teacher, 1990
Identifies and annotates 111 outstanding tradebooks published for children and adolescents that children themselves recommend. Groups books by reading levels: all ages, younger readers, middle grades, and older readers. (MG)
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
... can find information on embargoes, Annual Meeting press registration and more below. Please direct any interview requests ... he/she is rewarded with an entertaining visual image. Tests for older children and adults Children between ...
Children's Mental Health For parents, the key to handling mental disorders of children is to recognize the problem and seek ... and treatments, and a complete evaluation by a mental health provider can determine whether a child needs help. ...
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2001
In prose and art, students and staff from a residential treatment center for troubled children in Columbus, Ohio, express and illustrate the depth of pain that children and their caregivers face in the process of healing from abuse. (Author)
... with disabilities . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Medicaid and Medicare . . . . . 15 Children’s Health Insurance Program . . . . . . . . . 16 Other health care services . . .17 4 ... Lou Gehrig’s disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). 16 Children’s Health Insurance Program The Children’s Health Insurance Program enables states ...
In his influential book "Dialogues with Children" (1984), Gareth Matthews presents strong evidence that children as young as six can and should engage in philosophical discourse. His findings form the basis of this article, a theoretical and practical guide for parents and teachers seeking respectful and creative ways to encourage children to…
Sherman, Dianne, Ed.
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
Finkelstein, Nadia Ehrlich
Describes children in foster care as lacking the sense of permanence that is essential for their growth. These children and their families need comprehensive services that will prevent or quickly terminate this uncertainty. Discusses the different problems faced by these children and suggests some innovative approaches. (Author)
This paper discusses problems and ethical issues in obtaining interview data from young children and presents the "phototalk" method (the use of photographs to facilitate interviews with young children). The method was used in a study of young children's transition to school. Four interviews were conducted with each child, with the first and…
The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...
F. G. A. Versteegh; I. A. J. M. Broeders
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is defined as a non-traumatic mediastinal air leak in patients without underlying lung disease. In children it is rarely diagnosed but is likely to be often missed. We have made a comprehensive review of the literature on spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children. The aetiopathogenesis, incidence, clinical features, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. We suggest that spontaneous pneumomediastinum in children
Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.
Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…
Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…
Joan B. Stern; Iris G. Fodor
Aggression is a major source of concern to mental health professionals working with children. Research suggests that such children are vulnerable for becoming maladjusted adults, with high incidence of drug and alcohol abuse. Given the pressure to treat aggressive children, there is little empirical evidence that traditional psychotherapeutic techniques have been effective. Therefore, there is urgent need for the development
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
Shoultz, Bonnie, Ed.; Kalyanpur, Maya, Ed.
This bulletin reflects the commitment of Syracuse University's Center on Human Policy to the idea that children belong with families. The bulletin contains a policy statement which recommends; that all children, regardless of disability, belong with families and need enduring relationships with adults; that families with severely disabled children…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Reading Teacher, 2008
Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…
Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…
Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)
Towers, Richard L.
The purpose of this booklet is to raise the awareness of teachers and other school personnel about the needs and characteristics of the children of alcoholics and addicts and to explain what schools can do to help. The booklet discusses: (1) risk factors for children of alcoholics and substance abusers, including the psychological, emotional, and…
O'Mahony, Donal E.
Children's Terms & Conditions · All children under the age of 16 years are considered children · Children must be accompanied by a competent adult at all times within the centre, unless for specific children's programmes and courses · Children are only permitted to use the swimming pool with an adult
Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Lee, Sook-Jung
In this new and rapidly changing era of digital technology, there is increasing consensus among media scholars that there is an urgent need to develop measurement approaches which more adequately capture media use The overarching goal of this paper is facilitate the development of measurement approaches appropriate for capturing children’s media use in the digital age. The paper outlines various approaches to measurement, focusing mainly on those which have figured prominently in major existing studies of children’s media use. We identify issues related to each technique, including advantages and disadvantages. We also include a review of existing empirical comparisons of various methodologies. The paper is intended to foster discussion of the best ways to further research and knowledge regarding the impact of media on children. PMID:19763246
Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo
Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084
Ljubica Marjanovi? Umek; Urška Fekonja; Simona Kranjc; Katja Bajc
Several studies have demonstrated that children’s gender and parental education exert a significant, but not equal, effect on toddler language development at different ages. This study determined the effect of children’s gender and parental education on the verbal competence of toddlers between 16 and 30 months. The sample included 953 Slovenian toddlers (approximately half boys and half girls) whose parents
The objectives of this study were to describe mothers’ body image preferences for children and to determine if mothers’ body image evaluations differed with respect to their own children’s weight status. The sample included 281 primarily African American mothers of children enrolled in Head Start. ...
Andrew M. Terranova
Children’s responses to peer victimization are associated with whether the victimization continues, and its impact on adjustment.\\u000a Yet little longitudinal research has examined the factors influencing children’s responses to peer victimization. In a sample\\u000a of 140 late elementary school children (n = 140, Mean age = 10 years, 2 months, 55% female, 60% Caucasian), the role of social, emotional, and cognitive factors on\\u000a children’s responses to
Harper, Felicity W. K.; Penner, Louis A.; Peterson, Amy; Albrecht, Terrance L.; Taub, Jeffrey
Pain/distress during pediatric cancer treatments has substantial psychosocial consequences for children and families. We examined relationships between children’s positive dispositional attributes, parents’ empathic responses, and children’s pain/distress responses to treatment procedures. Participants were 41 pediatric cancer patients and parents. Several weeks before treatment, parents rated children’s resilience and positive dimensions of temperament. Parents’ pre-treatment empathic affective responses to their children were assessed. Children’s pain/distress during treatments was rated by multiple independent raters. Children’s resilience was significantly and positively associated with parents’ empathic affective responses and negatively associated with children’s pain/distress. Children’s adaptability and attention focusing also showed positive relationships (p<.10) with parents’ empathic responses. Parents’ empathic responses mediated effects of children’s resilience on children’s pain/distress. Children’s positive dispositional attributes influence their pain/distress during cancer treatments; however, these effects may be mediated by parents’ empathic responses. These relationships provide critical understanding of the influence of parent-child relationships on coping with treatment. PMID:22963185
Westra, B; Martin, H P
Twenty children of physically abused women who were temporarily living in shelters were studied. These children, from 2 1/2 to 8 years of age showed significantly poorer cognitive, verbal, motor and quantitative abilities than would be expected in a normal population. They also demonstrated evidence of personality problems, with a concerning penchant for hostile-aggressive behavior. Hearing problems and articulation deficits were common. The children studied were from middle to lower-middle class families. The problems showed in this study group are felt to be an underestimate of the true prevalence of developmental and psychological problems in children of abused women. It is suggested that children are at a point of crisis just as admittedly few services available to abused women, there are even fewer services being provided to the children in such families. This is compounded by the relative unavailability of most recently assaulted women to attend to the emotional and developmental needs of their children. The need for health, developmental, and personality screening for children of abused women is highlighted, as well as the need for crisis intervention programs for such children. Groundwork has been laid through this research for more detailed clinical research to aid children of women who are physically abused. A greater appreciation of the problems encountered will facilitate appropriate interventions to optimize the growth and development of these children. PMID:6163043
Nguyen, Simone P.
Cross-classified items pose an interesting challenge to children’s induction since these items belong to many different categories, each of which may serve as a basis for a different type of inference. Inductive selectivity is the ability to appropriately make different types of inferences about a single cross-classifiable item based on its different category memberships. This research includes five experiments that examine the development of inductive selectivity in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 272). Overall, the results show that by age 4 years, children have inductive selectivity with taxonomic and script categories. That is, children use taxonomic categories to make biochemical inferences about an item whereas children use script categories to make situational inferences about an item. PMID:22803510
Wichmann, Cherami; Coplan, Robert J.; Daniels, Tina
The purpose of this study was to examine the social cognitions of peer-identified socially withdrawn children. Participants included 457 children from grades four, five and six (54% females, 46% males). Children completed a selection of self- and peer-report measures including: (1) peer-rated behavioral nominations; (2) hostile intent biases and…
Amin, S. Massoud
Children with Incarcerated Parents Considering Children's Outcomes in the Context of Complex Family Experiences CHILDREN'S MENTAL HEALTH eREVIEW Presented by Jonathan Doe and Mary Jane Smith CHILDREN, YOUTH & FAMILY CONSORTIUM #12;#12;CHILDREN'S MENTAL HEALTH eREVIEW: INCARCERATED PARENTS 1
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Children's Attributions 1 Running head: CHILDREN'S ATTRIBUTIONS OF BELIEFS Children's Attributions, religion, theory of mind, Yukatek Maya #12;Children's Attributions 2 Abstract The capacity to attribute it is debatable whether children attribute beliefs in the same way to all agents. In this paper, we present
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…
Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…
Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.
This annotated list of electronic resources suggests materials for selecting and using children's literature. Highlights include children's classics, beginning reader lists, lists by genre and/or grade level, multicultural booklists, annual lists of noted children's literature, children's book awards, extending children's literature, book…
Francine C. Jellesma
A literature overview is presented on the influence of eyeglasses on children’s perceptions. Children’s stereotypes of eyeglass wearers were mostly negative, but included smartness. Glasses were of relatively low importance in person categorization. Eyeglasses seemed non-destructive for global self-esteem, but negatively affected self-perceptions of physical appearance. Additionally, particularly older, urban children showed non-compliance, which probably indicates a dislike of glasses.
Raizner, Aileen; Phatak, Uma Padhye; Baker, Kenneth; Patel, Mohini G.; Husain, Sohail Z.; Pashankar, Dinesh S.
Objective Necrotizing pancreatitis is very rare in children. In this case series, we describe the etiologic factors, course, and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in children. Study Design We performed a retrospective study of children with necrotizing pancreatitis diagnosed over the last 21 years at Yale New Haven Children’s Hospital. Computed tomography (CT) scan criteria were used to diagnose necrotizing pancreatitis and to assess severity index. Charts were reviewed to collect demographic data, etiology, details of hospital stay, complications, and outcome. Results Eight children (mean age 12.8 years; range 4 to 20.7 years) had necrotizing pancreatitis. Etiologic factors were medications, diabetes, gallstones, and alcohol. All patients had a prolonged hospitalization (9 to 40 days; mean 18 days) and five patients required admission to the pediatric intensive care unit. During the hospital stay, patients developed complications involving the respiratory, hematological, renal, metabolic, and circulatory systems. All patients had aggressive supportive medical therapy and none required surgical intervention. There were no deaths attributable to pancreatitis. Late complications following hospital discharge occurred in six patients and included pseudocysts, transient hyperglycemia, diabetes, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. The CT severity index correlated with the risk of complications. Conclusions Acute necrotizing pancreatitis has a variable etiology in children. CT scan is useful for the diagnosis and assessment of severity. Necrotizing pancreatitis in children is associated with severe acute and late complications and requires intensive medical therapy. PMID:23102790
In 1997 the US Agency for International Development published ¿Children on the Brink: Strategies to Support Children Isolated by HIV/AIDS,¿ a report that gave estimates of the number of orphans the AIDS epidemic has produced. A total of 23 countries were examined, subsequently determining that the number of orphaned children could reach 40 million by the end of 2010. In addition, the report estimated that in the 19 African nations the orphan crisis would affect 1 in every 5 children below 15 years of age, and 1 in every 3 children in some nations, by the year 2000. Responding to the needs of the millions of African children who have been orphaned by AIDS, Millicent Nomsa Mnqayi and several women from the Melville Community Development Group founded centers that focused on caring for the orphans. These include the Othandweni Children's Home in KwaZulu-Natal, the Vulamehlu Health Resource Center, the Enduduzweni Information and Drop-in Center, and the Siphesihle Center. These community-based programs aim to build the skills in the orphaned children so they may be able to do things for themselves while remaining a part of the village. Although much controversy surrounds these programs, these community-based responses should be fostered through building an enabling environment. PMID:12296119
Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate how very young children can influence their daily life in preschool, in relation\\u000a to teacher control. The specific questions studied were: What opportunities do the children have to make their own choices\\u000a and take the initiative? How does teacher control manifest itself? What form do permanent structures, such as rules and routines,
Sandra Prunella Mason
Conclusions The key to the development of any nation is through the educating of its people. No civilized, humane or progressive society\\u000a can ignore that right to schooling and education of its citizens, particularly its children. Therefore, to implement the right\\u000a of the child to a development-oriented education is a fundamental condition for improving the child's quality of life, including\\u000a spiritual
The National Children's Study is an ongoing study by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the US Environmental Protection Agency. This new Web siteprovides comprehensive information about the study, including background, an overview of the study, information from previous meetings, and a list of people involved in coordinating and conducting the study.
Utah Children, Salt Lake City.
The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…
Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)
Parents are considered as more or less supportive for children's friendships. In this study, it is investigated whether parents' own friendships can facilitate children's friendships and enrich children's cognitions about friendships. Data were collected on children's peer relationships and children's concepts of friendship (N = 116; 52 girls and 64 boys; 7 to 12 years old). Corresponding data on parental
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were…
McManus, Marilyn C., Ed.
This theme issue of a bulletin on family support and children's mental health focuses on managed care and the impact on children who are in need of mental health services. Articles include: "Private Sector Managed Care and Children's Mental Health" (Ira S. Lourie and others); "Just What Is Managed Care?" (Chris Koyanagi); "Managed Behavioral…
Masser, Diane S.
Examined stress factors affecting 4- to 18-year-old Central American refugee children living in Los Angeles. Factors included children's witnessing of war violence; children's separation from their caregiver; and abuse and family problems. Found that the incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder increased with a combination of stressors. (SM)
JEFFREY L. EDLESON
Social service professionals are more frequently identifying children who witness adult domestic violence as victims of that abuse. This article expands common definitions of how children witness adult domestic violence. A total of 31 research articles that met established quality criteria were included in this review. A variety of behavioral, emotional, and cognitive-functioning problems among children were found to be
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010
This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…
Mimi Milner Elrod; Joseph O. Milner
In this research, we examined children's awareness of inconsistencies in messages that are meaningful for children, instructions for games. In the first experiment, kindergarten (n = 25) and second- (n = 25) and fourth-grade (n = 26) children were individually read the instructions for two games, each of which included two inconsistent statements. Chi-square analyses yielded a significant effect for
A study examined young children's use of the Mandarin "jiu" in its adverbial form in conditional sentences. The language corpus included: (1) spontaneous speech samples of 66 children aged 4, 5, 6, and 7 years in 20 Taiwan locations and (2) story repetitions by 461 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds in 22 locations. The data indicate that children as young…
Marais, Ben J
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major, but often unrecognised, cause of disease and death in young children from countries with high TB incidence rates among adults. It is also relevant to paediatricians in low-incidence countries, such as Australia, because of increased international travel, immigration and refugee resettlement. This manuscript provides a brief overview of the global TB disease burden, the natural history of disease in children, and offers guidance on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of TB in children. PMID:24548085
Letts, R. M.; Gammon, W.
A 6-year review of auger injuries in Manitoba children revealed that 23 children sustained major injuries resulting in amputation of 17 limbs. Auger injuries are the main cause of traumatic amputation in children in Manitoba. Improved safety education for the entire farm family as well as better design of safety shields would decrease this carnage. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 PMID:630513
Uziel, Yosef; Hashkes, Philip J
Growing pains are the most common form of recurrent musculoskeletal pains in childhood and are present in 10-20% of children, mainly between the ages of 3-12 years. The diagnosis is based on typical historical clinical characteristics with a normal physical examination. The etiology is still unknown but current theories include low pain thresholds, as in fibromyalgia and local overuse pain that is supported by the finding of low bone strength in painful regions by ultrasound and hypermobility in many children with growing pains. There is also an associated familial and patient behavioral element. Treatment is conservative with patient and parental education on the benign outcome of these pains the most important element, in order to decrease anxiety. PMID:19039913
Laura Lundy; Lesley McEvoy
Acknowledging children as rights-holders has significant implications for research processes. What is distinctive about a children’s rights informed approach to research is a focus not only on safe, inclusive and engaging opportunities for children to express their views but also on deliberate strategies to assist children in the formation of their views. The article reflects on a body of work
Fitzsimons, Roisin; van der Poel, Lauri-Ann; Thornhill, William; du Toit, George; Shah, Neil; Brough, Helen A
This review provides an overview of the use of antihistamines in children. We discuss types of histamine receptors and their mechanism of action, absorption, onset and duration of action of first-generation and second-generation H(1)-antihistamines, as well as elimination of H(1)-antihistamines which has important implications for dosing in children. The rationale for the use of H(1)-antihistamines is explored for the relief of histamine-mediated symptoms in a variety of allergic conditions including: non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, atopic eczema (AE), allergic rhinitis (AR) and conjunctivitis, chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) and whether they have a role in the management of intermittent and chronic cough, anaphylaxis, food protein-induced gastrointestinal allergy and asthma prevention. Second-generation H(1)-antihistamines are preferable to first-generation H(1)-antihistamines in the management of non-anaphylactic allergic reactions, AR, AE and CSU due to: their better safety profile, including minimal cognitive and antimuscarinic side effects and a longer duration of action. We offer some guidance as to the choices of H(1)-antihistamines available currently and their use in specific clinical settings. H(1)-antihistamine class, availability, licensing, age and dosing administration, recommended indications in allergic conditions and modalities of delivery for the 12 more commonly used H(1)-antihistamines in children are also tabulated. PMID:25147323
Ramos, M; Stein, L M
OBJECTIVES: Review the literature, exploring factors that contribute to the development of children's eating behavior such as the role of learning and social context. METHODS: The review of the literature was done using Medline, Psyclit, and Lilacs as resources for assessing international and national research articles on child nutrition, with an emphasis on children's eating behavior. These articles were revised and grouped together according to the topic. RESULTS: Family is responsible for the development of children's eating behavior through social learning. Parents are children's first nutritional educators. Children's eating experiences are influenced by cultural and psychosocial factors. Social context plays a relevant role in this process, especially through the strategies used by parents to encourage children to have a balanced diet and to eat specific foods. These strategies may contain adequate and inadequate stimuli as to the development of children's food preference and food intake self-control. CONCLUSION: The learning process is a determining factor for children's eating behavior, and is associated with three factors: food flavor conditioning, food postingestional consequences, and social context. Parents are deeply concerned with the amount of food their children eat and not with the development of more adequate habits and attitudes related to dietary quality. PMID:14676901
Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)
Attachment: Children's rights and needs. Swansea 2013 PARTICIPATION TRUDY ASPINWALL PROGRAMME OFFICER - SAVE THE CHILDREN WALES T. ASPINWALL@SAVETHECHILDREN.ORG.UK #12;Attachment and the realisation crucial for children's well being and emotional and social development (Bowlby) ·Through
Wolfe, Patrick J.
CHILDREN'S RIGHTS LAW A CAREER GUIDE Written By: Dan Ahearn, Attorney Advisor & Ben Holzer, Summer ............................................................................................................... 26 Selected Children's Rights Organizations (listed by state)........................................................ 29 Selected Children's Rights Organizations (index by practice setting
... future health care needs. Read more. Books and Videos for Children and Teens Helping children understand paralysis, ... a difficult task. Children learn easily from books, videos and activities such as coloring. Teens may not ...
Taib, Nezar Ismet; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
BACKGROUND Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. METHODS The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Center—the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate). A modified family map (genogram) was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) structured interviews were conducted with the children. RESULTS The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers), and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57%) of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%). Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSION Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their families’ needs. PMID:24653656
Pears, Katherine C; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Kim, Hyoun K
Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster children exhibited higher levels of indiscriminate friendliness than nonmaltreated children. Inhibitory control was negatively associated with indiscriminate friendliness even after controlling for age and general cognitive ability. Additionally, the foster children who had experienced a greater number of foster caregivers had poorer inhibitory control, which was in turn associated with greater indiscriminate friendliness. The results indicate a greater prevalence of indiscriminate friendliness among foster children and suggest that indiscriminate friendliness is part of a larger pattern of dysregulation associated with inconsistency in caregiving. PMID:19502477
As critics, we need to change how we look at children’s literature. When children’s books hit the headlines because of their popularity—such as Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton books or, more recently, J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series—the same questions always come up: are they really for children, are they good for children, how do we evaluate such books, why
Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C
This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878
Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis
Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905
Witek, Joanna; Witek, Przemys?aw; Pa?kowska, Ewa
Insulin resistance is characterized by decreased tissue sensitivity to insulin. The hallmark of insulin resistance is decreased tissue glucose uptake despite normal or elevated insulin concentration. There has been an upward trend in the incidence of insulin resistance in developed countries, although in pediatric population it is difficult to assess. Both genetic and environmental factors play an important role in the etiology of insulin resistance, namely increased diet caloricity and decreased physical activity. Gradually, this leads to adipose tissue build-up. The role of visceral adipose tissue is of particular importance, mainly due to its significant endocrine activity, leading to adverse metabolic effects. The most important consequences of insulin resistance in children include increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, which lead to increased cardiovascular risk. Children with insulin resistance can develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and sleep apnea syndrome. In case of female pediatric patients a higher incidence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is observed. Furthermore, the authors reviewed opinions on risk factors for insulin resistance, as well as direct and indirect insulin resistance assessment methods. The article presents the principles of primary and secondary prevention of insulin resistance in children, with particular allowance for dietary recommendations and recommendations to increase physical activity, and, in selected cases, current guidelines on pharmacological treatment. PMID:22248781
Reuben A. Lang; Roy R. Frenzel
Fifty-two incest and 50 pedophilic offenders, under sentence, were interviewed with respect to verbal and non-verbal strategies used to sexually seduce children. All sex offenders had received in-hospital treatment for six months to one year and were mostly non-defensive about various forms of enticement, exploitation or entrapment, including threats of harm, used to elicit eroticized responses from female children. A
Yuen, Vivian Man Ying
Dexmedetomidine is a highly specific and selective alpha-2-adrenergic agonist with sedative, anxiolytic, and organ protective effects. Its clinical applications in children include premedication, prevention of emergence delirium, as part of multimodal anesthetic regimen and sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit. Its role in neuroprotection in children undergoing anesthesia should be explored. In this review, various uses of dexmedetomidine are discussed in detail. PMID:20015138
Amy E. Tiller; M. E. Betsy Garrison; Kathryn Cramer; Vicky Tiller
Abstract Based on a larger longitudinal project of family stress and children’s development, the primary objective of the current study was to investigate the relationships between parenting styles and children’s cognitive ability in families with young elementary school-aged children. Parents completed a self-administered survey on family experiences, including parenting styles. Children were interviewed at their schools where the Brief Intellectual
H. C Maltezou; M Drancourt
Influenza is the most important cause of acute respiratory illness leading to hospitalization among children during community epidemics. This illness can cause extensive nosocomial outbreaks with serious morbidity and mortality among specific groups of children. Paediatric patients with community-acquired influenza and healthcare workers are the main reservoir for the nosocomial spread of the virus. During epidemics in the community, testing
Current Population Reports, 1985
In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…
Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…
... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. PMID:25745042
Lynda Fox Fields; Beverly W. Mussetter; Gerald T. Powers
Noncustodial parents are often denied access to their children on the grounds that they have failed to comply with court mandated child support payments. This study explores the experiences of a group of noncustodial fathers, many of whom report that access to their children was denied despite the fact that their child support obligations could be confirmed by means of
Elizabeth F. Cohen; CHRISTOPHER P. MORLEY
The diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a subject of controversy, for a host of reasons. This paper seeks to explore the manner in which children's interests may be subsumed to those of parents, teachers, and society as a whole in the course of diagnosis, treatment, and labeling, utilizing a framework for children's citizenship proposed by Elizabeth Cohen. Additionally, the
Prevention Forum, 1990
The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…
Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…
This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…
Suggests that if it is the duty of education to help children develop their powers of language and their knowledge of literature, then it is also its duty to see that poetry is presented to children, for in poetry, language is seen at its best and strongest. (HOD)
Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others
This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…
R. A. Damoiseaux; M. M. Rovers
INTRODUCTION: In the UK, about 30% of children under 3 years of age visit their GP each year with acute otitis media (AOM), and 97% of these receive antibiotics. In the US, AOM is the most common reason for outpatient antibiotic treatment. Without antibiotics, AOM resolves within 24 hours in about 60% of children, and within 3 days in about
Physicians for Social Responsibility
This site explores why and how children are more sensitive and susceptible to environmental pollutants than adults. It features information about causes of asthma and birth defects, the effects of heavy metals, and the environmental health and safety of schools. It also provides links to resources and organizations related to children's environmental health, current news and related resources.
Reading Teacher, 1997
Offers brief annotations of 99 newly published children's and young adults' trade books, voted on by school children from across the United States as their favorites. Presents books in groups for beginning readers (ages 5-6), young readers (ages 6-8), intermediate readers (ages 8-10), and advanced readers (ages 10-13). (SR)
Bianchi, Suzanne M.
Data in this population bulletin indicate that in comparison with children of previous generations, today's youngsters are apt to have fewer siblings, and more likely to come from a broken home, have a working mother, and pass time as a latchkey kid. More children are in child care than in the past, and there has been a significant move toward…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Practical Pointers, 1977
Focusing on the development of fundamental rhythm skills involved in music and movement activities, this teaching guide emphasizes activities that will help children express their feelings and communicate with others, develop perceptual and motor skills, and enhance sensory awareness. Suggestions for involving handicapped children and examples of…
Watson, Craig A.
International Children's Book Day April 2nd 2013 Folktales Storytelling & wORKSHOP By Barry Stewart, Lobby 2pm 3 pm: UF Smathers Library, Room 1A Books with WingsBy Peter Sís 7pm 9pm: PK Yonge Performing Arts Center 1080 SW 11th Street, Gainesville Peter Sís Award Winning Children's Book Author
... ways to do this. Children's primary and permanent teeth sometimes need restoration. There are several reasons this might be needed: Decay (dentists call it caries) Trauma — a broken or cracked tooth Poor development, so that a ... Children's Primary Teeth You may think it's not necessary to place ...
Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive culture…
This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…
Barnett, Regina Reynolds
Asserts that appropriate responses to children's creative work arise from an awareness of, not only the presence of creativity, but also the stages of its growth and development. Presents example responses to children's work for each of the developmental stages: scribbles, line and shape, and semi-representational. (EV)
Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…
Brendtro, Larry; Van Bockern, Steve
Discusses problems facing children and adolescents in the former Soviet Union. Describes efforts of Bureau for Youth Welfare which has networked with various organizations to create projects in all the Russian Republics. Briefly describes international conference on Modern Society and the Psychosocial Problems of Children held in Moscow in May…
S. Undjian; M. Marinov
During a 20-year period (1964–1983), the authors managed 60 children with intracranial ependymomas. In 37 patients the tumors were located in the posterior cranial fossa, and in the remaining 23 they were supratentorial. The histological examination in 26 children revealed ependymoblastomas. The average duration of the clinical evolution was 4 months and 5 days in the supratentorial neoplasms and 3
Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…
Castle, Kathryn; And Others
Describes the destruction caused by the Oklahoma City bombing and recounts the reaction of a second-grade class in Oklahoma. Describes class discussions of the bombing and how children found various ways to ask questions and express their feelings about the incident. Provides tips for teachers to help children who are going through trauma. (MOK)
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Advantage Healthcare agency nurse Paul Watson developed a pocket-sized, collapsible spacer device that children can use with standard asthma metered dose inhalers. Spacers are generally large, unwieldy gadgets that children can be reluctant to carry around and use. PMID:24802479
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…
Carlos Valiente; Kathryn Lemery-Chalfant; Kimberly S. Castro
We examined the relations among children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence with a sample of 240 7- to 12-year-old children. Parents and children reported on effortful control, and teachers and children assessed school liking. Children, parents, and teachers reported on children’s academic competence. Significant positive correlations existed between children’s effortful control, school liking, and academic competence. Consistent with
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on efforts to provide publicly funded health insurance to low-income children in the United States through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The articles summarize current knowledge and research about which children are uninsured and why, discuss ways to improve…
Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang; Bala, Nicholas; Lindsay, R. C. L.
This study investigated adults’ judgments of the honesty of children’s coached true and fabricated mock testimony. Adults saw video clips of children testifying in a mock court about a true or fabricated event in their lives. They were asked to make an assessment of the truthfulness of the testimony, and respond to questions about their perception of children’s credibility. Half of the adults saw children testifying after a competence examination, and the other half saw children testifying without a competence examination. Overall, girls were rated as more competent than boys, and their testimony was more likely to be believed. Younger children were more likely to be rated as incompetent than older children. A factor analysis of adults’ responses revealed six factors which significantly predicted adults’ overall assessment of children’s credibility, and their evaluations of children’s competence to testify. Adults’ detection accuracy was at chance, with the majority of children rated as truthful. Viewing the competency examination and cross-examination did not improve the adults’ detection accuracy. However, seeing the cross-examination made adults’ less likely to believe children’s testimony. The implications of these results for the judicial system are discussed. PMID:16941237
Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and sometimes in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366
Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie
Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247
Stevens, Bonnie; McKeever, Patricia; Law, Madelyn P; Booth, Marilyn; Greenberg, Mark; Daub, Stacey; Gafni, Amiram; Gammon, Janet; Yamada, Janet; Epstein, Iris
The aim of this descriptive exploratory study was to determine the perspectives of parents and children with cancer on a home chemotherapy program. Qualitative analyses were used to organize data from 24 parents and 14 children into emerging themes. Themes included (1) financial and time costs, (2) disruption to daily routines, (3) psychological and physical effects, (4) recommendations and caveats, and (5) preference for home chemotherapy. When home chemotherapy was compared with hospital clinic-based chemotherapy, parents reported fewer financial and time costs and less disruption to their work and family schedules, and children reported more time to play/study, improved school attendance, and engagement in normal activities. Although some parents felt more secure with hospital chemotherapy, most found it more exhausting and stressful. At home, children selected places for their treatment and some experienced fewer side effects. Although some coordination/communication problems existed, the majority of parents and children preferred home chemo-therapy. Home chemotherapy treatment is a viable, acceptable, and positive health care delivery alternative from the perspective of parents and children with cancer. PMID:16902083
Campaign For Our Children was incorporated in November, 1987, as a not-for-profit organization to "organize, manage and conduct programs designed to reduce the incidence of teenage pregnancies in Maryland..." Topics available on their web site include: adolescent pregnancy news flashes, teacher and parent resources, an "ask the expert" page, and chat pages where teachers and parents can discuss issues and strategies. The Teen Pregnancy Clock displays up-to-the-minute estimates of how many teen pregnancies and births have occurred this year. Users can preview and order CFOC materials directly from the web site. Several of the television and radio spots are available for display within a web browser.
Olivia N. SarachoBernard Spodek; Bernard Spodek
This study examined families’ choices of children’s literature books for joint story reading. Teachers, parents, and their\\u000a children from five kindergarten classrooms participated in the study. Over a 4 months period, family members joined other\\u000a parents twice a week to learn and practice story reading techniques. They selected children’s literature books that were of\\u000a interest to both of them and their
The present study explored children’s developing conceptions of the brain in order to enhance previous research and to contribute to debates regarding the nature of children’s naïve biological theories. 56 participants aged 5, 7 and 9-years-old were...
de Lijser, Peter
is responsible for setting the direction of the program, planning, and working closely with parents and student of adults and children, adults and adults, and children and children; it is central to the parent education supports the University community by providing high quality care and education for young children
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital National…
Seitz, Hilary; Bartholomew, Carol
The use of portfolio assessment is a valuable tool for teachers to use with young children to better understand how young children develop and learn. An intentional data collection and documentation system becomes a very powerful assessment tool, one that is authentic and based on children's capabilities and strengths. Children, educators,…
Eckart, Karen Sue
The purpose of this research project was to determine if, like books, the content of children's magazines changes to reflect current societal trends. The study used the method of content analysis and was limited to one children's magazine, "Children's Digest." Certain trends in children's literature were identified through the literature search,…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John
Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…
Peter Hofer; Jeannette Bieri
Describes the legal environment of advertising regulation in Switzerland as it affects children; there is a patchwork of federal and self-regulatory codes, but although the constitution protects children’s physical, mental and moral development, there is no law specifically relating to advertising to children. Outlines restrictions on advertising in specific media and products: television and radio, where tobacco and alcohol advertising
Raj, Manu; Kumar, R. Krishna
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken. PMID:21150012
Bautista, Severino R; Flynn, John M
Play and sports activities are important to the healthy development of children worldwide. Many accidents are the result of the normal desire of children for excitement and adventure. Injury prevention has been difficult to evaluate and manage because of many variables. The frequency of injuries can be reduced with parental input and adult supervision, as well as proper equipment design and installation, followed by regular inspection and maintenance. Current initiatives hold promise, especially with equipment designs and manufacture, but injuries continue to be a significant and costly health problem. By identifying where and how children are injured, recommendations can be made to increase the safety of play areas, gyms, and equipment. PMID:16493915
Gelman, Susan A
Psychological essentialism is the idea that certain categories, such as "lion" or "female", have an underlying reality that cannot be observed directly. Where does this idea come from? This article reviews recent evidence suggesting that psychological essentialism is an early cognitive bias. Young children look beyond the obvious in many converging ways: when learning words, generalizing knowledge to new category members, reasoning about the insides of things, contemplating the role of nature versus nurture, and constructing causal explanations. These findings argue against the standard view of children as concrete thinkers, instead claiming that children have an early tendency to search for hidden, non-obvious features. PMID:15350241
Bateson, Thomas F; Schwartz, Joel
It is important to focus on children with respect to air pollution because (1) their lungs are not completely developed, (2) they can have greater exposures than adults, and (3) those exposures can deliver higher doses of different composition that may remain in the lung for greater duration. The undeveloped lung is more vulnerable to assault and less able to fully repair itself when injury disrupts morphogenesis. Children spend more time outside, where concentrations of combustion-generated air pollution are generally higher. Children have higher baseline ventilation rates and are more physically active than adults, thus exposing their lungs to more air pollution. Nasal breathing in adults reduces some pollution concentrations, but children are more typically mouth-breathers--suggesting that the composition of the exposure mixture at the alveolar level may be different. Finally, higher ventilation rates and mouth-breathing may pull air pollutants deeper into children's lungs, thereby making clearance slower and more difficult. Children also have immature immune systems, which plays a significant role in asthma. The observed consequences of early life exposure to adverse levels of air pollutants include diminished lung function and increased susceptibility to acute respiratory illness and asthma. Exposure to diesel exhaust, in particular, is an area of concern for multiple endpoints, and deserves further research. PMID:18097949
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Vieillevoye, Sandrine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
This study investigated the symbolic behavior and the self-regulation in dyads of children with intellectual disability and of normally developing children. Specifically, these processes were studied in link with the children's characteristics (mental age, linguistic level, individual pretend play level). The sample included 80 participants, 40…
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162
Sandra L. Calvert; Jennifer A. Kotler
The 1990 Children's Television Act (CTA) requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational television programs for children. A multimethod, multidisciplinary approach, utilizing both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs, was used to investigate the degree to which the CTA has had an effect on children's viewing experiences and learning. Second- to sixth-grade children's preferences and comprehension of content from prosocial and academic
O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle
Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185
Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J
Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105
Razzouk, Bassem I.; Widemann, Brigitte C.; Xiao, Shaun; O'Brien, Michelle; Goodspeed, Wendy; Reaman, Gregory H.; Blaney, Susan M.; Murgo, Anthony J.; Balis, Frank M.; Adamson, Peter C.
Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces remission in 85% of adults with refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). We conducted a phase 1 trial of ATO in children (median age 13 y, range, 2-19) with refractory leukemia. ATO was administered intravenously over 2 hours, 5 d/wk for 20 doses/cycle. Patients with APL (n = 13) received 0.15 mg/kg per day, and patients with other types of leukemia received 0.15 mg/kg per day (n = 2) or 0.2 mg/kg per day (n = 4). Nineteen of the 24 enrolled patients were fully evaluable for toxicity. At 0.15 mg/kg per day, 2 of 15 patients experienced dose-limiting corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, pneumonitis, or neuropathic pain. At 0.2 mg/kg per day, 2 of 4 patients had dose-limiting QTc prolongation or pancreatitis. Non–dose-limiting toxicities included elevated serum transaminases, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, electrolyte imbalance, hyperglycemia, dermatitis, and headache. At 0.15 mg/kg per day, the median (range) plasma arsenic maximum concentration (Cmax) was 0.28 ?M (0.11-0.37 ?M) and at 0.2 mg/kg per day, Cmax was 0.40 and 0.46 ?M; area under the concentration times time curve (AUC0-24) was 2.50 ?M-hr (1.28-3.85 ?M-hr) and 4.37 ?M-hr and 4.69 ?M-hr, respectively. Morphologic complete response (CR) was achieved in 85% of patients with APL; no responses were observed in non-APL patients. ATO is well-tolerated in children at the recommended dose of 0.15 mg/kg per day. The response rate in children with relapsed APL is similar to the response rate in adults. This trial was registered as #NCT00020111 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov. PMID:17959855
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
The transcript of a radio program on gifted and talented children includes interviews with psychoanalysts, educators, and federal officials (including B. Bettelheim, J. Renzulli, B. Boston, and D. Sisk), as well as with parents and five gifted children. Topics considered include identification, separation of gifted students, teaching approaches,…
... to clean dairy facilities and equipment, especially dairy pipeline cleaners, pose a special risk for children. Rapid ... where the cleaner is pumped directly into the pipeline. This is childproof and protects adult workers from ...
... for children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is true. While most experts recommend not giving cow's milk to infants , it is safe to give milk ...
Flack, Carol; Flack, Don
The article describes the program for gifted children in English primary and infant schools. Attitudes toward early identification, both pro and con, are reported for several school administrators. (SBH)
... Common Types of Childhood Cancers? Detailed Guide Childhood Cancer Causes and Risk Factors Learn about the causes and risk factors of childhood cancer. Risk Factors and Causes of Cancer in Children Can Childhood Cancer Be ...
Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)
Most children hear and listen from the moment they are born. They learn to talk by imitating the sounds around them ... United States are born deaf or hard-of-hearing. More lose their hearing later during childhood. Babies ...
Hearing Aids for Children What do I need to know about hearing aids for my child? To achieve the best results ... it. It is important to understand how hearing aids work and how to select, operate, and care ...
... Urologic Conditions Search Conditions Common Conditions What is Urology? The Urinary Tract System Free Patient Education Materials ... for Children's Cancer Share About This Content The Urology Care Foundation is in the process of re- ...
Children and Anesthesia If your child is scheduled for surgery or a procedure involving anesthesia, you may be anxious about what will happen. ... the physician anesthesiologist to discuss what type of anesthesia will be used and how it will be ...
Pope, A. J.
Children's attitudes and beliefs about death and dying are examined, and some recommendations are made to parents, teachers, and administrators to establish a base from which the child can operate during encounters with death and dying. (JMF)
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...
... especially when their child is an infant or toddler. The best answer is that most young children ... to help the child adjust to the glasses. Toddlers often may wear the glasses only when they ...
... such as those found in fish, nuts and vegetable oils.) Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...
... LIVE IN OVER- POPULATED AREAS... ... WITHOUT WATER, WITHOUT ELECTRICITY, WITHOUT SANITATION AND WITHOUT ADEQUATE FOOD! THAT’S WHEN ... EVERYONE WEARS A HELMET WHEN BIKING. IN THE CAR, CHILDREN SHOULD SIT IN THE BACK SEAT AND ...
... in children. It usually causes gum tissue to swell, turn red and bleed easily. Gingivitis is both ... through puberty, the tendency for the gums to swell in response to irritants will lessen. However, during ...
... challenging. However, with care from a team of rheumatology professionals, most children with arthritis live full and ... JIA is used most by specialists in pediatric rheumatology, JRA is commonly used in the United States. ...
... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Giving Medicine to Children Search the Consumer Updates Section Get ... be tough to get them to take their medicine. Watch this video for tips from an FDA ...
Drkulec, John A.; Letts, Mervyn
Objective To study injury patterns of snowboarding trauma in children. Design A retrospective case series. Setting A major pediatric trauma centre. Patients A cohort of 113 children (97 boys, 16 girls), mean age 13.9 years, who sustained 118 injuries secondary to snowboarding. Interventions All fractures were treated by immobilization in a cast; 19 children required a closed reduction. Outcome measures Sex and age of patients, mechanism of injury, injury sustained, treatments and complications. Results Falls on the outstretched hand from a loss of balance accounted for 66 (57%) of the injuries, uncontrolled falls for 42 (36%) and collisions for 5 (4%). Seventy-nine percent of the injuries were to the upper extremity, whereas 7% were to the lower extremity. Conclusions The predominance of snowboarding injuries of the upper extremity seen in children differs significantly from those in adults in whom lower extremity injuries are more common. PMID:11764877
The relationships between children and television are a source of heated debate. Several studies, mainly conducted in North America, have found a correlation between television violence viewing and aggressive behavior, preadolescents appearing as the most vulnerable. However, in France opinions are more nuanced and one generally considers that television-induced violence in children mainly depends upon individual and educative socio-familial factors. PMID:10761611
Holt, K. S.; Darcus, H.; Brand, H. Lorna
During the first year of a children's monthly wheelchair clinic 29 out of 34 chairs supplied in the past were found to be unsatisfactory. The advantages of a central clinic for a region where clinicians and technical officers can meet are emphasized, as is also the need for wider dispersal of knowledge about wheelchairs for disabled children. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:4264882
The European Regulation incenting pharmaceutical companies to develop drugs in children will have substantial consequences for all partners involved. Children and parents will be asked to participate in clinical trials, paediatricians to monitor these investigations, industry to be creative and propose adapted formulations, ethical committees to deliver advices and public health authorities to assist the system in order to bring to a good end a full set of paediatric indications. PMID:21818889
Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…
Jean D. Skinner; Betty Ruth Carruth; Wendy Bounds; Paula J. Ziegler
Objective To compare children's food preferences longitudinally and identify factors related to food preferences.Design Mothers completed the Food Preference Questionnaire for children at 2 to 3 years of age (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) and for themselves at T1 and T3 Both groups completed a Food Neophobia Scale at T3.Subjects 70 child\\/mother pairs who had participated continuously
Jayanthi Chandar; Gastón Zilleruelo
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the\\u000a renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management\\u000a of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it\\u000a is associated with signs
This website from the Children's Museum of Houston provides resources for educators, parents, and children. The site is intended to provide activities that accompany the exhibits in the museum. However, many of the activities can be done or can be modified to be done outside of the museum. By clicking on the "Education" tab, you will be directed to lesson ideas, field trip information, and other enrichment programs.
C. M. Gorsler; F. Schier
Background: We report our clinical experience with 403 inguinal hernias in 279 children. They were treated via a purely laparoscopic\\u000a approach using 2-mm instruments, obviating the need for a groin incision. Methods: Laparoscopic herniorrhaphy was performed\\u000a in children ages 4 days to 15 years. A 5-mm laparoscope was inserted through the umbilicus, and two 2-mm needle holders were\\u000a inserted through
Robert J. McMahon; Julie S. Kotler
The primary purpose of this chapter is to present and critically evaluate current evidence-based interventions for oppositional behavior (OB) in young children. Children with OB are typically described by parents and teachers as argumentative, disobedient, disruptive, demanding, and defiant. We have operationalized “young children” as including children between the ages of 3 and 8, thus encompassing the preschool and early
Singh, Delar K.
This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…
Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.
This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Research provides evidence that fathers can promote the development of their children's literacy skills, including reading books to them that are appropriate, engaging their children in discussions about books they read, recording in a notebook the books the children have read and encouraging their children to read more books. This review presents…
... may include genetics, aging, gender, lifestyle, and illness. Obesity in children is dangerous because researchers believe that the fat ... in Children www.heart.org/HEARTORG/GettingHealthy/ WeightManagement/Obesity/Overweight-in-Children_UCM_304054_Article.jsp - Children's Health Programs www. ...
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.
Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…
Esposito, Susanna; Tagliabue, Claudia; Bosis, Samantha
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a neglected aspect of the TB epidemic despite it constituting 20% or more of all TB cases in many countries with high TB incidence. Childhood TB is a direct consequence of adult TB but remains overshadowed by adult TB because it is usually smear-negative. Infants and young children are more likely to develop life-threatening forms of TB than older children and adults due to their immature immune systems. Therefore, prompt diagnoses are extremely important although difficult since clinical and radiological signs of TB can be non-specific and variable in children. Despite undeniable advances in identifying definite, probable, or possible TB markers, pediatricians still face many problems when diagnosing TB diagnosis. Moreover, curing TB can be difficult when treatment is delayed and when multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are the cause of the disease. In these cases, the prognosis in children is particularly poor because MDR-TB treatment and treatment duration remain unclear. New studies of diagnostic tests and optimal treatment in children are urgently needed with the final goal of developing an effective anti-TB vaccine. PMID:24363879
This site offers numerous children's literature resources created by Carol Hurst, "a nationally-known storyteller, lecturer, author and language arts consultant." The site's main section consists of a large collection of book reviews and ideas for how to use them in the classroom. Reviews of Featured Books also includes discussion topics, activities, related books and links to other subjects and resources. Users will also find resource collections (book titles, activities, related links) for specific curriculum areas and selected themes. In addition, the site contains a number of professional resources including a quarterly children's literature newsletter.
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
Ta?tan, Eren; Yücel, Mihriban; Aydo?an, Filiz; Karakoç, Esra; Arslan, Necmi; Kantekin, Yunus; Demirci, Münir
Objectives To detect the prevalences of Alloiococcus otitidis, as well as Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) and to simultaneously investigate the colonization of these bacteria in the nasopharynx and palatine tonsils of these patients. Methods The study included 34 pediatric patients with OME, and 15 controls without OME. In the study group, A. otitidis, H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae, and M. catarrhalis were investigated in the samples obtained from middle ear effusions (MEE), nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and tonsillar swabs (TS), using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and conventional culture methods. Only the samples obtained from NPS and TS were studied with the same techniques in the control group. Results A. otitidis was isolated only in MEE and only with multiplex PCR method. A. otitidis, S. pneumoniae, M. catarrhalis, H. influenzae were identified in 35%, 8.8%, 8.8%, and 2.9%, respectively, in 34 MEE. A. otitidis was not isolated in NPS or TS of the study and the control groups. Conclusion The prevalence of A.otitidis is high in children with OME and A.otitidis doesn't colonize in the nasopharynx or tonsil. PMID:22737288
Consulting those who use children’s services, both parents and children, has become a much more common approach to improving children’s services. This research briefing reports on some key findings of a consultation undertaken ...
This database, maintained by the publishing house of Chadwyck-Healey, Ltd., provides searchable records of the British Library's Children's Literature collection, which contains 2,369 titles on 5,527 fiches. Search parameters include title and complete record keyword, author, subject, publisher, year(s) of publication, microfiche number, and number of records retrieved. (Users may also browse possible search terms for each parameter.) Each entry gives a full bibliographic record for the individual text, including author, uniform title, imprint, place and date of publication, pagination, copy-specific notes, British Library shelfmark, and Fiche quantity and number. The site is part of The Nineteenth Century, a larger collection from Chadwyck-Healey and the British Library that catalogs an impressive array of nineteenth-century texts useful for historical and cultural studies.
This UNICEF State of the World's Children report (last reviewed in the December 11, 1998 Scout Report) includes an appeal for a new international coalition on behalf of children. The report also summarizes progress made since the 1990 World Summit for Children and the challenges that remain. Included in the report are a number of photographs, maps, tables, and a glossary. A summary, features (a collection of children's own words on important issues), RealPlayer videos, and a .pdf version of the report are available form the main page.
Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Graham, Alice M.; Moore, William E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Mannering, Anne M.
Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than the foster children across several regions including the right anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior occipital cortex including the lingual gyrus and cuneus during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540
Blandon, Alysia Y.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; O’Brien, Marion
Trajectories of children’s temperamental reactivity (negative affectivity and surgency) were examined in a community sample of 370 children across the ages of 4 to 7 using Hierarchical Linear Modeling. Children’s physiological reactivity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA), physiological regulation (?RSA), and maternal parenting behavior were included as predictors of children’s trajectories of temperamental reactivity. Results indicated that negative affectivity and surgency decreased from 4 to 7 years of age, however within-person changes in negative affectivity were dependent on levels of baseline RSA and not age. Increases in negative affectivity were also predicted by higher levels of earlier maternal controlling behavior. Decreases in surgency were predicted by higher levels of ?RSA during mother-child interaction tasks and positive parenting behavior. Baseline RSA and maternal controlling parenting also accounted for interindividual differences in children’s negative affectivity at age 7, while gender and children’s baseline RSA accounted for interindividual differences in children’s surgency at age 7. Overall, these results provide further evidence that parenting behavior and children’s RSA influence the changes that occur in children’s temperamental reactivity. PMID:20822225
Dawood, Omar Thanoon; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Abdullah, Anna Christina
Minor illnesses in children are often cured at home with over the counter medicines. Even though there is a wide use of medicines among children, they rarely receive medical advice about their medications from doctors or pharmacists. The aim of this study is to evaluate children's beliefs about medicines as well as to explain what children know about medicines. A cross-sectional survey was used to collect data from four primary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. The target population of this research was schoolchildren of 11 and 12 years old regardless of their gender and social status. A self-administration questionnaire was used to obtain the data from schoolchildren and their parents. After including all schoolchildren in grades five and six, the total sample size was 1000 children in addition to 1000 parents. This study found that most children have inadequate knowledge and false beliefs about the efficacy of medicines. Children's beliefs about the efficacy of medicines were affected by their age group, gender and race (p < .05). Females, older children and Chinese were more knowledgeable about the efficacy of medicines. Furthermore, the socio-economic status, parents' education level and parents' occupation influenced children's beliefs about medicines (p < .001). This study showed that children have misconception about medicines. The need for medicine education should be implemented to get more knowledgeable users of medicines in future. However, the role of health-care professional should be increased in terms of medicine education. PMID:23975718
Jensen, Signe M; Mølgaard, Christian; Ejlerskov, Katrine T; Christensen, Line B; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André
Nutritional status of children is commonly assessed by anthropometry both in under and overnutrition. The link between anthropometry and body fat, the body compartment most affected by overnutrition, is well known, but the link with muscle mass, the body compartment most depleted in undernutrition, associated with infections, remains unknown. In this study, we examined the relationship between common anthropometric indices and body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a sample of 121 healthy 3-year-old Danish children. Appendicular (arms and legs) lean mass was used to estimate muscle mass. Overall, anthropometric measures were more effective to measure absolute size of fat, lean and muscle mass than their relative sizes. Proportion of the variance explained by anthropometry was 79% for lean mass, 76% for fat mass and 74% for muscle mass. For fat mass and lean mass expressed as percentage of total body mass, this proportion was 51% and 66%, respectively; and for muscle mass as percentage of lean mass it was 34%. All the best reduced multivariate models included weight, skinfold and gender except the model estimating the proportion of muscle mass in lean body mass, which included only mid-upper arm circumference and subscapular skinfold. The power of height in the weight-to-height ratio to determine fat mass proportion was 1.71 with a 95% confidence interval (0.83-2.60) including the value of 2 used in body mass index (BMI). Limitations of anthropometry to assess body composition, and especially for muscle mass as a proportion of lean mass, should be acknowledged. PMID:23167700
... Children with Asthma For Parents of Children with Asthma Most of the information about asthma in these ... some special concerns about asthma in children. Diagnosing Asthma in Young Children Your Child's Asthma: A Parent's ...
Children's School January 2011 Director's Corner: Cultivating Communication The Children's School children enter the school until they leave. By explaining our approaches to meeting these goals, I hope children's increasingly effective communication. Communication - facilitating comprehension and expression
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...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Needy Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 8, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Newborn children. 435.117 Section 435.117 Public Health...Coverage Mandatory Coverage of Pregnant Women, Children Under 19, and Newborn Children § 435.117 Newborn children. (a)...
Lioba Baving; Manfred Laucht; Martin H. Schmidt
An atypical EEG pattern of frontal brain activation, which has been found in children and adults with emotional disorders, also is hypothesized to be present in disruptive behavior disorders. One hundred nineteen children (4\\u000a
Carol Otis Hurst
This webpage contains links to various resources related to math connections in children's literature: previously published articles, sample chapters with activities from a book and CD, and reviews of math-related children's books.
Löllgen, R; Szabo, L
The clinical signs and symptoms of shock in newborns and children are often more subtle compared to adults. Recurring, avoidable factors for optimal outcome include failure of health care workers to recognize shock at the time of presentation. Children are able to compensate a shock state for longer periods than adults resulting in a sudden, sometimes irreversible, cardiopulmonary collapse. Different forms of shock, their therapy, and frequent errors are depicted and illustrated with practical examples. Early recognition of shock in children is crucial for optimal outcome but is not always obvious. Clinical experience, gut feeling, and careful and repeated interpretation of the vital parameters are essential to recognize and effectively treat the various forms of shock. PMID:26022352
Established in 2000, and based in Bergen, Norway, the Children and War group is "dedicated to improve children's lives after wars and disasters." Their homepage has the latest news and results of the group's efforts, and visitors who have relationships with children will find advice on what to tell them about the tsunami and earthquake in Japan. The "Stories" link on the far left-hand side of any page allows visitors to put faces and names to some of the children of war and disaster. There is Luay, a 14-year-old boy from Iraq who was traumatized by helping bring dead bodies out of the ruins of his city after it was bombed. Miriam, an 11-year-old from Somalia, tells of seeing her pregnant mother being stabbed and killed by opposing clan members. Visitors interested in how children are assessed to determine the "effects of war, disaster and trauma" on them will find the "Measures" link helpful. Here they will find information on CRIES, a widely used assessment for post traumatic stress, a depression self-rating scale, and a "Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory". Additionally, many of the tests are available in multiple languages.
Soldatski?, Iu L; Sorokina, V-T A; Onufrieva, E K; Fedorova, O Iu; Pogosova, I E; Volod'kina, V V
The objective of the present work was to study the structure of voice disorders in children depending on the methods chosen to diagnose dysphonia. Medical histories of 1,451 children at the age varying from 2 months to 16 years were analysed. All of them were patients hospitalized for the first time between 1997 and 2007 to treat hoarseness caused by vocal cord nodules, functional or mutational dysphonia, chronic laryngitis, vocal cord paresis/palsy, recurring respiratory papillomatosis, vocal cord cystitis, and cicatrical laryngeal stenosis. It was shown that vocal cord nodules and functional dysphonia diagnosed in 53.1% and 12.2% of the children were the main causes of voice disturbances. The former condition was especially common in boys aged from 7 to 12 years engaged in intense sports activities while the latter prevailed in 5 to 12 year-old girls studying singing. It is concluded that measures are needed to increase awareness of both parents and teachers of psycho-emotionally labile children about causes of hoarseness and methods of its diagnosis. The use of the fibrolaryngoscopic technique makes it possible to elucidate the cause of dysphonia in children of any age starting from the first days of postnatal life. PMID:20517276
A deterministic model was used to model dietary exposure of young children. Parameters included pesticide residue on food before handling, surface pesticide loading, transfer efficiencies and children's activity patterns. Three components of dietary pesticide exposure were includ...
Keuren, K V; Eland, J A
In this article the authors review the developmental pathophysiology of pain and its effects on children. Assessment modalities for differing developmental levels in the pediatric patient are reviewed. Medical modalities including medications administered orally, patient-controlled analgesia, epidurals, and preemptive analgesia are described. PMID:9030649
Farrell, Michele, Comp.
Intended to help those searching for the right reading material, whether for a beginning reader or a young adult who is a slow reader, the books cited in this bibliography provide a subject access to children's literature. Each citation is accompanied by an annotation and a Library of Congress catalog number and is included in one of 15 sections…
Black, Maggie, Ed.
Articles collected in this issue of UNICEF News deal with different aspects of the theme of the child and its environment. Specifically, topics covered include (1) awareness of the kind of world our children will inherit; (2) the survival of an urban child; (3) the survival of a Sahelian rural child as a working member of his farming community;…
This bilingual (English-Chinese) booklet contains a variety of suggestions for activities that parents can do with their children to supplement the school program. It is divided into twelve "monthly letters" with four to six ideas for each month. It includes activities such as outings to the library and to the park, playing games, making…
Myers, Jane E.
This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…
McHardy, Roberta J.; Blanchard, Pamela B.; de Wet, Catharina F.
In even the earliest studies of giftedness in young children (Burks, Jensen, & Terman, 1930; Hollingworth, 1926), researchers noted distinct character traits among gifted students, which included global awareness, sensitivity to complex issues, and a tendency to worry about injustice and dangers that often are beyond a child's control. Dabrowski…
Shaw, Evelyn, Comp.; Goode, Sue, Comp.
This fact sheet provides data on infants, toddlers and young children who are experiencing high stress as a result of a number of risk factors specifically identified in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA 2004), including substantiated abuse or neglect, foster care placement, homelessness, exposure to family…
Malchiodi, Cathy A., Ed.
Rich with case material and artwork samples, this volume demonstrates a range of creative approaches for facilitating children's emotional reparation and recovery from trauma. Contributors include experienced practitioners of play, art, music, movement and drama therapies, bibliotherapy, and integrative therapies, who describe step-by-step…
Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976
Various articles include the following concerns: a year-long study shows that 66 books about Asian Americans are elitist, racist, and sexist; practical guidelines for selection of nonracist, nonsexist books are provided; a noted playwright looks at the image of Asian Americans in children's books and finds it racist science fiction; the…
Hensley, Gene, Ed.; Cain, Nancy Ellen, Ed.
Three selected papers and some additional comments from six regional conferences on state law and educational services for the handicapped are presented. Included are papers by Edwin W. Martin, Associate Commissioner, Bureau of Education for the Handicapped, on the education of handicapped children as a new public priority and by James J.…
Tayfun Kirazli; Cem Bilgen; Rasit Midilli; Fatih Ögüt; Meltem Uyar; Aysegül Kedek
The purpose of this study was to compare bipolar electrodissection tonsillectomy with traditional cold dissection tonsillectomy in the pediatric population. Forty children with recurrent tonsillitis and\\/or obstructive symptoms were included in the study. The study population was randomly divided into two groups, and the two techniques were compared with regard to operative time, intraoperative and postoperative bleeding and postoperative pain.
Ramsey, Patricia G.
Everyone in the United States lives in multiple worlds including work, home, community, school, and social and religious groups. Individuals also have a number of identities and behavioral repertoires that shift among contexts. However, some children and families experience more discontinuities between school and home than others. These gaps are…
Hurricane Andrew, which devastated the south Florida coast in August 1992, left over 250,000 people homeless with multiple health and social problems. This nursing study explored the experiences of 17 children, ages 5 through 12, who lived in the geographic area of storm damage. Common experiences described by the children included remembering the storm, dealing with after-effects, and reestablishing a new life. In general, children described a sense of strangeness, articulated as "life is weird" after the hurricane. In addition to stressful responses, many positive reactions were described by children in the study, revealing that the disaster also had a maturing effect. PMID:7885747
Bibliography Godly Play, Jerome W. Berryman The Child in Christian Thought, Marcia J. Bunge, editor The Religious Potential of the Child, Sofia Cavalletti The Moral Life of children, Robert Coles The Spiritual Life of Children, Robert Coles The Moral Intelligence of Children, Robert Coles The Sympathetic Understanding of the Child, David Elkind Childhood and Society, Erik H. Erikson The Spirit
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.
This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…
Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael
The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…
Social Development Commission, Milwaukee, WI.
This publication presents data and descriptive information on the status of poor children and families in Milwaukee (Wisconsin). The analysis of the information suggests that the children are poor because their families are poor and that only providing their families with adequate employment and family supports will lift these children out of the…
The dramatic rise of parental divorce affects a large number of children placing new and acute demands on the helping services to meet their needs. In addition to the conventional assessment tools for and methods for treating children, new and innovative ones are needed to help therapists understand the problems of these children. In the following article, the author presents
This paper discusses the importance to teach students on children's architecture base on the perception of the children, not on the presumption of adults. It focuses on the approach teaching design and planning of built environment for young children, early to middle childhood. A trans-disciplinary approach is introduced integrating the knowledge of childhood development, architecture and landscape architecture. Therefore, teaching
Wiefferink, Carin H; Rieffe, Carolien; Ketelaar, Lizet; De Raeve, Leo; Frijns, Johan H M
It is still largely unknown how receiving a cochlear implant affects the emotion understanding in deaf children. We examined indices for emotion understanding and their associations with communication skills in children aged 2.5-5 years, both hearing children (n = 52) and deaf children with a cochlear implant (n = 57). 2 aspects of emotion understanding were examined: (a) emotion recognition in facial expressions and (b) emotion attribution in a situational context. On all emotion-understanding tasks, children with a cochlear implant were less proficient than children with normal hearing. In children with normal hearing, performance and language skills were positively associated. In children with cochlear implants, language was positively associated only with tasks in which a verbal demand was made on children. These findings indicate that hearing loss in children, despite a cochlear implant, affects all aspects of emotion understanding measured in this study, including their nonverbal emotion-understanding skills. PMID:23232770
Siegal, Michael; Nobes, Gavin; Panagiotaki, Georgia
Children everywhere are fascinated by the sky, stars and Sun. Emerging evidence from cultures throughout the world suggests that even young children can acquire knowledge of the Earth and its place in the Universe.
Vaillancourt, Pauline Marie
Discusses some possible causes of children's levels of response stability on many questions commonly used in political socialization studies, particularly those measuring attitudes. Also suggested are changes in the established methodology of substantive studies of children's attitudes. (TO)
... Vietnamese) Getting Healthy Conditions Healthcare / Research Caregiver Educator CPR & ECC Shop Causes Advocate Giving News Arrhythmia About ... Checklist for Parents of Children with Arrhythmias Learn CPR and emergency procedures Parents of all children should ...
Presents early findings of an ongoing project to learn preschool and kindergarten children's understanding and expression of spirituality. Categorizes children's responses and discusses them in the context of theories that spirituality may be an innate feature of human consciousness. (JPB)
Focuses on sculptures created by children related to dolls. Discusses different types of toys that inspire children and explains that students can learn about figure studies. States that students learn about topics such as posing and grouping figures. (CMK)
Rita J. Casey; Jeffrey S. Berman
This review quantitatively assesses the outcomes of psychotherapy with children. Seventy-five studies were examined in which children who received psychotherapy were compared with controls or children receiving another form of treatment. Results demonstrated that therapy with children is similar in effectiveness to therapy with adults; treated children achieved outcomes about two thirds of a standard deviation better than untreated children.
First, the CCB site offers "a non-circulating collection of more than 14,000 recent and historically significant trade books for youth, birth through high school, plus review copies of nearly all trade books published in the U.S. in the current year." Additionally, there are over 1,000 reference titles on the study of literature and storytelling for youth. The second site, from the University of Wisconsin Children's Book Center. The site offers "original bibliographies created by CCBC librarians, book reviews, webcasts of CCBC-sponsored speeches by children's and young adult book creators, and many more unique resources for librarians, teachers, university students and others." Both sites will provide interested visitors with an incredible array of resources for those interested in children's literature.
Ejike, J. Chiaka; Mathur, Mudit
Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) increases the risk for mortality in critically ill children. It occurs in association with a wide variety of medical and surgical diagnoses. Management of ACS involves recognizing the development of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) by intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring, treating the underlying cause, and preventing progression to ACS by lowering IAP. When ACS is already present, supporting dysfunctional organs and decreasing IAP to prevent new organ involvement become an additional focus of therapy. Medical management strategies to achieve these goals should be employed but when medical management fails, timely abdominal decompression is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. A literature review was performed to understand the role and outcomes of abdominal decompression among children with ACS. Abdominal decompression appears to have a positive effect on patient survival. However, prospective randomized studies are needed to fully understand the indications and impact of these therapies on survival in children. PMID:22482041
There are a number of fine journals that deal with policies oriented toward children in the United States, and The Future of Children is certainly one of the best. The journal is a publication of The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University and The Brookings Institution. On this site, visitors can read the current issue of the journal, and also browse their previous issues dating back to 1991. Each issue has a general theme, and past years have featured issues dealing with adoption, health insurance for children, caring for infants and toddlers, and domestic violence. For visitors who may be pressed for time, each issue contains an executive summary and article summaries. Additionally, users may also wish to sign up to receive their free e-mail newsletter.
Lucas, Maria Filomena Martins
To talk about spirituality is a difficult subject. It is subjective and the definition it is not consensual. About children knowledge is still scarce and very limited with many issues yet to be revealed. That's why it is so difficult to work this area with doctors, nurses and other health staff This article reveals some of the existent knowledge. In it we shall discuss spirituality in children and its development through life cycle. Afterwards we link spirituality in chronic condition to the role of Nursing Care. PMID:19066165
Kajosaari, Lauri; Sinkkonen, Saku T; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Jero, Jussi
Acute mastoiditis in children develops when acute otitis media (AOM) spreads into the mastoid air cells inside the temporal bone. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings of AOM with simultaneous signs of infection in the mastoid area. The most common pathogen causing acute mastoiditis in children is Streptococcus pneumoniae. Intravenous antimicrobial medication, tympanostomy and microbial sample are the cornerstones of the treatment. If a complication of mastoiditis is suspected, imaging studies are needed, preferably with magnetic resonance imaging. The most common complication of acute mastoiditis is a subperiosteal abscess. PMID:24660384
the evening tide I hear the children play down at the shore. They listen for the things the dolphins say. I wander the coast like a shipwrecked ghost, Feel the wind blow free, Watching the stars at night, Like diamonds in the sea." Starsky opened his... never rhyme. Schemers thrive, the strong survive, ? The rest all wait their time. Wise men know that children grow, And dreamers never learn." This time, Starsky sat up and joined in softly on the chorus. "Dreamers believe in magic, They see...
This article examines children’s discourse about self, brain and behaviour, focusing on the dynamics of power, knowledge and responsibility articulated by children. The empirical data discussed in this article are drawn from the study of Voices on Identity, Childhood, Ethics and Stimulants, which included interviews with 151 US and UK children, a subset of whom had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Despite their contact with psychiatric explanations and psychotropic drugs for their behaviour, children’s discursive engagements with the brain show significant evidence of agency and negotiated responsibility. These engagements suggest the limitations of current concepts that describe a collapse of the self into the brain in an age of neurocentrism. Empirical investigation is needed in order to develop agent-centred conceptual and theoretical frameworks that describe and evaluate the harms and benefits of treating children with psychotropic drugs and other brain-based technologies. PMID:23094965
Micallef, Silvana; Prior, Margot
This study explored the arithmetic skills of 39 children with arithmetic learning difficulties (ALD), compared to two control groups, one consisting of normally achieving children matched to the ALD sample for chronological age (n =28), and another comprising younger normally achieving children matched to the ALD sample for arithmetic level (n…
Kondo, Allan K.
This is a satire on students' ability to think. Children can in fact think, but teachers often don't give them a chance or encourage them to do so. Questioning techniques are very important in getting children to think. A good starting point for children's thinking is their observations. (BR)
de Lijser, Peter
is responsible for setting the direction of the program, planning, and working closely with parents and student and adults, and children and children; it is central to the parent education plan and to the curriculum. #12 supports the University community by providing high quality care and education for young children
Schmidt, Nancy J.
The history of and current trends in the publication of children's books in Subsaharan Africa are discussed, and the books' contents are examined. The publication of children's books for African children was started by Euroamerican missionaries in the 19th century. Publication was always related to education. With the achievement of independence,…
Strife, Susan Jean
While numerous quantitative studies across disciplines have investigated children's knowledge and attitudes about environmental problems, few studies examine children's feelings about environmental problems--and even fewer have focused on the child's point of view. Through 50 in-depth interviews with urban children (ages 10-12) this research aimed…
Parents who love their children sometimes harm them. They harm them by physically or sexually abusing them and by failing to provide the nurturance that children have the right to expect. They neglect and abuse their children because they lack the necessary combination of knowledge, patience, empathy, and problem-solving capabilities. Intervening…
Dresang, Eliza T.
Focuses on children of the 21st century and their books, both of which have changed dramatically over the past decade. Suggests that teachers and librarians need to recognize and understand the implications of these changes in children and their books in order to provide a reading environment to which children will readily relate and in which they…
Suggesting that children's books have become more adult in content and tone, this essay addresses problem of organization of children's library materials to provide access to adult readers. Extent of adult appeal in children's books, examples of "adulterated" nonfiction and fiction, and questions concerning organizational and attitudinal changes…
Rosenbaum, Sara; Blum, Robert
The past century has seen vast improvements in our children's health. The infectious diseases that once killed huge numbers of children have largely been conquered. Infant mortality has also fallen markedly, although the United States lags behind other industrialized nations in this and other measures of children's health. Accidents and injuries…
Jacqueline G. Rea; B. B. Robbie Rossman
In this longitudinal study of children exposed to interparental aggression (IPA) and violence, we examined whether maternal parenting style contributed to children's functioning over the course of one year (data were collected over three time points). Participants were mothers and children from the community and battered women's shelters. Battered mothers endorsed higher levels of Permissive parenting than did non-battered mothers.
POTTS, ALFRED M.
MANY CHANGES HAVE OCCURRED IN MIGRANT CHILDREN OVER THE 5 YEARS THE SPECIAL SCHOOL HAS BEEN IN OPERATION. MOST NOTABLE IS THAT THE CHILDREN ARE MUCH CLEANER AND BETTER BEHAVED. THE CHILDREN ARE ISSUED COMBS, TOOTHBRUSHES, TOWELS, AND SOAP. STUDENTS SHOWER THREE TIMES EACH WEEK AND PERFORM A DAILY ROUTINE OF BRUSHING TEETH AND COMBING HAIR. MILK…
Wood you believe it? Children and young peoples perceptions of climate change and the role of trees ..................................................14 Children and young peoples sources of information about climate change ...............26 .............................................................................................................36 Children and young peoples perceptions of climate change and the role of trees, woods and forests
Piestrup, Ann M.
This paper describes the origins of a corporation producing computer software for children, lists criteria for software design, and describes work done with computer graphics for children. The corporation, called The Learning Company, had its origins in a project set up to create playful learning programs for children ages 3 to 13. The project was…
An assessment battery, measuring multiple aspects of language, was administered to 29 children between 4 and 5 years of age who had been born prematurely. The children, who weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth after less than 37 weeks of gestation, were recruited from a cohort of children originally admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit…
The National Children's Study (NCS) will be the largest long-term study of children's health and development ever conducted in the United States. The NCS will examine a broad range of environmental influences on children's health and development. It will follow approximately 10...
Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope
To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…
Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.
School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
Rice, Dale L.; McFadden, Emily Jean
Summarizes the dialogue and issues of a joint conference on foster children attended by foster children 5-20 years old. The group explored the children's thoughts and feelings about foster care. A subsequent meeting attended by foster parents and caseworkers is also discussed. (RWB)
Jerles, Joe F.
Recent international conflicts have increased the dangers of American military personnel. These soldiers are part of the growing contingent of military families with children. Because these children are more aware of the dangers, the stress and worry affects them in a variety of ways, especially in school-age children. This article investigates…
Karen E. Soeters; Katinka van Schaik
Purpose – More and more children have access to the internet. Surfing the web can be a wonderful experience but also one fraught with danger, and not all parents and educators are aware that children can be exposed to unsuitable content online. Another question rises, and that is what is disturbing for children online? Are there gender and age differences
N C G FREEMAN; M JIMENEZ; K J REED; S GURUNATHAN; R D EDWARDS; A ROY; J L ADGATE; E D PELLIZZARI; J QUACKENBOSS; K SEXTON; P J LIOY
The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)\\/Minnesota Children's Pesticide Exposure Study (MNCPES) was a population-based study designed to characterize children's exposure to residential pesticides and to evaluate the contribution of residential and children's activities to children's exposure. Families of 168 children were surveyed for residential use of pesticides and children's activities. From these homes, families of 102 children between the
Nuffield Foundation, London (England).
A collection of works on problems of and techniques for teaching Asian immigrant children in Great Britain includes an introduction (R. P. Sloss); background information on the Chinese in Britain (H. D. R. Baker); background on the Vietnamese in Britain (P. J. Honey); "Teaching English as a Second Language with Suggestions for Chinese Children"…
Temp, George E.
Faced with a frustrating lack of ability to solve the problem of providing educational opportunities for inner city children, many have turned, in frustration and despair, to the creation of myths about the whole enterprise, including achievement testing. Three myths about educational achievement testing and inner city children that are addressed…
Rafferty, Yvonne; Shinn, Marybeth
Reviews community-based research on the effects of homelessness on children. Homeless children face threats to their future well-being resulting from health problems, hunger, poor nutrition, developmental delays, anxiety, depression, behavioral problems, and educational underachievement. Contributing factors may include inadequate shelter,…
Kimmel, Eric A.
Considers concepts of death and the afterlife presented in children's literature of previous centuries and in several recent books for children, including "The Farthest Shore" by Ursula Le Guin, "The Brothers Lionheart" by Astrid Lindgren, and "Song of the Pearl" by Ruth Nichols. (GT)
Whitney, Loralyn; Hager, Elizabeth A.
The Parent and Children Together (PACT) project, developed by the Arkansas Valley and High Plain Regional Library Services in Colorado, is aimed at promoting lifelong interest in reading among today's children. PACT services include: (1) sponsoring workshops that will train librarians and volunteers to plan and present parents' programs; (2)…
Dawson, Sarah A.
This study examined the educational development of 22 children (ages 2 to 10), under the supervision of the Cochlear Implant Team of the Medical College of Virginia, who had received implants as a result of deafness (in most cases prelingual and congenital) from 6 months to 3 years prior to the study. Data included a review of the children's case…
Schlooz, Wim A. J. M.; Hulstijn, Wouter
Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) frequently encounter difficulties in visuomotor tasks, which are possibly caused by atypical visuoperceptual processing. This was tested in children (aged 9-12 years) with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD; including PDD-NOS and Asperger syndrome), and two same-age control groups (Tourette syndrome…
ENGEL, ROSE C.; AND OTHERS
ALTHOUGH ORIGINALLY DESIGNED TO AID THE TEACHERS OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, THIS COMPREHENSIVE HANDBOOK OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT EXPERIENCES IS USEFUL FOR ALL TEACHERS OF PRESCHOOLERS, INCLUDING THOSE CHILDREN WHO ARE DISADVANTAGED, PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, OR LEARNING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE. AN INITIAL DISCUSSION OF LANGUAGE…
Peter, Val J.
Reverend Val J. Peter, director of Girls and Boys Town, USA, states that loneliness is prevalent among today's children, no matter what their economic situation. Asserts that the reasons for loneliness include the growing need of parents to work, children having their own rooms, and overuse of personal technology. Asserts that Girls and Boys Town…
Mantovani, John F.
This article reviews neuroimaging techniques such as cranial ultrasound, computed tomography scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging. Their roles in the care of children with neurodevelopmental disabilities include identification of high-risk infants, establishment of the diagnosis and prognosis in affected children, and enhancement of discussion…
Ajdukovic, Marina; Ajdukovic, Dean
Interviews with 183 mothers of refugee families indicated a considerable range of stress-related reactions among displaced children, including sleeping and eating disorders, separation fears, and withdrawal or aggression. Children exhibited a significantly higher incidence of stress reactions if their mothers had difficulty coping with the stress…
Krechevsky, Mara; Mardell, Ben; Romans, Angela N.
In this article, the authors suggest that current notions of advocacy in early childhood education should be expanded to include a view of young children as citizens. The authors ground their discussion in a how-to book project in Providence, Rhode Island, consider different concepts of children and citizenship, share commentary from City Hall and…
Mayer, Stefan; Normann, Katrin
The authors briefly describe the history of family mediation under the perspective of the role of the children in the process of mediation. They state that originally children were not directly included. But through empirical studies and different higher escalated families asking for help by mediation, the inclusion of children got an important issue in theory and practice. The discussion began with the question in which phases of the mediation process the children should be included - it went to the issue of the age of the children - and the authors propose to take the amount of escalation in the family as the most important point of reference to decide if and how the children should be included. They suggest to diagnose the loss of responsibility and autonomy of the parents on a nine level scale (from F. Glasl) with the parents and to decide and negotiate with them how the children will be included. They describe five different settings of inclusion of the children. PMID:17152894
Farish, Jane M.
Young children may experience stress and emotional problems in reaction to natural and other disasters. This brochure presents a number of strategies for teachers and caregivers to use to help children cope with this stress. These strategies include: (1) providing reassurance and physical comfort; (2) being aware of separation anxiety; (3)…
Goldman, Lynn R.
Presents case studies on children's exposure to pesticides, including risks through the use of the insecticide aldicarb on bananas, the home use of diazinon, and the use of interior house paint containing mercury. These cases illustrate how regulatory agencies, parents, health-care providers, and others who come into contact with children have…
Seidel, John F.
Children with HIV infection, although they remain healthy and exhibit age-appropriate development, can be mainstreamed without program modifications or specialized treatment. Such children should be included in definitions of eligibility for at-risk services. Ideally, general developmental stimulation should be initiated before symptoms emerge.…
Texas Child Care, 2002
Describes stages of children's art development from scribbling to representations. Discusses ways to organize the space in the child care art center, and presents 11 art activities for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, and school-age children; lists materials and teacher instructions for each activity. Includes suggestions for keeping clothes clean…
Cunningham, Denise D.
Preschool classrooms were investigated to determine the extent to which quality is related to children's literacy development. The study included 24 classrooms of 428 prekindergarten children in a large, urban Midwestern school district. Results suggest that global classroom quality and literacy environment quality are strongly related. Literacy…
Discusses several common children's allergies, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergies, and anaphylactic shock. Principals should become familiar with various medications and should work with children's parents and physicians to determine how to manage their allergies at school. Allergen avoidance is the best…
Kuntzleman, Charles T.; Reiff, Guy G.
Examines whether physical fitness levels in U.S. children and youth have changed over time. Research indicates that weight and skinfolds have increased over 50 years and distance run times have worsened over 10 years. The article includes information on relationships between cardiovascular fitness and coronary heart disease risks in children. (SM)
Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Children's Health Protection.
Through their environments, children are exposed to a wide variety of substances that pose a risk to their health. This yearbook provides information to the public on the activities of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to protect children from environmental hazards, including the latest information on the unique threats of environmental…
PTA Today, 1989
Correcting misperceptions regarding safety and emergency response is the first step toward reducing the incidence of injury to children. Some widely held misperceptions are identified and corrected. Topics include burns, poisoning, car safety, and falls. In addition to adult misperceptions, some common children's misperceptions are briefly listed.…
Social and economic problems facing U.S. children are reviewed, including poverty, hunger and homelessness, gaps in health and mental health services, infant mortality/morbidity, child abuse, drug use, and violence depicted in the mass media. Risk-taking behaviors that are children's responses and suggestions to remedy these problems are…
For most children, library books capture their interests and motivate reading more than basal texts do. Choosing library books is highly informal, whereas textbook reading involves more formal, structured plans of teaching. There are a plethora of choices to make in types of literature available to children. These include folk tales, fairy tales,…
Montgomery, Edith; And Others
Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…
American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.
This publication documents resolutions of the Council of Representatives of the American Psychological Association (APA) related to children, youth, and families. It includes resolutions on: (1) children's mental health as indicated in Public Law No. 89-97; (2) the national commitment to early child development; (3) corporal punishment in…
Next to chemical and farm workers, today's children are at the greatest risk from toxic chemicals. Through their normal play activities, children are exposed to a frightening array of toxic hazards, including lead, pesticides, arsenic, and unknown dangers from abandoned landfills and warehouses. Through a series of documented examples, the author…
Cardany, Audrey Berger
Since the airing of "Sesame Street" in 1985, television produced for children has expanded to more television shows and educational media that includes videos, DVDs, and computer products. Viewing screen media is pervasive in the environments of young children, and companies are designing products for our youngest viewers--infants and toddlers.…
Mary Claessen; Suze Leitão
It has been hypothesized that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have difficulty processing sound-based information, including storing and accessing phonological representations in the lexicon. Tasks are emerging in the literature that provide a measure of the quality of stored phonological representations, without requiring a verbal response. This article describes the performance of children with specific language impairment (SLI) (n
Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.
This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…
Godwin, Marshall; Crellin, John; Mathews, Maria; Chowdhury, Nurun L.; Newhook, Leigh Anne; Pike, Andrea; McCrate, Farah; Law, Rebecca
Abstract Objective To determine how common it is for parents to give natural health products (NHPs) to their children, which NHPs are being used, why they are being used, and parents’ assessments of the benefits and side effects of NHPs. Design Survey. Setting Newfoundland and Labrador. Participants Parents waiting in their family doctors’ offices. Main outcome measures Parent and child demographic characteristics; pediatric chronic medical conditions affecting the children; prescribed medications, over-the-counter medications, and NHPs used by the children; why the medications and NHPs were being used, the dose, and parents’ assessments of the effectiveness and side effects; and where parents had heard about the NHPs, whether they had told their physicians that the children were taking the products, and where they had obtained the products. Results A total of 202 (53.4%) of the 378 eligible adults who were approached completed the survey. This represented 333 children. Mean (SD) age of the children was 5.1 (3.3) years. Overall, 28.7% of parents reported using nonvitamin NHPs for their children. A total of 137 children (41.1%) had taken NHPs (including vitamins); 61.1% of the NHPs being used were vitamins. The remainder fell under teas (primarily chamomile and green teas), echinacea, fish or omega-3 oils, and a large category of “other” products. These NHPs were most commonly used to improve general health, improve immunity, and prevent colds and infections. Approximately half of the parents (51.7%) believed their children had benefited from taking NHPs, and 4.4% believed their children had experienced adverse side effects. Slightly less than half of the parents (45.0%) had informed their physicians that their children were taking NHPs. Conclusion Overall, 45.5% of parents attending physicians’ offices reported using NHPs in their children. If vitamins are not included in the definition of NHPs, this rate drops to 28.7%. Parents most commonly use NHPs to maintain the general health of their children, to prevent colds, and to boost children’s immune systems. About half of the parents believed the NHPs helped, very few had noticed any side effects, and approximately half had informed their physicians that they were giving their children NHPs. PMID:23946043
Okoli, Rosemary Chinyere Babylaw
Concern for children’s safety and protection has become a global issue and has evoked considerable debate since the publication of the United Nations’ widely ratified Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989. ...
Gevers, Dorus W. M.; Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Vries, Nanne K.; van Assema, Patricia
Most previous studies of parental influences on children’s diets included just a single or a few types of food parenting practices, while parents actually employ multiple types of practices. Our objective was to investigate the clustering of parents regarding food parenting practices and to characterize the clusters in terms of background characteristics and children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. A sample of Dutch parents of children aged 4–12 was recruited by a research agency to fill out an online questionnaire. A hierarchical cluster analysis (n = 888) was performed, followed by k-means clustering. ANOVAs, ANCOVAs and chi-square tests were used to investigate associations between cluster membership, parental and child background characteristics, as well as children’s intake of energy-dense snack foods. Four distinct patterns were discovered: “high covert control and rewarding”, “low covert control and non-rewarding”, “high involvement and supportive” and “low involvement and indulgent”. The “high involvement and supportive” cluster was found to be most favorable in terms of children’s intake. Several background factors characterized cluster membership. This study expands the current knowledge about parental influences on children’s diets. Interventions should focus on increasing parental involvement in food parenting. PMID:26024296
Balseviciene, Birute; Sinkariova, Liuda; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Andrusaityte, Sandra; Uzdanaviciute, Inga; Dedele, Audrius; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.
This study investigated the effects of the proximity to city parks and the influence of residential greenness on children’s emotional and behavioral problems. This cross-sectional study included 1,468 mothers of children (ages 4 to 6) who were residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. The mothers and their children were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The mothers reported on their parenting stress and their children’s mental health. Residential greenness was characterized as an average of the satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) in a 300 m buffer around each home address, and the proximity to city parks was defined as the distance from the subject’s residence to the nearest park. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association among the residence distances from city parks, greenness and children’s mental health problems. Farther residential distance from city parks was associated with worse mental health (except for the emotional problems subscale) in children whose mothers had a lower education level. More residential greenness was associated with worse mental health (more conditional problems and less prosocial behavior) in children whose mothers had a higher education level. These relationships have important implications for the prevention of emotional and behavioral problems in children. PMID:24978880
AHERN, ELIZABETH C.; LYON, THOMAS D.
This study examined the effects of rapport (emotional, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development [NICHD]) and prompt type (what-next, cued-action, cued-emotion, what-think) on one hundred forty-two 4–9-year-old maltreated children’s spontaneous and prompted emotional language. Children in the emotional-rapport condition narrated the last time they felt good and the last time they felt bad on the playground. Children in the NICHD-rapport condition narrated their last birthday party and what happened yesterday. Following rapport, all children were presented a series of story stems about positive and negative situations. Emotional-rapport minimally affected children’s use of emotional language. Cued-emotion prompts were most productive in eliciting emotional language. Overall, there were few effects because of age. Children often produced less emotional language when describing negative events, particularly with respect to their spontaneous utterances, suggesting reluctance. These differences largely disappeared when children were asked additional questions, particularly cued-emotion questions. The results offer support for cued-emotion prompts as a means of increasing maltreated children’s use of emotional language. PMID:25243047
Brenner, Barbara L.; Manice, Melissa P.
Community engagement strategies and skills can build trust and reduce historical mistrust between researchers, communities and populations being studied, as well as contribute to the quality of study designs, methods and dissemination of findings. This review paper discusses why community engagement is of increasing importance in children’s environmental health research, describes models and the continuum of methods that are used and discusses their challenges and benefits. Two case studies, representing different study designs and using different community engagement models and methods, and lessons learned from these cases are described. Community engagement methods are best understood on a continuum based on the degree to which community members or representatives of community populations are involved in research planning, decision making and dissemination. Methods along this continuum include community consultation, community based participatory research(CBPR) and community consent to research. Community engagement knowledge and skills are especially important in the conduct of children’s environmental health research with its emphasis on reducing environmental risks at the community level; the increasing focus on genetics and gene-environment interactions; and the importance placed on translation of scientific results into behaviors and policies that protect the community. Across study designs, whether qualitative survey research, an observational epidemiology study, or a randomized intervention trial, understanding community interests, norms and values is necessary to describe attitudes and behaviors of specific population groups, build evidence of cause and effect between environmental exposures and health and/or that demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions to reduce risks. PMID:21259265
Piao, Jianmin; Wu, Wei; Yang, Zhongxi; Yu, Jinlu
During the onset of Moyamoya disease (MMD), progressive occlusion occurs at the end of the intracranial internal carotid artery, and compensatory net-like abnormal vessels develop in the skull base, generating the corresponding clinical symptoms. MMD can affect both children and adults, but MMD in pediatric patients exhibits distinct clinical features, and the treatment prognoses are different from adult patients. Children are the group at highest risk for MMD. In children, the disease mainly manifests as ischemia, while bleeding is the primary symptom in adults. The pathogenesis of MMD in children is still unknown, and some factors are distinct from those in adults. MMD in children could result in progressive, irreversible nerve functional impairment, and an earlier the onset corresponds to a worse prognosis. Therefore, active treatment at an early stage is highly recommended. The treatment methods for MMD in children mainly include indirect and direct surgeries. Indirect surgeries mainly include multiple burr-hole surgery (MBHS), encephalomyosynangiosis (EMS), and encephaloduroarteriosynangiosis (EDAS); direct surgeries mainly include intra- and extracranial vascular reconstructions that primarily consist of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. Indirect surgery, as a treatment for MMD in children, has shown a certain level of efficacy. However, a standard treatment approach should combine both indirect and direct procedures. Compared to MMD in adults, the treatment and prognosis of MMD in children has higher clinical significance. If the treatment is adequate, a satisfactory outcome is often achieved. PMID:26180513
... up. Children who have this condition have no kidney damage but, for some unknown reason, they lose protein into the urine during the day when they are active. At night, while they sleep, their kidneys don't let any protein into the urine. ...
Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.
This study was requested (by Representatives Charles B. Rangel and Harold Ford) in August 1984, to explore the factors which influence the poverty rate among children. Researchers were asked to examine demographic trends, economic factors, government policies, and other phenomena which could help explain why, despite increased government…
Mold can seriously affect the health of children with asthma or allergies. Indoor air problems related to mold can be difficult to identify, but when several students who spend time in the same classroom area show allergic symptoms, it is important to consider mold and air quality. Failure to respond promptly can have serious consequences. (SM)
Jan H. de Graaf; Rienk Y. J. Tamminga; Willem A. Kamps
Paraneoplastic manifestations are signs and symptoms observed in patients with cancer, distant from the tumour or its metastases and not caused by invasion, obstruction or bulk mass. In children with cancer, paraneoplastic manifestations are rare and distinct from those observed in adults. Knowledge about paraneoplastic manifestations can be of great clinical importance because they may be the presenting sign of
Gary B. Melton
The courts have thus far narrowly defined the “right to treatment”; on due process grounds. However, a criterion of “protection from harm”; may form the basis of a broader right to treatment. On this basis, one may argue that the state should provide adequate treatment to children and that parents should not be able to prevent a minor's seeking treatment
This article briefly summarizes highlights from the Committee on Teaching About the United Nations (CATUN)-sponsored annual workshop, "A World Out of Balance: Searching for Answers Through Education" in New York City, February 4, 2005. The meeting focused on children worldwide who are struggling to survive child labor, child trafficking, child…
It was heartwarming to see so many states, school districts, and communities throughout the United States open their doors to the children of Katrina. This response was a graphic portrayal of the spirit of volunteerism, the value of the more able assisting the less fortunate, and the sense of altruism that surfaces when major crises occur.…
Children's Book Council, New York, NY.
Notes by the Showcase Committee and Showcase Judges introduce this catalog of 31 books for children which "met the highest standards of bookmaking." The titles are arranged alphabetically. Publishers supplied information for each title: author, illustrator, editor, art director, designer, production director, printer, binder, page size,…
A British 12-year-old boy died while imitating the heroic leaps of the cartoon character Batman. Tragic incidents stemming from cartoon imitation such as this one occur with alarming frequency. Still, many people choose to ignore violence in children's cartoons. Even some experts don't recognize that cartoons may be harmful. Researcher Wilbur…
Anderson, William; Groff, Patrick
In this collection of papers, the authors develop a set of premises regarding the need for elementary teachers to be trained in the discipline of literature. Sections discuss (1) the importance of literature in providing children with mythic touchstones by which to conceptualize and order experience, (2) the need to train elementary teachers to…
One-hundred and thirty-six adults completed a 10-item questionnaire on the spanking of children. Three clear factors emerged concerned with pro-spanking attitudes; the rarity of spanking; and alternatives to spanking. Overall subjects were against spanking though more conservative voters tended to be more pro than anti.
Jenkins, William A., Ed.
The articles in this publication are (1) "The Children's Literary Heritage" by Dora V. Smith; (2) "Some Approaches to Teaching Standard English as a Second Language" by Charlotte K. Brooks; (3) "Detroit Great Cities School Improvement Program in Language Arts" by Clarence W. Wachner; (4) "Teaching and Testing Critical Listening in the Fifth and…
Alessandro Cigno; Martin Werding
Recent economic explanations of changes in fertility behaviour have focussed on the effects of labour-market-related incentives. The present paper draws attention to another set of incentives, those connected with the transfer of resources over time. The theoretical implications of intergenerational altruism as a possible motive for having children and making transfers to them are considered, and contrasted with those arising
Crosson, Jane E; Nies, Melanie
Brugada syndrome is an inherited arrhythmia associated with characteristic ST elevation in the right precordial leads and sudden cardiac death. The average age of sudden cardiac death is 40 years; reported pediatric cases remain rare. Genetic testing and increased disease awareness may result in many more children being diagnosed with Brugada syndrome. PMID:25583159
Hasenstab, M. Suzanne; Laughton, Joan
The use of cochlear implants in children with profound bilateral hearing loss is discussed, focusing on how a cochlear implant works; steps in a cochlear implant program (evaluation, surgery, programing, and training); and rehabilitation procedures involved in auditory development and speech development. (JDD)
Lidstone, John; McIntosh, Don
Based on the premise that film making can be of much greater value in education than is generally realized, this book tells the classroom teacher how to help children make their own films from beginning to end. A detailed text illustrated by drawings and photographs explains the basics of camera operation, editing, splicing, animation, titling,…
Allen, Judy; And Others
This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…
This bilingual text contains ten traditional Chinese folktales which have been rewritten for children. Each story deals with interpersonal relationships and/or stresses the Chinese way of life. Each page of text is given first in English and then in Chinese and is illustrated with a full-page drawing. The titles of the folktales are: (1) "One…
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Wohl, Seth F.
The Program for Institutionalized Children provided a supplementary individualized reading and/or mathematics remedial program, utilizing a diagnostic-prescriptive approach with the Croft Reading and Base Mathematics materials. Achievement was measured by means of criterion referenced testing procedures. Targeted pupils were all Title I eligible…
The use of trampolines at home has increased during the past ten years, and consequently there has been a dramatic increase in the number of children presenting with injuries associated with their use. The case study in this article highlights an unusual injury that was related to a child jumping on a trampoline. PMID:19485243
... www.CSRF.net Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) ... child or adolescent during this period. Editor’s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...
This paper is a preliminary investigation into the experiences of adoptive mothers of Romanian children. As a case study of international adoption, this research focuses on the following questions: What were the important choices over which families wanted control? What risks were they willing to take to complete an adoption? How did the specific circumstances in Romania and the respondents'
Examines the importance of defining terms in the process of gathering statistical data. Cites the example of the debate over the number of children abducted by strangers. Concludes that statistics are part of the persuasive rhetoric of social problem promotion and have social consequences. (FMW)
Faber, Marilyn M.
Provides advice on teaching children safe pedestrian and bicycling skills to reduce accidents caused by mistakes made in crossing streets. Provides an interactive safe-walker's story, tips for walking safely, step-by-step instructions for safe street crossing, bicycle safety information, a quiz for safe biking, and guidelines to ensure a proper…
Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob
This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…
van Balen, Frank
Examines physical and psychological development of children conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF), focusing on questions related to risk of congenital defects or mental retardation and impact on the parent-child relationship. Concludes that no serious problems have arisen concerning the physical and psychological development of IVF…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1994
This newsletter theme issue deals with the phenomenon of mobility or transience in India, Kenya, Greece, Ireland, Malaysia, Thailand and Israel. The primary focus is on mobility's effect on young children, specifically their health and education; some of the broader concerns also addressed by the newsletter are the causes of mobility and its…
Faulkner, Dorothy, Ed.; Coates, Elizabeth, Ed.
This fascinating collection of international research offers fresh perspectives on children's creative processes and the expression of their creative imagination through dramatic play, stories, artwork, dance, music and conversation. Drawing on a range of research evidence from innovative educational initiatives in a wide variety of countries,…
John A. Shaw
This paper presents an overview of the psychological effects of trauma on children and adolescents with specific attention to the epidemiology of traumatic experiences, risk factors, developmental effects, the types of traumatic experiences albeit a single event trauma or a chronic process trauma, the spectrum of clinical presentations, psychiatric and psychological comorbidities as well as assessment and therapeutic principles. In
Traveling with children especially in the tropics requires special planning. Contraindications are rare but care providers should obtain information about medical and transfusional facilities at the destination. Children should receive all vaccinations required for international travel and for specific countries, taking into account age, location, duration of stay, and purpose of trip. A first aid kit should be packed containing a thermometer, bandages, antiseptic agents, a total sunscreen preparation, a mosquito net, sterile compresses, tablets for water disinfection, and indispensable medications (antimalarial agents, antipyretics, oral rehydration solutions, antiemetics, and eye wash). The main indication for chemoprophylaxis is malaria. Chloroquine is recommended for most locations but proguanil may be necessary in areas of resistance. Special attention must be paid to skin care in infants: maintaining cleanliness, avoiding cuts insofar as possible, and treating any wounds. Clothing must be carefully laundered and adequate to prevent overexposure to sunlight and insect bites. Insect bites must also be prevented by applying repellents, using mosquito nets, and wearing insecticide-treated garments. Handwashing by people who prepare meals and by the children before eating is important to prevent food poisoning. Breast feeding is advisable for infants. Thorough cooking of meats, rinsing of fresh produce, drinking of bottled beverages, and sterilization of water are also important food safety measures. These precautions are usually adequate to allow safe travel with children. PMID:9612746
Hickey, M. Gail
Demonstrates how role-playing in a mock trial situation allows children to view critically both sides of an issue and introduce them to trial procedure. Offers pre-trial activities, ways to teach students to see both sides of a situation, themes for mock trials, and supporting resources. (GG)
This paper compares and contrasts two articles in which Dickens constructs an adult identity through his childhood reading, "A Christmas Tree" (1850) and "Nurse's Stories" (1860), with one in which Dickens constructs the identity of a child in his work for children, "A Child's History of England" (1851-53). Infused into all of these works is…
WYCKOFF, FLORENCE R.
A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED AS A MEMBER OF A FAMILY OF AGRICULTURAL WORKERS WHO MUST TRAVEL A GREAT DISTANCE TO WORK. THE WORKERS FOLLOW A SEASONAL COURSE, OFTEN THROUGH SEVERAL STATES, AND RETURN HOME AFTER THE CROP SEASON IS OVER. THERE ARE ABOUT 415,000 MIGRANT CHILDREN UNDER 14 YEARS OF AGE IN THE UNITED STATES. IN 1960 THE MIGRANT FARM WORKER…
OHLSEN, MERLE M.
COUNSELING IS AN ACCEPTING, TRUSTING RELATIONSHIP DEALING WITH NORMAL CHILDREN AND EMPHASIZING THE COUNSELOR'S SPECIAL ABILITY TO LISTEN, EMPATHIZE, AND UNDERSTAND. THE SETTING OF GROUP COUNSELING PROVIDES EXCELLENT CONDITIONS FOR LEARNING. EFFECTIVE GROUP COUNSELING INVOLVES TREATMENT BY THE GROUP AS WELL AS INDIVIDUAL TREATMENT WITHIN THE GROUP.…
Almarsdottir, Anna B.; Zimmer, Catherine
Examined knowledge about medicines and perceived benefit among 101 children, ages 7 and 10. Found that medicine knowledge was explained using age, educational environment, and degree of internal locus of control as significant predictors. The negative effect of internal locus of control predicted perceived benefit. Retention of drug advertising…
Gillard, Sarah A.; Gillard, Sharlett
This article explores some of the deficits in our educational system in regard to non-hearing students. It has become agonizingly clear that non-hearing students are being left out of the gallant sweep to enrich our children's educations. The big five areas of literacy, at best, present unique challenges for non-hearing students and, in some…
Children make up a large part of the market for computer and video games. This topic in depth explores some of the perceived negative and positive facets of games and their impact on children.A study by the Kaiser Family Foundation (1) finds that "children age zero to six spend as much time with TV, computers and video games as playing outside." Current discussions not only focus on perceived negative effects of games on children, such as this review by ERIC (2 ), but also the positive effects of games on learning, such as this article on literacy (3) or this article about cognitive processing (4 ). Many websites grade games for their content, such as this website (5 ), while others emphasize the interdisciplinary work done in game research (6 ) and offers tips for teachers and policy makers. The Info Lounge at this research center (7) answers some frequently asked questions about computer games (e.g., How do you study games from an academic perspective? and Are computer games violent?).
Washington, Valora, Ed.; Andrews, J. D., Ed.
In the twenty-first century, no single racial or ethnic group will constitute a majority of young people in an increasing number of states and communities in the United States, and, therefore, children need to be prepared to share a society of diverse students, neighbors, and co-workers. This book addresses some of the issues involved in making…
Robert J. Touloukian
The diagnosis of splenic injury can be made with almost 100% certainty by physical examination and nuclear imaging or computerized axial tomography, eliminating the need for surgical exploration in children who are stable and have no evidence of an associated intra-abdominal injury. The nonoperative approach of treatment has been successful in over 95% of selected cases. Operative splenic preservation methods,
Blai, Boris, Jr.
The paper examines the causes of violent and other antisocial behavior in children. Considered are the effects of heredity and environment, and the nature and prevalence of learning disabilities in persons with antisocial behavior are noted. Effects of temperament and its relationship to stress are discussed. The author cites findings on potential…
A report is made on 323 intracranial tumors of children reported to the Cancer Registry in Finland in 1958–1967. The most common sites were the cerebellum, cerebral hemispheres and brain stem. 54% of the tumors were in the posterior fossa. The most common histological types were medulloblastoma, cerebellar astrocytoma and ependymoma. The incidence on the basis of this series was
Lester, Barry M.; Lagasse, Linda L.
The purpose of this article was to review follow up studies of children with prenatal drug exposure from preschool through adolescence. Specifically, the authors focus on the effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine, methamphetamine, and opiates on behavior and development. The largest number of studies have examined cocaine-exposed children. The authors identified 42 studies that suggest that there are unique effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on 4- to 13-year-old children, particularly in the areas of behavior problems, attention, language, and cognition. In addition, studies make reasonable attempts to control for possible confounding factors. Systematic research on the long-term effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure is just beginning but seems to be showing similar effects to that of cocaine. The literature on the on the long-term effects of children with prenatal opiate exposure is more substantial than the methamphetamine literature but it is still relatively sparse and surprising in that there is little recent work. Thus, there are no studies on the current concerns with opiates used for prescription mediation. There is a growing literature using neuroimaging techniques to study the effects of prenatal drug exposure that holds promise for understanding brain/behavior relationships. In addition to pharmacological and teratogenic effects, drugs can also be viewed from a prenatal stressor model. The author discuss this “fetal origins” approach that involves fetal programming and the neuroendocrine system and the potential implications for adolescent brain and behavioral development. PMID:20407981
National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.
The discussion of genetic and environmental factors in the growth of children from infancy to adolescence focuses on intrauterine life, the effects of nutrition, hormones, illness, and emotion in the childhood years, and obesity and puberty in adolescents. Described are processes, such as amniocentesis, for monitoring the physiology chemistry of…
Tharpe, Anne Marie; Ashmead, Daniel H.; Rothpletz, Ann M.
This study compared visual attention in 18 prelingually deaf children (half with cochlear implants and half with hearing aids) and 10 normal hearing children. Unlike previous studies, children in all three groups performed similarly on a continuous-performance visual attention task and on a letter cancellation task. Only age and nonverbal…
Tani B Pedreira
This paper presents an analysis of articles involving children and youth in the last 9 years (1990–1998) of professional literature in recreational therapy. A total of 539 articles were analyzed to examine the authors, subjects, methods, and outcomes of therapeutic recreation studies published in three selected journals: Therapeutic Recreation Journal, Leisure Studies , and Leisure Sciences. A central finding was
Smaltz, Janet M.
Information on individual instruction for children who are homebound or hospitalized and in need of supplementary programs is defined as applied in North Dakota. The organization of the program, eligibility of pupils served, referral procedures, the responsibility of the local school administrator, the responsibility of the department of public…
Clark, Patricia; Kragler, Sherry
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of incorporating writing materials in all areas of the preschool classroom on the early literacy development of young children from low-income families. The researchers worked with six teachers in three preschool classrooms to incorporate literacy materials--particularly those materials that…
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic sub-categories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were included because they exhibit prosodic and motor deficits. Children, especially those with SLI, showed the expected increase in omission errors in weak initial syllables. Movement patterning analyses revealed that speakers produced differentiated articulatory templates beyond the broad categories of iamb and trochee. Finally, weak-weak prosodic sequences that crossed word boundaries showed increased articulatory variability when compared with strong-weak alternations. The binary distinction between iamb and trochee may be insufficient, with additional systematic prosodic sub-categories evident, even in young children with SLI. Findings support increased interactivity in language processing. PMID:23137484
Miller, S A
Parents' attributions for children's behavior are of interest both as a form of adult social cognition and as possible contributors to children's development. This article reviews work on the determinants and the effects of parents' attributions. Included in the discussion of possible determinants are characteristics of the target (e.g., age and sex), characteristics of the judge (e.g., mothers vs. fathers), and characteristics of the behavior to be explained (e.g., positive or negative). Included in the discussion of possible effects are effects on parents' affect and behavior and on children's development. The evidence suggests that parents do form attributions for their children's behavior and that these attributions vary in predictable (although not perfectly consistent) ways across judges, targets, and outcomes. The evidence also suggests, although less certainly, that attributions affect both parents' behavior and children's development. The review concludes with suggestions for future research. PMID:8556886
Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel
Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040
...the product is commonly recognized by consumers as being intended for use by children 12 years of age or younger. Consumer perception of the product's use by children, including its reasonably foreseeable use, will be evaluated. Sales data, market...
...the product is commonly recognized by consumers as being intended for use by children 12 years of age or younger. Consumer perception of the product's use by children, including its reasonably foreseeable use, will be evaluated. Sales data, market...
...the product is commonly recognized by consumers as being intended for use by children 12 years of age or younger. Consumer perception of the product's use by children, including its reasonably foreseeable use, will be evaluated. Sales data, market...
... 152474.html Study Links Sleep Troubles to Children's Mental Health Some of the problems included anxiety, depression and ... is a link between sleep and young children's mental health, a new study suggests. Researchers looked at sleep ...
According to evolutionary explanations men hardly ever are absolutely certain about their biological fatherhood therefore they must seek various sources of information to subjectively establish whether they are the genetic fathers of the children they raise. Apicella and Marlowe (2004) showed that fathers who perceived greater similarity between their children and themselves were willing to invest more resources (e.g., time, money, care) in their offspring presumably because the perceived resemblance indicated to the fathers their genetic relatedness with their children. The present study extended the design of Apicella and Marlowe's original study and included both fathers and mothers as participants. Parents were recruited by a female confederate at the airport and at the railway station in Wroclaw (Poland). Multiple regression analyses showed that perceived resemblance predicted parental investment in the child for both men and women. The fact that mothers' declarations of investment in their children also depended on the perceived resemblance factor is not consistent with evolutionary formulations delineated by Apicella and Marlowe (2004; 2007). Future studies must resolve the issue of whether the resemblance-investment relation in fathers results from men relaying on child's resemblance to themselves as an indicator of their own biological paternity, or whether it results from the more parsimonious phenomenon that people in general are attracted more to other people who are similar to them. PMID:22385106
Coady, Jeffry A.; Kluender, Keith R.; Evans, Julia
Children's ability to discriminate sequences of steady-state vowels was investigated. Vowels (as in ``beet,'' ``bat,'' ``bought,'' and ``boot'') were synthesized at durations of 40, 80, 160, 320, 640, and 1280 ms. Four different vowel sequences were created by concatenating different orders of vowels for each duration, separated by 10-ms intervening silence. Thus, sequences differed in vowel order and duration (rate). Sequences were 12 s in duration, with amplitude ramped linearly over the first and last 2 s. Sequence pairs included both same (identical sequences) and different trials (sequences with vowels in different orders). Sequences with vowel of equal duration were presented on individual trials. Children aged 7;0 to 10;6 listened to pairs of sequences (with 100 ms between sequences) and responded whether sequences sounded the same or different. Results indicate that children are best able to discriminate sequences of intermediate-duration vowels, typical of conversational speaking rate. Children were less accurate with both shorter and longer vowels. Results are discussed in terms of auditory processing (shortest vowels) and memory (longest vowels). [Research supported by NIDCD DC-05263, DC-04072, and DC-005650.
Y?lmaz, Unsal; Cubukçu, Duygu; Y?lmaz, Tuba Sevim; Ak?nc?, Gülçin; Ozcan, Muazzez; Güzel, Orkide
The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and clinical characteristics of peripheral facial palsy in children. The hospital charts of children diagnosed with peripheral facial palsy were reviewed retrospectively. A total of 81 children (42 female and 39 male) with a mean age of 9.2 ± 4.3 years were included in the study. Causes of facial palsy were 65 (80.2%) idiopathic (Bell palsy) facial palsy, 9 (11.1%) otitis media/mastoiditis, and tumor, trauma, congenital facial palsy, chickenpox, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, enlarged lymph nodes, and familial Mediterranean fever (each 1; 1.2%). Five (6.1%) patients had recurrent attacks. In patients with Bell palsy, female/male and right/left ratios were 36/29 and 35/30, respectively. Of them, 31 (47.7%) had a history of preceding infection. The overall rate of complete recovery was 98.4%. A wide variety of disorders can present with peripheral facial palsy in children. Therefore, careful investigation and differential diagnosis is essential. PMID:24097851
Egger, Helen Link
In this article, the author reviews the characteristics of developmentally appropriate criteria for the identification of early childhood mental health symptoms and disorders and the key components of a comprehensive, empirically based, psychiatric assessment of young children and their families. In the first section, the author discusses the infant/early childhood mental health field's perspectives on mental health and mental health problems in infants, toddlers, and preschoolers. The author then provides an overview of the objections to diagnosis of psychiatric disorders in young children and different approaches to the definition of early childhood psychopathology, including descriptive, dimensional, and categorical approaches. In the second section, the author describes the six essential components of a comprehensive mental health assessment of young children: (1) multiple sessions (2) multiple informants (3) a multidisciplinary approach (4) a multicultural perspective (5) multiple modes of assessment, and (6) a multiaxial diagnostic formulation and treatment plan. The author ends with a discussion of the challenges of diagnosing and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in children younger than 2 years. PMID:19486838
Kuo, Christin S.; Young, Lisa R.
Purpose of review There has been tremendous progress in the approach to childhood interstitial lung diseases (ILD), with particular recognition that ILD in infants is often distinct from forms that occur in older children and adults. Diagnosis is challenging due to the rarity of ILD and the fact that presenting symptoms of ILD often overlap those of common respiratory disorders. This review summarizes newly published recommendations for diagnosis and management and highlights recent scientific advances in several specific forms of childhood ILD. Recent findings Clinical practice guidelines emphasize the role for chest CT, genetic testing, and lung biopsy in the diagnostic evaluation of children with suspected ILD. Recent studies have better defined the characteristics and molecular understanding of several different forms of ILD, including Neuroendocrine cell Hyperplasia of Infancy (NEHI) and ILD due to mutations in genes affecting surfactant production and metabolism. Despite significant progress, definitive therapies are often lacking. Summary Childhood ILD encompasses a collection of rare, diffuse lung diseases. Timely recognition of children with suspected ILD and initiation of appropriate diagnostic evaluations will facilitate medical management. Systematic approaches to clinical care and further study are needed to improve the outcomes of children with these rare disorders. PMID:24752172
Oral allergy syndrome (OAS) is an allergic reaction that occurs after consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in patients with allergy to pollen. It is mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and symptoms arise as a result of cross-reactivity between pollen and plant-derived food. OAS is rarely seen in young children, but the prevalence increases with age. The objectives of the study were to identify the prevalence of OAS and probable risk factors in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis (AR). One-hundred and twenty patients with seasonal AR were included. Patients were diagnosed based on their clinical history, skin prick test outcome and specific IgE. In patients describing OAS, prick-by-prick tests with fresh fruit or vegetables were carried out. Thirty-two patients had OAS and it was more frequent in female patients than in male patients. OAS was more frequent in adolescents than in small children and in patients with higher total IgE. OAS was significantly more prevalent in patients with AR and asthma (P = 0.0016), as was the case in patients with AR and atopic dermatitis (P = 0.0004). OAS is rarely diagnosed in small children, partly because of an inadequate clinical history. Patients with OAS may have some risk factors in addition to pollen allergy, and those with more severe atopy are more likely to develop OAS. PMID:25819922
Sorge, F; Gendrel, D
Consultation of child traveler has two main objectives: to assess of health risk related to the child's health status and history and also the risk related to travel environment; to counsel and prescribe preventive measure to reduce these travel health risks. The evaluation is based on physical examination and a detailed interview including personal history and information regarding the regions of proposed travel. Up to date knowledge of the epidemiology of visited sites, preventive measures and presumptive treatment is required. Essential health recommendations include, in case of exposure, prevention of malaria, arthropod borned diseases and vaccine preventable diseases. For all destinations advice regarding prevention of diarrhea, accident risks and aggravation of preexisting chronic diseases is needed. Universal primary prevention counselling is valuable for all travellers regardless of their age. In the case of children, special attention must be given to food and water hygiene, sun and heat exposure, swimming risks and transports security measures. Evaluation of risk and health education take time and often several visits are needed to complete the immunization schedule before departure. PMID:23199582
Christopher Spera; Kathryn R. Wentzel; Holly C. Matto
This study examined parental aspirations for their children’s educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American,\\u000a Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children’s academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality\\u000a and climate of their children’s school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All parents had relatively\\u000a high educational aspirations for their children, and within each ethnic
Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda
The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments…
Introduction Depression may affect 2-8% of children and adolescents, with a peak incidence around puberty. It may be self-limiting, but about 40% of affected children experience a recurrent attack, a third of affected children will make a suicide attempt, and 3-4% will die from suicide. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of pharmacological, psychological, combination, and complementary treatments for depression in children and adolescents? What are the effects of treatments for refractory depression in children and adolescents? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to April 2008 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 18 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: citalopram, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) (individual or group, to prevent relapse), escitalopram, electroconvulsive therapy, family therapy, fluoxetine (alone or with cognitive therapy or CBT), fluvoxamine, group therapeutic support (other than CBT), guided self-help, individual psychodynamic psychotherapy, interpersonal therapy, lithium, mirtazapine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, paroxetine, sertraline (alone or with CBT), St John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum), tricyclic antidepressants, and venlafaxine. PMID:19445770
Fernbach, S.K.; Glass, R.B.
The radiological studies of 18 children with biopsy proved Burkitt's lymphoma were analyzed retrospectively. Before therapy the genitourinary tract was evaluated in 15 children by excretory urography, sonography, computerized tomography and/or gallium citrate scintigraphy. Genitourinary abnormalities were detected in 9 children. Changes due to tumor included renal or ureteral displacement in 4 children, hydronephrosis in 3 and intraparenchymal masses in 4. Extrinsic compression of the bladder causing no compromise of function was seen in only 2 children. Gonadal involvement occurred in 2 boys and 1 girl. The modality of choice for evaluating the genitourinary tract in patients with Burkitt's lymphoma has been excretory urography. Since ultrasound and computerized tomography provide more direct information about tumor deposits within the kidney and retroperitoneum, either should be performed in this population before initiation of chemotherapy.
Wilk, V A
Children comprise a significant portion of the agricultural workforce and are exposed to many workplace hazards, including farm machinery, pesticides, poor field sanitation, unsafe transportation, and fatigue from doing physically demanding work for long periods. Migrant farmworker children face the additional hazard of substandard or nonexistent housing in the fields. Children account for a disproportionate share of agricultural workplace fatalities and disabling injuries, with more than 300 deaths and 27,000 injuries per year. The most common cause of fatal and nonfatal injury among children in agriculture is farm machinery, with tractors accounting for the greatest number. Remedies to the problems of child labor must take into account family economics and the need for child care. Labor law reform and rigorous enforcement of existing laws and of workplace health and safety requirements are vital to better protect the children and adults working in agriculture. PMID:8238028
Provides guidelines to facilitate children's emotional adjustment to their parents' divorce. Suggestions include avoiding arguing in front of children, allowing children to spend quality time with both parents, keeping children's daily routines as normal as possible, avoiding putting children in the middle or in the "missing parent" role, allowing…
The effects of reading a CD-ROM storybook on children’s early literacy were examined as a function of their age group and\\u000a the number of times they used the software. The investigation was carried out on 214 children: 108 pre-kindergarten children\\u000a (aged 4:2 to 5:3) and 106 kindergarten children (aged 5:3–6:4). This population included 107 girls and 107 boys. The children
Each year, at any age, children are at risk of influenza illness during the epidemics. Children, especially those at school (attack rate close to 30%), have a major role in viral dissemination. Most of influenza illnesses occur in healthy children. Manifestations are typical, as in adults, in children over 5 years of age and less specific in younger children explaining misdiagnosis and underestimation in the youngest. Respiratory complications in outpatients include acute otitis media (close to 30% in children less than 3 years of age) and pulmonary disease (5 up to 10%). High fever 240 degrees C is frequent. Febrile convulsions occur in about 20% of hospitalised children aged 6 month to 5 years. Other complications (encephalitis, myositis, myocarditis, etc.) are reported. Hospitalisation rate is a severity index. In children less than 5 years of age, it is as high as 500/100,000 when risk factors exist and 100/100,000 when absent. Influenza, which is a respiratory virus, is the only one for which both a vaccine and specific treatment (anti-neuraminidases) exist. They are detailed. PMID:15135443
Poehlmann, Julie; Dallaire, Danielle; Loper, Ann Booker; Shear, Leslie D.
Approximately 1.7 million children have parents who are incarcerated in prison in the United States, and possibly millions of additional children have a parent incarcerated in jail. Many affected children experience increased risk for developing behavior problems, academic failure, and substance abuse. For a growing number of children, incarcerated parents, caregivers, and professionals, parent– child contact during the imprisonment period is a key issue. In this article, we present a conceptual model to provide a framework within which to interpret findings about parent– child contact when parents are incarcerated. We then summarize recent research examining parent–child contact in context. On the basis of the research reviewed, we present initial recommendations for children’s contact with incarcerated parents and also suggest areas for future intervention and research with this vulnerable population. PMID:20822198
In 1994 Hans Asperger (1906-80), an Austrian physician, described a group of children with impaired social interaction and communication abilities. The name of this disorder today is Asperger's syndrome, and it is currently defined under the category of pervasive developmental disorder in DSM-IV and ICD-10. In this article the following aspects of Asperger's syndrome are focused on: personality, epidemiology, etiology, examination, differential diagnosis, management and prognosis. The article is based on a literature study. Asperger's syndrome seems to be considerably more common than "classic" autism. The syndrome is much more common in boys than in girls. The clinical characteristics of Asperger's syndrome are probably influenced by many factors, including organic and genetic factors. Asperger's syndrome is the term applied to the highest functioning end of the autism scale. There are several commonalities between Asperger's syndrome and autism, namely impairment of social interaction and communication abilities, and range of interests and activities. Differences exist primarily in the degree of impairment in language and cognitive development. Differential diagnosis, examination and management are discussed. There is a need for further research. It is important that the diagnostic criteria for Asperger's syndrome are as uniform as possible, and that they do not overlap with infantile autism. PMID:9615585
Kozlov, Iu A; Novozhilov, V A; Rasputin, A A; Us, G P; Kuznetsova, N N
For the period January 2002 to December 2013 it was performed 84 interventions for introduction of gastrostomy tube. The first group included 24 open operations and the second group had 60 laparoscopic operations by using of button devices MIC-KEY (Kimberly-Clark, Roswell, USA) in neonates and infants. Statistically significant difference was not observed during comparison of demographic data of patients. Differences in groups were found in statistical analysis of intra- and postoperative parameters (p<0.05). Mean duration of surgery in the first group was 37.29 min, in the second group - 23.97 min. Time to start of feeding and transition to complete enteral nutrition was less in patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery than after open intervention (10.5 and 19.13 hours, 23.79 and 35.88 hours respectively; p<0.05). It was revealed augmentation of hospital stay in the 1st group in comparison with the 2(nd) group (11.71 and 7.09 days respectively; p<0.05). Frequency of postoperative complications was 18.33% in the 2(nd) group and 24% - in the 1st group (p<0.05). The authors consider that button devices are simply and effective technique of gastrostomy establishment in children. It is associated with minimal surgery duration and allows to start early enteral nutrition in comparison with open techniques. PMID:25909552
Cardiomyopathy (CMP) is a heterogeneous disease caused by a functional abnormality of the cardiac muscle. CMP is of 2 major types, dilated and hypertrophic, and is further classified as either primary or secondary. Secondary CMP is caused by extrinsic factors, including infection, ischemia, hypertension, and metabolic disorders. Primary CMP is diagnosed when the extrinsic factors of secondary CMP are absent. Furthermore, the World Health Organization, American Heart Association, and European Cardiology Association have different systems for clinically classifying primary CMP. Primary CMP is rare and associated with a family history of the disease, implying that genetic factors might affect its incidence. In addition, the incidence of CMP varies widely according to patient ethnicity. Genetic testing plays an important role in the care of patients with CMP and their families because it confirms diagnosis, determines the appropriate care for the patient, and possibly affects patient prognosis. The diagnosis and genetic identification of CMP in patients' families allow the possibility to identify novel genes that may lead to new treatments. This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of CMP, with the aim of providing pediatricians with insights that may be helpful in the early identification and management of idiopathic CMP in children. PMID:23482511
Jat, Kana Ram; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K
Arrhythmias in children can be classified according to their effect on central pulse: Fast pulse rate - tachyarrhythmia; Slow pulse rate - bradyarrhythmia; and Absent pulse is pulseless arrest (cardiac arrest). Tachyarrythmia may be narrow complex tachycardia (QRS duration ? 0.08 s): sinus tachycardia (ST), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), atrial flutter or Wide-complex tachycardia (QRS duration >0.08 s): ventricular tachycardia (VT), SVT with aberrant intraventricular conduction. The choice of therapy depends on the patient's degree of hemodynamic instability. Attempt vagal stimulation, if patient is stable and if it does not unduly delay chemical or electrical cardioversion. Bradyarrhythmias include: sinus bradycardia, sinus node arrest with atrial, junctional and idioventricular escape rhythms and AV block. The emergency treatment of bradycardia depends on its hemodynamic consequences. If heart rate is <60 beats per minute with poor perfusion despite effective ventilation with oxygen, it may be treated with chest compressions, epinephrine through IV or endotracheal tube. If bradycardia persists or responds only transiently, consider a continuous infusion of epinephrine or isoproterenol and plan for emergency transcutaneous pacing. If bradycardia is due to vagal stimulation or primary A-V block, giving atropine may be beneficial. PMID:20978872
Nigeria's underdevelopment and economic stagnation has been linked by many to its rapid rate of population growth and high birth rate (6.34 children/family). The World Bank, a leading force in the birth control for development campaign, maintains that rapidly growing populations increase the proportion of dependent and economically inactive people in society, thereby impeding capital accumulation needed for development. However, this approach ignores the inequitable structures for the distribution of wealth in developing countries that depend on poverty for their existence. A more sensible approach to population growth in Nigeria would include increased incomes, free education, improved public health and nutrition programs, and a changed social role for women. In fact, rather than being a barrier to development, Nigeria's growing population offers a rich labor reserve for the development of the country's vast resources. The anti-birth propaganda that has pressured the Nigeria Government to adopt a population policy has served to obscure and conceal the real causes of poverty and underdevelopment--the exploitation of the country by multinational corporations. If the income gap in Nigeria is reduced and the living standards of the majority rise, people will voluntarily lower their fertility without coercive family planning programs. PMID:12281080
Manzini, B M; Ferdani, G; Simonetti, V; Donini, M; Seidenari, S
Our study concerns contact sensitization in children, the frequency of which is still debated in the literature, even though specific reports are increasing. During a 7 year period (1988-1994) 670 patients, 6 months to 12 years of age, were patch tested with the European standard series, integrated with 24 haptens, at the same concentrations as for adults. We observed positive results in 42% of our patients. Thimerosal, nickel sulfate, Kathon CG, fragrance mix, neomycin, wool alcohols, and ammoniated mercury induced most of the positive responses. The highest sensitization rate was found in children from 0 to 3 years of age. Comments on main positive haptens are reported. Seventy-seven percent of our sensitized patients were atopics, suggesting that atopy represents a predisposing factor for contact hypersensitivity. Patch testing represents a useful diagnostic procedure for the definition of childhood eczematous dermatitis and for the identification of agents inducing contact sensitization which is frequently associated with atopic dermatitis. PMID:9496796
Jamaluddin Ahmed, Farooque; Shinohara, Andrá Luis; Bonifécio da Silva, Salete Moura; Andreo, Jesus Carlos
ABSTRACT% Visible epiglottis is a rare anatomical variant which is usually asymptomatic without the need of any medical or surgical intervention. It is most commonly seen in children but there are some reports of its prevalence in adults too. Cases of visible epiglottis seem to be unfamiliar among dental professionals. In this report, we have attempted to present this anatomical variant of epiglottis in the feld of dentistry by describing a case of an 8-year-old girl who presented to the department of pediatric dentistry for normal dental check-up unaware of the existence of the visible epiglottis. How to cite this article: Ahmed FJ, Shinohara AL, da Silva SMB, Andreo JC, de Castro Rodrigues A. Visible Epiglottis in Children. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):223-224. PMID:25709308
In child psychiatry the developmental aspect is emphasized. Recognition of normal sequence of development in so-called "normal children" makes it possible to reveal pathological conditions (either retardation or acceleration of development, distortion or atypical development). Change-motion-development are philosophical categories considered a manifestation or life--of psychobiological maturation and growth. When investigating the moral development three theories were applied: the developmental theory (Piaget)--learning (Kohlberg), the dynamic theory (Sandler). Among factors which influence in a certain way the moral behaviour the following were selected: age, sex, temperament, family environment. The author describes three stages of moral development in children: preventional stage (moral heteronomy) up to the age of 8 years, conventional and pst conventional (moral autonomy) in adolescence. PMID:2805127
\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Polysomnography is the gold standard test for the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in children.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Pediatric polysomnography should be performed in a sleep laboratory equipped for children and staffed by qualified personnel\\u000a following the American Thoracic Society (ATS) standards for testing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a In 2007, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) standardized scoring of sleep stages and definitions
Goldman, Ran D.
Abstract Question I frequently suggest to parents to use acetaminophen to treat their children’s fever and pain. Recently, I had a child in my office who presented with a target-lesion skin rash a day after receiving acetaminophen. The rash resolved after 3 days and after stopping administration of acetaminophen. Does acetaminophen carry a risk of adverse events such as this? Answer Like any other medication or active substance, acetaminophen preparations might carry a risk of adverse events. In recent years a potential association between acetaminophen and asthma was investigated, and the US Food and Drug Administration recently published a warning about potential severe but rare skin reactions associated with acetaminophen. Although acetaminophen is mostly a safe medication, health care providers should be alert and advise parents about the possibility of rare but severe adverse events. PMID:24130280
Leah K. Wildenger; Laura Lee McIntyre; Barbara H. Fiese; Tanya L. Eckert
Routines are an important feature of family life and functioning in families with young children. Common daily routines such\\u000a as dinnertime, bedtime, and waking activities are powerful organizers of family behavior and may be instrumental to children\\u000a and families during times of transition, such as elementary school entry. Daily routines were examined in 132 families with\\u000a children entering kindergarten. Although
Wendy S. Grolnick; Corina Benjet; Carolyn O. Kurowski; Nicholas H. Apostoleris
The authors combined a multilevel model of parental context with a multidimensional conceptualization of parent involvement to examine the factors influencing parents’ involvement in their children’s schooling. Three sets of factors were identified: parent and child characteristics, family context, and teacher behavior and attitudes. A diverse sample of 209 mothers, their 3rd–5th grade children, and 28 teachers participated. Parents, teachers,
Janice Lillian Zeman; Michael Cassano; Cynthia Suveg; Kimberly Shipman
We investigated the psychometric properties of a new instrument, the Children’s Worry Management Scale (CWMS). The CWMS has\\u000a three subscales that specify methods of regulating worry: inhibition (the suppression of worry), dysregulation (exaggerated\\u000a displays of worry), and coping (constructive ways of managing worry). Using a Caucasian, middle-class sample of 214 children\\u000a (M = 9 years, 1 month), Study 1 provides reliability and validity data
This study, drawing on data from the 2002 Survey of Approaches to Educational Planning (SAEP), examined the predictive effects\\u000a of parenting practices and parenting style on children’s school achievement, and the predictive effects of parental expectations\\u000a and parental beliefs on parenting style for 6,626 respondents with children aged 5–18 years in Canada. Hierarchical multiple\\u000a regression analyses, after controlling for family socioeconomic
Hilary Browne Hutchinson; Allison Druin; Benjamin B. Bederson
ABSTRACT Elementary-age children (ages 6-11) are among,the largest user groups of computers ,and the Internet. Therefore, it is important to design searching and browsing tools that support them. However, many interfaces for children do not ,consider their skills and ,preferences. Children are capable of creating Boolean queries using category browsers, but have difficulty with the hierarchies used in many category
Usha Goswami; Costas Porpodas; Sally Wheelwright
Two experiments were conducted to compare the development of orthographic representations in children learning to read English\\u000a and Greek. Nonsense words that either shared both orthography and phonology at the level of the rhyme with real words (comic-bomic), phonology only (comic-bommick), or neither (dilotaff) were created for each orthography. Experiment 1 compared children’s reading of bisyllabic and trisyllabic nonsense words
Jessica Carpenter; Tammy Tsuchida
Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare but increasingly recognized disease process in children. In the pediatric\\u000a population, the etiologies of CSVT are multiple and the outcomes are variable. The current therapies for CSVT include anticoagulation,\\u000a thrombolysis, hydration, surgery, and supportive care. Adult studies, pediatric case studies, and expert opinion form the\\u000a basis for these treatment strategies. International cooperative efforts
Balfour-Lynn, Ian M
Domiciliary oxygen is used increasingly in pediatric practice, and the largest patient group to receive it is ex-premature babies with chronic neonatal lung disease. Because of a scarcity of good evidence to inform clinicians, there is a lack of consensus over many issues, even those as fundamental as the optimum target oxygen saturation. Nevertheless, many children benefit from receiving supplemental oxygen at home, particularly because it helps to keep them out of the hospital. PMID:19135592
Beth R. Hinden; Kathleen Biebel; Joanne Nicholson; Liz Mehnert
This study used a collective case study design to identify key ingredients of the Invisible Children's Project, an intervention\\u000a program for families in which a parent has a mental illness. Data were obtained from interviews with parents and service providers,\\u000a and from family file records. Qualitative analyses were used to generate hypotheses regarding key ingredients and targeted\\u000a outcomes, and to
Russell W. Steele; Jefferson Highway
Clinical practice guidelines for the management of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis in children were published by the American\\u000a Academy of Pediatrics in 2001. Changes in the antibiotic susceptibility patterns for the common pathogens causing both acute\\u000a and chronic rhinosinusitis warrant a reevaluation and update of these recommendations. In addition, there was only a very\\u000a brief discussion of chronic disease in this