We should address visual disabilities in children instead of only the childhood blindness. Diseases related to nutritional, communicable diseases should be addressed through strategies for achieving 'Millennium Development Goals'. Facilities in African countries and countries with populations like India and China must be strengthened to address curable/preventable visual disabilities in children. Even though all efforts are done to strengthen, we will have 0.93 million blind children by 2020. Role of family physicians and paediatricians in trans-disciplinary approach to address visual disabilities in children is very crucial. If rational distribution of skilled human resource is not planned visual disabilities will not reduce effectively. Rehabilitation of visually disabled children should be integral part of addressing childhood blindness. All stakeholders including parents of children with visual disabilities should work together to achieve the goals. PMID:21369469
Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers hadâ€¦
Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik
Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…
Restructuring of Kentucky's public schools is required if poor and minority children are to be included in school reform. The responsibility for creating schools that serve all children falls to both the state and local school districts. A state level initiative must be combined with local district effort. This report provides recommendations for…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).â€¦
Barker, Linda; Goldberg, Roberta
Directors of early childhood programs are the "frontline" for parents seeking admission for their children with identified special needs. In addition, developmental and behavioral issues that emerge after a child is enrolled in a program quickly come to the director's attention. Determining who can be included at a site, how to prepare the…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
Collins, Belva C.; Epstein, Ann; Reiss, Toni; Lowe, Verna
This article describes practical strategies for promoting inclusion in religious programs. Strategies are provided for including children with mental disabilities, mild mental retardation, moderate mental retardation, and severe to profound mental retardation, and older students with mental retardation. Strategies are also provided for preparing…
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang
Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…
Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J.
In this article, the authors report that, although social attention to the education of children with special needs began in the late 1970s, education for children with autism is the greatest challenge in special education in China. They point out that most school-age children with autism are still kept out of both regular and special schools. In…
Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)
Huang, Hsin-Hui; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examined the influence of information about children's disabilities on preschool teachers' responses toward integrating children with disabilities in their classroom. Of particular interest was whether the severity of the child's educational needs and information about diagnosis were related to teachers' responses. Data were collected…
Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.
Intended to help Head Start programs recruit and include children with significant disabilities and their families, this guide offers Head Start staff tools to work more collaboratively to plan and implement integrated services for all children, especially children with significant disabilities. Following an introductory section, the guide…
... Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...
... Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...
... Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? Services to Children, Elderly,...
Zhang, Jiabei; Griffin, Ann J.
The number of children diagnosed with autism is on the rise, and teachers are seldom prepared to teach children with autism in their classes. However, it is possible to successfully include children with autism in general physical education settings by understanding inclusive physical education, individualizing instruction, targetingâ€¦
Carlson, Brenda; Samels, Karen
This guidebook is designed to provide information on technology to teachers and service providers who work with children with special needs. It may also be helpful for parents and caregivers of young children. Topics include: (1) the definition of assistive technology; (2) the philosophy of using technology with young children and a rationale that…
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectualâ€¦
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira
In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…
Brown, William H., Ed.; Conroy, Maureen A., Ed.
Mainstreaming, integrating, and including young children with developmental delays in programs with peers without developmental delays began over 25 years ago and has gained much legal and policy support. This book provides early childhood educators with high-quality and contemporary information that they might need while serving young children…
Chen, Deborah; Dote-Kwan, Jamie
This handbook provides basic information on the needs of young children (ages 3-8) whose multiple disabilities include visual impairments. Chapters address: (1) common disabilities associated with visual impairment, the primary educational needs of these children, and the complexity involved in teaching them; (2) the need for clearly defined…
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young
The authors examined factors related to preschool children's reasoning about including a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in different play activities. They hypothesized that children's inclusion decisions would be influenced by features of the physical environment, attention to issues of fairness and equity, and individual childâ€¦
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young
The authors examined factors related to preschool children's reasoning about including a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in different play activities. They hypothesized that children's inclusion decisions would be influenced by features of the physical environment, attention to issues of fairness and equity, and individual child…
Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)
Mourembou, GaĂ«l; Fenollar, Florence; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Angelique; Maghendji Nzondo, Sydney; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Zoleko Manego, Rella; Ehounoud, Cyrille Herve Bile; Bittar, Fadi; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg
Background Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile) were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7%) children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%), which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8%) and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6). Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged â‰¤5, 6â€“10 and 11â€“15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively) than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively). Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called â€śDEUXâ€ť. Mansonella sp. â€śDEUXâ€ť was detected only in febrile children. Conclusions/Significance Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. â€śDEUXâ€ť and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans. PMID:26484866
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G
Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs. PMID:11573339
Odom, Samuel L., Ed.
Based on a groundbreaking 5-year research study conducted by the Early Childhood Research Institute on Inclusion, this book explores the barriers to and influences on inclusive education settings for young children. Topics covered include individualized instruction, family perceptions of inclusion, and cultural and linguistic diversity. The…
Mactavish, Jennifer B.; Schleien, Stuart J.
Examined the recreation activities of families that included children with developmental disabilities. Data from surveys and interviews indicated that the most popular and frequent forms of recreation reflected five categories: passive, play, physical, social, and entertainment/special events. Despite variations in family sociodemographic…
Greenstein, Doreen; And Others
This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…
There is little research on inclusion of children with selective mutism in school/kindergarten. Moreover, few studies have tried to understand selectively mute children's interactions in the natural surroundings of their home and school/kindergarten. Five children meeting the DSM-IV criteria for selective mutism were video-observed in social…
In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, theâ€¦
Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Brain stem glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Germ cell tumors; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - ...
Pronicka, Ewa; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Pronicki, Maciej
Mitochondrial diseases in children are more frequently caused by mutations in nuclear DNA then in mtDNA. Special clinical phenotypes are associated with the mutations in SURF1 gene, in SCO2 gene and with mtDNA depletion syndromes. Leigh syndrome is the most common clinical presentation of various mitochondrial disorders during childhood. Elevation of lactate in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine is a simple biochemical marker of mitochondrial disorders but its specificity and sensitivity are low. Biochemical investigation of muscle biopsy and search for mitochondrial mutations remain a gold standard in the diagnosis. The standarized diagnostic criteria to establish level of diagnostic certainty (possible, probable, definite) are proposed to be used in practice; these include clinical features, neuroimaging and muscle biopsy investigations. Further research directions to improve our understanding of mitochondrial pathologies in children are suggested. PMID:18807927
Warnell, F; George, B; McConachie, H; Johnson, M; Hardy, R; Parr, J R
Objectives (1) Describe how the Autism Spectrum Database-UK (ASD-UK) was established; (2) investigate the representativeness of the first 1000 children and families who participated, compared to those who chose not to; (3) investigate the reliability of the parent-reported Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnoses, and present evidence about the validity of diagnoses, that is, whether children recruited actually have an ASD; (4) present evidence about the representativeness of the ASD-UK children and families, by comparing their characteristics with the first 1000 children and families from the regional Database of children with ASD living in the North East (Daslne), and children and families identified from epidemiological studies. Setting Recruitment through a network of 50 UK child health teams and self-referral. Patients Parents/carers with a child with ASD, aged 2â€“16â€…years, completed questionnaires about ASD and some gave professionalsâ€™ reports about their children. Results 1000 families registered with ASD-UK in 30â€…months. Children of families who participated, and of the 208 who chose not to, were found to be very similar on: gender ratio, year of birth, ASD diagnosis and social deprivation score. The reliability of parent-reported ASD diagnoses of children was very high when compared with clinical reports (over 96%); no database child without ASD was identified. A comparison of gender, ASD diagnosis, age at diagnosis, school placement, learning disability, and deprivation score of children and families from ASD-UK with 1084 children and families from Daslne, and families from population studies, showed that ASD-UK families are representativeÂ of families of children with ASD overall. Conclusions ASD-UK includes families providing parent-reported data about their child and family, who appear to be broadly representative of UK children with ASD. Families continue to join the databases and more than 3000 families can now be contacted by researchers about UK autism research. PMID:26341584
Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila
Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…
Boylan, Ellen; Goldman, Dan
States and local school districts are required by federal law to educate preschool age children with disabilities in typical early childhood programs alongside children who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. This policy brief provides an overview of the law and sets forth a list of policy recommendations that can help…
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
Shire, Stephanie Y; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent-child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84-96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70% of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363
In this commentary, developments related to conducting randomized controlled trials in authentic preschool settings that include young children with disabilities are discussed in relation to the Strain and Bovey study.
Kuper, Hannah; Monteath-van Dok, Adrienne; Wing, Kevin; Danquah, Lisa; Evans, Jenny; Zuurmond, Maria; Gallinetti, Jacqueline
Background Children with disabilities are widely believed to be less likely to attend school or access health care, and more vulnerable to poverty. There is currently little large-scale or internationally comparable evidence to support these claims. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of disability on the lives of children sponsored by Plan International across 30 countries. Methods and Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey including 907,734 children aged 0–17 participating in the Plan International Sponsorship Programme across 30 countries in 2012. Parents/guardians were interviewed using standardised questionnaires including information on: age, sex, health, education, poverty, and water and sanitation facilities. Disability was assessed through a single question and information was collected on type of impairment. The dataset included 8,900 children with reported disabilities across 30 countries. The prevalence of disability ranged from 0.4%–3.0% and was higher in boys than girls in 22 of the 30 countries assessed – generally in the range of 1.3–1.4 fold higher. Children with disabilities were much less likely to attend formal education in comparison to children without disabilities in each of the 30 countries, with age-sex adjusted odds ratios exceeding 10 for nearly half of the countries. This relationship varied by impairment type. Among those attending school, children with disabilities were at a lower level of schooling for their age compared to children without disabilities. Children with disabilities were more likely to report experiencing a serious illness in the last 12 months, except in Niger. There was no clear relationship between disability and poverty. Conclusions Children with disabilities are at risk of not fulfilling their educational potential and are more vulnerable to serious illness. This exclusion is likely to have a long-term deleterious impact on their lives unless services are adapted to promote their inclusion. PMID:25202999
Vickerman, Philip; Blundell, Milly
According to Blatchford, learning support assistants (LSA) in schools within England comprise of a quarter of their workforce. In recent years, the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream school settings has seen significant rises. Furthermore, the English government has raised expectations on the amount of…
Broelsch, C E; Emond, J C; Thistlethwaite, J R; Whitington, P F; Zucker, A R; Baker, A L; Aran, P F; Rouch, D A; Lichtor, J L
Since the establishment of a clinical program in liver transplantation in 1984, 162 liver transplants have been performed in 131 patients (78 adults, 53 children). The patient mortality rate while waiting for a suitable organ has been 8% for adults and only 4% for children (25-46% reported in the literature). The low pediatric mortality is a result of the use of reduced-size liver transplants. A total of 14 procedures have been performed in recipients whose clinical condition was deteriorating and for whom no full-size graft could be located. Of 14 children, 13 were less than 3 years of age. Patient survival is 50%, comparable to survival of high-risk recipients of full-size livers. Using reduced-size liver grafting in a transplant program can lower mortality for children awaiting a transplant by overcoming size disparity. Reduced-size liver grafting will allow more effective use of donor resources and provide a potential avenue of research for organ splitting and living related donation. PMID:3052326
Watson, Amy; McCathren, Rebecca
The authors present a checklist designed to help preschool and kindergarten administrators and teachers build confidence in their ability to be inclusive and to increase their awareness of the needs of children with disabilities. Teachers can use the checklist to prepare for the inclusion of a child with a disability. "Identifying potential…
Tangunan Camota Contreras, Jennifer
Research Topic: The majority of Christian schools in the United States exclude children who have disabilities from their learning communities. This study examines the practices of 11 Christian schools throughout the United States, through conversations with a top leader in each school, that provide access to and/or inclusion in their schools.…
Honey, Emma; McConachie, Helen; Randle, Val; Shearer, Heather; Le Couteur, Ann S.
Repetitive behaviours are a relatively neglected area of study in autism. Previous research has concluded that repetitive behaviour is inversely related to ability and that it tends to increase over the preschool years. One-hundred and four children ages 24-48 months, with autism, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or other disorders, were followedâ€¦
Young children with chronic illness who attend our early childhood facilities and schools have very special needs. They are more likely to encounter academic challenges and to have peer and emotional difficulties than are their healthy peers. As well, their families are frequently undergoing intense stress. The challenge to educators is to ensureâ€¦
Levin-Decanini, Tal; Connolly, Sucheta D.; Simpson, David; Suarez, Liza; Jacob, Suma
Background Elucidating differences in social-behavioral profiles of children with comorbid presentations, utilizing caregiver as well as teacher reports, will refine our understanding of how contextual symptoms vary across anxiety-related disorders. Methods In our pediatric anxiety clinic, the most frequent diagnoses and comorbidities were mixed anxiety (MA; ? 1 anxiety disorder; N = 155), anxiety with comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (MA/ADHD, N = 47) and selective mutism (SM, N = 48). Behavioral measures (CPRS, CTRS) were analyzed using multiple one-way multivariate analyses of covariance tests. Differences between the three diagnostic groups were examined using completed parent and teacher reports (N = 135, 46 and 48 for MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups, respectively). Results Comparisons across the MA, MA/ADHD and SM groups indicate a significant multivariate main effect of group for caregiver and teacher responses (p < 0.01). Caregivers reported that children with SM are similar in profile to those with MA, and both groups were significantly different from the MA/ADHD group. Teachers reported that children with SM had more problem social behaviors than either the MA or MA/ADHD groups. Further comparison indicates a significant main effect of group (p < 0.001), such that children with SM have the greatest differences in behavior observed by teachers versus caregivers. Conclusions Clinical profiles between MA/ADHD, MA and SM groups varied, illustrating the importance of multi-rater assessment scales to capture subtle distinctions and to inform treatment planning given that comorbidities occur frequently in children who present with anxiety. PMID:23526795
This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies an…
This study describes children's awareness of what it means to teach a game to a peer where the act of teaching becomes expression of the child's possible awareness. Awareness is defined as the attention to different aspects of the teaching process shown by the teaching child, sometimes through their own verbal reflection. This implies anâ€¦
Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.
There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…
Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.
There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews withâ€¦
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different fromâ€¦
Background During cancer treatment children have reduced contact with their social network of friends, and have limited participation in education, sports, and leisure activities. During and following cancer treatment, children describe school related problems, reduced physical fitness, and problems related to interaction with peers. Methods/design The RESPECT study is a nationwide population-based prospective, controlled, mixed-methods intervention study looking at children aged 6-18Â years newly diagnosed with cancer in eastern Denmark (nâ€‰=â€‰120) and a matched control group in western Denmark (nâ€‰=â€‰120). RESPECT includes Danish-speaking children diagnosed with cancer and treated at pediatric oncology units in Denmark. Primary endpoints are the level of educational achievement one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy, and the value of VO2max one year after the cessation of first-line cancer therapy. Secondary endpoints are quality of life measured by validated questionnaires and interviews, and physical performance. RESPECT includes a multimodal intervention program, including ambassador-facilitated educational, physical, and social interventions. The educational intervention includes an educational program aimed at the child with cancer, the childâ€™s schoolteachers and classmates, and the childâ€™s parents. Children with cancer will each have two ambassadors assigned from their class. The ambassadors visit the child with cancer at the hospital at alternating 2-week intervals and participate in the intervention program. The physical and social intervention examines the effect of early, structured, individualized, and continuous physical activity from diagnosis throughout the treatment period. The patients are tested at diagnosis, at 3 and 6Â months after diagnosis, and one year after the cessation of treatment. The study is powered to quantify the impact of the combined educational, physical, and social intervention programs. Discussion RESPECT is the first population-based study to examine the effect of early rehabilitation for children with cancer, and to use healthy classmates as ambassadors to facilitate the normalization of social life in the hospital. For children with cancer, RESPECT contributes to expanding knowledge on rehabilitation that can also facilitate rehabilitation of other children undergoing hospitalization for long-term illness. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov: file. NCT01772849 and NCT01772862 PMID:24229362
Schlene, Vickie J.
Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)
Ross, Nicola J.
Evidence of the ways in which children utilise neighbourhood spaces for play and socalising is presented here. Findings are based on research conducted on the social and environmental geographies of children in middle childhood in Fife, Scotland. Photographs and maps produced by the children are used to illustrate their active, emotional and…
Docherty, S; Sandelowski, M
The focus in health-related research on children has shifted from seeking information about children to seeking information directly from them. Children, even as young as three years old, can give graphic descriptions and have excellent recall of experiences related to adverse events, such as illness and hospitalization. Children use scripts as the primary means of anticipating, comprehending, and re-creating real-life experience. The content, timing, number, and structure of interviews will influence the completeness, accuracy, and consistency of children's recall of events. Although at times conflicting, the findings from recent scholarship on children's narrative competence will assist researchers to select the interviewing strategies most likely to yield faithful representations of experience. PMID:10094302
Hawes, Hugh, Ed.; Scotchmer, Christine, Ed.
This book is designed for those who work with children and who believe that children, in schools and as family members, need to be considered partners in spreading health messages as well as benefiting from them. It contains the messages included in "Facts for Life," a handbook that presents practical, low-cost ways of protecting children's livesâ€¦
Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.
Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for workingâ€¦
Burke, Vee; And Others
This report compares Hispanic children with non-Hispanic white and black children in regard to income and several factors related to the poverty of children, including: education of parents; age of parents; family size; and hours of work. Based on Census Bureau data, the report consists of six chapters which present the following: (1)…
Fortier, Michelle A.; Chorney, Jill MacLaren; Rony, Rachel Yaffa Zisk; Perret-Karimi, Danielle; Rinehart, Joseph B.; Camilon, Felizardo S.; Kain, Zeev N.
Background The purpose of this investigation was to identify what perioperative information children want to be given by the medical staff. Methods As a first step we developed an instrument based on a qualitative study conducted with children in Great Britain, input from a focus group, and input from school children. On the day of surgery, 143 children aged 7-17 years old completed a 40-item assessment of desired surgical information and a measure of anxiety (STAIC). Parents completed a measure assessing their child’s temperament (EASI), and a measure of their own anxiety (STAI). Results Results indicated that the vast majority of children had a desire for comprehensive information about their surgery, including information about pain and anesthesia, as well as procedural information and information about potential complications. The most highly endorsed items by children involved information about pain. Children who were more anxious endorsed a stronger desire for pain information and lesser tendency to avoid information. Younger children wanted to know what the perioperative environment would look like more than adolescent children. Conclusions We conclude that the majority of children aged 7-17 years old who undergo surgery want to be given comprehensive perioperative information and healthcare providers should ensure adequate information regarding postoperative pain is provided. PMID:19762736
Finke, Erinn H; McNaughton, David B; Drager, Kathryn D R
A qualitative online focus group methodology was used to investigate the experiences of five elementary school teachers (grades K-5) who had included in their general education classrooms children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who required augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Information was obtained from the participants in the following areas: (a) the benefits of educational inclusion, (b) the negative impacts of educational inclusion, (c) the challenges of educational inclusion, (d) the supports for educational inclusion, and (e) recommendations for other teachers and individuals involved in the inclusion process. Participants primarily chose to focus on inclusion as a beneficial practice for all involved, but did describe a few barriers and challenges of inclusion. The results are discussed as they relate to these themes and with reference to published literature. Recommendations for future directions are also presented. PMID:19444682
... education and related services. b. Analyze school health data for those preschool children and children who... professional health personnel as may be necessary, under this part, to aid in identifying possible disabling.... Evaluation Procedures 1. Each CSC will provide a full and comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of...
... education and related services. b. Analyze school health data for those preschool children and children who... professional health personnel as may be necessary, under this part, to aid in identifying possible disabling.... Evaluation Procedures 1. Each CSC will provide a full and comprehensive diagnostic evaluation of...
Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John
Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early…
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communicationâ€¦
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie
This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.â€¦
Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John
Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in earlyâ€¦
Feinberg, Sandra; Jordan, Barbara; Deerr, Kathleen; Langa, Michelle
This publication is a guide to assist librarians in taking a proactive stance to include families of children with special needs in programs and services. The focus is on families with children up to age five, and covers the basic principles underlying inclusion, family-centered service, resource-based practice, and the provision of library…
The results of a survey conducted during the 1968-1969 school year by the State of Idaho Department of Education are reported. Twenty six thousand and forty three children with special handicaps were identified according to type of problem. Each counties' numerical delineation of children with learning problems, speech difficulties, hearing…
The major aims of this book are to provide an account of racial attitude development in young children and to describe the effects of racism on the development of black children, specifically in the United Kingdom. The book draws freely on American and British research in an effort to illuminate the British experience. The first two chapters…
Child & Youth Services, 2007
Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common on the ...
OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the same tasks of grief as adults, their unique psychological defences and evolving cognitive and emotional development make their grieving different from adults'. Understanding these unique childhood features will allow family physicians to more effectively help children through the tasks of acknowledging a death, working through the pain of that death, and accommodating it. CONCLUSIONS: With a framework for grief counseling that incorporates unique features of children's mourning, family physicians will be in a better position to assist their young bereaved patients. PMID:10626057
Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Komaroff, Eugene; Rodriguez, Barbara L.; Lopez, Lisa M.; Scarpino, Shelley E.; Goldstein, Brian
Purpose In this study, the authors investigated factors that affect bilingual children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in their 2 languages. Method Participants included 191 Latino families and their children, who averaged 59 months of age. Data on parental characteristics and children’s exposure to and usage of Spanish and English were collected. The authors assessed children’s Spanish and English vocabulary and story recall abilities using subtests of the Woodcock–Muńoz Language Survey—Revised (Woodcock, Muńoz-Sandoval, Ruef, & Alvarado, 2005). Results Sizeable percentages of variation in children’s English (R2 = .61) and Spanish (R2 = .55) vocabulary scores were explained by children’s exposure to, and usage of, each language and maternal characteristics. Similarly, variations in children’s story recall scores in English (R2 = .38) and Spanish (R2 = .19) were also explained by the factors considered in this investigation. However, the authors found that different sets of factors in each category affected children’s vocabulary and story recall abilities in each language. Conclusions Children’s exposure to and usage of their two languages as well as maternal characteristics play significant roles in bilingual individuals’ language development. The results highlight the importance of gathering detailed sociolinguistic information about bilingual children when these children are involved in research and when they enter the educational system. PMID:22337497
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... and plans for having children during your regular medical visits with your health care provider. These discussions ( ...
Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Gordon, Andrew M
Hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy and constrained-induced movement therapy have shown evidence of effectiveness in improvement of upper extremity use in children with unilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The effectiveness of interventions that are based on intensive practice of activities that combine UE and LE functions has not been reported. We propose that bimanual UE activities that simultaneously require trunk and LE postural adaptations uniquely address motor control limitations of children with unilateral spastic CP. The aim of this perspective is to present such an approach Hand Arm Bimanual Intensive Therapy Including Lower Extremities (HABIT-ILE). HABIT-ILE is unique in selection of tasks and activities that require simultaneous control and coordination of UE and LE movements. It is a motor-learning-based approach using problem solving and highly structured practice. During the intervention, activities and tasks are progressively graded toward more complex bimanual coordination for the UE and increasing demands of the LE. HABIT-ILE is provided in small groups for 90 hr using a camp model. Future research (randomized controlled trial) is needed to determine the effectiveness of HABIT-ILE. PMID:25271469
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
Discusses three major ways in which nature helps children develop. Discusses observations of theorists and researchers, including Maria Montessori, that nature stimulates children's powers of observation, fosters creativity, and instills a sense of peace and being at one with the world. Offers recommendations, including protecting nature,…
Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.
Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)
... e.g. medical emergencies, fire, alcohol, drugs, strangers, guns, etc.) When and how to answer the phone ... Children Internet Use in Children Movies and Children Firearms and Children If you find Facts for Families Â© ...
... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...
Analyzed is the impact of regional, racial or ethnic, and socioeconomic factors on handicapped students' participation during 1973 in special education programs in more than 37,000 schools within 2,500 local U.S. school districts. Included are data on American Indian, black, Spanish surnamed, Asian American, and nonminority pupils enrolled in…
Miller, Carol; Lacey, Penny; Layton, Lyn
This study evaluated how 30 British primary school classes implemented inclusion of students with special educational needs (SEN) in the curriculum's literacy hour. It examined resources, teaching techniques, timetabling, personnel, classroom organization, location, and training. Findings indicated most SEN students were included in literacy…
Lillis, K A; Jaffe, D M
Childhood injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality in industrialized countries, and many injuries occur on playgrounds. Our purpose was to examine childhood playground injuries in a metropolitan center in Canada. All children injured on playground equipment who were seen in the emergency department (ED) at The Hospital for Sick Children between March 1990 and July 1991 and were entered in the Children's Hospital Injury Research and Prevention Project (CHIRPP) database were included. The type, body part, and mechanism of injury were determined as well as the type of equipment, location, and surface. Among the 289 children injured on playground equipment, the mean age was 5.9 years with 39% < 5 years (range: 1 to 18 years). The most common injuries included fractures (28%), lacerations (24%), and hematomas (14%). The head and neck were injured 43% of the time, the upper extremity 41%, lower extremity 10%, and the trunk 6%. Climbing apparatus injuries occurred in 29% of children < 5 years compared with 47% of those injured who were > or = 5 years (P = 0.002). Injuries related to slides occurred in 40% of children < 5 years compared to 26% of children > or = 5 years (P = 0.033). Of children < 5 years, 58% had head and neck injuries compared to 32% of children > or = 5 years (P = 0.0006). Of children < 5 years, 28% had upper extremity injuries compared to 49% of children > or = 5 years (P = 0.0005). There were no fatalities and the overall hospitalization rate was 18%. Of those children hospitalized, 77% had fractures, compared to 16% of those not hospitalized (P = 0.00001). Of all children hospitalized, 62% were injured on climbing apparatus, compared to 37% of those not hospitalized (P = 0.0004). There were no significant differences between nonprotective and natural protective surfaces with respect to hospitalization. We conclude that: 1) upper extremity injuries, especially fractures, accounted for the majority of hospitalizations resulting from injuries on playground equipment; 2) climbing apparatus-related injuries accounted for nearly two thirds of hospitalizations; 3) older children sustained more injuries on climbing apparatus, where younger children sustained more injuries on slides; and 4) younger children sustained more head injuries on playground equipment than older children, but most of these were minor. PMID:9127428
Calogero, Joanna M.
Focuses on why and how to integrate music education with children's literature. Discusses the use of the thematic approach. Describes a unit on animals, focusing on books to include in the unit. Includes a bibliography of children's books. (CMK)
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004
Sunal, Cynthia Szymanski; Warash, Bobbi Gibson
Techniques for encouraging young children to discover the purpose and use of maps are discussed. Motor activity and topological studies form a base from which the teacher and children can build a mapping program of progressive sophistication. Concepts important to mapping include boundaries, regions, exteriors, interiors, holes, order, point ofâ€¦
Verbov, J L
Common skin problems in 340 children routinely seen during a winter period, included napkin rashes in infants, atopic eczema throughout childrhood, and acne vulgaris in late childhood. Skin infections and psoriasis were also commonly seen. If possible, when topical steroid preparations more potent than hydrocortisone cream BPC are used in children, they should be used sparingly and for short periods only. PMID:135974
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
The purpose of licensing is to provide protection in circumstances in which people are vulnerable and to mandate that positive services will be provided. The common denominator of human vulnerability in licensed children's services is the fact that the children are in the care of someone other than their families. Licensed services include family…
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Brazziel, William F.
More and more minority children are making higher test scores, generally, due to a variety of factors. The high IQ minority child, therefore, might be better understood than previously. Most data in this area has been collected on black children and youth although other cultural groups in America are now being studied more closely. These include…
Boeckx, Roger L.
Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on whatâ€¦
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Longâ€¦
Rosenberg, Shelley K.; Stillman-Powell, Patricia
The author examines issues related to adult assertiveness in controlling and setting limits for handicapped children. Reasons for adults not wishing to be in charge include feelings of guilt, lack of consistency in enforcing rules, and a sense of sympathy for special children. Assertiveness is distinguished from aggressiveness, and suggestions for…
Fifty children (ages 9-15, N=30 with high intelligence) participating in a course on creative thinking were invited to construct questions about mankind's future. Gifted children displayed a high degree of anxiety and a greater, somewhat pessimistic, long-range outlook. Interests included quality of life, faith in human potential, and individual…
Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.
These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Yourâ€¦
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
Hesjedal, Elisabeth; Hetland, Hilde; Iversen, Anette Christine; Manger, Terje
Issues concerning interprofessional collaboration (IPC) for children at risk have become a priority globally as well as in Norway. By international standards, the Norwegian educational system is regarded as inclusive and collaborative in terms of the external services that support schools and pupils. However, a debate continues on how to best…
This is an exploratory study suggesting ways of analysing challenges for developing countries in the move to greater inclusion of disabled children and young people in learning. The paper focuses on pedagogical challenges to realising more inclusive education. Pedagogy encompasses not only the practice of teaching and learning, but also the ideas…
Muskin, Joshua A.
Supported by Save the Children, the Mali Community School project helped fund school construction in previously unserved villages and accommodated community priorities: instruction in Bambara rather than French, integration of local knowledge into traditional subject areas, and school schedules adapted to agricultural needs. Project evaluation…
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara
A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children areâ€¦
Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758
Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Huda, Tanvir; Zhou, Guohai; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Garde, Ainara; Moinuddin, Md; Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; El Arifeen, Shams; Larson, Charles; Ansermino, J. Mark
Background The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course. Methods We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested. Findings Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range) age of 1.02 (0.42â€“2.24), were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90). At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%), specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%), positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73%) and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%). Conclusion A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of this model in a community setting will be required before adoption into clinical practice. PMID:26580403
Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda
The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.â€¦
The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730
Penny, Helen; Haddock, Geoffrey
The aim of the present study was to assess the content, favourability and generality of perceptions held about overweight children. The research also addressed whether anti-fat biases change with age and whether they result from a strong association between overweight and bad behaviour, a weak association between overweight and good behaviour or…
McNamee, Abigail Stahl, Ed.; And Others
Written by professional psychologists, the 10 articles collected in this bulletin focus on stressful experiences that, when inappropriately responded to, can result in developmental problems for children. Stress factors are conceptualized as being either direct or indirect, or internal or external. Articles are organized in terms of these four…
Texas Child Care, 2002
Describes the common symptoms of stress exhibited by young children including: (1) social or behavioral; (2) physical; (3) emotional; (4) cognitive; and (5) language. Addresses causes of stress, which typically represent change, fear, or loss in children. Offers strategies for easing children's stress including muscle relaxation, deep breathing,…
Weber, R A; White, R R
Poisonous snakebites cause a severe envenomation syndrome in children, yet treatment remains controversial. Sixty-seven patients were treated for poisonous snakebites at our institution between 1975 and 1990; 18 were children < or = 12 years old. There were 13 rattlesnake bites, 4 copperhead bites, and 1 unidentified bite. Initial management included intravenous fluids and antibiotic administration, laboratory studies, tetanus prophylaxis, affected limb elevation, and a limited excision of the bite site in the emergency room. Antivenin was administered only if signs of systemic involvement such as shock, coagulopathy, gastrointestinal cramping, or neurological involvement were present. Children developed systemic involvement 72% of the time, 9 children (50%) developed coagulopathy. Consequently, 11 (61%) children received antivenin. The dose of antivenin they received was 3.2 ml/kg and the children tolerated it well with only 36% of them demonstrating adverse reactions to the antivenin. Clinically, the pediatric patients demonstrated signs and symptoms of a fulminant envenomation syndrome (8 days, average hospital stay), yet, they had a good eventual outcome. Only 11% of children reported long-term morbidity. No deaths occurred and 100% of patients were able to return to full preinjury activities. We conclude that Crotalidae envenomation in children is a serious disease and warrants hospitalization, early surgical involvement, and frequent use of antivenin. PMID:8215129
When there is something we want to know, we usually ask experts, but rarely do we ask children about their own childhood. This paper looks at children's perceptions and responses in relation to programming on children's television. Topics include: (1) what are children's programs?; (2) when do children become adults?; (3) criteria for quality; (4)…
Examines issues posed by cases involving murder of children by children, including the Bulger case in England and the Redergard case in Norway, which, though not typical, articulate how changes in notions of childhood mesh with change in major social institutions. Addresses concerns about pursuit of justice for children and analyzes relationshipsâ€¦
Save the Children, Westport, CT.
This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…
... simple suggestions: Do not put a crib or bed near a window that a child can open. ... adequate fencing. Tips for avoiding falls from bunk beds include: Children, 6 years old and younger, should ...
... and most other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the ... your child's preferences and abilities. Individual activities include swimming, running, skiing, or biking. Group sports are another ...
Special help given to children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta (brittle bone disease) is described, including adapted equipment to allow for writing and use of a classroom assistant to aid participation in a regular classroom. (CL)
... of diabetes and some kinds of cancer improved psychological well-being, including gaining more self-confidence and higher ... may be particularly helpful for the physical and psychological well-being of children with a weight problem. AHA ...
Deaton, Ann Virginia
Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…
McCormick, Penelope G.; Olson, David R.
Three different theory of mind tasks were conducted with 4- to 8-year-old Quechua peasant children in the Peruvian Andes. The study investigated the ways in which children in preliterate cultures think and the possibility that they think differently than children in literate cultures. The tasks included: (1) a false-belief task, which tested the…
Reyes, Augustina H.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…
Reyes, Augustina H.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the mediaâ€¦
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (3) total pedalcyclist…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (3) total pedalcyclist…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…
Baghdayan, Annie T.
The practice of inclusion, even the term itself, has been the subject of controversy over the last several decades. "Inclusion" has many interpretations, depending upon the student, educator, and setting. In my dissertation, I sought to find answers from parents and educators' regarding their perceptions on including young children…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…
Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.
Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key themeâ€¦
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) Moreâ€¦
Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.
Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key theme…
Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon
In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard
Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils fromâ€¦
... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...
Challamel, M J; Mazzola, M E; Nevsimalova, S; Cannard, C; Louis, J; Revol, M
The clinical and polygraphic characteristics of narcolepsy in children were established on the analysis of 97 reported cases in children (including 12 personal cases). In idiopathic narcolepsies (77 cases) narcoleptic attacks occurred in 97% of the cases, cataplexy in 80.5%, hypnagogic hallucination in 39% and sleep paralysis in 29%; 13% of the children had the tetrad; dyssomnia was a prominent feature. Polygraphic data showed no significant differences between adults and children. In symptomatic narcolepsies (20 cases): cataplexy was the prominent feature occurring in 95% of the cases, 26% of the children had status cataplecticus; in these narcoleptic-cataplectic syndromes there was often an absence of polygraphic evidence of narcolepsy. Symptomatic narcolepsy should be suspected in cases where narcolepsy is detected in preteenage children, where cataplectic attacks are abnormally frequent, where there is an absence of polygraphic evidence of classical narcolepsy (although this criterion may not apply in the case of younger children) or where human leukocyte antigen typing for DR2 is negative. An association with a Niemann-Pick disease type C was found in 12 out of the 20 symptomatic cases, this association merits further study. PMID:7701194
Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...
Carey, J C
A new model for care of children with genetic disorders has emerged from the pediatric and genetic communities in the last decade. This strategy incorporates the basic principles of well-child care, including ongoing psychological support for families, health screening, and prevention, into health supervision visits for children with these conditions. The same types of guidelines that have been developed for well children can also be applied to the routine follow-up and screening of children with these special health care needs. A number of general issues are applicable in the discussion of health supervision guidelines: correct diagnosis, analysis of the natural history of the condition, critical review of screening modalities and interventions, ongoing psychological support, and genetic counseling. With these points in mind and after a thorough review of the natural history of a disorder, guidelines can be developed and often applied to the primary care setting. Down syndrome is an ideal condition to which one can apply such a model because most children are cared for by primary care pediatricians, and the natural history is relatively well studied. Discussion of health provision in Down syndrome brings out some of the controversies regarding routine screening and review of interventions. Discussion of the natural history and uncertainties evident in the care of infants with trisomy 18 exemplifies the important issue of ongoing psychological support. Review of the natural history of neurofibromatosis emphasizes all of the principles involved in providing this model as a framework for health supervision. One of the key identified but unresolved issues is the decision as to when a primary care pediatrician can orchestrate the care on his or her own versus referral to a multidisciplinary team of specialists. In some conditions such as Down syndrome, it seems obvious that the primary care pediatrician can manage most of the care with periodic and appropriate referral to the necessary specialists. On the other hand, children with cystic fibrosis, meningomyelocele, and craniofacial syndromes almost always need referral to the specialist team because of the rarity of the disorder and the complex number of specialists involved in management. A condition such as NF-1 falls somewhere in between. Most children can be cared for in their childhood years by the pediatrician with referral when a symptom or sign emerges, but others would argue that all children with NF-1 need to be seen by a multidisciplinary team.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1531255
Kuntz, Patricia S.
A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…
The office of the Ombudsman for Swedish children, established within Radda Barnen (The Swedish Save the Children Fund) is occupied by five persons. Three of the staff are children's ombudsmen, one is an immigrant consultant, and one is a refugee consultant. The work of the ombudsman has six core aspects. First, attempts are made to strengthen theâ€¦
Kazdan, Jerome J.; McCulloch, J. Clement; Crawford, John S.
Endogenous uveitis in 117 children aged 15 years or under was investigated at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, in a 12-year period from 1953 to 1964. This group included 55 children with anterior uveitis, 59 with posterior uveitis, and three with diffuse uveitis. An etiologic diagnosis could be made or the uveitis recognized as part of a definite clinical syndrome in approximately 47% of the 117 children. The commonest cause of posterior uveitis was toxoplasmosis and the commonest associated finding in anterior uveitis was juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Chronic cyclitis of unknown etiology was a relatively common disease. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:6066889
Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.
The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…
Describes experiences of children and adolescents in South Africa who have been subjected to the violence of the apartheid state. Discusses detention of children and torture and assault of detained children. Against this backdrop, explores the effects of violence on children, psychological trauma, counseling interventions, and applications of…
Malchiodi, Cathy A.
Children's art not only provides a window to children's problems, it also gives them another language with which to share feelings and ideas. This book provides an overview of the multidimensional aspects of children's drawings, and is intended to assist therapists in working with children and their drawings. Chapter 1 discusses projective tests…
Stief, Elizabeth A., Ed.
A product of a year-long Governors' Campaign for Children initiative of the National Governors' Association (NGA), this report uses examples from several states in the NGA to describe the state of children and their needs. The Governors' Campaign for Children has sought to: (1) increase public awareness of the needs of young children; (2) simplify…
Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a rangeâ€¦
Taylor, Anne; Campbell, Leslie
Describes "Architecture and Children," a traveling exhibition which visually involves children in architectural principles and historic styles. States that it teaches children about architecture, and through architecture it instills the basis for aesthetic judgment. Argues that "children learn best by concrete examples of ideas, not just from…
A program of education and support is essential for children and their parent or adult caregivers when the children have experienced the death of a significant person. Children need guidance on how to deal with their profound feelings of grief. The purpose of this article is to give school nurses the ability to help children face the strange newâ€¦
According to the author, an experienced editor, teacher, and writer of children's literature, the purpose of this book is threefold: to present a broader view of children's literature, to show the wide range of children's literature, and to reveal the opportunities available for writing children's literature. The chapters discuss: (1) attitudes…
Vallet, Clothilde; AndrĂ©, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, GĂ©rard; Sotteau, FrĂ©dĂ©ric; Martha, CĂ©cile; GrĂ©lot, Laurent
Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 Â± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 Â± 2.1 to 7.7 Â± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 Â± 3.2 to 7.4 Â± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 Â± 2.5 to 7.1 Â± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 Â± 2.6 to 21.75 Â± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 Â± 23.7 to 100 Â± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 Â± 3.2 to 91.6 Â± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
Twenty-five nonfiction and 18 fiction and folklore listings are included in this bulletin on Vietnam in childrens' books. Slides, filmstrips, and film listings are also included. Each listing is accompanied by a brief annotation. Subjects include customs and culture, the country and the people, Ho Chi Min, the Vietnamese revolution, Vietnamese…
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA. PMID:9482324
This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326
Cummings, E. Mark; Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Davies, Patrick T.
Building on the conceptual framework of emotional security theory (EST) , this study longitudinally examined multiple factors linking parental depressive symptoms and child internalizing symptoms. Participants were 235 children (106 boys, 129 girls) and their cohabiting parents. Assessments included mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms when children were in kindergarten, parents’ negative expressiveness when children were in first grade, children’s emotional insecurity one year later, and children’s internalizing symptoms in kindergarten and second grade. Findings revealed both mothers’ and fathers’ depressive symptoms were related to changes in children’s internalizing symptoms as a function of parents’ negative emotional expressiveness and children’s emotional insecurity. In addition to these similar pathways, distinctive pathways as a function of parental gender were identified. Contributions are considered for understanding relations between parental depressive symptoms and children’s development. PMID:23371814
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reportsâ€¦
Baladerian, Nora J.
Estimates of the incidence of abuse of children with disabilities range from 2 to 10 times the rate of children without disabilities All forms of abuse, including multiple types of abuse with the same child, multiple perpetrators of abuse, and multiple victims within a grouping of children, exist within the population of children with…
Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.
Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…
Smutney, Joan Franklin, Ed.
This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on teaching gifted children in the regular education classroom. Featured articles include: (1) "Educating All Gifted Children for the 21st Century: Proposal for Training Regular Classroom Teachers" (Maurice D. Fisher and Michael E. Walters); (2) "Gifted Children inâ€¦
Agenda for Children, 2010
The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…
Scheer, Judith K.
This booklet is part of the "Children's Activity Series," a set of four supplemental teaching resources that promote awareness about health, family life, and cultural diversity for children in kindergarten through third grade. Nine activities are included in this booklet to help children be "germ smart" help children in kindergarten through third…
Describes the problem of police violence against street children in Guatemala. Includes details of cases, the problems of street children, and the work of Covenant House in trying to help and protect children. Argues that only education about human rights can obtain and preserve rights for children. (DK)
Phan, Tung Gia; da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Bucardo-Rivera, Filemon; Nordgren, Johan; O'Ryan, Miguel; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric
Viral metagenomics of feces collected from 58 Peruvian children with unexplained diarrhea revealed several small circular ssDNA genomes. Two genomes related to sequences previously reported in feces from chimpanzees and other mammals and recently named smacoviruses were characterized and then detected by PCR in 1.7Â % (1/58) and 19Â % (11/58) of diarrheal samples, respectively. Another three genomes from a distinct small circular ssDNA viral group provisionally called pecoviruses encoded Cap and Rep proteins with <35Â % identity to those in related genomes reported in human, seal, porcine and dromedary feces. Pecovirus DNA was detected in 15.5Â % (9/58), 5.9Â % (3/51) and 3Â % (3/100) of fecal samples from unexplained diarrhea in Peru, Nicaragua and Chile, respectively. Feces containing these ssDNA genomes also contained known human enteric viral pathogens. The cellular origins of these circular ssDNA viruses, whether human cells, ingested plants, animals or fungal foods, or residents of the gut microbiome, are currently unknown. PMID:26780893
Herbert, Carol P.
Increasing emphasis is being placed on the identification and management of sexual abuse in children. Family physicians have a role to play in identifying and treating these children. Some common myths about sexual abuse are that assaults are made mostly by strangers, that sexual abuse is rare, and that there's nothing wrong with sex between adults and children. Indicators in the child may be physical or behavioral. In the family, indicators include fathers with low self-esteem, poor relationships with wives, tendency to be domineering and restrictive, and mothers who are passive. Immediate and longterm intervention includes legal, protective and treatment components. The essential factors in successful intervention are belief in the child's disclosure; communication of that belief to the child; and immediate protection of the child and siblings. PMID:21286177
Talwar, Victoria; Lee, Kang
The relation between children’s lie-telling and their social and cognitive development was examined. Children (3 - 8 years) were told not to peek at a toy. Most children peeked and later lied about peeking. Children’s subsequent verbal statements were not always consistent with their initial denial and leaked critical information revealing their deceit. Children’s conceptual moral understanding of lies, executive functioning, and theory-of-mind understanding were also assessed. Children’s initial false denials were related to their first-order belief understanding and their inhibitory control. Children’s ability to maintain their lies was related to their second-order belief understanding. Children’s lying was related to their moral evaluations. These finding suggest that social and cognitive factors may play an important role in children’s lie-telling abilities. PMID:18717895
Johnstone, B R; Bennett, C S
Lawn mowers cause severe injuries, particularly to the lower limbs in children. The study of 52 inpatient cases treated over 12 years shows that ride-on lawn mowers cause the most severe trauma, resulting in longer hospitalization. These children more often require further admissions for reconstructive surgery including free tissue transfer. These accidents can be avoided if young children are prevented from playing near or using power lawn mowers. PMID:2571329
Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc
Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitiveâ€¦
Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc
Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitive…
Executive functions (EFs; e.g., reasoning, working memory, and self-control) can be improved. Good news indeed, since EFs are critical for school and job success and for mental and physical health. Various activities appear to improve children’s EFs. The best evidence exists for computer-based training, traditional martial arts, and two school curricula. Weaker evidence, though strong enough to pass peer review, exists for aerobics, yoga, mindfulness, and other school curricula. Here I address what can be learned from the research thus far, including that EFs need to be progressively challenged as children improve and that repeated practice is key. Children devote time and effort to activities they love; therefore, EF interventions might use children’s motivation to advantage. Focusing narrowly on EFs or aerobic activity alone appears not to be as efficacious in improving EFs as also addressing children’s emotional, social, and character development (as do martial arts, yoga, and curricula shown to improve EFs). Children with poorer EFs benefit more from training; hence, training might provide them an opportunity to “catch up” with their peers and not be left behind. Remaining questions include how long benefits of EF training last and who benefits most from which activities. PMID:25328287
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
Yokota, Junko; Cai, Mingshui
Presents annotations of approximately 80 web sites that range in coverage from idiosyncratic and focused to diverse and comprehensive metasites. Notes categories of sites include: children's literature web guides; trade book publisher web sites; author/illustrator sites (metasites and individual); book review sources and teaching ideas; web sitesâ€¦
Cumberland County Public Library and Information Center, Fayetteville, NC.
Suggestions for establishing children's library programs in the Cumberland County, North Carolina, library system include descriptions of types of audiences, types of programs, and elements of programs. Selection guidelines for topics and materials cover the following areas: (1) art projects; (2) costumes; (3) creative dramatics; (4) drawing; (5)…
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Yokota, Junko; Cai, Mingshui
Presents annotations of approximately 80 web sites that range in coverage from idiosyncratic and focused to diverse and comprehensive metasites. Notes categories of sites include: children's literature web guides; trade book publisher web sites; author/illustrator sites (metasites and individual); book review sources and teaching ideas; web sites…
Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…
Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)
Wilke, Janet Stoeger, Comp.
This annotated guide is designed to provide assistance in the identification of resources useful in locating books about various subjects related to children or appropriate for various grade levels. The 17 sections include entries for 86 books and articles in and about the following areas: general subjects/all grade levels; best book lists;…
Peng, Chew Fong
The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process ofâ€¦
Barksdale, Mary Alice; Triplett, Cheri F.
This paper explores the voices of elementary children in public schools. Three databases were used including (a) interviews with 25 elementary students, (b) drawings and writings created by 225 third through sixth-grade students about their high stakes testing experiences, and (c) observations in two first-grade classrooms. The data demonstrateâ€¦
Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.
Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…
Snowden, Peggy L.
National trends and issues that concern gifted education are considered, focusing on the relationships among regular education, early childhood education, and education of young children who are gifted. Specific topics include: whole language and emergent literacy, whole group instruction and flexible grouping, cooperative learning, andâ€¦
Examines the role of playgrounds that use discarded items or "junk" as an integral part of kindergarten classes in an Israeli kibbutz. Suggests that play in the junkyard, by including the whole person--muscles and senses, emotion and intellect, individual growth and social interaction--can offer the experiential foundations on which children can…
Zekiros, Astair; Mensah, Kofi
The document lists and critically annotates 155 children's books about Africa published from 1958-1978 as part of an evaluation project of the collection in the public library in Madison, Wisconsin. Books include fiction, picture books, history, folklore, travel accounts, biography, and geography. Annotations indicate type of book, possible uses,…
Describes an elementary school-wide peace education project including the use of a Peace Pole in the courtyard as a visual reminder to children and adults to consider peace in one's words and actions. Notes that developing the Peace Pole and its surrounding garden, and planning the dedication and celebration, resulted in enthusiastic cooperation…
Hildebrand, Joan M.
This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)
Peng, Chew Fong
The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…
Frazier, Alexander, Ed.
This publication contains seven papers, six of which were presented at a 1968 conference sponsored by the Elementary Education Advisory Council of the ASCD in cooperation with the Department of Elementary-Kindergarten-Nursery Education of the NEA. Topics covered include elements and issues in curriculum-making for children, present trends inâ€¦
Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak
Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786
Ranly, Donald P.
The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certainâ€¦
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
... to top Q: What are the challenges with testing medications in children? A: There have been numerous challenges to studying drugs in children involving ethical, scientific, and commercial considerations. There are extra protections for ...
Taking ibuprofen can help children feel better when they have colds or minor injuries. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Ibuprofen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
Children and fat-free diets; Fat-free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...
... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...
... Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 Lester_082508_0506.jpg Â© Matthew ... that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
... time together. Grandparents and Other Relatives Raising Children: Housing Needs and Challenges (Copyright Â© Generations United) - This fact sheet provides information about a specific type of housing program for grandparents and other relatives raising children, ...
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
... Library â–¸ Allergy Library â–¸ Cough in children TTR Share | Cough in Children This article has been reviewed by ... MD, FAAAAI As a parent, hearing your child cough may make you feel uneasy. Yet an occasional ...
... Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Curing Children's Cancer Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... which fight infection. It is the most common cancer in children, representing 23 percent of all cancers among those ...
... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...
Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
Townsend, John Rowe
Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…
Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662
Describes the development, roles, and achievements of the office of the Ombudsman for Children in Sweden which is under the auspices of Radda Barnen (Save the Children) rather than the state administration. Five staff members share the responsibilities of the Ombudsman office. (RJC)
Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.
This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children'sâ€¦
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Discusses adverse effects of FCC deregulation of children's television programming on children's play behavior. Discusses the difference between play and imitation, the role of high quality dramatic play in healthy child development, the popularity of war play, and use of toys to increase dramatic play. Considers ways to help children gain control…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Waldman, H B
Limited attention has been directed in the dental literature to the emotional, economic and associated consequences of divorces on children. A general introduction is provided on 1) the numbers of children involved in divorces in different single-parent population groups, with 2) emphasis on the emotional impact of divorce on children and 3) the potential significance for pediatric dental practices. PMID:9391713
Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...
Butler, Francelia, Ed.; Brockman, Bennett A., Ed.
This volume applies critical literary standards to the field of children's literature in a long-range effort to improve its quality and teaching. Contributors and editors represent international scholarship in all of the humanities, as well as in the specific area of children's literature. Articles span topics from European children's literature…
Because fantasy has a special role in the lives of children, the meaning and consequences of fantasy experiences in children's lives are central psychological questions. Although the scientific study of fantasy is in its infancy, it does seem to be the case that children with rich fantasy lives have better self-control and are less likely to be…
Notes that the Moscow Center for the Integration and Education of Refugee Children attempts to provide real schooling for refugee children displaced from the Chechen Republic. Suggests main task was to prepare the children for regular school, and to help them adapt to both their new school and their new home, Moscow. Hopes this experience may help…
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…
This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,â€¦
Sherman, Dianne, Ed.
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
Silverman, Linda Kreger
Provides information on the following for parents and care-givers of gifted children: (1) recognizing giftedness; (2) dealing with nongifted children in the family; (3) effect of chronic early ear infection on IQ; (4) introversion; (5) "normalizing" gifted children; (6) need for gifted peers; and (7) responsive parenting. A list of guidelines for…
The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…
This article examines the level of empowerment and autonomy children can create in their play experiences. It examines the play discourses that children build and maintain and considers the importance of play contexts in supporting children's emotional and social development. These aspects of play are often unseen or misunderstood by the adult…
Notes that the Moscow Center for the Integration and Education of Refugee Children attempts to provide real schooling for refugee children displaced from the Chechen Republic. Suggests main task was to prepare the children for regular school, and to help them adapt to both their new school and their new home, Moscow. Hopes this experience may helpâ€¦
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented overâ€¦
Reading Teacher, 2008
Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…
West, Suzanne E.
Some basic principles are discussed that can help divorcing parents understand the feelings and behaviors of their children, and guidelines are suggested for parents wanting to help their children adjust to the divorce-induced changes in their lives. The process of divorce is discussed in terms of children's experience, cause and effect, and time.…
The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.â€¦
Liebovich, Betty J.
Through children's self-assessment, teachers and parents have the opportunity to clarify what the children see as their strengths in learning, whether the learning goals that teachers and parents set for a child are shared by the child, and what skills the child feels he or she needs to improve. This paper examines how young children's…
Cottle, Thomas J.
One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter presents a series of life studies of children in jail, along with a brief discussion of prison reform. The purpose of the life studies is to allow jailed children or children who have been in jail to speak for themselves of the conditions of jail and the…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005
The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…
Cushingâ€™s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushingâ€™s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? Â· CS in children is rare. An estimated ... child or adolescent during this period. Editorâ€™s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...
Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe
In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…
Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.
The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…
Kane, Dorothy Noyes
Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)
Tarver-Behring, Shari; Spagna, Michael E.
Children and adolescents with disabilities are an extremely heterogeneous group of diverse learners, each with unique learning strengths and needs. Often misunderstood and frequently less served by the counseling profession, these children and adolescents need counseling services just as much as, if not more than, other children. Federal…
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.
This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children's…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children betweenâ€¦
Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.
A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…
Auman, Mary Jo
The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptinessâ€¦
Sher, Itai; Koenig, Melissa; Rustichini, Aldo
Human strategic interaction requires reasoning about other people’s behavior and mental states, combined with an understanding of their incentives. However, the ontogenic development of strategic reasoning is not well understood: At what age do we show a capacity for sophisticated play in social interactions? Several lines of inquiry suggest an important role for recursive thinking (RT) and theory of mind (ToM), but these capacities leave out the strategic element. We posit a strategic theory of mind (SToM) integrating ToM and RT with reasoning about incentives of all players. We investigated SToM in 3- to 9-y-old children and adults in two games that represent prevalent aspects of social interaction. Children anticipate deceptive and competitive moves from the other player and play both games in a strategically sophisticated manner by 7 y of age. One game has a pure strategy Nash equilibrium: In this game, children achieve equilibrium play by the age of 7 y on the first move. In the other game, with a single mixed-strategy equilibrium, children’s behavior moved toward the equilibrium with experience. These two results also correspond to two ways in which children’s behavior resembles adult behavior in the same games. In both games, children’s behavior becomes more strategically sophisticated with age on the first move. Beyond the age of 7 y, children begin to think about strategic interaction not myopically, but in a farsighted way, possibly with a view to cooperating and capitalizing on mutual gains in long-run relationships. PMID:25197065
The problem of sex stereotyping in children's literature has been around for as long as the genre itself, but it was brought to the forefront because of the women's movement in the 1970s. From the 1700s, critics were aware of the problems that arose from children's literature and its portrayal of characters and ideas, including "Cinderella" andâ€¦
Judge, Amy, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) child health, including uninsured children, low birth weight babies, infant deaths, and immunizations; (2) child care and earlyâ€¦
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This report from the Children's Defense Fund lists statistics on child and youth well-being for each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) children participating in federally subsidized programs (including Title 1 Education for the Disadvantaged, bilingual education programs,…
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children'sâ€¦
Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo
This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…
Children's Book Council, New York, NY.
The 1975 Children's Book Showcase committee selected 27 children's books for their excellent quality and design. Each of these books is given a two-page spread in the Showcase catalog. Information about the books, which are arranged alphabetically by title, includes author, title, publisher, artist, editor, art director, designer, production…
Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…
Judge, Amy, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) child health, including uninsured children, low birth weight babies, infant deaths, and immunizations; (2) child care and early…
Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)
The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...
Gustafsson, Hanna C.; Coffman, Jennifer L.; Harris, Latonya S.; Langley, Hillary A.; Ornstein, Peter A.; Cox, Martha J.
The current study was designed to examine the relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and children’s memory and drew from a socioeconomically and racially diverse sample of children living in and around a midsized southeastern city (n = 140). Mother-reported IPV when the children were 30 months old was a significant predictor of children’s short-term, working, and deliberate memory at 60 months of age, even after controlling for the children’s sex and race, the families’ income-to-needs ratio, the children’s expressive vocabulary, and maternal harsh-intrusive parenting behaviors. These findings add to the limited extant literature that finds linkages between IPV and children’s cognitive functioning and suggest that living in households in which physical violence is perpetrated among intimate partners may have a negative effect on multiple domains of children’s memory development. PMID:24188084
Gross, Beatrice; Gross, Ronald
Children's studies are not merely about children or on behalf of children. The rights and needs of children should be used as a focus for the study of childhood and children, conducted at least in part by children. (Author)
O'Brien, Margaret; Bachmann, Max O.; Jones, Natalia R.; Reading, Richard; Thoburn, June; Husbands, Chris; Shreeve, Ann; Watson, Jacqueline
Thirty-five children's trust pathfinders, local cross-sector partnerships, were introduced across England in 2003 to promote greater integration in children's services. Using administrative performance data, this paper tracks yearly trends in child service outputs and child well-being outcomes from 1997 to 2004 in these local areas, including the…
Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006
Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…
Creuziger, Clementine G. K.
Studied the plight of marginalized children in urban Russia, including orphans, children with some family ties living in group homes, and street children. Found that changing public views toward these groups since WWII have led to a deterioration in lifestyle for these children, further contributing to criminal activity and poverty in urban areas.…
Benedict, Susan; Shields, Linda; O'Donnell, Alison J
Children with disabilities were killed during the Nazi era, often by nurses. Some nurses killed children, saying that they were under orders. Propaganda about the need for "racial purity" was all pervasive and influenced much of the population, including nurses. The German people accepted the "mercy" killing of children with disabilities. We describe the children's "euthanasia" program, explore the influence of propaganda, ask why it was acceptable to kill children, and provide historical context demonstrating "slippery slopes" which can lead to abrogation of ethical principles. Discussion of such history is essential as the ethical principles which were breached are still the cornerstone of nursing practice today. Only by openly discussing past wrongs can we attempt to ensure that they do not happen again. Archival documents from Germany and Israel, including trial depositions and transcripts, provided material, supplemented by secondary classic sources. PMID:19931148
Guilbert, TW; Bacharier, LB; Fitzpatrick, AM
Severe asthma in children is characterized by sustained symptoms despite treatment with high doses of ICS or oral corticosteroids. Children with severe asthma may fall into two categories, difficult-to-treat asthma or severe therapy-resistant asthma. Difficult-to-treat asthma is defined as poor control due to an incorrect diagnosis or comorbidities, poor adherence due to adverse psychological or environmental factors. In contrast, treatment-resistant is defined as difficult asthma despite management of these factors. It is increasingly recognized that severe asthma is a highly heterogeneous disorder associated with a number of clinical and inflammatory phenotypes that have been described in children with severe asthma. Guideline based drug therapy of severe childhood asthma is based primarily on extrapolated data from adult studies. The recommendation is that children with severe asthma be treated with higher-dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids combined with long-acting beta-agonists and other add on therapies such as antileukotrienes and methylxanthines. It is important to identify and address the influences that make asthma difficult to control including reviewing the diagnosis and the removal of causal or aggravating factors. Better definition of the phenotypes and better targeting of therapy based upon individual patient phenotypes is likely to improve asthma treatment in the future. PMID:25213041
Cameron, D.; Bishop, C.; Sibert, J. R.
OBJECTIVE--To examine the problem of accidental injury to children on farms. DESIGN--Prospective county based study of children presenting to accident and emergency departments over 12 months with injuries sustained in a farm setting and nationwide review of fatal childhood farm accidents over the four years April 1986 to March 1990. SETTING--Accident and emergency departments in Aberystwyth, Carmarthen, Haverfordwest, and Llanelli and fatal accidents in England, Scotland, and Wales notified to the Health and Safety Executive register. SUBJECTS--Children aged under 16. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Death or injury after farm related accidents. RESULTS--65 accidents were recorded, including 18 fractures. Nine accidents necessitated admission to hospital for a mean of two (range one to four) days. 13 incidents were related to tractors and other machinery; 24 were due to falls. None of these incidents were reported under the statutory notification scheme. 33 deaths were notified, eight related to tractors and allied machinery and 10 related to falling objects. CONCLUSIONS--Although safety is improving, the farm remains a dangerous environment for children. Enforcement of existing safety legislation with significant penalties and targeting of safety education will help reduce accident rates further. PMID:1638192
Autret-Leca, E; Marchand, M-S; Cissoko, H; Beau-Salinas, F; Jonville-Béra, A-P
Drug safety in children must take into account the frequency of « off label » prescriptions, children's growth dynamics, and possible long-term consequences (growth, neurodevelopment). The pharmacovigilance methodology is based on spontaneous notification and pharmacoepidemiology studies usually included the in risk management plan. Despite an increased drug risk (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic specificities), drug safety is better in children than in adults. The incidence of drug side effects depends on the country, the type of study (in or out of the hospital), and age. Antibiotics, central nervous, respiratory and dermatologic drug systems are most often involved. The target organs are gastrointestinal and neurologic. In neonates, the most frequent side effects are due to pregnancy exposure to psychotropic drugs, beta-blockers, and antiepileptics. Some studies have shown an increased risk of off-label prescriptions in children. During the last 6 years in France, pediatric alerts (desmopressin, metoclopramide, bronchial mucolytic drugs, first-generation anti-H1, Uvesterol D(®), and Uvesterol A.D.E.C(®), rotavirus vaccines, growth hormone, cisapride) have been less frequent than in adults. PMID:22748689
Nguyen, Simone P.
Cross-classified items pose an interesting challenge to children’s induction since these items belong to many different categories, each of which may serve as a basis for a different type of inference. Inductive selectivity is the ability to appropriately make different types of inferences about a single cross-classifiable item based on its different category memberships. This research includes five experiments that examine the development of inductive selectivity in 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds (N = 272). Overall, the results show that by age 4 years, children have inductive selectivity with taxonomic and script categories. That is, children use taxonomic categories to make biochemical inferences about an item whereas children use script categories to make situational inferences about an item. PMID:22803510
Wichmann, Cherami; Coplan, Robert J.; Daniels, Tina
The purpose of this study was to examine the social cognitions of peer-identified socially withdrawn children. Participants included 457 children from grades four, five and six (54% females, 46% males). Children completed a selection of self- and peer-report measures including: (1) peer-rated behavioral nominations; (2) hostile intent biases and…
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for family-friendly work environments, and help maintain the parental shadow system of care on which health care professionals depend. PMID:22013630
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued aâ€¦
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…
Previous research on children's drawing and writing focused on children's drawing and symbolization with syllabic languages, providing little information regarding young children's symbolization in drawing with a logo language. This study investigated children's emergent writing by examining qualitatively how children's writing takes place as…
The World Health Organization estimates that more than 1 million children are infected with HIV worldwide. More than 50% of HIV infected children in developing countries die before they reach 12 months old. The lives of many other children who do not suffer from HIV themselves are affected by it because family members have AIDS. Families with adult members with AIDS become more poor and are under more stress because the adults lose their income or are too sick to be involved in agricultural activities. Women can be both HIV infected and in charge of caring for family members with AIDS or for the young children. Often, children must quit school to look for work in order to provide family needs. More than 5 million children will lose their mothers or both parents to AIDS between 1995 and 2000. Grandparents, aunts, or uncles care for the orphans but they are not in the position to pay for the extra food or school. Orphans can lose their rights to inherit family land or homes. Without an education, professional training, and family support, orphans face the risk of becoming street children. These children are especially vulnerable and often become sexually active at a young age, exposing them to HIV. AIDS control programs must find solutions to the needs and problems of children as well as those of adults. The programs must continue to focus on HIV prevention, guarantee access to primary health care for women and children, support children and other family members caring for sick parents, make sure that older children benefit from sexual education, provide the means to prevent HIV infection, and care for more orphans and for older people who can no longer count on their children for their major needs. PMID:12291923
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need toâ€¦
This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…
This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample andâ€¦
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…
Mihi?, Josip; Rotim, Kresimir; Marciki?, Marcel; Smiljani?, Danko
Nowadays, head injuries are becoming more frequent in children. The most common cause of head injuries in children is fall, and, in more severe injuries, traffic accident trauma. In traumatic brain injuries in infants and small children, the most common symptoms are paleness, somnolence and vomiting, the so called "pediatric contusion syndrome". After the first year of age, light head trauma occurs after minor falls, whereas the most severe injuries are caused by car accidents, including pedestrians, or fall from the height. As the child grows, severe head trauma is more likely to occur after bicycle or car accidents. Brain injuries involving or penetrating the brain by broken bone fragments include contusions and lacerations of the brain. Unconsciousness need not always occur during contusion, as it may also appear after swelling of the brain or high intracranial pressure complications. Despite comprehensive injuries in such types of accidents, the outcome of survivors is surprisingly good. Such severe neurocranium injuries usually include heavy bleeding with hematoma (epidural bleeding, subdural bleeding, intracerebral bleeding, and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage). Improved prehospital care, readiness and accessibility of multidisciplinary teams, establishment of regional centers, and efforts to prevent and decrease traffic accidents contribute to mortality rate reduction. PMID:22649884
Utah Children, Salt Lake City.
The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…
... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. There are many causes of school failure, including: ... to deal with failure or frustration without losing self-esteem. SAFETY Safety is important for school-age children. ...
Auman, Mary Jo
The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness that remains in their lives, especially if their relationship was close. It is vital to recognize the trauma experienced by children who have suffered the loss of a loved one. Adults need to know when a grieving child needs help. Literature supports the need for education and counseling for grieving children. School nurses can be instrumental in meeting these needs for school-age children by performing early, comprehensive assessments, educating school administration regarding the benefits of bereavement support, initiating appropriate referrals, and providing bereavement support. PMID:17253893
Joseph, Pathma D; Craig, Jonathan C; Caldwell, Patrina HY
Safety and efficacy data on many medicines used in children are surprisingly scarce. As a result children are sometimes given ineffective medicines or medicines with unknown harmful side effects. Better and more relevant clinical trials in children are needed to increase our knowledge of the effects of medicines and to prevent the delayed or non-use of beneficial therapies. Clinical trials provide reliable evidence of treatment effects by rigorous controlled testing of interventions on human subjects. Paediatric trials are more challenging to conduct than trials in adults because of the paucity of funding, uniqueness of children and particular ethical concerns. Although current regulations and initiatives are improving the scope, quantity and quality of trials in children, there are still deficiencies that need to be addressed to accelerate radically equitable access to evidence-based therapies in children. PMID:24325152
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placeboâ€¦
Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)
Chawla, Jasneek; Waters, Karen Ann
Chronic snoring (?4 nights per week) is not benign. Otherwise healthy children with chronic snoring and evidence of adenotonsillar hypertrophy can be referred directly for adenotonsillectomy. Snoring children <30 months or with significant medical comorbidities should be referred for specialist sleep evaluation. Older children with intermittent snoring or without significant medical comorbidities can be managed with a combination of medical and surgical interventions listed herein. PMID:26333074
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Gras-Le Guen, Christčle; Launay, Élise
Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment. PMID:26165100
Gras-Le Guen C; Launay É
Fever in children is a very common symptom associated most of the time with a viral infection. However, in 7% of children, fever without source is the first symptom of a serious bacterial infection such as pneumonia, meningitis, pyelonephritis or bacteremia. The key point in clinical examination of these children is the early identification of toxic signs. Because SBI prevalence is higher in very young children (1-3 month-aged), they required a specific management with some systematic complementary investigations and a broad indication of probabilistic antibiotherapy treatment.
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra
Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative orâ€¦
Butler, Francelia, Ed.
This collection of essays is intended to stimulate writing, teaching, and study of children's literature by humanists. Among the included essays are: "Back to Pooh Corner,""Sophisticated Reading for Children,""Medieval Songs of Innocence and Experience,""Milton's 'Comus' as Children's Literature,""Fantasy in a Mythless Age,""Science Fiction and…
Hundreds of children participated in the annual Take Our Children to Work Day at Stennis Space Center on July 29. During the day, children of Stennis employees received a tour of facilities and took part in various activities, including demonstrations in cryogenics and robotics.
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra
Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative or…
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This data book from the Children's Defense Fund includes statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the states and the United States as a whole. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (number of children under age 18 and age 6, number of…
Faivre, Milton I.
Included in this booklet is an account of children's concepts of death at various ages. Specifically, the discussion examines the "average" or "normal" reaction of children from birth through 2 years; 3 through 5 years; 5 through 8 years; 9 through 10 years; and at 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 16 years. Children's reactions to the death of a pet andâ€¦
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,â€¦
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were…
Barcus, F. Earle
Research investigated parents' opinions about children's television (TV). Questionnaire respondents were mainly parents of children ages 2-6; mothers outnumbered fathers 9:1. Results included the findings that children watched TV an average of three hours a day; this varied little throughout the country and between those viewing Public…
Buckleitner, Warren; Kalinowski, Michael
This article offers a discussion of the past, present, and future of children's interactive media. Here, lead author Warren Buckleitner, the editor of "Children's Software Revue" shares some of his book's findings, and answers a few questions pertaining to the current state of children's software. These include the following: (1) What is the…
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... screening, through the review of incoming records and the use of basic skills tests in reading, language... academic functioning, to include general intelligence. b. Visual and auditory acuity. c. Social...
Jordan, Amy B
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents' ability to supervise their children's media use. Jordan concludes by considering the relevance and efficacy of today's media policy given the increasingly rapid pace of technological change. The need for research in informing and evaluating media policy, she says, has never been greater. PMID:21338012
Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. PMID:25735946
Taib, Nezar Ismet; Ahmad, Abdulbaghi
BACKGROUND Due, in part, to family constraints in dealing with the economical burden of raising a family, a wave of street children is sweeping the developing world. Such children are prone to both somatic and mental illnesses. This is the first ever study that has been conducted to explore the psychopathology among street children in the Duhok Governorate. METHODS The study was conducted between March 2004 and May 2005 in Duhok City among street children who attended the Zewa Centerâ€”the only center for street children in the region at the time of the study. Among a total of 107 eligible children, 100 agreed to participate (93% response rate). A modified family map (genogram) was used to obtain demographic data from the children and their caregivers through semi-structured interviews. In addition, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID) structured interviews were conducted with the children. RESULTS The study found that 98% of children worked on the street because of the economic need and pressure on their families. There was high rate of parental illiteracy (90% of fathers and 95% of mothers), and 61% of respondents were shown to have at least one psychiatric disorder. A high percentage (57%) of these children suffered from anxiety disorders including posttraumatic stress disorders (29%). Ten percent had depression, and 5% had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. CONCLUSION Street children in Duhok seem to be working children due to their familiesâ€™ needs. PMID:24653656
Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Boudville, Irving; Liu, Yanfang; Hutagalung, Yanee; Bock, Hans L
We conducted a hospital-based study from June 2002 to December 2006 of Thai children aged 1-15 years with acute hepatic failure (AHF) to determine the causes and outcomes. Eleven children were included in the study. Hepatitis B virus was the cause of AHF in one child, infection-associated hemophagocytic syndrome was the cause in 1 child, Wilson's disease was the cause in 1 child and dengue fever was suspected to be the cause in 2 children. In 6 children the cause of AHF was unknown. Jaundice was reported in 9 of 11 children. Ten of 11 children had mild to moderate encephalopathy on admission. Five of 11 children died due to AHF. No liver transplantations were performed among the children in this study. Further studies into the relationship between dengue infection and AHF are needed. PMID:23682437
Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; MĂˇiz, Luis
Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905
Burns, Jeffrey P
The importance of medical research to the diagnosis and treatment of human diseases is well recognized. The use of human subjects, however, presents complex legal and ethical challenges for the scientific community and for society. The history of research performed on children reveals an especially vulnerable population needing special protection against violation of individual rights and exposure to undue risk. The development of guidelines and policies to protect children as research subjects is reviewed. Special focus is given to the present federal regulations that are intended to provide an ethical context for the performance of pediatric research, including the distinction between therapeutic and nontherapeutic studies. In part, these guidelines represent a return of the pendulum to a more moderate position, after an era of restrictive regulations in reaction to past abuses of children as research subjects. As a result, federal and professional initiatives are bringing renewed focus on the need for rigorous study of childhood development and disease within an appropriate ethical framework. PMID:12626958
... Trichotillomania) Encopresis: Problems with Soiling and Bowel Control Depression in Children and Teens Comprehensive Psychiatric Evaluation Child and Adolescent Psychiatrists Psychotherapy for Children and Adolescents Where To ...
Blackledge, Adrian, Ed.
Contributors from Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, and the United States describe how primary-age children in these anglophone countries are learning in the language of their home. The book demonstrates that monolingual schooling in a multicultural society fails to meet the needs of bilingual children. It argues that linguistic minorities…
JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS
THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,…
Millstone, David H.
Using work done with Homer's "Odyssey" with fifth graders, illustrates children's proficiency as listeners, creators, and presenters of stories. Shares techniques and anecdotes about this disciplined approach to preparing children as storytellers. Describes such aspects as having a variety of storytelling models, evaluating storytellers, reading…
This paper provides a brief overview of recent developmental research on themes related to children's social identities. Initially, consideration is given to the capacity for social categorization, following which attention is given to children's developing conceptions of social identities, their identification with social groups, and the…
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes senseâ€¦
In 1999, a coalition of child advocacy groups, the Canadian Foundation for Children, Youth, and the Law, challenged Section 43 of Canada's criminal code, which permits "reasonable force" in disciplining children. The heavily debated issue turns on judges' varied interpretations. A court decision is expected by year's end. (MLH)
Less is known about how children read connected text in silent reading, and the range of reading strategies used in an ordinary primary school classroom, than about the reading of single words, oral reading and reading by skilled adults. This paper describes and evaluates a method of testing children's silent reading in which they are their ownâ€¦
Discusses the need for mathematics teaching to be matched to children's understanding rather than to the demands of mathematics. Illustrations are given from the results of testing British children by the Concepts in Secondary Mathematics and Science (CSMS) Project, Chelsea College, University of London. (HM)
This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…
Rolfe, Sharne A.
This booklet invites reflection on ways in which childhood resilience can be promoted, thereby helping children to adapt effectively in the face of adversity. The attributes of resilient children are described, as is the importance of protective factors in building or promoting resilience. The booklet discusses the complex interplay between risk…
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…
... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...
Wyoming P.A.R.E.N.T., Laramie.
This Kids Count report details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The first section of the report describes the issues affecting Wyoming's families, health, and teens. The second section consists of a sampling of programs aimed at addressing problems in children's well-being in the areas of teen pregnancy, child abuse,…
Research with children is occurring within a climate of mounting international interest in listening to and consulting with children in ways that are respectful of them as competent informants of their own experience. This interest has occurred within "new times" of heightened accountability, regulation and surveillance of research. This climate…
Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.â€¦
Plummer, Donna M.
In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…
Nist, Joan Stidham
A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…
Nist, Joan Stidham
Many prospective language arts teachers are unsure of what poetry really is. While it is impossible to present them with a definitive statement about the nature of poetry, they can be given a workable outline of the attributes of poetry to help them teach poetry to children. Rhythmic patterns can be emphasized to enhance children's enjoyment of…
Entler, Deron; White, Maureen
Presents "favorite" children's literature review sites selected according to criteria of authority, quality of reviews, Web design, usefulness, and navigatability. Describes the sites in terms of the criteria as well as special features and suggested search strategies. Sites are categorized as: Children's Literature Journals Online; Multiple…
Presents excerpt from Kohn's 1990 book, asserting that parents are most important to children and need to project a positive view of life. Argues that caring, the absence of physical punishment, guiding and explaining, cooperating, and taking children seriously are required to offset the pressure and negative values that a competitive cultureâ€¦
Children are not born responsible but must learn this from persons with greater maturity and wisdom. Unfortunately, contemporary culture is one in which many adults and youth are blatantly disrespectful toward one another. Disrespect toward children is so commonplace. As such, large numbers of youth are disconnected from adults. In this article,â€¦
Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.
Intended for teachers, librarians, and administrators, this handbook explores the possibilities of implementing a "Children as Authors" project by using collaborative and integrative teaching strategies to motivate elementary school children to write. After describing the project and explaining its benefits, the handbook explores ways teachers and…
Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color andâ€¦
Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia
A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. The…
Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.â€¦
Dole, Patricia Pearl
Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";â€¦
Meyer, Sarah A.; Shore, Cecilia M.
Children's understanding of dreams as mental states was examined as an instance of their development of a "theory of mind." Thirty-five children between three and seven years of age were interviewed to determine how well they understood the reality, location, privacy, origin, and controllability of their own dreams, versus that of a fictional…
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Hĺkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lřdrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. PMID:25745042
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…
Monheit, Alan C.; Cunningham, Peter J.
Examines changes in children's health insurance status and utilization of health services in the past decade, using 1977 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey data and 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey data. Policies that could reduce the number of uninsured children (mandated employment-related coverage and incremental Medicaid…
McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others
This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about theâ€¦
National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.
The National Research Council formed a Committee on Educational Interventions for Children with Autism and charged the committee with integrating the scientific, theoretical, and policy literature and creating a framework for evaluating the scientific evidence concerning the effects and features of educational interventions for young children with…
Rist, Marilee C.
The use of crack during pregnancy is producing tens of thousands of blameless children each year who, by biology and environment, are impaired. Describes the effects of crack on children and what can be done for crack-smoking mothers-to-be. Offers suggestions to school boards for providing a structured supportive learning environment for these…
Prevention Forum, 1990
The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering twoâ€¦
A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…
Benke, Mary Schaefer
Debates whether children are more susceptible to asbestos-related disease than adults. Addresses the issue of low-level exposure and disease. Discusses the regulatory measures taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Congress to protect children from the potential threat of asbestos exposure. (CW)
Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.
Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…
The author argues that children not only can but should create their own computational algorithms and that the teacher's role is "merely" to help. How children in grades K-3 add and subtract is the focus of this article. Grouping, directionality, and exchange are highlighted. (MNS)
JOHNSON, WENDELL; AND OTHERS
THIS BOOK IS DESIGNED PRIMARILY FOR STUDENTS WHO ARE BEING TRAINED TO WORK WITH SPEECH HANDICAPPED SCHOOL CHILDREN, EITHER AS SPEECH CORRECTIONISTS OR AS CLASSROOM TEACHERS. THE BOOK DEALS WITH FOUR MAJOR QUESTIONS--(1) WHAT KINDS OF SPEECH DISORDERS ARE FOUND AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN, (2) WHAT ARE THE PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL CONDITIONS,â€¦
The official consumer website of: Visit ACFAS.org | About ACFAS | Información en Espańol Advanced Search Home » News, Videos & Podcasts » Articles » Text Size Print Bookmark Ingrown Toenails in Children Parents can help prevent a common and painful foot problem in children by ...
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…
Protecting the health of children from environmental risks is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a part of the Agency's efforts to address children's health issues, EPA's Office of Research and Development, a leader in the area of hum...
A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorationsâ€¦
WITMER, HELEN L.
THREE MAJOR QUESTIONS ARE RAISED--(1) WHAT IS MEANT BY POVERTY AND TO WHAT EXTENT DOES THE OVERALL AMOUNT OF POVERTY DEPEND ON THE SORT OF MEASURING ROD USED. (2) HOW MANY AND WHAT PROPORTION OF THE NATION'S CHILDREN ARE GROWING UP IN POVERTY. AND (3) WHERE, GEOGRAPHICALLY AND SOCIALLY, ARE THESE CHILDREN OF THE POOR TO BE FOUND. POVERTY IS…
Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…
Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.
This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, andâ€¦
New York Public Library, NY.
This annotated list of picture books and stories for young children is a catalogue of Japanese children's books exhibited at the New York Public Library in 1972. Part I consists of fifty distinguished books selected from those published before 1969. Part II is a selection of more recent titles and is less selective than Part I. The title of each…
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...
Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976
The five articles in this special issue of the bulletin deal with age discrimination in children's books. The first article is the first of two parts that deal with how older people are stereotyped; part 1 presents the statistical findings of the first major study of stereotypes based on age and ageism in children's literature, while part 2â€¦
Examines possible solutions for improving the status of children in India. Suggests that there is a need to focus on child rights issues related to public awareness, attitudinal change, political commitment, mass sensitization, and outreach. Suggests an appropriate strategy for the restoration of the rights of children in India. (AA)
Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.
This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, and…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Steffe, Leslie P.; Tzur, Ron
Interprets and contrasts children's mathematical interaction from the points of view of radical constructivism and of Soviet activity theory. Proposes a superseding model based on the interrelations between the basic sequence of actions and perturbation and the interaction of constructs. Supports the model by describing how children used…
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…
A study to develop a technique for measuring the curiosity of young children and to determine whether three treatments affected the subjects as hypothesized is presented. The Appalachia Educational Laboratory's Preschool Education Program sought to stimulate curiosity in its 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old subjects. One third of the children received only…
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 millionâ€¦
New York Public Library, NY.
This annotated list of picture books and stories for young children is a catalogue of Japanese children's books exhibited at the New York Public Library in 1972. Part I consists of fifty distinguished books selected from those published before 1969. Part II is a selection of more recent titles and is less selective than Part I. The title of eachâ€¦
Current Population Reports, 1985
In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…
Dole, Patricia Pearl
Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…
Lee, Joohi; Autry, Mary Murray; Fox, Jill; Williams, Cynthia
A sample of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents from the Dallas and Fort Worth (DFW) metroplex area in Texas were surveyed to investigate children's mathematics readiness. This study was conducted as part of a project funded by a local child care council, composed of business, civic, and education leaders in the community. Theâ€¦
A number of relevant issues surround the arguments of both opponents and proponents of the Federal Trade Commission's proposals to ban or control certain advertising during children's television programs. Groups against regulatory action point out that parents, not children, are the consumers and have a right to free choice in their purchases.…
Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others
This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and theâ€¦
Cullinan, Bernice E., Ed.; Carmichael, Carolyn W., Ed.
This collection of articles about children's literature contains the following articles: "Books in the Life of the Young Child" and "Traditional Literature: Children's Legacy" by Bernice E. Cullinan, "Encouraging Language Growth" by John Warren Stewig, "Promoting Language and Concept Development" by Dorothy S. Strickland, "Fostering Understanding…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a closeâ€¦
Arena, John I., Ed.; And Others
Describing methods for helping children with normal intelligence who manifest learning, perceptual, and/or behavior disorders as a result of minimal neurological or brain dysfunction, the compilation contains 22 papers. Articles are grouped into six categories: identifying the children, motor development, basic considerations, adapting the…
Responding to children's natural interest in creating art, early childhood educators have historically given the visual arts an honored place in the curriculum. Even in the 1980s and 1990s, as the push for earlier academic skill development increased, art continued its centrality in programs for young children. This chapter offers teachers theory…
Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…
Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others
This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…
DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.
Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
This report is concerned with at risk children and youth. Synthesizing data based on country reports and case studies from 17 countries and 3 foundations, the report covers issues relating to the preschool, school age, and transition to work periods. At risk children and youth have become key issues not only from claims of social justice, but alsoâ€¦
Department of Education, Washington, DC.
A central goal of "America Reads Challenge" sites is to serve children who most need help in reading. These children can include Title I children, children with disabilities, linguistically and culturally diverse children, migrant children, and preschool children. This booklet provides tip sheets on finding and serving these children, so that they…
Smaltz, Janet M.
Information on individual instruction for children who are homebound or hospitalized and in need of supplementary programs is defined as applied in North Dakota. The organization of the program, eligibility of pupils served, referral procedures, the responsibility of the local school administrator, the responsibility of the department of public…
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…
National Committee for Adoption, Inc., Washington, DC.
There is national concern for the estimated 100,000 "special needs" children who are not quickly adopted because of age, race, ethnic background, sibling relationship, medical condition, or physical, mental or emotional handicaps. That concern has been translated into concrete recommendations in the form of a model act written by the Department of…
Sood, Sunil K
The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. PMID:25999224
Piazza, Michele; Piacentini, Giorgio
Recurrent wheezing have a significant morbidity and it’s estimated that about one third of school-age children manifest the symptom during the first 5 years of life. Proper identification of children at risk of developing asthma at school age may predict long-term outcomes and improve treatment and preventive approach, but the possibility to identify these children at preschool age remains limited. For many years authors focused their studies to identify early children with recurrent wheezing at risk to develop asthma at school age. Different phenotypes have been proposed for a more precise characterization and a personalized plan of treatment. The main criticism concerns the inability to define stable phenotypes with the risk of overestimating or underestimating the characteristics of symptoms in these children. The aim of this review is to report the recent developments on the diagnosis and treatment of recurrent paediatric wheezing. PMID:26835404
Szilagyi, P G; Schor, E L
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the concept of child health and the measurement of child health status in order to help guide the evaluation of the effectiveness of medical, social, and policy programs. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities for research on children's health status and quality of care abound. Comprehensive and functional definitions create problems of measurement, but investigators are making progress in measuring children's health status both generically and for specific chronic health conditions. RECOMMENDATIONS: Measures of child health need to be developed, improved, tested, and made user-friendly for clinical and policy research. The relationship between health status and a variety of social programs for children and families needs study. The impact of changes in healthcare organization and financing must be investigated, especially for children from vulnerable subgroups. Determining the value and effectiveness of preventive services is a pressing issue. It is crucial to understand better the link among quality of care; other factors biological, family, and social; and children's health status. PMID:9776947
These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children'sâ€¦
These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and interviewers as well as refinement of the interview protocol to allow for more production of divergent questions by children may reveal additional effects of literary genre on children's learning of science through literature.
Describes the Children's Health Matters project, which helps eligible families enroll their uninsured children in Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. Lists strategies to be used by Catholic schools: connect children to health insurance through the School Lunch Program; distribute outreach materials; discuss this issue at…
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on efforts to provide publicly funded health insurance to low-income children in the United States through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The articles summarize current knowledge and research about which children are uninsured and why, discuss ways to improveâ€¦
Raddish, Michele; And Others
Using interviews with parents and guardians, and the child where appropriate, this study compared feeding problems of children with disabilities in Kentucky with a sample of typical children. Subjects were 50 children ages 3-5; 25 children were without disabilities. In addition to interviews, data were collected from case records, medicalâ€¦
Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).
This collection of 16 papers attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of children in the nations of the Americas. The collection's five sections examine children's rights, perspectives of five parents from five different nations, children with disabilities in the legal system, promoting the rights of children through socialâ€¦
MacNeil, Lindsey K.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Objective To explore the specificity of impaired praxis and postural knowledge to autism by examining three samples of children, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing (TD) children. Method Twenty-four children with ASD, 24 children with ADHD, and 24 TD children, ages 8â€“13, completed measures assessing basic motor control (the Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs; PANESS), praxis (performance of skilled gestures to command, with imitation, and tool use) and the ability to recognize correct hand postures necessary to perform these skilled gestures (the Postural Knowledge Test; PKT). Results Children with ASD performed significantly worse than TD children on all three assessments. In contrast, children with ADHD performed significantly worse than TD controls on PANESS but not on the praxis examination or PKT. Furthermore, children with ASD performed significantly worse than children with ADHD on both the praxis examination and PKT, but not on the PANESS. Conclusions Whereas both children with ADHD and children with ASD show impairments in basic motor control, impairments in performance and recognition of skilled motor gestures, consistent with dyspraxia, appear to be specific to autism. The findings suggest that impaired formation of perceptual-motor action models necessary to development of skilled gestures and other goal directed behavior is specific to autism; whereas, impaired basic motor control may be a more generalized finding. PMID:22288405
Cohen, Shlomo; Goldberg, Shmuel; Springer, Chaim; Avital, Avraham; Picard, Elie
Foreign body (FB) aspiration occurs mainly in children under 3 years of age and is one of the most frequent causes of accidental death under 12 months of age. The increased risk of FB aspiration in children is due to the different structure of the pharynx and the upper airways compared to adults. In addition, children have an immature swallowing mechanism and they most commonly aspirate food stuffs. FB aspiration is usually a sudden and dramatic event when the child feels that he is suffocating or choking. After the acute event, the clinical presentation widely ranges from severe respiratory distress to the most minimal symptoms. Bronchoscopy is the best diagnostic and therapeutic modality for FB inhalation. Prevention and rapid diagnosis can be lifesaving. In 2010, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a position paper on prevention of FB aspiration. The association calls for more proactive preventative measures to protect children from FB aspiration and to prevent mortality and morbidity. These include: 1. Raising awareness of parents and caregivers to supervise children and create a safe environment for them. 2. Promoting legislation and enforcing regulations that will prevent dangerous products being sold for children. 3. Changing the design of products, especially food products and toys, that will reduce the risks of choking. In this overview we will show the principles of diagnosis of FB aspiration and a flow chart including when flexible or rigid bronchoscopy is required. PMID:25962247
Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and someÂtimes in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581
Storch, Eric A; Rahman, Omar; Park, Jennifer M; Reid, Jeannette; Murphy, Tanya K; Lewin, Adam B
This article discusses the nature and treatment of compulsive hoarding among children. We summarize the phenomenology of compulsive hoarding, including its clinical presentation, comorbidity with varied mental disorders, and associated impairment. The limited data on treatment outcome are presented along with a behavioral framework that we utilized to treat youth who hoard. Our approach is highlighted in the context of a case illustration of an 11-year-old girl suffering from compulsive hoarding and several comorbid mental health disorders. We conclude with recommendations for clinical work with this challenging and neglected population. PMID:21381027
The assessment and management of pain in children has been essentially ignored until recently. Thankfully, these "dark ages of pain" are ending. The trauma nurse is an integral part of the pain management team and can have a positive impact on outcome by using a combination of relatively simple strategies. These include using multiple types of assessment to measure the severity of pain; providing adequate pain relief with a combination of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions; and carefully monitoring and documenting the efficacy of all pain management approaches. PMID:9391359
Tuerlinckx, David; Glupczynski, Youri
Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) represents the second most frequent manifestation of Lyme disease (LD) in Europe after cutaneous involvement. In the USA, LNB represents the third most frequent manifestation of LD after cutaneous involvement and arthritis. The scope of this article is, in the light of recent publications, to review the specific manifestations of LNB in children including predictive models, and to discuss diagnosis criteria, new diagnostic tools and new therapeutic options. Differences in disease patterns between the USA and Europe are also highlighted. PMID:20377339
Brown, Douglas C. S.
Arthralgia is joint pain unaccompanied by obvious clinical signs of arthritis or trauma. In most children and adolescents, the affected joint is the knee, hip, ankle, or less commonly an arm joint. Causes of arthralgia include arthritis; systemic disease; tumor; infection; growing pains; transient synovitis of the hip; osteochondroses; ostochondritis dissecans; traction syndrome; chondromalacia of the patella and post-traumatic synovitis. Some pains can be diagnosed with confidence with history, examination, X-ray, and laboratory studies. Other pains are vague, but careful observation of wasting and gait analysis may allow the physician to make a diagnosis. PMID:21283477
Tom, Shelley R.; Schwartz, David; Chang, Lei; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Xu, Yiyuan
This study reports two separate cross-sectional investigations that focus on bully/victim problems among Hong Kong school children. Study 1 included 1361 children (670 boys, 691 girls; mean age = 12.6 years) and Study 2 included 288 children (153 boys, 135 girls; mean age = 9.6 years). Children's social and academic functioning was assessed withâ€¦
Goins, Brad; Cesarone, Bernard
Difficulties faced by homeless children include depression, low self-esteem, lack of sleep and nutrition, and feelings of shame and embarrassment. Challenges faced by schools in providing education to homeless children include: (1) keeping children in one school despite frequent family moves; (2) ensuring that children's health records areâ€¦
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each sectionâ€¦
Frank, Mary, Ed.
The special issue of the journal, Children in Contemporary Society, contains 17 brief articles on environmental design for young handicapped and normal children. Articles have the following titles: "Introduction", "Environmental Design and Architecture", "Why Is Environmental Design Important to Young Children", "Children's Hospital Nationalâ€¦
Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John
Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties andâ€¦
Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.
Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…
Eckart, Karen Sue
The purpose of this research project was to determine if, like books, the content of children's magazines changes to reflect current societal trends. The study used the method of content analysis and was limited to one children's magazine, "Children's Digest." Certain trends in children's literature were identified through the literature search,…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketedâ€¦
Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick
The poorest group in our population is children. This article discusses past and present public assistance programs that affect children and the disproportionate number of minority group children and children in single-parent homes who live in poverty. The need for welfare reform is discussed also. (IAH)
Raj, Manu; Kumar, R. Krishna
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken. PMID:21150012
Kaur, Savleen; Singh Pandav, Surinder
ABSTRACT Young patients are more prone to ocular trauma but most of the published studies describe complicated cataract as a result of trauma with its treatment modality. As a result, little is known about the different causes, common presenting signs and symptoms, visual outcomes, and most frequent management modalities of traumatic glaucoma in children. This review aims to study the demographical profile, presentation, management and outcome of traumatic glaucoma in children as well as the various factors associated with advanced glaucomatous changes. How to cite this article: Kaur S, Kaushik S, Pandav SS. Traumatic Glaucoma in Children. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8(2):58-62.
Weston, J A; Hawkins, K; Weston, W L
Redness and scaling of the feet in prepubertal children is likely to represent a skin disease other than tinea pedis. If the dermatitis involves the dorsum of the feet, allergic contact dermatitis is a likely cause. In this study, 8/19 (42%) children with involvement of the dorsum of the feet had clinically relevant positive patch tests related to shoe allergens. All who avoided the allergens remained free of disease on a 2-year follow-up examination. Those children with dermatitis on the weight-bearing surface of the foot (juvenile plantar dermatosis) did not have positive patch tests (P = .15). PMID:6646924
Medical marijuana is legal for use by minors in many states, but not Delaware. Anecdotes have accumulated suggesting efficacy in managing seizures in children and several other conditions in adults. Currently well-designed studies in children are lacking. Challenges to effective pediatric medical marijuana use remain at the level of biochemistry, the individual patient, and society. Appropriate and effective use of medical marijuana in children will require significant legislative changes at the state and federal level, as well as high-quality research and standardization of marijuana strains. PMID:25647865
Salman, Michael S; Sharpe, James A; Eizenman, Moshe; Lillakas, Linda; Westall, Carol; To, Teresa; Dennis, Maureen; Steinbach, Martin J
Saccades are necessary for optimal vision. Little is known about saccades in children. We recorded saccades using an infrared eye tracker in 39 children, aged 8-19 years. Participants made saccades to visual targets that stepped 10 degrees or 15 degrees horizontally and 5 degrees or 10 degrees vertically at unpredictable time intervals. Saccadic latency decreased significantly with increasing age, while saccadic gain and peak velocity did not vary with age. Saccadic gains and peak velocities in children are similar to reported adult values. This implies maturity of the neural circuits responsible for making saccades accurate and fast. Saccade latency decreases as the brain matures. PMID:16051306
Zuckerman, D M; Zuckerman, B S
Television has a major impact on children's knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Research has demonstrated the association between television viewing and four areas: (1) children's aggressive behavior; (2) racial and sex-role stereotypes; (3) decreased interest in reading and school activities; and (4) poorer health habits and attitudes. Methodological limitations make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about a causal relationship between television viewing and children's behavior. Representative studies in these four areas are reviewed, important methodological concerns are pointed out, and conclusions from the research findings are drawn. The implications of the data for pediatricians and other health professionals are discussed. PMID:3881727
Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared aâ€¦
Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642
Lubit, Roy; Rovine, Deborah; DeFrancisci, Lea; Eth, Spencer
Millions of children are affected by physical and sexual abuse, natural and technological disasters, transportation accidents, invasive medical procedures, exposure to community violence, violence in the home, assault, and terrorism. Unfortunately, the emotional impact of exposure to trauma on children is often unappreciated and therefore untreated, and yet the impact of exposures to disaster and violence is profound and long-lasting. This article first briefly discusses the epidemiology of trauma in children, and then reviews the psychiatric and neurodevelopmental impact of trauma on children as well as the effects of trauma on children's emotional development. Trauma in children can lead to the development of posttraumatic stress disorder as well as to a variety of other psychiatric disorders, including depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic attacks, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse in adult survivors of trauma. Research has found that early exposure to stress and trauma causes physical effects on neurodevelopment which may lead to changes in the individual's long-term response to stress and vulnerability to psychiatric disorders. Exposure to trauma also affects children's ability to regulate, identify, and express emotions, and may have a negative effect on the individual's core identity and ability to relate to others. The authors also discuss what has been learned, based on recent experiences such as the World Trade Center catastrophe, about the role of television viewing in increasing the effects of traumatic events. The last section of the article provides guidance concerning the identification and clinical treatment of children and adolescents who are having emotional problems as a result of exposure to trauma. PMID:15985923
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
... Families Sleep Problems Panic Disorder In Children And Adolescents Moving: Helping Children Cope Learning Disorders Grief and Children Depression in Children and Teens Chronic Illness and Children ...
While there are many outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. I describe a NASA-STScI-IDEAS funded outreach program I created for children using a telescope (including remote and robotic observations), hands-on astronomy demonstrations (often with edible ingredients). The target audience is seriously ill children with special medical needs and their families who are staying at the Long Island Ronald McDonald House in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments at local hospitals. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. A related program for hospitalized children has been started at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital.
Paul, Siba Prosad; Kirkham, Emily Natasha; Pidgeon, Sarah; Sandmann, Sarah
Coeliac disease is an immune-mediated systemic disorder caused by ingestion of gluten. The condition presents classically with gastrointestinal signs including diarrhoea, bloating, weight loss and abdominal pain, but presentations can include extra-intestinal symptoms such as iron-deficiency anaemia, faltering growth, delayed puberty and mouth ulcers. Some children are at higher risk of developing coeliac disease, for example those with a strong family history, certain genetic disorders and other autoimmune conditions. If coeliac disease is suspected, serological screening with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres should be performed and the diagnosis may be confirmed by small bowel biopsy while the child remains on a normal (gluten-containing) diet. Modified European guidelines recommend that symptomatic children with anti-tissue transglutaminase titres more than ten times the upper limit of normal, and positive human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 status, do not require small bowel biopsy for diagnosis of coeliac disease. Management of the disease involves strict adherence to a lifelong gluten-free diet, which should lead to resolution of symptoms and prevention of long-term complications. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the varied presentations of coeliac disease to ensure timely screening and early initiation of a gluten-free diet. PMID:26243121
Bereket, A; Kiess, W; Lustig, R H; Muller, H L; Goldstone, A P; Weiss, R; Yavuz, Y; Hochberg, Z
Hypothalamic obesity is an intractable form of obesity syndrome that was initially described in patients with hypothalamic tumours and surgical damage. However, this definition is now expanded to include obesity developing after a variety of insults, including intracranial infections, infiltrations, trauma, vascular problems and hydrocephalus, in addition to acquired or congenital functional defects in central energy homeostasis in children with the so-called common obesity. The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying hypothalamic obesity are complex and multifactorial. Weight gain results from damage to the ventromedial hypothalamus, which leads, variously, to hyperphagia, a low-resting metabolic rate; autonomic imbalance; growth hormone-, gonadotropins and thyroid-stimulating hormone deficiency; hypomobility; and insomnia. Hypothalamic obesity did not receive enough attention, as evidenced by rarity of studies in this group of patients. A satellite symposium was held during the European Congress of Obesity in May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey, to discuss recent developments and concepts regarding pathophysiology and management of hypothalamic obesity in children. An international group of leading researchers presented certain aspects of the problem. This paper summarizes the highlights of this symposium. Understanding the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of feeding and energy metabolism will help us gain insights into the pathogenesis and management of common obesity. PMID:22577758
The detection of neurodegenerative and neurometabolic diseases in children relies on a high index of suspicion as most will present as common paediatric problems such as recurrent vomiting, feeding problem, failure to thrive, sepsis, or developmental delay. Alternatively, children may present with an acute encephalopathy or with a chronic progressive encephalopathy. Clinical clues suggestive of neurometabolic disorders include encephalopathic features such as microcephaly, macrocephaly, developmental regression, developmental arrest, change in sensorium, seizures, hypotonia, hypertonia, abnormal eye signs; also extrapyramidal or cerebellar signs and systemic features like abnormal respiration, hepatosplenomegaly, abnormal hair, liver dysfunction, renal tubular dysfunction, cardiomyopathy, and feeding difficulties or growth problems. Initial screening include tests for acidosis, ketosis, hyperlacticemia, and hyperammonemia. Further investigations should amino acid chromatography, assays of organic acids, specific enzyme assay of white cell or fibroblast culture, and histopatholgy of cell and tissue biopsy (white blood cell, skin, muscle, conjunctiva, bone marrow, liver, rectum, or brain). The correct diagnosis holds implications for targeted therapeutic intervention, genetic counselling, and possibly, prenatal diagnosis. PMID:11847361
Roberts, James R; Karr, Catherine J
Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children's exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes including physical birth defects, low birth weight, and fetal death, although the data are less robust than for cancer and neurodevelopmental effects. Children's exposures to pesticides should be limited as much as possible. PMID:23184105
Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J
â€˘ On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B â€˘ On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B â€˘ On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D â€˘ On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C â€˘ On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B â€˘ On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B â€˘ On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A â€˘ On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (â€śpreventive chemotherapyâ€ť) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence Quality: B. PMID:26232464
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11Â years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy andâ€¦
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
This book outlines the processes involved when children learn to write, and it shows how certain strategies can improve children's progress in writing. Dealing with the age range 3-13, the book addresses issues of the gender gap, children with English as an additional language, and left-handedness. It includes ideas for assessment of writing. It…
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
Reflects upon two attributes common to children from many countries who have known nothing but war--the absence of revenge and the belief in God. Considers how they differ from the older generation in these respects. (CMG)
... Share Compartir New Study The impact of having ADHD and other mental disorders on affected children. More ... emotions. Some examples of childhood mental disorders are: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Behavior disorders Mood and anxiety disorders Substance ...
... record the electrical patterns of the heart. Electrophysiology (EP) study — a small, thin catheter (or wire) is ... used in children. A small, flexible catheter (or tube) is inserted into a vein or artery and ...
... with their own relationships and experience problems with self-esteem. Children will do best if they know that ... can refer the parents to a child and adolescent psychiatrist for evaluation and treatment. In addition, the ...
... frustrated, and develops emotional problems such as low self-esteem in the face of repeated failure. Some children ... different issues affecting the child. A child and adolescent psychiatrist can help coordinate the evaluation, and work ...
... different from their peers and the resulting low self-esteem can affect their ability to function well with ... ET is frustrating and embarrassing for children and adolescents, and can lead to anxiety, depression, and social ...
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...
Flack, Carol; Flack, Don
The article describes the program for gifted children in English primary and infant schools. Attitudes toward early identification, both pro and con, are reported for several school administrators. (SBH)
... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Childrenâ€™s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
Freeman, Evelyn B.; And Others
Presents brief annotations of 48 children's books that hold surprising creatures; surprises of magic and mystery; surprises of humor and trickery, surprises of growing up; cultural surprises; and surprising resources relating to poetry, dinosaurs, and science. (SR)
... Home Â» Health Info Â» Hearing, Ear Infections, and Deafness Ear Infections in Children On this page: What is ... additional information about ear infections? What is an ear infection? An ear infection is an inflammation of ...
Children who take avid pleasure in history told as a good story more often than not forsake it as adults. History has too often ceased to be a good story and become simply analytical, arid, tedious. (Author)
... NPF Centers Animated Pancreas Patient About the Pancreas Pancreatic Cancer Chronic Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis Children/Pediatric Other Pancreas ... will be at an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer compared to the general population. The degree of ...
... Well Water and Fluoride Bottled Water Dental Sealants Infection Control Journal Articles Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Community Water Fluoridation Dental Sealants Infection Control Oral Cancer Oral Health and Pregnancy Periodontal ...
Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)
DeMarco, Romano T.
The surgical management of pediatric stone disease has evolved significantly over the last three decades. Prior to the introduction of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in the 1980s, open lithotomy was the lone therapy for children with upper tract calculi. Since then, SWL has been the procedure of choice in most pediatric centers for children with large renal calculi. While other therapies such as percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) were also being advanced around the same time, PNL was generally seen as a suitable therapy in adults because of the concerns for damage in the developing kidney. However, recent advances in endoscopic instrumentation and renal access techniques have led to an increase in its use in the pediatric population, particularly in those children with large upper tract stones. This paper is a review of the literature focusing on the indications, techniques, results, and complications of PNL in children with renal calculi. PMID:22013438
... rejected by peers if they exhibit disruptive or aggressive behavior. Still other children may hover on the ... to feel unwelcome. They often tend to be aggressive or disruptive and very sensitive to teasing. They ...
Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M
Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770
... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizationsâ€‹â€‹ . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...
... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Hearing loss can affect a childĂ˘Â€Â™s ability to develop communication, ... and social skills. The earlier children with hearing loss start getting services, the more likely they are ...
Hoban, Timothy F
Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688
... Help Other Children Ewing Sarcoma Survivor Has Big Dreams Mother of Survivor: ‘Childhood Cancer is Forever’ Online ... Health On The Net National Health Council © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc. All rights reserved. The American ...
... of Directors National Office Staff Foundation Videos Blog Strategic Planning and Oversight Newsletter Living with NF Recently Diagnosed ... date articles about the Foundation and NF advances. Strategic Planning and Research Oversight Discover the Children's Tumor Foundation's ...
... safe for children over 1 year old to drink cow's milk. However, there's no scientific evidence that this is ... 1 and 2 years old, they should only drink whole milk, because they need the fat for their developing ...
.org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...
... children watch an average of four hours of television daily. Television can be a powerful influence in developing value systems and shaping behavior. Unfortunately, much of today's television programming is violent. Hundreds of studies of the ...
Peraica, Maja; Richter, Darko; Raši?, Dubravka
Mycotoxicoses are acute and chronic poisonings caused by mould toxins called mycotoxins. Although acute mycotoxicoses, caused by high mycotoxin levels in food are rare nowadays, they need to be described in order to inform physicians and other health care workers about their symptoms. Children are more sensitive to mycotoxins because of their lower body mass, higher metabolic rate, and underdeveloped organ functions and detoxication mechanisms. Some mycotoxicoses appear only in children, and some are more pronounced in children than in adults. Acute mycotoxicoses in children are reported poorly, mostly because they occur in the tropical regions with poor healthcare coverage. In developed countries healthcare authorities are more concerned about child exposure to low levels of mycotoxins with immunotoxic, genotoxic or carcinogenic properties. PMID:25720023
... disorder (ADHD) ď‚· Behavior disorders ď‚· Mood and anxiety disorders ď‚· Autism spectrum disorders ď‚· Substance use disorders ď‚· Tourette Syndrome What ... of American children live with depression, anxiety, ADHD, autism spectrum disorders, Tourette syndrome or a host of ...
Indicates that books with realistic views of both war and peace are still rare. Claims children cannot escape the subject of nuclear war so they deserve books that will confront their fears honestly and present reasonable solutions. (RT)
... Playing organized sports (such as soccer, basketball, and football) Younger children have a shorter attention span than ... or biking. Others prefer group sports, like soccer, football, or basketball. Choose an exercise that works well ...
... formula feeding. Many children develop mild and temporary lactose intolerance. Continuing dairy foods may make the diarrhea last ... be due to bacteria or parasites that require treatment) Diarrhea ... because they may be either ineffective or potentially dangerous.
... Order Your Child from Harper Collins Order Your Adolescent from Harper Collins Related Facts for Families Death of Pets: Talking to Children Stepfamily Problems Sleep Problems School Refusal Parents with Cancer: Tips for ...
Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…
Teixeira, Ana; Ribeiro, Augusto
The plasma hypertonicity is a severe and quite frequent disorder in children. The most frequent causes are hypernatremia related conditions, even though other causes of hyperosmolarity, such as hyperglycaemia and exogenous solutes accumulation also occur. The management and treatment of this condition is delicate and requires a thorough understanding of the underlying hydro electrolytic disorder. The authors perform a theoretical review of plasma hypertonicity in children, focusing on the three most frequent associated conditions: hypernatremic dehydration, salt poisoning and hyperosmolar coma. PMID:20654264
Hillis M.D., Argye E.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research and potential therapies are also discussed. PMID:17275656
Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S
Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available. PMID:10770073
Kurbegov, Amethyst C; Sokol, Ronald J
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver disease throughout the world, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in many individuals. Children are more likely to develop chronic HBV infection as they demonstrate greater immunotolerance to the virus, and response to therapy in children remains disappointing. Three therapeutic agents for chronic HBV infection in children have been approved in the USA, including standard IFN-alpha, lamivudine and adefovir. IFN-alpha has been the most effective ( approximately 30% hepatitis B e antigen [HBeAg] seroconversion; 10% hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] seroconversion), although benefits are primarily observed in children with alanine aminotransferase levels over two-times the upper limit of normal and must be weighed against significant side effects. Studies comparing the long-term outcome of chronic hepatitis B in children treated with IFN-alpha and in untreated controls show that the rate of anti-HBeAb seroconversion tends to overlap in treated and untreated patients within a few years of follow-up, suggesting that IFN-alpha simply accelerates a spontaneous event. Lamivudine's virologic response rates mirror those of IFN-alpha (23-31% HBeAg seroconversion) with easier administration and a better safety profile but lower HBsAg seroconversion (2-3%) and high rates of drug resistance. Adefovir data show low rates of resistance and a good safety profile, but virologic response was limited to adolescent patients and was lower than that of lamivudine (16% HBeAg seroconversion; <1% HBsAg seroconversion). Entecavir and tenofovir, both approved therapies for adults with chronic HBV infection, are in trials for use in children. Future therapies will probably include these agents as well as combined therapies. Finally, watchful waiting of children is an option since current therapies are only 30% effective at best, although the long-term impact of therapy in childhood on rates of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma remains unknown. PMID:19210112
Colbert, Margaret, Comp.
This document is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field by organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers. Major international and foreign awards of English speaking countries are included. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each award entry includes a brief history of the award and a list of allâ€¦
Carlson, Pam; And Others
Includes edited versions of four presentations on library services for homeless children originally given at the 1993 American Library Association (ALA) annual conference. Topics addressed include story times at homeless shelters and juvenile halls for teenaged felons; giveaway books; identifying needs; funding sources; and Reading Is Fundamental…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
In order to examine the roles of mental age, social interaction, and communication in self-representation abilities, typically-developing children were compared with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Typically-developing children (TD, n = 66) and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, n = 20), including subgroups of autistic disorder…
Boehm, Steven S., Ed.
By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:â€¦
Rosenblum, L. Penny; Corn, Anne L.
This article suggests ways that families of children with visual impairments can promote the travel skills of their children. Topics covered include ways to share information during travel, involving children in travel, involving children with nondrivers, helping adolescents who will not drive gain increased independence, and supporting young…
Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…
Singh, Delar K.
This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…
Saracho, Olivia N.
Research provides evidence that fathers can promote the development of their children's literacy skills, including reading books to them that are appropriate, engaging their children in discussions about books they read, recording in a notebook the books the children have read and encouraging their children to read more books. This review presentsâ€¦
Sorscher, Nechama; Cohen, Lisa J.
The effect of parental Holocaust trauma on children's Jewish identity and Holocaust-related ideation was investigated through comparison of children of survivors with children of American Jews. The role of possible mediating factors, (the quality of parental communication style) was also assessed. Subjects included 40 adult children of Jewishâ€¦
Laverick, Deanna M.
This article discusses the benefits of including "children's eCulture" in school curricula. "Children's eCulture" is the culture of children as it relates to electronics and technology. Integrating children's eCulture into formal learning experiences allows teachers to promote multiple literacies in their students. The article will describe theâ€¦
Sammons, William A. H.; Lewis, Jennifer M.
Describes how teachers' observations of children can help behavioral pediatricians identify family situations contributing to marked changes in children's behavior related to divorce. Discusses ways teachers can support children of divorce, including maintaining consistency and discipline, making children feel competent, listening to the child's…
Laakso, Aarre; Smith, Linda B.
We directly compare children learning argument expressing and argument dropping languages on the use of verb meaning and syntactic cues, by examining enactments of transitive and intransitive verbs given in transitive and intransitive syntactic frames. Our results show similarities in the children’s knowledge: (1) Children were somewhat less likely to perform an action when the core meaning of a verb was in conflict with the frame in which it was presented; (2) Children enacted the core meaning of the verb with considerable accuracy in all conditions; and (3) Children altered their actions to include or not include explicit objects appropriately to the frame. The results suggest that 3-year-olds learning languages that present them with very different structural cues still show similar knowledge about and sensitivity to the core meanings of transitive and intransitive verbs as well as the implications of the frames in which they appear. PMID:21499789
Introduction Acute gastroenteritis results from infection of the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly with a virus. It is characterised by rapid onset of diarrhoea with or without vomiting, nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. Diarrhoea is defined as the frequent passage of unformed, liquid stools. Regardless of the cause, the mainstay of management of acute gastroenteritis is provision of adequate fluids to prevent and treat dehydration. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions to prevent acute gastroenteritis in children? What are the effects of treatments for acute gastroenteritis in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 42 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of: rotavirus vaccines for the prevention of gastroenteritis; enteral rehydration solutions (oral or gastric), lactose-free feeds, loperamide, probiotics, and zinc for the treatment of gastroenteritis; and ondansetron for the treatment of vomiting. PMID:21791124
Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C
Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder. PMID:26256071
Sahn, Benjamin; Bitton, Samuel
This article provides an overview of the evaluation and management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) in children. The common etiologies at different ages are reviewed. Conditions with endoscopic importance for diagnosis or therapy include solitary rectal ulcer syndrome, polyps, vascular lesions, and colonic inflammation and ulceration. Diagnostic modalities for identifying causes of LGIB in children include endoscopy and colonoscopy, cross-sectional and nuclear medicine imaging, video capsule endoscopy, and enteroscopy. Pre-endoscopic preparation and decision-making unique to pediatrics is highlighted. The authors conclude with a summary of current and emerging therapeutic hemostatic techniques that can be used in pediatric patients. PMID:26616898
Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.
Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
Paster, Angela; Brandwein, David; Walsh, Joanne
The purpose of this study was to determine whether coping strategies differ in parents of children with disabilities and parents of children without disabilities. Participants consisted of 112 parents, including 50 parents of children with disabilities and 62 parents of children without disabilities. It was hypothesized that coping strategiesâ€¦
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie
We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactive…
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie
We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactiveâ€¦
Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer
Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073