Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.
This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…
Stith, Joanna L.; Drasgow, Erik
Cochlear implants can provide partial hearing to individuals with substantial hearing loss. Because of improvements in early identification and intervention, more children with cochlear implants will be included in elementary school general education classrooms. Thus, general education teachers should be prepared for teaching children with…
Barker, Linda; Goldberg, Roberta
Directors of early childhood programs are the "frontline" for parents seeking admission for their children with identified special needs. In addition, developmental and behavioral issues that emerge after a child is enrolled in a program quickly come to the director's attention. Determining who can be included at a site, how to prepare the…
Katz, Laurie; Schery, Teris K.
These are typical scenarios of children with hearing loss who are being included increasingly in early childhood settings. Recent federal legislation encourages states to develop programs to screen the hearing of all infants before they leave the hospital, and currently 39 states have adopted newborn infant hearing screening mandates (ASHA 2005).…
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young; Tu, Huifang
Understanding children's decisions to include a child with a disability in activities is an important component of the social environment of children with disabilities. We examined preschool children's understanding of the motor and social competence of hypothetical children with a physical disability, children's decisions to include or exclude a…
Huang, Ann X.; Wheeler, John J.
In this article, the authors report that, although social attention to the education of children with special needs began in the late 1970s, education for children with autism is the greatest challenge in special education in China. They point out that most school-age children with autism are still kept out of both regular and special schools. In…
Asserting that the "children's budget" expected from the Canadian federal government in February 2000 may fail to address the needs of children and youth with disabilities, this report argues that the federal government has a variety of avenues open for meeting these needs. The report contends that it is essential to ensure that families caring…
Describes the Transition-to-Kindergarten program in Brookline, Massachusetts, in which two children with asthma and potentially life-threatening food allergies were helped to stay healthy and fit into the classroom. (BB)
Huang, Hsin-Hui; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examined the influence of information about children's disabilities on preschool teachers' responses toward integrating children with disabilities in their classroom. Of particular interest was whether the severity of the child's educational needs and information about diagnosis were related to teachers' responses. Data were collected…
Carlson, Brenda; Samels, Karen
This guidebook is designed to provide information on technology to teachers and service providers who work with children with special needs. It may also be helpful for parents and caregivers of young children. Topics include: (1) the definition of assistive technology; (2) the philosophy of using technology with young children and a rationale that…
Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.
Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…
... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What is included under Services to Children, Elderly, and Families? 20.401 Section 20.401 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Services to Children, Elderly, and Families § 20.401 What is included under Services...
Diamond, Karen E.; Hong, Soo-Young
The authors examined factors related to preschool children's reasoning about including a hypothetical peer with a physical disability in different play activities. They hypothesized that children's inclusion decisions would be influenced by features of the physical environment, attention to issues of fairness and equity, and individual child…
Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Thomson, Nicole; Scott, Helen
Although children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are increasingly being placed within mainstream classes, little is known about the challenges that teachers encounter with including them as full participants in the class. This qualitative study draws on a purposive sample of 13 educators who have experience teaching children with ASD within…
Quesenberry, Amanda C.; Hemmeter, Mary Louise; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Hamann, Kira
In this study, 9 teachers from 5 child care centers were interviewed to examine their perceptions on including children with challenging behavior in their classrooms. The findings provide a firsthand view into how child care teachers support children's social and emotional development and address challenging behavior. Results confirm previous…
Presents suggestions for successfully including young children with "new" life-threatening, chronic illnesses -- various types of cancer, heart, liver, and kidney diseases -- in early childhood education classes. (BB)
Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)
Mourembou, Gaël; Fenollar, Florence; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Ndjoyi Mbiguino, Angelique; Maghendji Nzondo, Sydney; Matsiegui, Pierre Blaise; Zoleko Manego, Rella; Ehounoud, Cyrille Herve Bile; Bittar, Fadi; Raoult, Didier; Mediannikov, Oleg
Background Like other tropical African countries, Gabon is afflicted by many parasitic diseases, including filariases such as loiasis and mansonellosis. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of these two filarial diseases in febrile and afebrile children using quantitative real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled with sequencing. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA from blood specimens of 1,418 Gabonese children (1,258 febrile and 160 afebrile) were analyzed. Overall, filarial DNA was detected in 95 (6.7%) children, including 67 positive for M. perstans (4.7%), which was the most common. M. perstans was detected in 61/1,258 febrile children (4.8%) and 6/160 afebrile children (3.8%, P = 0.6). Its prevalence increased statistically with age: 3.5%, 7.7% and 10.6% in children aged ≤5, 6–10 and 11–15 years, respectively. M. perstans prevalence was significantly higher in Koulamoutou and Lastourville (12% and 10.5%, respectively) than in Franceville and Fougamou (2.6% and 2.4%, respectively). Loa loa was detected in seven febrile children including one co-infection with M. perstans. Finally, 21 filarial DNA positive were negative for M. perstans and Loa loa, but ITS sequencing could be performed for 12 and allowed the identification of a potential new species of Mansonella provisionally called “DEUX”. Mansonella sp. “DEUX” was detected only in febrile children. Conclusions/Significance Further study should be performed to characterize Mansonella sp. “DEUX” and evaluate the clinical significance of mansonellosis in humans. PMID:26484866
Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...
Nind, Melanie; Wearmouth, Janice
This paper reports on the outcomes of the first in a series of three systematic literature reviews in inclusive education. The aims include establishing what research has been undertaken in the area of effective pedagogical approaches to enable children with special educational needs to be included in mainstream classrooms, synthesising themes in…
Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D
Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B. PMID:11091066
Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G
Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs. PMID:11573339
Soldatskiĭ, Iu L; Denisova, O A; Ivanenko, A M
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children. The study involved 67 children at the mean age of 6.9±2.7 years. Group 1 was comprised of 35 children given framycetin as topical therapy, the patients of group 2 were treated by the endonasal administration of a 2% silver proteinate solution. It was shown that the use of framycetin as a component of combined therapy of adenoiditis enhances the effectiveness of the treatment and compliance to therapy in comparison with the same parameters in the case of the application of traditional topical antibacterial preparations. PMID:25588492
Koch, Cecelia; Mayes, Rachel
Background: The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences and strategies used when meeting the needs of all their children, including an adolescent with disabilities. Materials and methods: A qualitative study design was employed. The study was conducted in two phases. (i) Secondary analysis of ecocultural interviews with 12…
Dahle, Karen Bowen
Discusses issues related to working with young children with autism for elementary school teachers. Describes characteristics of autism, the need for early intervention, and the general principles for effective practices with autistic students, and classroom adaptations. Includes a list of organizations concerned with autism. (JPB)
Soriano-Nagurski, Lisa; Bakley, Sue; Kulak, Alisa; Blasi, Mary Jane; Priestley, Lori
Contains four articles: (1) "And the Walls Came Tumbling Down: Including Children Who Are Differently Abled in Typical Early Childhood Educational Settings"; (2) "On Teasing, Taunting, and 'I Can Do It by Myself'"; (3) "A Teacher's Responsibility--To Be Enthusiastic about Teaching Fast and Slow Learners Alike"; (4) "A Child with Severe Hearing…
Ingersoll, Brooke; Dvortcsak, Anna
Parent training has been shown to be a very effective method for promoting generalization and maintenance of skills in children with autism. However, despite its well-established benefits, few public school programs include parent training as part of the early childhood special education (ECSE) curriculum. Barriers to the provision of parent…
Greenstein, Doreen; And Others
This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…
In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, the…
Wolfberg, Pamela; Bottema-Beutel, Kristen; DeWitt, Mila
Peer-play experiences are a vital part of children's socialization, development, and culture. Children with autism face distinct challenges in social and imaginary play, which place them at high risk for being excluded by peers. Without explicit support, they are likely to remain isolated from peers and the consistent interactive play that…
Boylan, Ellen; Goldman, Dan
States and local school districts are required by federal law to educate preschool age children with disabilities in typical early childhood programs alongside children who do not have disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate. This policy brief provides an overview of the law and sets forth a list of policy recommendations that can help…
The return of the Labour government to power in 1997 brought an increased focus upon inclusive education for children with special educational needs (SEN). Alongside this there has been a desire to enhance the opportunities young people have to access physical education (PE) and school sport. Previous research has shown that children with SEN…
Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Mucchetti, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in Autism Res 6:468–478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5–8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication intervention including parent training. Parent–child play interactions were coded for parents' strategy implementation and children's time jointly engaged (Adamson et al. in J Autism Dev Disord 39:84–96, 2009). Parents mastered an average of 70 % of the strategies. Further analyses indicated some gains in implementation occurred from mere observation of sessions, while the greatest gains occurred in the first month of active coaching and workshops. Children's joint engagement was associated with parents' implementation success across time demonstrating parents' implementation was relevant to children's social engagement. PMID:25475363
In this commentary, developments related to conducting randomized controlled trials in authentic preschool settings that include young children with disabilities are discussed in relation to the Strain and Bovey study.
Markovits, Henry; Benenson, Joyce F; Kramer, Donald L
This study examined internal representations of food sharing in 589 children and adolescents (8-19 years of age). Questionnaires, depicting a variety of contexts in which one person was asked to share a resource with another, were used to examine participants' expectations of food-sharing behavior. Factors that were varied included the value of the resource, the relation between the two depicted actors, the quality of this relation, and gender. Results indicate that internal models of food-sharing behavior showed systematic patterns of variation, demonstrating that individuals have complex contextually based internal models at all ages, including the youngest. Examination of developmental changes in use of individual patterns is consistent with the idea that internal models reflect age-specific patterns of interactions while undergoing a process of progressive consolidation. PMID:14669890
Africa, Jonathan A; Newton, Kimberly P; Schwimmer, Jeffrey B
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease among children. Lifestyle interventions, such as diet and exercise, are frequently recommended. Children with NAFLD have a distinct physiology that is different from obesity alone and has the potential to influence lifestyle treatments. Studies of diet alone in the treatment of pediatric NAFLD have focused on sugar and carbohydrate, but did not indicate any one dietary approach that was superior to another. For children who are obese and have NAFLD, weight loss may have a beneficial effect regardless of the diet used. Exercise is widely believed to improve NAFLD because a sedentary lifestyle, poor aerobic fitness, and low muscle mass are all risk factors for NAFLD. However, there have been no randomized controlled trials of exercise as a treatment for children with NAFLD. Studies of the combination of diet and exercise suggest a potential for improvement in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and/or magnetic resonance imaging liver fat fraction with intervention. There is also enthusiasm for the use of dietary supplements; however, studies in children have shown inconsistent effects of vitamin E, fish oil, and probiotics. This review presents the available data from studies of lifestyle intervention and dietary supplements published to date and highlights challenges that must be addressed in order to advance the evidence base for the treatment of pediatric NAFLD. PMID:27041377
Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Simba Khamis, I; Mgeni, Ali F; Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David; Marti, Hanspeter; Utzinger, Jürg
A programme periodically distributing anthelminthic drugs to school-aged children for the control of soiltransmitted helminthiasis was launched in Zanzibar in the early 1990s. We investigated the spatial distribution of soiltransmitted helminth infections, including Strongyloides stercoralis, in 336 children from six districts in Unguja, Zanzibar, in 2007. One stool sample per child was examined with the Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate and Baermann methods. The point prevalence of the different helminth infections was compared to the geological characteristics of the study sites. The observed prevalences for Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm and S. stercoralis were 35.5%, 12.2%, 11.9% and 2.2%, respectively, with considerable spatial heterogeneity. Whilst T. trichiura and hookworm infections were found in all six districts, no A. lumbricoides infections were recorded in the urban setting and only a low prevalence (2.2%) was observed in the South district. S. stercoralis infections were found in four districts with the highest prevalence (4.0%) in the West district. The prevalence of infection with any soil-transmitted helminth was highest in the North A district (69.6%) and lowest in the urban setting (22.4%). A. lumbricoides, hookworm and, with the exception of the North B district, S. stercoralis infections were observed to be more prevalent in the settings north of Zanzibar Town, which are characterized by alluvial clayey soils, moist forest regions and a higher precipitation. After a decade of large-scale administration of anthelminthic drugs, the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth infections across Unguja is still considerable. Hence, additional measures, such as improving access to adequate sanitation and clean water and continued health education, are warranted to successfully control soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Zanzibar. PMID:19021108
Tangunan Camota Contreras, Jennifer
Research Topic: The majority of Christian schools in the United States exclude children who have disabilities from their learning communities. This study examines the practices of 11 Christian schools throughout the United States, through conversations with a top leader in each school, that provide access to and/or inclusion in their schools.…
Vickerman, Philip; Coates, Janine Kim
Background: In recent years within the UK the inclusion of children with special educational needs (SEN) in mainstream physical education (PE) has escalated up the statutory and political agenda. Despite this increased focus in schools, empirical research demonstrates that inequalities still exist in relation to the readiness of government,…
Heeren, G. Anita
More than 30 years after the first discovery of the deadly HIV virus, and in the wake of increased knowledge of transmission, treatment and behavioral intervention development, parents are still faced with the difficult task of whether, when and how to inform their child about her or his HIV status. Except for some general ethical considerations, there are no national or international guidelines available for handling HIV status disclosure to a child by parents and health professionals. Most studies on disclosure address the problem of stigma and the barriers to disclosure of HIV-positive status by adults to their sexual partners, caretakers, families and communities, but very few studies focus on disclosure to HIV-positive children. The majority of the studies that address disclosure to children limit themselves to stipulating reasons for barriers to such disclosure instead of the skills and knowledge necessary for effective disclosure to a child. Increasing availability of therapy for HIV across the world presses the issue of disclosure to the child. Even so, disclosure for children who are HIV-positive due to vertical transmission continues to be very difficult. There is a lack of interventions that consider guidelines for healthcare professionals, parents or persons involved with taking care of HIV-positive children. These interventions should be designed in an understanding manner towards the culture where they might be implemented and be as appropriate in the view of integrating different family structures and the child’s development. PMID:24634603
Watson, Amy; McCathren, Rebecca
The authors present a checklist designed to help preschool and kindergarten administrators and teachers build confidence in their ability to be inclusive and to increase their awareness of the needs of children with disabilities. Teachers can use the checklist to prepare for the inclusion of a child with a disability. "Identifying potential…
In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…
Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.
There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…
De Bono, Edward
A group of children were presented with several tasks, including the invention of a sleep machine and a machine to weigh elephants. The tasks were chosen to involve the children in coping with problems of a distinct character. A study of the children's drawings and interpretations shows that children's thinking ability is not very different from…
Schlene, Vickie J.
Provides a sampling of citations in the ERIC database on children's rights. Includes human rights education, United Nations' conventions, state takeovers of local school districts, and federal law as it affects student rights. Covers child abuse, corporal punishment, child welfare, and child advocacy. (DK)
Tassiopoulos, Katherine; Williams, Paige L.; Seage, George R.; Crain, Marilyn; Oleske, James; Farley, John
Context Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with hypercholesterolemia in HIV-infected children. Few longitudinal studies have been conducted to examine this association, however. Objective To evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for development of hypercholesterolemia in a large pediatric study. Design Prospective cohort study (Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group 219C). Participants A total of 2122 perinatally HIV-infected children free of hypercholesterolemia at entry. Outcome Development of hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥220 mg/dL at 2 consecutive visits). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate risk factors. Results Thirteen percent of children had hypercholesterolemia at entry, and an additional 13% developed hypercholesterolemia during follow-up for an incidence rate of 3.4 cases per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0 to 3.9). After adjustment for age, boosted protease inhibitor (PI) use (hazard ratio [HR] = 13.9, 95% CI: 6.73 to 28.6), nonboosted PI use (HR = 8.65, 95% CI: 4.19 to 17.9), and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor use (HR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with increased risk of hypercholesterolemia, and higher viral load was protective (>50,000 vs. ≤400 copies/mL; HR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.90). Self-reported adherent subjects had higher risk. Conclusions PIs were significant risk factors for hypercholesterolemia. Higher viral load was protective and may reflect non-adherence. Further follow-up is critical to evaluate long-term consequences of chronic PI exposure and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:18209684
UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...
Children may sometimes undergo healthcare procedures that are not intended to improve their health status. Such interventions might include the use of young children as bone marrow donors or their enrolment in non-therapeutic research. One of the justifications used to legitimise these interventions is the premise that children have obligations to others; to their family in the case of related bone marrow transplantation, and to wider society in the case of non-therapeutic research. However, this 'obligation model' (the notion that children possess positive obligations to advance the health status of others) fails as a justificatory paradigm because it is based upon a confusion, identified by Hart, between two notions; that of 'being under an obligation to do something' and that of 'being obliged to do something'. Instead the 'obligation model' is a device employed to put a justificatory gloss upon a consequentialist decision-making process; removing the legitimising gloss allows for a more transparent look at the conflict between parental rights and an individual child's right to bodily integrity. PMID:21289034
Presents the results of a study that supports the premise that children should read literature written for children in other countries to increase their knowledge and understanding of other cultures. Includes a bibliography of Russian children's literature. (AEA)
Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.
Each of the three journal issues comprising volume 19 (1992) of "Children Worldwide" focuses on a specific theme. Issue 1 contains six articles about refugee children, including essays about a community self-help approach in Pakistan, unaccompanied minors in Hong Kong, and refugee families raising children in a new culture; guidelines for working…
Hawes, Hugh, Ed.; Scotchmer, Christine, Ed.
This book is designed for those who work with children and who believe that children, in schools and as family members, need to be considered partners in spreading health messages as well as benefiting from them. It contains the messages included in "Facts for Life," a handbook that presents practical, low-cost ways of protecting children's lives…
... of Constipation in Children Constipation happens when stool stays too long in a child's colon. Causes of constipation in children may include ignoring the urge to have a bowel movement, a diet low in fiber, certain medicines or health problems. Diagnosis of Constipation in Children A doctor will ...
Children's folklore, the traditional formalized play activities of children, includes such speech play as riddles, games, jokes, taunts, retorts, counting-out rhymes, catches, jump-rope rhymes and many other such forms of verbal art. An initial attempt is made to study children's folklore on its own terms, not as a mechanism of enculturation for…
Locke, Jill; Rotheram-Fuller, Erin; Kasari, Connie
This study examined the social impact of being a typical peer model as part of a social skills intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were drawn from a randomized-controlled-treatment trial that examined the effects of targeted interventions on the social networks of 60 elementary-aged children with ASD.…
The enrollment of children with ASD in public school settings has escalated in conjunction with the increased incidence of the diagnosis (Yeargin-Allsopp et al., 2003). Characteristics associated with ASD can present unique challenges for both children and teachers in the classroom. According to many researchers, positive teacher attitudes are one…
Scott, Judith; Wishart, Jennifer; Currie, Candace
Background: The language, format and length of typical national health survey questionnaires may make them inaccessible to many school-aged children with an intellectual disability. Materials and Methods: Using the standard delivery protocol, the WHO Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) Questionnaire, currently in use in 43 countries,…
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...
... transfers from a school operated by the DoD in accordance with 32 CFR part 1 or from a Section 6 School... of a parent of each preschool child or child, evaluate all preschool children or children who are... arts, and mathematics, to determine whether a preschool child or child may be in need of...
Shire, Stephanie Y.; Goods, Kelly; Shih, Wendy; Distefano, Charlotte; Kaiser, Ann; Wright, Courtney; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Kasari, Connie
Notably absent from the intervention literature are parent training programs targeting school-aged children with autism who have limited communication skills (Tager-Flusberg and Kasari in "Autism Res" 6:468-478, 2013). Sixty-one children with autism age 5-8 with minimal spontaneous communication received a 6-month social communication…
Mengoni, Silvana E.; Oates, John
Early intervention is key for children with special educational needs or disabilities (SEND), and therefore early assessment is crucial. Information from parents about children's current ability and their developmental history can make valid and useful contributions to developmental assessments. Parental input is also important in early…
Child & Youth Services, 2007
Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…
The major aims of this book are to provide an account of racial attitude development in young children and to describe the effects of racism on the development of black children, specifically in the United Kingdom. The book draws freely on American and British research in an effort to illuminate the British experience. The first two chapters…
... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...
OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the same tasks of grief as adults, their unique psychological defences and evolving cognitive and emotional development make their grieving different from adults'. Understanding these unique childhood features will allow family physicians to more effectively help children through the tasks of acknowledging a death, working through the pain of that death, and accommodating it. CONCLUSIONS: With a framework for grief counseling that incorporates unique features of children's mourning, family physicians will be in a better position to assist their young bereaved patients. PMID:10626057
MacDonald, Shannon E; Schopflocher, Donald P; Vaudry, Wendy
Children who begin but do not fully complete the recommended series of childhood vaccines by 2 y of age are a much larger group than those who receive no vaccines. While parents who refuse all vaccines typically express concern about vaccine safety, it is critical to determine what influences parents of ‘partially’ immunized children. This case-control study examined whether parental concern about vaccine safety was responsible for partial immunization, and whether other personal or system-level factors played an important role. A random sample of parents of partially and completely immunized 2 y old children were selected from a Canadian regional immunization registry and completed a postal survey assessing various personal and system-level factors. Unadjusted odds ratios (OR) and adjusted ORs (aOR) were calculated with logistic regression. While vaccine safety concern was associated with partial immunization (OR 7.338, 95% CI 4.138– 13.012), other variables were more strongly associated and reduced the strength of the relationship between concern and partial immunization in multivariable analysis (aOR 2.829, 95% CI 1.151 – 6.957). Other important factors included perceived disease susceptibility and severity (aOR 4.629, 95% CI 2.017 – 10.625), residential mobility (aOR 3.908, 95% CI 2.075 – 7.358), daycare use (aOR 0.310, 95% CI 0.144 - 0.671), number of needles administered at each visit (aOR 7.734, 95% CI 2.598 – 23.025) and access to a regular physician (aOR 0.219, 95% CI 0.057 – 0.846). While concern about vaccine safety may be addressed through educational strategies, this study suggests that additional program and policy-level strategies may positively impact immunization uptake. PMID:25483477
Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children
... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... to submit your nomination > 20th National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect Sponsored by the Children's Bureau's Office ...
... Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media Virtual Office Hours ... and plans for having children during your regular medical visits with your health care provider. These discussions ( ...
... in children is done either with the child lying down or lying in their parent's lap. This approach can help ... have. The test is done with the child lying under sedation . The sonographer will numb the back ...
... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... of children and families through programs that reduce child abuse and neglect, increase the number of adoptions, and ...
... These visits are a chance to check your child's development. They are also a good time to catch or prevent problems. Other than checkups, school-age children should be seen ... or skin infections Frequent sore throats Breathing problems
Discusses the role and definition of children's rights since the 1989 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Suggests ways to build upon the Convention by concentrating on: neglected groups of children, including disabled, gay, minority, and girl children; reforming the rights of children; and strengthening the implementation…
Dudley, John; Karnes, Frances A.
Divorce is often a contentious process with multiple issues to decide, especially in cases in which there are children involved. Divorce raises several legal issues when considering the well-being of children, including those who are gifted. In this article, the authors discuss these issues which include school choice, child support, and custody…
Flax, Norman; Peters, Edward N.
Statistical analysis of data from written forms and scales (designed to measure children's behavior in groups), observations, and interviews indicated that many educalble mentally retarded children can participate successfully in camp activities with normal children. (DR)
One of the challenges facing primary school language teachers is the adaptation of the language syllabus to suit the needs of all of their learners, including those with special educational needs. Research into inclusion of such learners in the regular classroom has shown that adequate support for both child and teacher is essential if a child is…
The Green Paper, Every child matters, recognised the crucial importance of the children's workforce to improving outcomes for children and young people. The Children's Workforce Strategy sets out the government's vision of a world-class children's workforce which is increasingly competent and confident, inspiring trust and respect from parents and carers as well as from children and young people themselves. The document sets out four major strategic challenges: to recruit more high quality staff into the children's workforce; to retain people in the workforce including by offering better development and career progression; to strengthen interagency and multi-disciplinary working; and to promote stronger leadership and management. The strategy builds on work already in hand and on existing good practice. It puts forward proposals to tackle each of the strategic challenges with action nationally and locally. PMID:16114715
Kim, Se Young
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004
It is important to fast diagnosis and management of the pediatric patients of the endocrine metabolic emergencies because the signs and symptoms of these disorders are nonspecific. Delayed diagnosis and treatment may lead to serious consequences of the pediatric patients, for example, cerebral dysfunction leading to coma or death of the patients with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The index of suspicion of the endocrine metabolic emergencies should be preceded prior to the starting nonspecific treatment. Importantly, proper diagnosis depends on the collection of blood and urine specimen before nonspecific therapy (intravenous hydration, electrolytes, glucose or calcium injection). At the same time, the taking of precise history and searching for pathognomonic physical findings should be performed. This review was described for fast diagnosis and proper management of hypoglycemic emergencies, hypocalcemia, adrenal insufficiency, and metabolic acidosis including diabetic ketoacidosis. PMID:26817004
... about options available to them, from abortion to adoption. Special support systems, including consultation with a child ... keep the infant or give it up for adoption. There may be times when the pregnant teenager's ...
This is an exploratory study suggesting ways of analysing challenges for developing countries in the move to greater inclusion of disabled children and young people in learning. The paper focuses on pedagogical challenges to realising more inclusive education. Pedagogy encompasses not only the practice of teaching and learning, but also the ideas…
Hesjedal, Elisabeth; Hetland, Hilde; Iversen, Anette Christine; Manger, Terje
Issues concerning interprofessional collaboration (IPC) for children at risk have become a priority globally as well as in Norway. By international standards, the Norwegian educational system is regarded as inclusive and collaborative in terms of the external services that support schools and pupils. However, a debate continues on how to best…
Honig, Alice Sterling
Describes normal aspects of sexuality during the early years, including masturbation and children's fanciful sexual ideas. Presents inappropriately mature sexual knowledge as a danger sign of abuse. Discusses whether and what teachers/caregivers should tell children about sexuality, and notes the importance of teaching staff about sexual identity…
The report describes research on the effects of labeling children from minority groups as retarded and includes a review of a system of multiculturalistic pluralistic assessment (SOMPA), an instrument for evaluating the abilities and potentialities of children based on different aspects of performance. Listed among findings of the Riverside study,…
Maslova, T. F.; Smagina, M. V.
The causes of punishment including violence are perceived, first and foremost, as in the nature of family relations. The authors' survey focused on children's interaction with their parents, and the risk of violence is clearly present. Russian sociological research on violence against children within families shows a lack of consensus on what…
Boeckx, Roger L.
Urban children are exposed to lead through the air they breathe, the water they drink, and the food and nonfood substances they ingest. The history, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in these children are discussed. Includes information on the toxicology of lead and the various risk classes. (JN)
Concerts designed to introduce young children to music and live performance are staged by a variety of organisations and ensembles across Australia. Shows featuring a wide range of performers are advertised for young children. Such concerts include Babies' Proms, Family Concerts by symphony orchestras, Play School Concerts, performances by…
Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others
The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…
Brown, Rexel E., Ed.
This issue of the "Journal of Children and Youth" focuses on children's strategies for decoding and comprehending written language and teacher's strategies for facilitating this process. The issue includes eleven papers by members of the Indiana Reading Professors division of the Indiana State Reading Council and several invited guests. Peggy…
MCLAUGHLEN, HUGH W.
THE HISTORY OF SUMMER SCHOOLS FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN IN NEW JERSEY IS BRIEFLY PRESENTED. DURING 16 YEARS OF OPERATION, THE SCHOOLS HAVE BEEN CONDUCTED FOR OVER 2,000 CHILDREN. SPECIAL SERVICES INCLUDE CARE OF PUPILS FROM 2 TO 15 YEARS OF AGE, HOT LUNCHES, DENTAL CARE, HEALTH SERVICES, AND A NURSE ON DUTY AT ALL TIMES. ALL TEACHERS, FULLY CERTIFIED,…
Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Graham, Stephen M.; Duke, Trevor; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Ashraf, Hasan; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; La Vincente, Sophie; Banu, Sayera; Raqib, Rubhana; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
Background Severe malnutrition is a risk factor for pneumonia due to a wide range of pathogens but aetiological data are limited and the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is uncertain. Methods We prospectively investigated severely malnourished young children (<5 years) with radiological pneumonia admitted over a 15-month period. Investigations included blood culture, sputa for microscopy and mycobacterial culture. Xpert MTB/RIF assay was introduced during the study. Study children were followed for 12 weeks following their discharge from the hospital. Results 405 eligible children were enrolled, with a median age of 10 months. Bacterial pathogens were isolated from blood culture in 18 (4.4%) children, of which 72% were Gram negatives. Tuberculosis was confirmed microbiologically in 7% (27/396) of children that provided sputum - 10 by culture, 21 by Xpert MTB/RIF assay, and 4 by both tests. The diagnostic yield from induced sputum was 6% compared to 3.5% from gastric aspirate. Sixty (16%) additional children had tuberculosis diagnosed clinically that was not microbiologically confirmed. Most confirmed tuberculosis cases did not have a positive contact history or positive tuberculin test. The sensitivity and specificity of Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to culture was 67% (95% CI: 24–94) and 92% (95% CI: 87–95) respectively. Overall case-fatality rate was 17% and half of the deaths occurred in home following discharge from the hospital. Conclusion and Significance TB was common in severely malnourished Bangladeshi children with pneumonia. X-pert MTB/RIF assay provided higher case detection rate compared to sputum microscopy and culture. The high mortality among the study children underscores the need for further research aimed at improved case detection and management for better outcomes. PMID:24695758
Raihana, Shahreen; Dunsmuir, Dustin; Huda, Tanvir; Zhou, Guohai; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-ur; Garde, Ainara; Moinuddin, Md; Karlen, Walter; Dumont, Guy A.; Kissoon, Niranjan; El Arifeen, Shams; Larson, Charles; Ansermino, J. Mark
Background The reduction in the deaths of millions of children who die from infectious diseases requires early initiation of treatment and improved access to care available in health facilities. A major challenge is the lack of objective evidence to guide front line health workers in the community to recognize critical illness in children earlier in their course. Methods We undertook a prospective observational study of children less than 5 years of age presenting at the outpatient or emergency department of a rural tertiary care hospital between October 2012 and April 2013. Study physicians collected clinical signs and symptoms from the facility records, and with a mobile application performed recordings of oxygen saturation, heart rate and respiratory rate. Facility physicians decided the need for hospital admission without knowledge of the oxygen saturation. Multiple logistic predictive models were tested. Findings Twenty-five percent of the 3374 assessed children, with a median (interquartile range) age of 1.02 (0.42–2.24), were admitted to hospital. We were unable to contact 20% of subjects after their visit. A logistic regression model using continuous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, temperature and age combined with dichotomous signs of chest indrawing, lethargy, irritability and symptoms of cough, diarrhea and fast or difficult breathing predicted admission to hospital with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.89 (95% confidence interval -CI: 0.87 to 0.90). At a risk threshold of 25% for admission, the sensitivity was 77% (95% CI: 74% to 80%), specificity was 87% (95% CI: 86% to 88%), positive predictive value was 70% (95% CI: 67% to 73%) and negative predictive value was 91% (95% CI: 90% to 92%). Conclusion A model using oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and temperature in combination with readily obtained clinical signs and symptoms predicted the need for hospitalization of critically ill children. External validation of
In this article, the author, a Forest School Leader with Shropshire Wildlife Trust, shows how nature is the best teacher. She describes a new approach to out-of-classroom learning during which qualified leaders use simple challenges and achievable tasks to encourage child-initiated learning in the great outdoors. At Forest School, children are…
The daily reality of working with a group of young children presents many demands for adults in early childhood programs. There are the ongoing chores of caretaking and cleaning up, planning and providing an engaging curriculum, communicating with families and coworkers, and the ever-growing pressures for outcomes, assessment, and documentation to…
Bullock, Janis R.
Lonely children experience feelings of sadness, malaise, boredom, and alienation. Loneliness has immediate and long-term consequences and may be attributed to many different causes. Teachers can learn to recognize signs of loneliness and use a variety of approaches in the classroom to help the child feel better and work through the experience.…
Goodpasture, Meggan; Everett, V Denise; Gagliano, Martha; Narayan, Aditee P; Sinal, Sara
A series of severe child abuse cases in the state, all involving children who were reportedly homeschooled, are cause for concern. We review 4 such cases and the regulations regarding homeschooling in the state of North Carolina, exploring potential deficits in the system and suggesting ways of addressing them. PMID:23530395
Toret, Gokhan; Acarlar, Funda
The purpose of this study was to examine gesture use in Turkish children with autism, Down syndrome, and typically developing children. Participants included 30 children in three groups: Ten children with Down syndrome, ten children with autism between 24-60 months of age, and ten typically developing children between 12-18 months of age.…
The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue. PMID:17966730
Argues that young children learn LOGO programing language more effectively through guided discovery using games and techniques that encourage exploration of the software. Specific examples of games, drawings and accomplishments of Australian children are included. (EA)
Della Lucia, Ceres M.; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C.; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C.; Santos, Laura Luiza M.; Cardoso, Leandro M.; Martino, Hércia S. D.; Franceschini, Sylvia C. C.; Pinheiro-Sant’Ana, Helena Maria
Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice® (UR®)) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2–6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR® added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR® on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464
Della Lucia, Ceres M; Rodrigues, Kellen Cristina C; Rodrigues, Vivian Cristina C; Santos, Laura Luiza M; Cardoso, Leandro M; Martino, Hércia S D; Franceschini, Sylvia C C; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria
Feeding is indicative of the nutritional status of children, however micronutrient deficiency is common in this age group. We evaluated the impact of inclusion of rice (Ultra Rice(®) (UR(®))) fortified with iron, zinc, thiamin and folic acid on laboratory measurements and the nutrient intake of children. Ninety-nine preschoolers (2-6 years; 42.6% male) from two preschools participated, one of which received UR(®) added to polished rice as part of school meals (test preschool) and the other received only polished rice (control preschool). Biochemical evaluations were performed before and after four months of intervention. Feeding was assessed by direct weighing of food, complemented by 24-h recalls, and the diet was assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) adapted to the Brazilian reality. The fortified rice improved the levels of zinc (p < 0.001), thiamine (p < 0.001), folic acid (p = 0.003), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (p < 0.001) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (p < 0.001). The inadequacy percentages of thiamine, folic acid and iron were lower among preschoolers from the test preschool. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of using UR(®) on laboratory measurements of children. The inadequate intake of thiamine, folic acid and iron was also reduced, making the fortified rice an interesting strategy in school feeding programs. PMID:27187464
Save the Children, Westport, CT.
This report provides information on the well-being of children in Afghanistan, details the work of the Save the Children organization in helping Afghan children and families, and discusses what is currently needed to meet the urgent health and safety needs of Afghan children. It is noted that 25 percent of children die before their fifth birthday,…
... These include fats found in fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Limit foods with saturated and trans fats (such as meats, full-fat dairy products, and processed foods). Fruits and vegetables are healthy snack foods. Children should be taught ...
Cordoba, Oscar A.; And Others
Reviews the clinical conditions and medications used with children who have emotional and behavioral problems including hyperactivity, enuresis, anxiety, depression, mental retardation, and Tourette's Syndrome. Discusses the role of the social worker, ethical issues, and training needs. (JAC)
... virus (HCV). Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis A and hepatitis B . ... Elisofon SA, Jonas MMF. Viral hepatitis in children. In: Boyer TD, Manns MP, Sanyal AJ, eds. Zakim & Boyer's Hepatology: A Textbook of Liver Disease. 6th ed. ...
This annotated discography lists 45 recordings for children from birth to 14 years, including recordings of stories, songs, ballet, and foreign language songs. Distributors' addresses and phone numbers are provided. (EA)
Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon
In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the second volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fourteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, (2) Review Unit 2, (3) Special Unit A--"Cristobal Colon," (4) Review Unit 3, (5)…
Mactavish, J. B.; Schleien, S. J.
Grounded in the naturalistic paradigm, a mixed-method research design (survey questionnaire, n=65; and interview, n=16) was used to explore the nature and benefits of, and constraints to, family recreation in families that included children with developmental disability. Statistical analyses were conducted on the quantitative data, while key theme…
Sermier Dessemontet, Rachel; Bless, Gerard
Background: This study aimed at assessing the impact of including children with intellectual disability (ID) in general education classrooms with support on the academic achievement of their low-, average-, and high-achieving peers without disability. Method: A quasi-experimental study was conducted with an experimental group of 202 pupils from…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the third volume in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Nine basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of the Spanish people. They include: (1) Review Unit 1, ("Cristobal Colon"), (2) Review Unit 2, (3) "Un Accidente,""La Navidad," and…
Thompson, Mary P.; And Others
This is the first in a series of texts in a conversational Spanish course for elementary school children. Fifteen basic units present introductory linguistic patterns and cultural insights into the lives of Spaniards. They include: (1) Greetings, Identifications, and Farewells, (2) Some Classroom Objects and Instructions, (3) Colors, (4) More…
Deaton, Ann Virginia
Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1990-2000; (3) total pedalcyclist…
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.
This document provides statistical information on the incidence of U.S. motor vehicle-related accidents and fatalities involving children. Data include: (1) total traffic fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (2) total pedestrian fatalities among children 0-14 years old, by age group, 1991-2001; (3) total pedalcyclist…
Reyes, Augustina H.
In August 2005, Hurricane Katrina displaced the largest number of public school children ever affected by any disaster. Approximately 370,000 children, including 15,000 Latino/Hispanic children from Louisiana, were scattered throughout the 48 U.S. states (Landrieu, 2010; Louisiana Department of Education, 2004). Although much of the media…
Schyller, Ingela; And Others
Focusing mainly on television, this document provides facts about the mass media world of children in Sweden. Contents concern (1) toddlers and television; (2) viewing among 3- to 8-year-olds, including the number of children viewing, television in day care centers, times at which children view television, and viewing with others; (3) viewing…
... hepatitis A. Children can get hepatitis A at day care center from other children or from child care ... treatment with immunoglobulin therapy. If your child attends day care: Make sure the children and staff at the ...
... Children and Adolescents Go Back Treating Children and Adolescents Email Print + Share For the most part, the ... tailored, based upon the child's weight. Children and adolescents are moving through a period of physical and ...
... have asthma. Nearly 9 million of them are children. Children have smaller airways than adults, which makes asthma especially serious for them. Children with asthma may experience wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, ...
Tadic, Valerija; Hogan, Ailbhe; Bull, Catherine; Rahi, Jugnoo Sangeeta; Dezateux, Carol
Background Understanding children’s views about living with congenital heart defects (CHDs) is fundamental to supporting their successful participation in daily life, school and peer relationships. As an adjunct to a health and quality of life outcomes questionnaire, we asked school-age children who survived infant heart procedures to describe their experiences of living with CHDs. Methods In a UK-wide cohort study, children aged 10 to 14 years with CHDs self-completed postal questionnaires that included an open question about having a ‘heart problem’. We compared the characteristics of children with more and less severe cardiac diagnoses and, through collaborative inductive content analysis, investigated the subjective experiences and coping strategies described by children in both clinical severity groups. Results Text and/or drawings were returned by 436 children (246 boys [56%], mean age 12.1 years [SD 1.0; range 10–14]); 313 had less severe (LS) and 123 more severe (MS) cardiac diagnoses. At the most recent hospital visit, a higher proportion of the MS group were underweight (more than two standard deviations below the mean for age) or cyanosed (underweight: MS 20.0%, LS 9.9%; cyanosed: MS 26.2%, LS 3.5%). Children in the MS group described concerns about social isolation and feeling ‘different’, whereas children with less severe diagnoses often characterised their CHD as ‘not a big thing’. Some coping strategies were common to both severity groups, including managing health information to avoid social exclusion, however only children in the LS group considered their CHD ‘in the past’ or experienced a sense of survivorship. Conclusions Children’s reported experiences were not dependent on their cardiac diagnosis, although there were clear qualitative differences by clinical severity group. Children’s concerns emphasised social participation and our findings imply a need to shift the clinical focus from monitoring cardiac function to
Xue, Jingchuan; Wu, Qian; Sakthivel, Sivasubramanian; Pavithran, Praveen V; Vasukutty, Jayakumar R; Kannan, Kurunthachalam
Obesity has been recognized as a major global public health concern. In particular, childhood obesity is a major risk factor for other health issues, such as type 2 diabetes, in later stages of life. A few earlier studies have associated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with childhood obesity. There is limited information, however, on exposure to EDCs and childhood obesity in India. In this study, urinary levels of 26 EDCs were determined in 49 obese and 27 non-obese Indian children. Eleven EDCs, including 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP3), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·2H2O) were found in >70% of urine samples. No significant associations were found between childhood obesity and most target chemicals studied, except for 3,4-DHB, which showed a significant positive association. Urinary concentrations of 3,4-DHB were higher in obese children than in non-obese children, independent of age, sex, family income, parent education, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of several EDCs were higher in Indian children than the concentrations reported for children in the USA and China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report urinary concentrations of several EDCs in Indian children. PMID:25531816
Kukreja, Kamlesh; Vaidya, Sandeep
Advanced medical treatment options have improved pediatric survival but often require invasive vascular procedures or venous access. These procedures increase the risk for thromboembolism in children, and there has been a corresponding increase in the reported incidence of deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome in the pediatric population. Percutaneous venous interventions using catheter-directed therapy (CDT), like mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis, have been used much less frequently in children, even though they have shown good results in adults. A multidisciplinary team including pediatric hematology, interventional radiology, and intensive care unit is suggested for management of venous thrombosis in children. Indications and contraindications for CDT in children are similar to adults. Mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis are some of the more commonly performed treatments. CDT in children requires adapting to patient size and locally available equipment. Ultrasound guidance for access, "cork" technique, appropriate dosing of tissue plasminogen activator for infusion/pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and simultaneous administration of heparin, plasminogen (fresh frozen plasma), and deficient coagulation factors are some of the important variations of CDT technique in children. Postprocedure monitoring is very important for successful thrombolysis. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are increasingly being used in children as well, for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) if there is a significant risk of PE with/without contraindications to anticoagulation. PMID:21335289
Our Children, 1995
This adaptation of the National Parent Teacher Association (PTA) booklet "Safeguarding Your Children" discusses cooperative efforts of communities, schools, and homes to protect children from violence. (SM)
Fundoplication - children - discharge; Nissen fundoplication - children - discharge; Belsey (Mark IV) fundoplication - children - discharge; Toupet fundoplication - children - discharge; Thal fundoplication - ...
Chatterjee, Sandip; Chatterjee, Uttara
Intramedullary tumors of the spinal cord account for 35-40% of intraspinal tumors in children. The biological behavior of these tumors is of slow progression, and hence aggressive surgery has been advocated. Surgical adjuncts include use of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, preoperative ultrasound, microsurgical techniques and ultrasonic suction devices. Osteoplastic laminoplasty approaches avoid post-laminectomy deformities in younger children. Postoperative radiotherapy and more recently chemotherapy regimes have been proposed for incompletely resected tumors. PMID:22069435
The office of the Ombudsman for Swedish children, established within Radda Barnen (The Swedish Save the Children Fund) is occupied by five persons. Three of the staff are children's ombudsmen, one is an immigrant consultant, and one is a refugee consultant. The work of the ombudsman has six core aspects. First, attempts are made to strengthen the…
Kuntz, Patricia S.
A descriptive study identified titles and features of children's books set in an African city. Data were collected from various reviews of children's literature for titles published since 1980. In addition, the Cooperative Children's Book Center's log list of acquired titles for Africa from 1990 to 1996 was reviewed. Results showed that authors…
Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent
Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122
Describes experiences of children and adolescents in South Africa who have been subjected to the violence of the apartheid state. Discusses detention of children and torture and assault of detained children. Against this backdrop, explores the effects of violence on children, psychological trauma, counseling interventions, and applications of…
Schuster, Mark A.; Chung, Paul J.; Vestal, Katherine D.
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range…
Gabel, Katherine, Ed.; Johnston, Denise, Ed.
The arrest and imprisonment of a parent is significant trauma for children, and children of incarcerated parents are at high risk for juvenile delinquency. This book for social workers, psychologists, and others who work with children whose parents are incarcerated examines parental incarceration, its impact on children, care and placement of…
Hanline, Mary Frances
Discusses research on the effect of integrating disabled children into early childhood programs. Finds fears that nondisabled children will imitate the socially unacceptable behaviors of disabled children or will not make adequate progress to be unfounded. Social integration of disabled children was found to be dependent on the attitudes and…
Kimbrough, Jackie; And Others
This children's collective manual describes a training program for parents and teachers of preschool children which is designed to encourage cooperative, community-oriented styles of group interaction in black preschool children. Developed by the Children's Collective of the Coordinated Child Care Council of South Los Angeles, the program is based…
This report, given at a special meeting held in Tehran, describes children's literature in Australia, discussing specifically the background of this literature (the country and early children's books); various influences on the literature, such as the Children's Book Council and children's and school libraries; present-day publishing, including…
Stoecklin, Vicki L.
This paper examines four key elements in the designing-for-all-children concept for school environments. Designing-for-all-children designs acknowledge that children pass through differing, yet recognizable, stages of development; and that children need usable environments free from physical and social barriers. Key elements address equitable use,…
Malchiodi, Cathy A.
Children's art not only provides a window to children's problems, it also gives them another language with which to share feelings and ideas. This book provides an overview of the multidimensional aspects of children's drawings, and is intended to assist therapists in working with children and their drawings. Chapter 1 discusses projective tests…
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a ubiquitous syndrome that is defined by urinary urgency with, or without urinary incontinence. OAB is observed in all parts of the world, with a prevalence of 5-12% in children (5-10 years of age) and a prevalence of 0.5% in older adolescents (16-18 years of age). Published data indicate that around a third of children with OAB are likely to become adults with similar complaints. Studies in children and in adults with OAB indicate that these individuals are more likely to also have anxiety, depression and attention deficit problems, and that appropriate treatment of these comorbidities can often improve the patient's OAB symptoms. Furthermore, data from twin studies and familial surveys seem to indicate a genetic component of OAB. Pharmacological treatments of OAB in children have improved in the past 5 years, moving beyond anticholinergic agents and including the off-label use of α-blockers, β3-agonists and intravesical botulinum toxin. Use of several different electrical stimulation techniques is also effective, both as first-line treatments, and for patients with treatment-refractory symptoms. Overall the outlook of children with OAB seems to be improving, with a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of this syndrome. Treatment modalities that target the source of the underlying problem, especially in children, are likely to provide the best patient outcomes. PMID:27530266
Omona, G; Matheson, K E
This news article discusses conditions in Uganda due to the 12-year war that jeopardize the health and well-being of children. Since 1995 the rebel Sudan-backed Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) has secured new recruits to add to their diminishing numbers by abducting children. As many as 8000 children, ages 11 years and older, have been appropriated in the war effort. The children are abducted, trained as soldiers, and forced to commit brutal crimes and murders. Abducted girls are held as sex slaves and forced to marry. Those children who manage to escape need special psychological and medical interventions during their integration back into normal life. World Vision Uganda and Gulu Support the Children Organization (GUSCO) have set up psychosocial counseling programs to help these children overcome their traumatic experiences. The programs offer the children vocational training, trauma counseling, and reintegration into their families. Children return to their families within 3-6 weeks. The large number of children in need has resulted in difficult follow-up and lack of long-term support. The GUSCO reception center houses about 100 children, 15% of whom are girls. The philosophy of recovery is based on the view that 1) the children are survivors with individual resources and not sick victims; and 2) most of the children will experience a healing process when given protection and understanding. GUSCO uses a community participatory approach that includes children in decision-making and relies on local traditions. The psychosocial supportive environment helps children re-establish self-esteem, trust with other people, and a civilian identity. GUSCO works with families, local groups, teachers, and authorities. Reintegration follow-up occurs after 3 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year. The international community should put pressure on Sudan to end its support of the LRA. PMID:9482324
Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D
Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308
This is a review article that studies the problem of torture in children. Torture in children is a significant worldwide problem, but there are no official or reliable independent statistics to measure the magnitude of the problem. The definition of torture in the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment applies to adults and children. The Convention on the Rights of the Child defines children as "every human being below the age of eighteen years". Torture in children happens during peace times and during political violence and war conflicts. The majority of torture victims happen during peace times. The high-risk groups are impoverished children living in the street, children deprived of parental care, children in conflict with the law, and children in detention. During political violence and war the high risk children are the children detained during political violence, child soldiers, children internally displaced in refugee camps, detained children during the war against terrorism and children tortured by peacekeeping forces. The perpetrators of torture in children are the members of the same forces that torture adults, generally the police, civil police, security guards trained by police, prison guards, and military forces. The paper identifies some preventive measure and develops recommendations for action at the local, national and international level. PMID:19920326
Phan, Tung Gia; da Costa, Antonio Charlys; Del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Bucardo-Rivera, Filemon; Nordgren, Johan; O'Ryan, Miguel; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric
Viral metagenomics of feces collected from 58 Peruvian children with unexplained diarrhea revealed several small circular ssDNA genomes. Two genomes related to sequences previously reported in feces from chimpanzees and other mammals and recently named smacoviruses were characterized and then detected by PCR in 1.7 % (1/58) and 19 % (11/58) of diarrheal samples, respectively. Another three genomes from a distinct small circular ssDNA viral group provisionally called pecoviruses encoded Cap and Rep proteins with <35 % identity to those in related genomes reported in human, seal, porcine and dromedary feces. Pecovirus DNA was detected in 15.5 % (9/58), 5.9 % (3/51) and 3 % (3/100) of fecal samples from unexplained diarrhea in Peru, Nicaragua and Chile, respectively. Feces containing these ssDNA genomes also contained known human enteric viral pathogens. The cellular origins of these circular ssDNA viruses, whether human cells, ingested plants, animals or fungal foods, or residents of the gut microbiome, are currently unknown. PMID:26780893
IDRA Newsletter, 1998
This theme issue includes five articles that focus on educational, cognitive, and brain research with implications for early childhood educators, including those who work with limited-English-proficient, minority, and economically disadvantaged children. "Coming to Grips with Reading Instruction at the Early Grades" (Christie L. Goodman) reports…
Smutney, Joan Franklin, Ed.
This issue of the Illinois Association for Gifted Children (IAGC) Journal focuses on teaching gifted children in the regular education classroom. Featured articles include: (1) "Educating All Gifted Children for the 21st Century: Proposal for Training Regular Classroom Teachers" (Maurice D. Fisher and Michael E. Walters); (2) "Gifted Children in…
Storksen, Ingunn; Thorsen, Arlene Arstad; Overland, Klara; Brown, Steven R.
Research shows that children of divorce are at risk of adjustment problems and school problems. In previous studies of young children of divorce, most often parents or teachers have supplied data. In this study, we explore the children's own feelings and experiences through Q methodology with visual images. The study includes 17 children of…
Agenda for Children, 2010
The mission of Agenda for Children is to make Louisiana a state in which all children can thrive. This means that the basic needs of children and families must be met--including an adequate family income, safe housing, nutritious food, and accessible health care. It also means that children must be nurtured, well taught, and protected from harm,…
Alonso, Lou, Comp.
Listed in the directory are over 200 educational programs and services for deaf blind children in the United States and U. S. territories. It is noted that the 10 coordinators of regional centers for services to deaf blind children have aided in compilation of the directory. Listings are arranged by state within the New England, Mid-Atlantic…
Houde, Olivier; Rossi, Sandrine; Lubin, Amelie; Joliot, Marc
Tracing the connections from brain functions to children's cognitive development and education is a major goal of modern neuroscience. We performed the first meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained over the past decade (1999-2008) on more than 800 children and adolescents in three core systems of cognitive…
Marsh, Merle; Alden, Sally Bowman, Ed.
The information highway is an exciting place for children and families to visit, explore, and learn together. This book teaches parents basic knowledge about the Information Highway and how to use it with children. The following topics are covered in this book: (1) What is the Information Highway? (2) What is Telecommunications?; (3) Why You &…
Chandran, Nisha Suyien; Novak, Jeroen; Iorizzo, Matilde; Grimalt, Ramon; Oranje, Arnold P.
Background Trichotillomania is an often underdiagnosed condition. Little is known about trichotillomania in childhood. We aimed to analyze the characteristics of children with trichotillomania to increase information on this condition. Methods A retrospective study of an electronic database was performed in a tertiary children's hospital. Information from patients with trichotillomania was systematically classified under the categories ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘why’, and ‘how’. Results A total of 33 patients had a diagnosis of trichotillomania (28 females, 5 males; peak age between 3 and 4 years). Scalp involvement was most common and nail biting was observed in 5 patients. Only 51.5% of patients had parents who noticed their child's hairpulling. Hair on or under the bed was the most common clue suggesting that hairpulling occurred. Triggering factors identified in 16 children included physical appearance, family-related issues, school-related issues, and concurrent illness. The noninvasive hair pull test was negative in all children. There was a high non-follow-up rate, and treatment outcomes varied. Conclusion A set of 6 specific questions, based on the ‘5Ws and 1H’ principle, facilitates the gathering of important information on children with unexplained nonscarring hair loss and helps clinicians be cognizant of possible outcomes of trichotillomania. This will be especially useful to clinicians who are not familiar with this elusive condition. PMID:27172263
Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a condition of esophageal dysplasia in which the tubular esophagus is lined with columnar instead of squamous mucosa--not with just any type of columnar mucosa, but with a specialized type with goblet cells. It is considered to be an acquired phenomenon secondary to acid exposure from gastro-esophageal reflux (GER). This report shows a review of BE of children and our data about BE from the study of 19 handicapped children with GER. 3 had intestinal dysplasia with goblet cells (BE). The % time of pH under 4 on 24-hour pH monitoring was significantly lower in the patients with esophagitis including BE than in them with normal esophagus. BE of our study seemed to be reversible after the surgery and anti-acid therapy. It is suggested that BE is not a rare condition even in children and biopsy specimens should be taken to establish the diagnosis. PMID:16101239
Kucine, Nicole; Chastain, Katherine M.; Mahler, Michelle B.; Bussel, James B.
Myeloproliferative neoplasms are uncommon disorders in children, for which we have limited understanding of the pathogenesis and optimal management. JAK2 and MPL mutations, while common drivers of myeloproliferative neoplasms in adult patients, are not clearly linked to pediatric disease. Management and clinical outcomes in adults have been well delineated with defined recommendations for risk stratification and treatment. This is not the case for pediatric patients, for whom there is neither a standard approach to workup nor any consensus regarding management. This review will discuss thrombocytosis in children, including causes of thrombocytosis in children, the limited knowledge we have regarding pediatric primary thrombocytosis, and our thoughts on potential risk stratification and management, and future questions to be answered by laboratory research and collaborative clinical study. PMID:24688110
Peng, Chew Fong
The Malay literary materials and resources for early childhood in Malaysia are still in the infant stage and have not been expanded to include the main references or developed into big book form. The children literature in our market is not published based on educational philosophy and research, but it is produced based on profit. The process of…
Aubrey, Irene E.
This annotated bibliography dealing with Canadian children's books aims to show the historical development of the literature. Included within the bibliography are: (1) notable Canadian books from the eighteenth century to the modern period, (2) lists of books which were awarded a bronze medal for the years 1947-1975, and (3) a list of fiction for…
Jordan, Alice M.
"Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…
Baker, Betty Ruth
Daily transitions in early childhood centers and classrooms include periods when children are completing one activity, preparing to begin a new activity, and moving from place to place in a room or building. Transition activities involve teaching techniques that prepare learners to listen, relax, sit down, move between locations or activities, and…
Flynn, Patricia; And Others
The booklet presents information and illustrations regarding bus transportation of handicapped children. The roles and responsibilities of drivers and aides are discussed as are such topics as seating arrangements, first aid measures (for falls and seizures), embarking and debarking procedures (including ways to encourage independence in walking),…
Ranly, Donald P.
The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…
Hildebrand, Joan M.
This annotated bibliography includes 27 children's books, 15 of which are fiction, and 12 nonfiction. Of the nonfiction books, three discuss historical topics and nine cover nature-related topics such as rainforests, the ocean floor, snakes and other animals, and rural farm life. (SM)
Frazier, Alexander, Ed.
This publication contains seven papers, six of which were presented at a 1968 conference sponsored by the Elementary Education Advisory Council of the ASCD in cooperation with the Department of Elementary-Kindergarten-Nursery Education of the NEA. Topics covered include elements and issues in curriculum-making for children, present trends in…
Wilke, Janet Stoeger, Comp.
This annotated guide is designed to provide assistance in the identification of resources useful in locating books about various subjects related to children or appropriate for various grade levels. The 17 sections include entries for 86 books and articles in and about the following areas: general subjects/all grade levels; best book lists;…
Snowden, Peggy L.
National trends and issues that concern gifted education are considered, focusing on the relationships among regular education, early childhood education, and education of young children who are gifted. Specific topics include: whole language and emergent literacy, whole group instruction and flexible grouping, cooperative learning, and…
Presents the results of the UNESCO global study on media violence and children which was conducted between 1996 and 1997. Highlights include the role of the media, media heroes as role models, media violence and aggression, differences by gender, rural versus urban environments, the pervasiveness of television, and recommendations. (Author/LRW)
Reviews 10 children's books, published or reissued 1988-93, about daily life, traditional culture, and schooling among Taos Pueblo, Zuni Pueblo, Navajo, Inuit, Guatemalan, and other Native peoples, as well as tales from Native American oral tradition, the life of a buffalo, and Cherokee and Athapascan historical fiction. Includes grade range and…
Taft, Timothy N.
A literature review revealed an absence of well-controlled studies concerning the prevention of sports injuries in children. A checklist outlines some causes of the overuse syndrome, including (1) training errors; (2) the nature of playing surfaces; (3) muscle imbalance; (4) anatomic malalignments; (5) construction of shoes; and (6) various…
Scheuerman, Oded; Landau, Daniel; Schwarz, Michael; Hoffer, Vered; Marcus, Nufar; Hoffnung, Liat Ashkenazi; Levy, Itzhak
Cervical discitis, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis of torticollis, neck pain and neurodevelopmental regression in motor skills in children and infants. Magnetic resonance imaging is the diagnostic method of choice. Treatment should be conservative with antibiotics only. The aim of this study was to describe the 10-year experience of a tertiary pediatric medical center with cervical discitis. PMID:25886786
Cumberland County Public Library and Information Center, Fayetteville, NC.
Suggestions for establishing children's library programs in the Cumberland County, North Carolina, library system include descriptions of types of audiences, types of programs, and elements of programs. Selection guidelines for topics and materials cover the following areas: (1) art projects; (2) costumes; (3) creative dramatics; (4) drawing; (5)…
Guidelines on the why, what, and how of selection of reading materials for a children's library are discussed, including: (1) money, range of demand, and attitude of customers; (2) proportions and quality of stock, and bias; and (3) alternative schemes for critically assessing books as an important step in the selection process. (MBR)
Phillips, Beeman N., Ed.
Contents of this book include the following collection of articles: "Assessing Minority Group Children: Challenges for School Psychologists," Thomas Oakland; "The NEA Testing Moratorium," Boyd Bosma; "Cultural Myopia: The Need for a Corrective Lens," Martin H. Gerry; "Assumptions Underlying Psychological Testing," T. Ernest Newland;…
The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835
Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2001
In prose and art, students and staff from a residential treatment center for troubled children in Columbus, Ohio, express and illustrate the depth of pain that children and their caregivers face in the process of healing from abuse. (Author)
More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient
Taking acetaminophen (Tylenol) can help children with colds and fever feel better. As with all drugs, it is important to give children the correct dose. Acetaminophen is safe when taken as directed. But taking ...
Corbett, Susan Miller
Presents a newsletter that discusses methods parents can use to handle sexual questions or behavior in young children. An accompanying letter to parents addresses young children's sexual behavior and ways parents can respond to this behavior. (GH)
The author, an instructor from 1979-83 at the Children's Theatre Program of the Komplex Budaya Negara (National Cultural Complex), describes how children's theatre has evolved to achieve a distinct Malaysian identity by drawing from traditional theatre forms. (PD)
... a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care Communication & Discipline Types of Families Media ... Your Community Healthy Children > Family Life > Family Dynamics > Adoption & Foster Care > Adopted Children & Discipline Family Life Listen ...
... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000749.htm Children and grief To use the sharing features on this page, ... your own child, learn the normal responses to grief that children have and the signs when your ...
Cochrane, R. McCrae; Sachs, Jacqueline
Finds no differences in the degree to which adults and seven-year-old children generalized Spanish stress patterns, although the children showed less interference from English stress patterns than the adults. (Author/RL)
... day on TV, in movies, and through computer games. Most involve firearms. Children often imitate what they ... movies and videos, and/or playing violent video games. Parents should help protect their children from the ...
... a Healthy Heart Healthy Kids Our Kids Programs Childhood Obesity What is childhood obesity? Overweight in Children BMI in Children Is Childhood Obesity an Issue in Your Home? Addressing your Child's ...
... learning disorder. Children with learning disorders can have intelligence in the normal but the specific learning disorder ... make teachers and parents concerned about their general intelligence. Often, these children may try very hard to ...
... Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... curve of the cornea that causes blurred vision ( astigmatism ). Children with mild ptosis should have regular eye ...
... medicine is made to look and taste like candy. Children are curious and attracted to medicine. Most ... like you. DO NOT call medicine or vitamins candy. Children like candy and will get into medicine ...
Children and tonsillectomies ... many parents wonder if it is wise for children to have the tonsils taken out. Tonsillectomy may be recommended if your child has any of the following: Difficulty swallowing Obstructed ...
... learn along with their children, parents' actions, conversational style, and displays of emotion will change with each new youngster. Not only do parents change their style as they gain experience raising children, but each ...
Ward, Colin; Golzen, Ann
Could it be that children learn more about the world of work by being workers, than by having a lesson on the subject? Evaluates the attraction of street work and provides photographs of children at work. (Editor/RK)
... NCCIH Clinical Digest for health professionals Children and Dietary Supplements Share: September 2012 © Matthew Lester Research has shown that many children use herbs and other dietary supplements. However, there are little data available on their ...
Children and fat-free diets; Fat-free diet and children ... Some fat in the diet is needed for normal growth and development. However, many conditions such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes are linked to ...
... medication has been studied for its effects on children. It also tells you what ages have been ... counter products haven't actually been studied in children for effectiveness, safety, or dosing. When you give ...
Townsend, John Rowe
Children's prose literature in Britain is surveyed from the 17th century to the present. The main stream of this development is exemplified by an examination of the lives and works of such authors as (1) John Newbery, whose books for children include "Goody Two-Shoes" (1766), (2) Mrs. Sherwood, whose didactic books contain a moral lesson in every…
Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of School Improvement.
Developed at Roosevelt Elementary School in Long Beach Unified School District (California), this CD-ROM presents Children Teaching Children (CTC), a literacy project intended to assist students to read, write, and publish their original work. It is part of the Program Improvement Initiative, an educational reform effort initiated by the…
California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of School Improvement.
Children Teaching Children (CTC): Collection II is a CD-ROM created at 6 elementary schools in the West Contra Costa Unified School District (California) as part of the Coaching Odyssey for school improvement. CTC II, published by the California Department of Education, is an effective early literacy intervention that integrates the development of…
Marks, Ronald; Newman, Sally
One hundred-seventy elementary school children in Western Pennsylvania were involved in a pilot study to examine young children's views on aging and the elderly. Approximately half of these children were involved in the Senior Citizen School Volunteer Program which provided consistent classroom contact with a senior citizen resource person. The…
Verhellen, Eugeen, Ed.; Spiesschaert, Frans, Ed.
A number of research seminars were organized to clarify the fundamental principles underlying local, regional, and international efforts to establish a structure for monitoring and promoting children's rights. This book contains papers presented at these seminars by experts on child advocacy, promotion of children's interests by children, and…
In this book, the author reveals the creative force of children's narrative imagination and shows how this develops through childhood. He provides a new and powerful understanding of the significance of narrative for children's intellectual growth and for learning and teaching. The book explores a series of real stories written by children between…
Reading Teacher, 2008
Each year 12,500 school children from different regions of the United States read and vote on the newly published children's and young adults' trade books that they like best. The Children's Choices for 2008 list is the 34th in a series that first appeared as "Classroom Choices" in the November 1975 issue of "The Reading Teacher" (RT), a…
Reading Teacher, 2002
Presents annotations of children's choices of the top 100 children's and young adults' trade books for 2002. Lists books selected for the Children's Choice by reading levels: beginning readers; young readers; intermediate readers; and advanced readers. Provides tips and activities for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. (SG)
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" examines whether programs implemented by the federal welfare reform law accomplished the goal of reducing the number of children growing up in poor, single-parent families and whether these programs benefited children. This examination coincides with debates in Congress on the reauthorization of the Personal…
Birch, Leann L.; Sullivan, Susan A.
Measures of preference are useful predictors of children's food consumption patterns. The paper discusses children's affective response to food and describes the preference assessment procedure which obtains information on children's likes and dislikes. The methodology helps investigate factors influencing development of preferences and food…
Schroepfer, Dorothy; Yeaton, Charles
Children discover many things about themselves, about the world around them, and about words and language, before they go to school. This booklet was prepared to guide parents in helping their children make such discoveries in preparation for the demands of learning in school. Activities are suggested for developing children's self-confidence,…
Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.
To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…
Salomone, Ronald E., Ed.
The 15 articles in this journal issue deal with children's literature. Among the topics and titles discussed are (1) Virginia Hamilton's books, (2) the new realism in children's literature, (3) gender bias in children's books, (4) teaching "Where the Wild Things Are" to adults, (5) language use in "Alice in Wonderland," (6) "Mom, the Wolf Man and…
Kane, Dorothy Noyes
Children are especially sensitive to air pollution and consequences to them maybe of longer duration than to adults. The effects of low-level pollution on children are the concern of this article. The need for research on the threat of air pollution to childrens' health is emphasized. (BT)
Rowland, Thomas W.
This book paints a broad picture of the role of exercise in children's health and provides information for the physician and other health care providers on healthful forms of physical activity for children. The book is divided into three parts: (1) "Developmental Exercise Physiology: The Physiological Basis of Physical Fitness in Children"; (2)…
In his influential book "Dialogues with Children" (1984), Gareth Matthews presents strong evidence that children as young as six can and should engage in philosophical discourse. His findings form the basis of this article, a theoretical and practical guide for parents and teachers seeking respectful and creative ways to encourage children to…
Auman, Mary Jo
The death of a parent is one of the most significant and stressful events children can encounter. Surviving children may experience psychiatric problems and social dysfunction during their childhood and possibly throughout their adult lives. Children surviving a sibling's death may develop behavioral problems, because no one can fill the emptiness…
Sherman, Dianne, Ed.
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
The Detroit Children's Health Study will consist of health questionnaires for 15,000 children enrolled in the fourth- and fifth-grades of selected elementary schools, and measurements of lung function and exhaled breath in a subset of 3,500 of these children. Participation in bo...
Cushing’s Syndrome in Children by Meg Keil, MS, CRNP How is Cushing’s syndrome (CS) in children different than in adults? · CS in children is rare. An estimated ... child or adolescent during this period. Editor’s Note: Meg Keil,MS, CRNP is a nurse practitioner at ...
Padak, Nancy; Rasinski, Timothy
The games that children play are not just for fun-they often lead to important skill development. Likewise, word games are fun opportunities for parents and children to spend time together and for children to learn a lot about sounds and words. In this Family Involvement column, the authors describe 12 easy-to-implement word games that parents and…
Science News, 1978
Research done by workers at Harvard Medical School suggests that passive exposure to cigarette smoke can impair breathing in children ages five through nine. Lung flow rates (breathing ability) decreased for children with smoking parents, and significantly if the children also smoke. (MA)
Borders, Sarah G.; Naylor, Alice Phoebe
In an effort to demonstrate how quality literature can engage children in reflective thinking about stories, themselves, and the world, this book suggests children's literature worthy of discussion, shows how interactions work, and encourages adults to bond with children. The book begins with a chapter on how to use the book and a chapter on the…
Buck, Beverly; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget" presents and analyzes investments and spending trends during the past five state fiscal years on services that benefit children. The "Children's Budget" focuses mainly on state investment and spending, with some analysis of federal investments and spending to provide broader context of state…
The making of a book is an effective way to instill pride in authorship and to emphasize the importance of writing to children. This guide finds that the finished product (the book) capitalizes on the language background of each child, becomes an extension of the natural language of children, and teaches children to value their work and to take…
The first federal Internet privacy law (the Children's Online Privacy Protection Act) provides safeguards for children by regulating collection of their personal information. Unfortunately, teens are not protected. Legislation is pending to protect children from online marketers such as ZapMe! Interactive technologies require constant vigilance.…
Blepharoptosis-children; Congenital ptosis; Eyelid drooping-children; Eyelid drooping-amblyopia; Eyelid drooping-astigmatism ... Ptosis in infants and children is often due to a problem with the muscle that raises the eyelid. A nerve problem in the eyelid can ...
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2005
The Children's Budget is a comprehensive report on funding for children's services in Colorado. This report provides a six- year funding history for more than 50 programs funded with state, local, and federal dollars. The Colorado Children's Budget analyzes reductions in programs and services during the economic downturn. The data in the…
Lonsdale, Bernard J.; Mackintosh, Helen K.
This book is intended (1) as a supplementary text in college courses in children's literature, (2) as a source of information for educators involved in curriculum development programs in the field of children's literature, (3) as a reference guide for schools and community libraries, and (4) as an aid to parents in guiding their children's…
McDonough, Irma, Ed.
The children's books listed and annotated in this book were selected by Canadian children's librarians; they represent the most informative and relevant books in print for children, providing knowledge and understanding of the Canadian environment and cultural milieu. Each entry indicates bibliographic information and availability.…
Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...
This paper examines the different contexts for leadership in children's services with a particular focus on integrated working. It reviews contemporary theories that appear to offer relevant frameworks for thinking about children's service leadership. It is argued that children's services require leadership at all levels to enable a dynamic,…
Evidence from several media illustrates the ways children attempt to fit their observations into their own, known constructs. The contrast is drawn between adult concepts and children's misconceptions and the argument made that children would have more control over their learning with a "bottom-up" approach to teaching rather than the top down…
MOORE, JAMES W.
PROJECT ABLE, IN ITS EFFORT TO AID DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, WORKED WITH INTERMEDIATE GRADE CHILDREN OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND. THE PERSONNEL INVOLVED WERE CLASSROOM TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS, AND READING TEACHERS. THE CHILDREN WERE HELPED THROUGH SUCH WAYS AS COUNSELING, REMEDIAL READING, ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES, FIELD…
Parents and caregivers have many concerns about their childrens physical and emotional well-being when they are trying to raise healthy children. Parental concern for the potential development of osteoporosis when their children become elderly is probably not a priority during childhood. Yet, just a...
Keller, Suzanne M.
The four reports contained in this document examine the effects of the Nintendo Entertainment System (NES), which entered the lives of many children in the United States in 1986. The first report discusses a study of children's interaction with the game hardware. The study of fourth- and fifth-grade students indicated that children's interaction…
Savage, Michael P.; Holcomb, Derek R.
Describes a second-grade classroom activity in which children took photographs of their school while focusing on common themes generated by their teacher. Includes discussion of materials and costs for the activity, children's expectations, parental help, class sessions involved (instructions, taking pictures, developing photographs, sharing…
The Tampa Asthmatic Children's Study (TACS) was a pilot research study to assess methodologies and research instruments needed for including asthma as a health outcome in the National Children's Study (NCS). This was one of a series of pilot studies focusing on (a) simple, cos...
The problem of sex stereotyping in children's literature has been around for as long as the genre itself, but it was brought to the forefront because of the women's movement in the 1970s. From the 1700s, critics were aware of the problems that arose from children's literature and its portrayal of characters and ideas, including "Cinderella" and…
Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…
Children and young people regard the external physical environment as important for their needs. Their use of space varies according to age and circumstance and includes designated play and leisure facilities as well as other informal areas within their neighbourhoods. However, children have little influence over the development of public space as…
Discusses how marketers are targeting children as a consumer segment. Highlights include advertising budgets and media, how children spend their money, the more influential role of the child in the family, in-school marketing, controversial advertising on Channel One, marketing on the Internet, and parental control. (AEF)
Vacc, Nancy Nesbitt
Heightens the awareness of elementary school teachers, teacher educators, and teacher-education researchers of possible applications of fractal geometry with children and, subsequently, initiates discussion about the appropriateness of including this new mathematics in the elementary curriculum. Presents activities for exploring children's…
Towers, Richard L.
The purpose of this booklet is to raise the awareness of teachers and other school personnel about the needs and characteristics of the children of alcoholics and addicts and to explain what schools can do to help. The booklet discusses: (1) risk factors for children of alcoholics and substance abusers, including the psychological, emotional, and…
Children's Book Council, New York, NY.
The 1975 Children's Book Showcase committee selected 27 children's books for their excellent quality and design. Each of these books is given a two-page spread in the Showcase catalog. Information about the books, which are arranged alphabetically by title, includes author, title, publisher, artist, editor, art director, designer, production…
DI VESTA, FRANCIS J.
ONE HUNDRED CHILDREN IN EACH OF THE GRADES 2 THROUGH 6 WERE INCLUDED IN THIS STUDY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF MEANING IN CHILDREN. BASED ON STUDIES WITH ADULTS BY OSGOOD ET AL, THIS RESEARCH EXAMINED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT THE "EVALUATIVE" SYSTEM OF AFFECTIVE MEANING DEVELOPS FIRST, FOLLOWED BY INCREASED USE OF THE "POTENCY" AND "ACTIVITY" SYSTEMS. IN THE…
Gerganov, Encho; Varbanova, Silvia; Kyuchukov, Hristo
This paper examines the degree of school adaptation among Roma children who were included in a program for the desegregation of Roma schools in Bulgaria. More specifically, the program requires Roma children to attend mixed classes with Bulgarian students and Roma teacher assistants to work with them. The Bulgarian version of the Questionnaire on…
Judge, Amy, Comp.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) child health, including uninsured children, low birth weight babies, infant deaths, and immunizations; (2) child care and early…
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…
O'Brien, Margaret; Bachmann, Max O.; Jones, Natalia R.; Reading, Richard; Thoburn, June; Husbands, Chris; Shreeve, Ann; Watson, Jacqueline
Thirty-five children's trust pathfinders, local cross-sector partnerships, were introduced across England in 2003 to promote greater integration in children's services. Using administrative performance data, this paper tracks yearly trends in child service outputs and child well-being outcomes from 1997 to 2004 in these local areas, including the…
Srinivasan, Shylaja; Misra, Madhusmita
On the basis of strong research evidence, hyperthyroidism is a rare but potentially serious disorder in childhood that, if uncontrolled, can lead to a wide range of complications, including effects on growth and development. • On the basis of strong research evidence, Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism in children, accounting for greater than 95% of cases. It is caused by stimulating antibodies to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, history, physical examination, and thyroid function tests help diagnose hyperthyroidism. The condition is characterized by suppressed serum thyrotropin and elevated serum triiodothyronine and thyroxine. Radioactive iodine (or technetium-99) uptake and serum thyroid antibody measurements help determine the cause of hyperthyroidism. • On the basis of some research evidence and consensus, treatment options for Graves' disease in children include antithyroid medications, radioactive iodine, and surgery. Antithyroid medications are commonly used as the first-line therapy in children. However, because of the low rates of spontaneous remission, most children eventually require permanent treatment with radioactive iodine or surgery. Of the available antithyroid medications, current guidelines recommend use of methimazole and not propylthiouracil because of the unacceptable risk of hepatotoxicity associated with propylthiouracil. • On the basis of strong research evidence, thyroid storm is a rare life-threatening endocrine emergency that should be suspected in children with hyperthyroidism who demonstrate evidence of systemic decompensation. • On the basis of strong research evidence, neonatal hyperthyroidism can occur in infants born to mothers with a history of Graves' disease due to transplacental passage of TSH receptor stimulating antibodies. PMID:26034254
Autret-Leca, E; Marchand, M-S; Cissoko, H; Beau-Salinas, F; Jonville-Béra, A-P
Drug safety in children must take into account the frequency of « off label » prescriptions, children's growth dynamics, and possible long-term consequences (growth, neurodevelopment). The pharmacovigilance methodology is based on spontaneous notification and pharmacoepidemiology studies usually included the in risk management plan. Despite an increased drug risk (pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic specificities), drug safety is better in children than in adults. The incidence of drug side effects depends on the country, the type of study (in or out of the hospital), and age. Antibiotics, central nervous, respiratory and dermatologic drug systems are most often involved. The target organs are gastrointestinal and neurologic. In neonates, the most frequent side effects are due to pregnancy exposure to psychotropic drugs, beta-blockers, and antiepileptics. Some studies have shown an increased risk of off-label prescriptions in children. During the last 6 years in France, pediatric alerts (desmopressin, metoclopramide, bronchial mucolytic drugs, first-generation anti-H1, Uvesterol D(®), and Uvesterol A.D.E.C(®), rotavirus vaccines, growth hormone, cisapride) have been less frequent than in adults. PMID:22748689
Morison, Patricia; And Others
Examines first- , third- , and sixth-grade children's abilities to discriminate between the reality and fantasy of television programs. Lengthy clinical interviews were conducted with each of 36 children, including viewing and discussion of 12 videotaped program segments. (SW)
Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...
Schuster, Mark A; Chung, Paul J; Vestal, Katherine D
All children, even the healthiest, have preventive and acute health care needs. Moreover, a growing number of children are chronically ill, with preventive, acute, and ongoing care needs that may be much more demanding than those for healthy children. Because children are unable to care for themselves, their parents are expected to provide a range of health care services without which the current health care system for children would not function. Under this "shadow health care system," parents or parent surrogates often need to be with the child, a requirement that can create difficulties for working parents, particularly for those whose children are chronically ill. How federal, state, and employer policies and practices mesh with the child health care needs of families is therefore a central issue in any discussion about work and family balance. In this article Mark Schuster, Paul Chung, and Katherine Vestal describe the health care needs of children; the essential health care responsibilities of parents; the perspective of employers; and the existing network of federal, state, and local family leave benefits that employed parents can access. They also identify current gaps in policies that leave unmet the needs of both parents and their employers. The authors suggest the outlines of a national family leave policy that would protect the interests of parents and employers. In essence, such a policy would build on the federal Family and Medical Leave Act, which gives some workers time off with no advance notice required and no loss of job or health insurance. But it would also include elements of California's Paid Family Leave Insurance, which expands coverage to more workers and provides partial pay during leave. Employers could be given some financial protections as well as protections against employee fraud and abuse. Such a policy, the authors conclude, would help to provide security to parents, minimize effects on employers, raise societal expectations for
Zygmunt-Fillwalk, Eva; Staley, Lynn; Kumar, Rashmi; Lin, Cecilia Lingfen; Moore, Catherine; Salakaya, Manana; Szecsi, Tunde
This article describes a project called "Kids Speaking Up for Kids: Advocacy by Children, for Children". The project was simple in scope. The authors sought to collect stories of child advocacy--ways in which children were working on behalf of other children. They also sought to collect and profile children's voices and vision and so they issued a…
Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…
This study compared bullying involvement of Korean or Korean-German children living in Germany with children in Korea, and examined children's perceptions of school environment associated with bullying involvement of the children. This study included 105 Korean or Korean-German children living in the Bayern State of Germany as the study sample and…
Carlsson-Paige, Nancy; Levin, Diane E.
In a recent survey of parents and early childhood professionals the prevalence of war play among children and an increase in the amount of violence in children's play was noted. Outlines how the deregulation of children's television during the Reagan administration has affected children's exposure to violence in children's television programming.…
Utah Children, Salt Lake City.
The Utah KIDS COUNT program provides information about child well-being to enhance discussions on securing better futures for children. Indicators of children's quality of life are chosen to reflect a range of influences on children, conditions across developmental stages, and comparisons across time. Ten indicators examined included: (1) low…
Hill, Valerie; Pillow, Bradford H
In the present study, the authors investigated age differences in children's understanding (a) that a person's behavior may contribute to the formation of a shared opinion within the peer group and (b) that origins of a reputation can be direct or indirect. The authors read stories in which a target character engaged in either prosocial or antisocial interactions with peers to children in kindergarten, 2nd, and 4th grade. They then asked the children to judge how various peers viewed the target character. Children's explanations indicated that children in all of those age groups understood that firsthand experience influenced peers' opinions, and by 2nd grade, children understood that indirect experience or gossip also might have contributed to an individual's reputation. PMID:16910207
Mangieri, John N.; Isaacs, Carolyn W.
A bibliography lists approximately 100 works (1974-82) of fiction, biography, poetry, fantasy/science fiction, picture books, and mystery/adventure for gifted elementary children's recreational reading. Citations include information on author, approximate grade level, and publisher. (CL)
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E., Jr.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Andrade, Brendan F.; Jacques, Sophie; Corkum, Penny V.
Examined social information processing (SIP) in medicated and unmedicated children with ADHD and in controls. Participants were 75 children (56 boys, 19 girls) aged 6-12 years, including 41 children with ADHD and 34 controls. Children were randomized into medication conditions such that 20 children with ADHD participated after receiving placebo…
Letts, R. M.; Gammon, W.
A 6-year review of auger injuries in Manitoba children revealed that 23 children sustained major injuries resulting in amputation of 17 limbs. Auger injuries are the main cause of traumatic amputation in children in Manitoba. Improved safety education for the entire farm family as well as better design of safety shields would decrease this carnage. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 9 PMID:630513
Engel, J Mark; Guyton, David L; Hunter, David G
Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons. PMID:24924284
Marais, Ben J.; Schaaf, H. Simon
Many clinicians regard tuberculosis as an adult pulmonary disease, but tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and death in young children from TB-endemic countries, especially in areas affected by poverty, social disruption, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article reviews the disease burden and the natural history of disease in children with TB. It also provides guidance regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB in children. PMID:25037105
Kidd, M R
During the past twelve months much media attention has been focused on the plight of the children affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in the Soviet Union. The visit to Australia by several groups of these children during 1991 has heightened community interest in the innocent victims of the world's worst nuclear accident. As medical adviser for one of these visits, I saw how some of the children of Chernobyl benefited from their holiday away from radioactivity. PMID:1745168
Marais, Ben J; Schaaf, H Simon
Many clinicians regard tuberculosis as an adult pulmonary disease, but tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of disease, both pulmonary and extrapulmonary, and death in young children from TB-endemic countries, especially in areas affected by poverty, social disruption, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This article reviews the disease burden and the natural history of disease in children with TB. It also provides guidance regarding the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of TB in children. PMID:25037105
Lask, B; Britten, C; Kroll, L; Magagna, J; Tranter, M
Four children are described with a potentially life threatening condition manifested by profound and pervasive refusal to eat, drink, walk, talk, or care for themselves in any way over a period of several months. The multiplicity and severity of the symptoms in these children do not fit comfortably into any existing diagnostic category. Long term and highly skilled nursing and psychiatric care is required to help these children to recover. The possible causes of this syndrome are discussed. PMID:1863102
Presents general statistical findings of Internet use by children, discusses the recent Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA), and summarizes online child safety considerations. Considers filtering and includes current resources for parents and children. (Author/LRW)
... air or in food Tobacco smoke Exercise Strong emotions Viral infections, such as the common cold ... right away. Emergency symptoms include: Difficulty breathing Bluish color to the lips and face Severe anxiety due ...
Leung, Alexander KC; Kao, C Pion
Although drooling may occur in healthy children under two years of age, it is commonly observed in neurologically impaired children and carries a considerable social stigma. Drooling can be socially embarrassing, and at times may cause serious medical complications. Drooling may result from the hypersecretion of saliva or, more commonly, the impairment of swallowing. Most of the causes of drooling can be diagnosed from a history and physical examination of the patient. Laboratory investigations are usually unnecessary. Treatment should be directed at the underlying cause whenever possible. No active management is necessary for patients who have little functional and psychological impairment from their objectively mild or intermittent drooling. Treatment options for moderate and severe drooling include physiotherapy, behavioural or biofeedback modification, pharmacotherapy and surgery. PMID:20212951
Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J
The neutrophilic dermatoses are rare disorders, especially in children, and are characterized by neutrophilic infiltrates in the skin and less commonly in extracutaneous tissue. The neutrophilic dermatoses share similar clinical appearances and associated conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, malignancies, and medications. Overlap forms of disease demonstrating features of multiple neutrophilic dermatoses may be seen. The manuscript attempts to provide an up-to-date review of (i) classical neutrophilic dermatoses, focusing on distinctive features in children and (ii) neutrophilic dermatoses which may largely be pediatric or genodermatosis-associated (Majeed, SAPHO [synovitis, severe acne, sterile palmoplantar pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis] syndrome, PAPA (pyogenic sterile arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne), PFAPA (periodic fever with aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenopathy), and other periodic fever syndromes, and congenital erosive and vesicular dermatosis healing with reticulated supple scarring). PMID:18950391
Hosseinzadeh, Pooya; Hayes, Christopher B
Compartment syndrome in children can present differently than adults. Increased analgesic need should be considered the first sign of evolving compartment syndrome in children. Children with supracondylar humerus fractures, floating elbow injuries, operatively treated forearm fractures, and tibia fractures are at high risk for developing compartment syndrome. Elbow flexion beyond 90° in supracondylar humerus fractures and closed treatment of forearm fractures in floating elbow injuries are associated with increased risk of compartment syndrome. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with fasciotomy in children result in excellent long-term outcomes. PMID:27241380
McMath, Joan Scanlon; King, Margaret A.; Smith, William Earl
Discusses use of nonfiction as a means of teaching preschool children reading skills required in intermediate grades. Identifies recent trends in nonfiction books, values of bringing together young children, and informational books and criteria for selecting high quality informational books. Includes bibliography of nonfiction children's books.…
Sebesta, Sam L.; And Others
A study was conducted to discover the components of books that children prefer over and above those children's books that adults critically acclaim. Forty intermediate-level fiction books included in the "Children's Choices" listings for 1978 to 1980 were read by three adult researchers and classified according to A. Applebee's taxonomy of story…
The Echoic Response Inventory for Children (ERIC) is part of a test battery which includes the Expressive Vocabulary Inventory (EVI) and the Children's Auditory Discrimination Inventory (CADI), designed to assess language skills of disadvantaged children. These tests also seek to provide data that can help determine what changes in language…
Hundreds of children participated in the annual Take Our Children to Work Day at Stennis Space Center on July 29. During the day, children of Stennis employees received a tour of facilities and took part in various activities, including demonstrations in cryogenics and robotics.
Winston, Andrew S.; And Others
Presents three studies of children's ability to create and detect expressions of emotion in drawings. Compared to younger children, older children used more strategies, experimented with line and color, and were more likely to explore themes of death, aging, and illness. Includes sample drawings and statistical tables. (MJP)
Goffman, Lisa; Westover, Stefanie
The aim of this study was to determine, using speech error and articulatory analyses, whether the binary distinction between iambs and trochees should be extended to include additional prosodic subcategories. Adults, children who are normally developing, and children with specific language impairment (SLI) participated. Children with SLI were…
Nimmo, Margaret L.
This Kids Count report examines issues related to children's mental health in Virginia. The report discusses the effects of children's mental illness, presents risk and protective factors, and describes the incidence of children's mental health problems. Information specific to Virginia is presented, including the prevalence of youth suicide,…
Butler, Francelia, Ed.
This collection of essays is intended to stimulate writing, teaching, and study of children's literature by humanists. Among the included essays are: "Back to Pooh Corner,""Sophisticated Reading for Children,""Medieval Songs of Innocence and Experience,""Milton's 'Comus' as Children's Literature,""Fantasy in a Mythless Age,""Science Fiction and…
Stockman, Ida J.; Vaughn-Cooke, Fay
Samples of the language used by 4 children were recorded longitudinally between 1.5 and 3 years of age. Children's expressions of motion were categorized into expressions involving a source, path, or goal of motion. There were developmental changes, including an increase in the use of words relating to goals as children grew older. (BC)
Becchetti, Leonardo; Ricca, Elena Giachin; Pelloni, Alessandra
Empirical analyses of the determinants of life satisfaction routinely include the number of children as one of the socio demographic controls, without explicitly considering that, for a given household income, more children imply a lower level of income per family member. The variable "number of children" then often attracts a negative or…
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010
This paper presents an overview of the Head Start program. Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Recovery Act), $1 billion will be provided to the Office of Head Start to promote the school readiness of low-income children, including children on federally-recognized reservations and children of migratory farm workers, by enhancing…
Karl, Jean E.
Presents a history of children's book publishing that focuses on past, current, and future trends and reviews how these trends affect library budgets and services. Highlights include an examination of elements that have affected children's book publishing and sales and a discussion of the creation of Children's Book Week, an effort to publish…
Jordan, Amy B
Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents
Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)
Lillard, Angeline S; Li, Hui; Boguszewski, Katie
Children spend a lot of time watching television on its many platforms: directly, online, and via videos and DVDs. Many researchers are concerned that some types of television content appear to negatively influence children's executive function. Because (1) executive function predicts key developmental outcomes, (2) executive function appears to be influenced by some television content, and (3) American children watch large quantities of television (including the content of concern), the issues discussed here comprise a crucial public health issue. Further research is needed to reveal exactly what television content is implicated, what underlies television's effect on executive function, how long the effect lasts, and who is affected. PMID:25735946
Heller-Rouassant, Solange; Flores-Quijano, María Eugenia
Cow´s milk represents a very important source of proteins of high biological value and calcium in the child´s diet. The aim of this article is to review the available evidences of its role in nutrition of young children and school age children. Its main benefits are related with effects in linear growth, bone health and oral health, as protein source in early severe malnutrition, and it does not appears to influence metabolic syndrome risk and autism. High protein content in cow´s milk and increased protein consumption by children during the complementary feeding period is associated to the risk of developing a high body mass index and obesity in school-age children; therefore, milk consumption should be mildly restricted during the second year of life and to 480-720 ml/day during the first years of life. Its relationship with some diseases has not been confirmed, and milk consumption is associated with iron deficiency. The use of low-fat cow's milk instead of regular milk in young children remains controversial and its introduction is not advised before 2 to 4 years of age. PMID:27603883
Humphrey, G M; Najmaldin, A
During a 30-month period, 28 children aged 6 months-15 years underwent fashioning of a laparoscopic gastrostomy. Indications for operation included: feeding difficulties and failure to thrive in neurologically impaired children (13); chronic renal failure (9); and others (6). There were 17 conventional tube and 11 button gastrostomies. Twelve children had insertion of a gastrostomy alone; the others underwent a concomitant laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (NFP). The average operation time for gastrostomy alone was 65 min (range 35-104) and for gastrostomy plus NFP 155 min (range 130-246). There were no specific laparoscopic complications. Two patients who required large volumes of eternal drugs and peritoneal dialysis from the 1st post-operative day developed minor external leaks from their stomas. It appears that laparoscopy provides for safe and precise positioning of any standard balloon or button gastrostomy. It is a particularly attractive technique for use in patients already undergoing a laparoscopic fundoplication and those in whom other minimally invasive techniques are contraindicated or fail. PMID:9238116
Perera, Frederica P; Edwards, Susan C
This chapter first discusses the urgent need for prevention of childhood diseases that impose a huge and growing burden on families and society. It provides a review of recent research in this area to illustrate both the strengths and limitations of molecular epidemiology in drawing needed links between environmental exposures and illness in children. For illustration, three of the major diseases in children are discussed: asthma, cancer and developmental disorders. All three impose significant difficulties, have increased in recent decades, and are thought to be caused in substantial part by environmental factors, such as toxic exposures due to lifestyle choices (i.e. smoking and diet), pollutants in the workplace, ambient air, water and the food supply. These exogenous exposures can interact with "host" factors, such as genetic susceptibility and nutritional deficits, to cause disease. Molecular epidemiology has provided valuable new insights into the magnitude and diversity of exposures beginning in utero, the unique susceptibility of the young, and the adverse preclinical and clinical effects resulting from the interactions between these factors. However, molecular epidemiology also faces certain constraints and challenges that are specific to studies of the very young, including ethical issues, technical issues due to the limited amount of biological specimens that can be obtained, and communication of results to parents and communities. These challenges are particularly apparent when incorporating the newer epigenetic and "omic" techniques and biomarkers into studies of children's diseases. PMID:22997878
Manco-Johnson, Marilyn J
The postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) is a clinical condition of limb pain along with physical findings that range from swelling to stasis ulcers following one or more episodes of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). While venous thromboembolism has recently gained increased recognition in children, the sequelae of limb thrombi are being recognized in a substantial proportion of affected children, and with varying degrees of severity. PTS is caused by both obstructed as well as refluxed venous blood flow, with combined effects of obstruction and reflux resulting in earlier, and more extensive symptoms. PTS can be diagnosed using an evaluation tool adapted from an international adult scale. Certain risk factors predispose children to PTS including elevations in factor VIII activity and D-dimer, clot occlusiveness, clot persistence, number of venous segments involved and duration of observation following DVT. Optimal prevention and treatment have not yet been determined, although antithrombotic therapy to facilitate rapid clot resolution, elevation, compression, moderate exercise and achievement of optimal body weight are likely to improve outcome. PMID:16549898
Lamas, Adelaida; Ruiz de Valbuena, Marta; Máiz, Luis
Cough during childhood is very common, and is one of the most frequent reasons for consultation in daily pediatric practice. The causes differ from those in adults, and specific pediatric guidelines should be followed for correct diagnosis and treatment. The most common cause of cough in children is viral infection producing "normal cough", but all children with persistent cough, i.e. a cough lasting more than 4-8weeks or "chronic cough", must be carefully evaluated in other to rule out specific causes that may include the entire pediatric pulmonology spectrum. The treatment of cough should be based on the etiology. Around 80% of cases can be diagnosed using an optimal approach, and treatment will be effective in 90% of them. In some cases of "nonspecific chronic cough", in which no underlying condition can be found, empirical treatment based on the cough characteristics may be useful. There is no scientific evidence to justify the use of over-the-counter cough remedies (anti-tussives, mucolytics and/or antihistamines), as they could have potentially serious side effects, and thus should not be prescribed in children. PMID:24507905
Begzati, Agim; Meqa, Kastriot; Siegenthaler, David; Berisha, Merita; Mautsch, Walter
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess caries prevalence of preschool and school children in Kosovo. Methods: The assessment, which was carried out between 2002 and 2005, included measurements of early childhood caries, deft and DMFT. Results: In total, 1,237 preschool and 2,556 school children were examined. The mean deft of preschool children was 5.9, and the mean DMFT of school children aged 12 was 5.8. The caries prevalence for 2- to 6-year-old preschool children was 91.2%, and the prevalence for 7- to 14-year-old school children was 94.4%. The prevalence of early childhood caries was 17.6%, with a mean deft of 10.6. Conclusions: All data assessed showed the very poor oral health status of children in Kosovo. Interviews with children and teachers indicated poor knowledge regarding oral health. Significant measures must be taken to improve this situation. PMID:21228954
Findik, Gokturk; Gezer, Suat; Sirmali, Mehmet; Turut, Hasan; Aydogdu, Koray; Tastepe, Irfan; Karaoglanoglu, Nurettin; Kaya, Sadi
Thoracotomies in children have been less extensively studied, as the incidence of diseases necessitating thoracotomies is low in the pediatric age group. This study reviews childhood thoracic diseases, thoracotomy approaches, indications, and complications. Surgical procedures and complications of a total of 196 children below 16 years of age who underwent thoracotomy for various reasons at the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Ataturk Chest Diseases and Chest Surgery Training and Research Hospital, between January 2000 and December 2004, were reviewed in this study. Out of the 196 patients, 77 were female (39%) and 119 (61%) were male. The most commonly encountered indications for surgery were hydatid cyst (35%), bronchiectasis (25%), chronic nonspecific pleuritis (13%), chest wall deformities (10%), and mediastinal cystic formations and masses (10%). The other indications included tuberculosis (3%), aspergilloma (0.5%), fibrohyalinized cyst (0.5%), resection of trachea (0.5%), bronchogenic cyst (0.5%), inflammatory pseudo-tumor (0.5%), sequestration (1%), lipoblastoma (0.5%), and eosinophilic granuloma (1%). Out of the 196 patients, 176 underwent lateral thoracotomy and 20 patients with a chest wall deformity underwent midsternal incision. Complications were seen in 35 patients (18%): atelectasia and secretory retention (54%), wound infection (17%), hemorrhage (3%), chylothorax (3%), intrathoracic space (3%), and postoperative extended air leakage (20%). The mean hospital stay was 15 days and we did not encounter any mortality. The physiology and anatomy of the respiratory system and especially the respiratory control mechanism in pediatric patients vary from those of the adults, resulting in a more morbid course after thoracic surgery in children. Despite severe postoperative pain, posterolateral thoracotomy is the preferred approach in adults because of an advanced intrathoracic exposure and easy manipulation. On the other hand, lower pain threshold and the
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…
Prevention Forum, 1990
The theme of this issue of a journal designed to focus on the prevention of various kinds of substance abuse is "children of alcoholics" (CoAs). The lead article, "Children of Chemical Dependency: Respecting Complexities and Building on Strengths," by Pamela Woll, examines chemically dependent family systems. The article begins by offering two…
Reading Teacher, 2001
Presents a 25-item annotated bibliography for beginning readers, 30 items for young readers, 19 items for intermediate readers, and 24 items for advanced readers--all selected by children. Gives tips for parents, primary caregivers, and educators. Describes the Children's Choice project and book selection. (SG)
Connor, Jane Gardner
This handbook is an expanded version of an original guide written as a basis for orientation and training of new children's librarians and allied personnel. It puts into one place the basics of library service to children, with an emphasis on the practical rather than the theoretical. Among topics covered are: (1) roles and responsibilities of…
Pijnenburg, Mariëlle W; Baraldi, Eugenio; Brand, Paul L P; Carlsen, Kai-Håkon; Eber, Ernst; Frischer, Thomas; Hedlin, Gunilla; Kulkarni, Neeta; Lex, Christiane; Mäkelä, Mika J; Mantzouranis, Eva; Moeller, Alexander; Pavord, Ian; Piacentini, Giorgio; Price, David; Rottier, Bart L; Saglani, Sejal; Sly, Peter D; Szefler, Stanley J; Tonia, Thomy; Turner, Steve; Wooler, Edwina; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin C
The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. To reach this goal in children with asthma, ongoing monitoring is essential. While all components of asthma, such as symptoms, lung function, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation, may exist in various combinations in different individuals, to date there is limited evidence on how to integrate these for optimal monitoring of children with asthma. The aims of this ERS Task Force were to describe the current practise and give an overview of the best available evidence on how to monitor children with asthma. 22 clinical and research experts reviewed the literature. A modified Delphi method and four Task Force meetings were used to reach a consensus. This statement summarises the literature on monitoring children with asthma. Available tools for monitoring children with asthma, such as clinical tools, lung function, bronchial responsiveness and inflammatory markers, are described as are the ways in which they may be used in children with asthma. Management-related issues, comorbidities and environmental factors are summarised. Despite considerable interest in monitoring asthma in children, for many aspects of monitoring asthma in children there is a substantial lack of evidence. PMID:25745042
New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque. American Indian Law Center.
The Model Children's Code was developed to provide a legally correct model code that American Indian tribes can use to enact children's codes that fulfill their legal, cultural and economic needs. Code sections cover the court system, jurisdiction, juvenile offender procedures, minor-in-need-of-care, and termination. Almost every Code section is…
Activities and teaching methods for involving children (especially young children) in literature are presented in order to establish positive attitudes towards reading. Ideas are provided for use with wordless books, patterned or repetitive books, books organized around a theme, and picture books. The activities, each related to specific…
This article aims to explore the issues that face primary school teachers when responding to children's drawings. Assessment in art and design is an ongoing concern for teachers with limited experience and confidence in the area and, although children's drawings continue to be a focus of much research, the question of what it is that teachers say…
A group of toddlers was offered long, colorful, translucent tubes to enjoy and explore. As always, they amazed adults with the many ideas they used to investigate and learn with them. The tubes are long and the children marveled at how they could easily lift these objects up taller than their bodies. At the center of the children's explorations…
Dewalt, Mark W.; Erickson, Laurie
This study reviews the literature on the effects of television viewing on children, examines the preferences of children for television programs and commercials, and analyzes selected characteristics of these programs. A stratified sample of 1,416 students in grades 1-6 in six eastern states was polled on their viewing preferences in November of…
Buck, Beverly; Cuciti, Peggy L.; Baker, Robin
The "Colorado Children's Budget 2012" examines the state's commitment to investing in the well-being of children. It tallies up Colorado's actual and planned investment during the past five years (Fiscal Year (FY) 2008-2009 through FY 2012-2013) on programs and services in four areas: Early Childhood Learning and Development, K-12 Education,…
Assessing readiness among young children today implies undertaking a broad range of observations and activities in an atmosphere where children can feel comfortable and interested. Until recently, readiness meant readiness for reading. A mental age of six and a half was accepted as the prerequisite for beginning reading instruction. There has…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2010
The "Children's Budget 2010" is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested in better understanding how Colorado funds children's programs and services. It attempts to clarify often confusing budget information and describe where the state's investment trends are and where those trends will lead the state if…
Current Population Reports, 1985
In response to the highest poverty rate among children since the 1960s, this report examines existing Federal policies to assist poor families with children and analyzes over 40 policy alternatives. Chapter 1 discusses how poverty is measured, recent trends and current patterns of childhood poverty as officially measured, and the effects of using…
Fiering, Alvin; And Others
This 35-minute, black and white, 16mm, sound film was made at the Fayerweather Street School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and narrated by John Holt. It is designed to show what happens in a school in which children are free to move about, to talk, and to plan and direct their own work. The film shows children of different ages engaged in…
The author argues against the medical model of screening children for the early identification of special education needs. He proposes an alternate system which concentrates not on labeling children, but on the improvement of instruction for all, an approach which is exemplified by the reading program in Salford. (SJL)
Reiss, David, Ed.; And Others
This volume documents the rise in violence in our communities and explores its impact on children's physical, psychological, and social development. Focal themes are: the necessity for better information about the kinds of violence to which children are exposed, the necessity of beginning to build intervention strategies aimed at violence, and the…
Paley, Vivian Gussin
This narrative details the responses of children and adults to a story about young children welcoming a boy with severe disabilities into their own story telling and re-enactment. Linking the act of story telling to the practice of the Hasidim, who would teach people to think about goodness by telling stories about holy men performing good works,…
Millstone, David H.
Using work done with Homer's "Odyssey" with fifth graders, illustrates children's proficiency as listeners, creators, and presenters of stories. Shares techniques and anecdotes about this disciplined approach to preparing children as storytellers. Describes such aspects as having a variety of storytelling models, evaluating storytellers, reading…
Shoultz, Bonnie, Ed.; Kalyanpur, Maya, Ed.
This bulletin reflects the commitment of Syracuse University's Center on Human Policy to the idea that children belong with families. The bulletin contains a policy statement which recommends; that all children, regardless of disability, belong with families and need enduring relationships with adults; that families with severely disabled children…
Dole, Patricia Pearl
Created to promote a mutual understanding and acceptance among various faiths and cultures throughout the world, this book is an annotated bibliography of religious children's books. It has almost 700 critical evaluations of books with distinct religious themes for children from preschool to middle school. Chapters are: (1) "Religion"; (2) "God";…
Bianchi, Suzanne M.
Data in this population bulletin indicate that in comparison with children of previous generations, today's youngsters are apt to have fewer siblings, and more likely to come from a broken home, have a working mother, and pass time as a latchkey kid. More children are in child care than in the past, and there has been a significant move toward…
Chapman, Madie; Ferris, Angie
The Parents and Children Enjoy Reading project in the East End of London is an adult literacy and numeracy program based on the principle that one of the strongest motivations for adults entering a basic education program is the desire to be able to help their own children learn. Volunteers work in one-on-one or group tutoring settings to offer…
Chiam, Heng Keng, Ed.
This book reports some of the results of an extensive study of the physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional development of Malaysian children. Chapter 1 of the book describes the demographics of the sample. Subjects were 3,099 preschool children in the state of Selangor and the federal district of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data is…
Chaffee, John; Olds, H. Robert
Today, in an era of taxpayer revolts, lack of clarity in values, and changing family structure, children need advocates in the political arena as well as in the schools. This pamphlet suggests that administrators are in an excellent position to defend the rights of children on all fronts. It focuses on what administrators have done and specific…
... cause of an infection, such as being in day-care centers. Children in day-care centers give infections to each other. They drool ... winter, you could move your child out of day care, where so many other children would have colds. ...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007508.htm Obesity in children To use the sharing features on this page, ... Preventive Services Task Force, Barton M. Screening for obesity in children and adolescents: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation ...
Leung, A. K.; Robson, W. L.; Cho, H.
Chest pain is usually a benign symptom in children. The most common identifiable causes are musculoskeletal. Often, no cause can be identified. Cardiac disorders are uncommon causes of chest pain children. Most causes can be diagnosed from history and physical examination. Treatment should be directed at the underlying cause. For idiopathic chest pain, reassurance and regular follow-up examinations are important. PMID:8704491
... With small amounts of bleeding over months, some children can develop iron-deficiency anemia and have symptoms of this. Bleeding may not happen with every bowel movement, and tends to recur over weeks to months. It is rare for children to have other symptoms, but when they do ...
Sheldon, George H.
This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
"Colorado Children's Budget 2011" tallies up Colorado's public investments during FY 2007-08 through FY 2011-12 for programs and services that enhance the well-being of children across four domains--Early Childhood, K-12 Education, Health, and Other Supports. It is intended to be a resource guide for policymakers and advocates who are interested…
Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.
These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…
DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.
Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…
Rist, Marilee C.
The use of crack during pregnancy is producing tens of thousands of blameless children each year who, by biology and environment, are impaired. Describes the effects of crack on children and what can be done for crack-smoking mothers-to-be. Offers suggestions to school boards for providing a structured supportive learning environment for these…
Kittleson, Mark J.
The traumatic effect of divorce on young children is discussed, noting the typical changes in behavior evidenced by children in such a situation. Suggestions are made on ways parents can cope with the child's emotional reactions and alleviate the stress that is natural when a marriage dissolves. (JD)
Hammond, Janice M.
An increasing number of children live in single-parent homes due to the rise in the divorce rate. Teachers must become aware of teaching and counseling approaches which will offset the negative effects of divorce on children and minimize the period of adjustment. (JN)
Jessee, Peggy O; And Others
Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)
Examines possible solutions for improving the status of children in India. Suggests that there is a need to focus on child rights issues related to public awareness, attitudinal change, political commitment, mass sensitization, and outreach. Suggests an appropriate strategy for the restoration of the rights of children in India. (AA)
Although bipolar disorder historically was thought to only occur rarely in children and adolescents, there has been a significant increase in children and adolescents who are receiving this diagnosis more recently (Carlson, 2005). Nonetheless, the applicability of the current bipolar disorder diagnostic criteria for children, particularly preschool children, remains unclear, even though much work has been focused on this area. As a result, more work needs to be done to further the understanding of bipolar symptoms in children. It is hoped that this paper can assist psychologists and other health service providers in gleaning a snapshot of the literature in this area so that they can gain an understanding of the diagnostic criteria and other behaviors that may be relevant and be informed about potential approaches for assessment and treatment with children who meet bipolar disorder criteria. First, the history of bipolar symptoms and current diagnostic criteria will be discussed. Next, assessment strategies that may prove helpful for identifying bipolar disorder will be discussed. Then, treatments that may have relevance to children and their families will be discussed. Finally, conclusions regarding work with children who may have a bipolar disorder diagnosis will be offered. PMID:24800202
When in 1962 the author began to research the history of Australian children's literature, access to the primary sources was limited and difficult. From a catalogue drawer in the Mitchell Library of hand-written cards marked "Children's books" he could call up from the stacks, in alphabetical order, piles of early publications. His notes about the…
Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…
Discusses: (1) development and use of the Lamme/Green Scale of Children's Development in Composition; and (2) scales of spelling development as a guide for teachers and parents to use in assessment of kindergartners' and other young children's progress in compositional writing. (BB)
A goal of art learning is always independence, for everyone to become their own art teacher. Teaching for artistic independence can never start too early. As art teachers, children acquire confidence in their art, and in coming to school as artists. Children should be considered artists in residence and visiting artists in schools. It makes sense…
Siegal, Michael; Butterworth, George; Newcombe, Peter A.
In this investigation, we examined children's knowledge of cosmology in relation to the shape of the earth and the day-night cycle. Using explicit questioning involving a choice of alternative answers and 3D models, we carried out a comparison of children aged 4-9 years living in Australia and England. Though Australia and England have a close…
Young children receive higher doses of pesticides than any other age group. The younger a child is the more difficulty the body will have in coping with toxins in general. Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) do not adequately protect children. Evidence of harm from a pesticide often has to be overwhelmingly strong before anything is done about it.…
Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.
This report is concerned with at risk children and youth. Synthesizing data based on country reports and case studies from 17 countries and 3 foundations, the report covers issues relating to the preschool, school age, and transition to work periods. At risk children and youth have become key issues not only from claims of social justice, but also…
CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...
This book explains how perfectionism can immobilize some children, cause social adjustment problems for others, and be a major contributing factor to why school assignments and personal responsibilities are not being completed by so many of todays gifted children. Chapter 1 discusses the characteristics of perfectionists. It explains that because…
Birckmayer, Jennifer; And Others
Designed as a guide for adults who wish to lead a group of 10- to 13-year-olds through a series of discoveries about preschoolers and how they grow, activity materials are presented concerning physical, intellectual, and social development (Section 1); and children's feelings (Section 2). Specifically, Section 1 discuss children's developing…
Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.
Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…
Robson, Bonnie E.
While some children cope well with divorce, children of divorced parents are at increased risk for suicide, low self-esteem, affective disorders, and general distress. Useful intervention from the family physician usually begins with educating parents about what to expect and about the importance of open communication, co-operation between parents, and consistent discipline. PMID:21228993
Nist, Joan Stidham
A major trend in children's literature is the growing academic recognition of the field--indicated by the large number of new texts that have been published since 1975. Scholarly periodicals in the field have likewise grown since the 1970s. Library science, elementary education and English literature have fostered the development of children's…
Nist, Joan Stidham
Many prospective language arts teachers are unsure of what poetry really is. While it is impossible to present them with a definitive statement about the nature of poetry, they can be given a workable outline of the attributes of poetry to help them teach poetry to children. Rhythmic patterns can be emphasized to enhance children's enjoyment of…
Brendtro, Larry; Van Bockern, Steve
Discusses problems facing children and adolescents in the former Soviet Union. Describes efforts of Bureau for Youth Welfare which has networked with various organizations to create projects in all the Russian Republics. Briefly describes international conference on Modern Society and the Psychosocial Problems of Children held in Moscow in May…
Teaching children who are victims of Katrina is not a multicultural education issue per se. However, there are some intersections between the victims of Katrina and the educational responses to them, and some of the primary constituent groups and issues that multicultural education represents and intends to serve. These are children of color and…
Protecting the health of children from environmental risks is fundamental to the mission of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). As a part of the Agency's efforts to address children's health issues, EPA's Office of Research and Development, a leader in the area of hum...
Plummer, Donna M.
In the past several years, "Science and Children" has invited preservice and inservice teachers to participate in national studies of students' ideas about scientists (Barman 1997), animals (Barman et al. 2000), and plants (Barman et al. 2003). You are invited to participate in an additional study that will examine children's career aspirations.…
Casner, Mary W.; Marks, Susan F.
The paper looks at the development of a play group for autistic children with descriptions of the autistic population, the daily program, the program's philosophy, the play group model, and actual lessons. Children, who ranged in age from 5 to 9 years, often chose activities which were self-stimulating and/or repetitive. The daily program included…
Because ready role models for today's children are media-created superheroes and celebrities of television and film, children need real-life role models who guide them into realistic personal and social pathways. As principal adult contacts, teachers can be such role models. Specific strategies for encouraging teachers in this role are presented.…
Arena, John I., Ed.; And Others
Describing methods for helping children with normal intelligence who manifest learning, perceptual, and/or behavior disorders as a result of minimal neurological or brain dysfunction, the compilation contains 22 papers. Articles are grouped into six categories: identifying the children, motor development, basic considerations, adapting the…
McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others
This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…
Benke, Mary Schaefer
Debates whether children are more susceptible to asbestos-related disease than adults. Addresses the issue of low-level exposure and disease. Discusses the regulatory measures taken by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Congress to protect children from the potential threat of asbestos exposure. (CW)
Rosenberg, Joe, Ed.
This collection contains eight children's plays in English, Spanish, and bilingual formats. Intended participants and audiences range from preschool children to young adults; most scripts encourage audience participation. Most authors are Americans of Latin American descent or birth, and characters in the plays come from Mexican, Puerto Rican, and…
Research with children is occurring within a climate of mounting international interest in listening to and consulting with children in ways that are respectful of them as competent informants of their own experience. This interest has occurred within "new times" of heightened accountability, regulation and surveillance of research. This climate…
Blackledge, Adrian, Ed.
Contributors from Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, and the United States describe how primary-age children in these anglophone countries are learning in the language of their home. The book demonstrates that monolingual schooling in a multicultural society fails to meet the needs of bilingual children. It argues that linguistic minorities…
Interracial Books for Children Bulletin, 1976
The five articles in this special issue of the bulletin deal with age discrimination in children's books. The first article is the first of two parts that deal with how older people are stereotyped; part 1 presents the statistical findings of the first major study of stereotypes based on age and ageism in children's literature, while part 2…
... Children’s mental disorders affect many children and families. Boys and girls of all ages, ethnic/racial backgrounds, and regions ... highest among 6 to 11 year old children. Boys were more likely than girls to have ADHD, behavioral or conduct problems, autism ...
Eferaro, S; Uloko, S D
The children of blind beggars lead their parents around to beg for alms instead of going to school. 5 years of research however, supported by the Human Development Foundation in Nigeria found that adult beggars want their children to get educated, but did not think it possible. A special school for beggars' children was established by the foundation in 1990 with 30 children aged 6-12 years. The children attend school daily from 2 to 5 P.M. and help their blind parents in the mornings and evenings. Students receive free uniforms, writing materials and books, and are fed free during school hours. This school has attracted the attention of UNICEF which has been offering aid in the form of technical and teaching materials. The program has proved so successful, however, that demand is outpacing the supply of available teachers and teaching space. More room and more teachers are needed. Fund-raisers are being organized to that end. PMID:12318634
Sood, Sunil K
The diagnosis and management of Lyme disease in children is similar to that in adults with a few clinically relevant exceptions. The use of doxycycline as an initial empiric choice is to be avoided for children 8 years old and younger. Children may present with insidious onset of elevated intracranial pressure during acute disseminated Lyme disease; prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is important to prevent loss of vision. Children who acquire Lyme disease have an excellent prognosis even when they present with the late disseminated manifestation of Lyme arthritis. Guidance on the judicious use of serologic tests is provided. Pediatricians and family practitioners should be familiar with the prevention and management of tick bites, which are common in children. PMID:25999224
Szilagyi, P G; Schor, E L
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the concept of child health and the measurement of child health status in order to help guide the evaluation of the effectiveness of medical, social, and policy programs. CONCLUSIONS: Opportunities for research on children's health status and quality of care abound. Comprehensive and functional definitions create problems of measurement, but investigators are making progress in measuring children's health status both generically and for specific chronic health conditions. RECOMMENDATIONS: Measures of child health need to be developed, improved, tested, and made user-friendly for clinical and policy research. The relationship between health status and a variety of social programs for children and families needs study. The impact of changes in healthcare organization and financing must be investigated, especially for children from vulnerable subgroups. Determining the value and effectiveness of preventive services is a pressing issue. It is crucial to understand better the link among quality of care; other factors biological, family, and social; and children's health status. PMID:9776947
Children First for Oregon, Portland.
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends in the well-being of Oregon's children, focusing on children's health care. The statistical portrait is based on indicators of well-being including: (1) children's insurance coverage; (2) health care access; (3) health outcomes, including immunization rates and early prenatal care; (4) juvenile…
These research notes look at the differing ways in which the basis for including a criterion regarding children's opinions in disputed custody and visitation processes, in the US as compared with Sweden, impacts on the role and place that children's opinions and wishes will have on the process. Sweden's rationale for including children's…
O'Kelly, James B.
This study examined the effects of picture books belonging to different literary genres on the learning of science by primary grade students. These genres included modern fantasy, fiction, and nonfiction. The students were exposed to two topics through books, butterflies and snails. The study focused on the effects of those books on children's expressions of (a) knowledge, (b) erroneous information, (c) creative ideas, and (d) the support required to elicit information and ideas from the children. Sixty-one children from three kindergarten and three second grade participated. Children were designated by their teachers as being high or low with respect to academic achievement. These categories allowed measurement of interactions between literary genres, grade levels, and academic achievement levels. Children first learned about butterflies, and then about snails. For each topic, children were interviewed about their knowledge and questions of the topic. Teachers engaged their classes with a book about the topic. The children were re-interviewed about their knowledge and questions about the topic. No class encountered the same genre of book twice. Comparisons of the children's prior knowledge of butterflies and snails indicated that the children possessed significantly more knowledge about butterflies than about snails. Literary genre had one significant effect on children's learning about snails. Contrary to expectations, children who encountered nonfiction produced significantly more creative expressions about snails than children who encountered faction or modern fantasy. No significant effects for literary genre were demonstrated with respect to children's learning about butterflies. The outcomes of the study indicated that nonfiction had its strongest impact on the learning of science when children have a relatively small fund of knowledge about a topic. This study has implications for future research. The inclusion of a larger number of students, classes, and
Raddish, Michele; And Others
Using interviews with parents and guardians, and the child where appropriate, this study compared feeding problems of children with disabilities in Kentucky with a sample of typical children. Subjects were 50 children ages 3-5; 25 children were without disabilities. In addition to interviews, data were collected from case records, medical…
Behrman, Richard E., Ed.
This issue of "The Future of Children" focuses on efforts to provide publicly funded health insurance to low-income children in the United States through Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP). The articles summarize current knowledge and research about which children are uninsured and why, discuss ways to improve…
Roeher Inst., North York (Ontario).
This collection of 16 papers attempts to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of children in the nations of the Americas. The collection's five sections examine children's rights, perspectives of five parents from five different nations, children with disabilities in the legal system, promoting the rights of children through social…
MacNeil, Lindsey K.; Mostofsky, Stewart H.
Objective To explore the specificity of impaired praxis and postural knowledge to autism by examining three samples of children, including those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and typically developing (TD) children. Method Twenty-four children with ASD, 24 children with ADHD, and 24 TD children, ages 8–13, completed measures assessing basic motor control (the Physical and Neurological Exam for Subtle Signs; PANESS), praxis (performance of skilled gestures to command, with imitation, and tool use) and the ability to recognize correct hand postures necessary to perform these skilled gestures (the Postural Knowledge Test; PKT). Results Children with ASD performed significantly worse than TD children on all three assessments. In contrast, children with ADHD performed significantly worse than TD controls on PANESS but not on the praxis examination or PKT. Furthermore, children with ASD performed significantly worse than children with ADHD on both the praxis examination and PKT, but not on the PANESS. Conclusions Whereas both children with ADHD and children with ASD show impairments in basic motor control, impairments in performance and recognition of skilled motor gestures, consistent with dyspraxia, appear to be specific to autism. The findings suggest that impaired formation of perceptual-motor action models necessary to development of skilled gestures and other goal directed behavior is specific to autism; whereas, impaired basic motor control may be a more generalized finding. PMID:22288405
Hostetler, Mark A; Mace, Sharon; Brown, Kathleen; Finkler, Joseph; Hernandez, Dennis; Krug, Steven E; Schamban, Neil
Emergency department (ED) overcrowding has been a serious issue on the national agenda for the past 2 decades and is rapidly becoming an increasingly significant problem for children. The goal of this report is to focus on the issues of overcrowding that directly impact children. Our findings reveal that although overcrowding seems to affect children in ways similar to those of adults, there are several important ways in which they differ. Recent reports document that more than 90% of academic emergency medicine EDs are overcrowded. Although inner-city, urban, and university hospitals have historically been the first to feel the brunt of overcrowding, community and suburban EDs are now also being affected. The overwhelming majority of children (92%) are seen in general community EDs, with only a minority (less than 10%) treated in dedicated pediatric EDs. With the exception of patients older than 65 years, children have higher visit rates than any other age group. Children may be at particularly increased risk for medical errors because of their inherent variability in size and the need for age-specific and weight-based dosing. We strongly recommend that pediatric issues be actively included in all future aspects of research and policy planning issues related to ED overcrowding. These include the development of triage protocols, clinical guidelines, research proposals, and computerized data monitoring systems. PMID:17666940
Iro, Heinrich; Zenk, Johannes
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered. In addition to the known facts, new developments in diagnostics, imaging and therapy, including sialendoscopy in obstructive diseases and chronic recurrent juvenile sialadenitis were taken into account. In addition, systemic causes of salivary gland swelling and the treatment of sialorrhoea were discussed. Although salivary gland diseases in children are usually included in the pathology of the adult, they differ in their incidence and sometimes in their symptoms. Clinical diagnostics and especially the surgical treatment are influenced by a stringent indications and a less invasive strategy. Due to the rarity of tumors of the salivary glands in children, it is recommended to treat them in a specialized center with greater surgical experience. Altogether the knowledge of the differential diagnoses in salivary gland diseases in children is important for otolaryngologists, to indicate the proper therapeutic approach. PMID:25587366
LEWIS, HYLAN; AND OTHERS
THE CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS PUBLICATION EXAMINE HYPOTHESES ABOUT FAMILY LIFE AND SOCIETAL PRESSURES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON THE CHILDREN OF THE RICH AND POOR. PROFESSOR HYLAN LEWIS FOCUSES HIS ATTENTION ON THE INTERRELATION OF ETHNICITY, RACE, AND POVERTY, PARTICULARLY THE RELATED ISSUES OF ONE-PARENT FAMILIES, FAMILY PLANNING, AND THE GUARANTEED…
MacMillan, Harriet L; Wathen, C Nadine
Children's exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is now recognized as a form of child maltreatment associated with significant mental health impairment. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology of children's exposure to IPV, including prevalence, risk, and protective factors and associated impairment, and a summary of assessment and interventions aimed at preventing its occurrence and responding to children and families. Information about evidence-based approaches to responding to children who present with impairment after exposure to IPV, such as posttraumatic-stress disorder symptoms, is discussed. Some of the challenges in understanding children's needs with regard to safety and protection are outlined with recommendations for future directions. PMID:24656581
Rogovik, Alex L.; Goldman, Ran D.
QUESTION Many children suffer from chronic and painful illnesses. Hypnosis was found to be effective for analgesia in adults. Is it effective for managing pain in children? ANSWER Children can be easier to hypnotize than adults. Studies have shown clinical hypnosis and self-hypnosis to be effective as adjunct treatments for children in pain. Examples include painful medical procedures, such as bone marrow aspiration and lumbar puncture in pediatric cancer patients, postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing surgery, and chronic headache. PMID:17872743
Goins, Brad; Cesarone, Bernard
Difficulties faced by homeless children include depression, low self-esteem, lack of sleep and nutrition, and feelings of shame and embarrassment. Challenges faced by schools in providing education to homeless children include: (1) keeping children in one school despite frequent family moves; (2) ensuring that children's health records are…
DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Smith, Jeanene; Carlson, Nichole E.
Background Despite expansions in public health insurance programs, millions of US children lack coverage. Nearly two-thirds of Oregon’s uninsured children seem to be eligible for public insurance. Objectives We sought to identify uninsured but eligible children and to examine how parental coverage affects children’s insurance status. Methods We collected primary data from families enrolled in Oregon’s food stamp program, which has similar eligibility requirements to public health insurance in Oregon. In this cross-sectional, multivariable analysis, results from 2861 surveys were weighted back to a population of 84,087 with nonresponse adjustment. Key predictor variables were parental insurance status and type of insurance; the outcome variable was children’s insurance status. Results Nearly 11% of children, presumed eligible for public insurance, were uninsured. Uninsurance among children was associated with being Hispanic, having an employed parent, and higher household earnings (133–185% of the federal poverty level). Children with an uninsured parent were more likely to be uninsured, compared with those who had insured parents (adjusted odds ratio 14.21, 95% confidence interval 9.23–20.34). More surprisingly, there was a higher rate of uninsured children among privately-insured parents, compared with parents covered by public insurance (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 95% confidence interval 2.00–9.66). Conclusions Low-income Oregon parents at the higher end of the public insurance income threshold and those with private insurance were having the most difficulty keeping their children insured. These findings suggest that when parents succeed in pulling themselves out of poverty and gaining employment with private health insurance coverage, children may be getting left behind. PMID:18162849
Levin, Diane E.; Linn, Susan; Poussaint, Alvin F.; Cantor, Joanne; Cartwright, Sally
Contains four presentations from workshop on media culture and young children: (1) "Changing Needs, Changing Responses: Rethinking How We Teach Children" (Levin); (2) "Watching Television: What Are Children Learning about Race and Ethnicity?" (Linn and Poussaint); (3) "Empowering Parents and Teachers To Protect Children" (Cantor); and (4) "Helping…
Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth
This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…
A 100-item test covering nine areas of superstitious belief administered with 10 control items to 1,749 Canadian and British children showed younger children and girls were more superstitious than older children and boys. Academically inclined children were less superstitious. Science-based education had little effect. Implications for Canadian…
Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as accepting…
Wass, Hannelore; Towry, Betty J.
Relationships between death concepts of Black and White children and their racial status were examined. Lower-middle-class elementary children completed a four-item questionnaire on death. Most children defined death as the end of living and listed physical causes as the explanation of death. In general, children's death concepts were similar.…
Children's relationship with food in early childhood programs is often a complex topic. Families have concerns about "picky eaters" and teachers feel pressure to make sure that children eat enough while in their care. Children bring snacks that teachers describe as junk food and believe this negatively impacts children's behavior. Foods marketed…
Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…
Horobin, Karen D.
Four studies investigated children's explanations for family resemblance and species-typical characteristics, under different conditions of biological parentage and rearing environment. Participating were 226 children between 3 and 11 years. Children Children were presented with a number of different tasks, some involving people and some domestic…
Cumming, Stevi; Visser, John
Refugee children are often admitted into schools having experienced traumatic events. The impact of trauma on children has been well documented and these children frequently have complex needs. The Devon Behaviour Support Team (BST) has offered Art Workshops to schools to support children with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties and…
Snapper, Kurt J.; Ohms, JoAnne S.
This second biennial report on children presents information pertaining to children, discusses the implications and use of such information in planning for children, describes certain historical trends affecting children, and provides updates of statistics and significant expansions on many topics covered in the 1975 report. Part A examines basic…
Baird, P A; McGillivray, B
Twenty-nine children of brother-sister or father-daughter matings were studied. Twenty-one were ascertained because of the history of incest, eight because of signs or symptoms in the child. In the first group of 21 children, 12 had abnormalities, which were severe in nine (43%). In one of these the disorder was autosomal recessive. All eight of the group referred with signs or symptoms had abnormalities, three from recessive disorders. The high empiric risk for severe problems in the children of such close consanguineous matings should be borne in mind, as most of these infants are relinquished for adoption. PMID:7131177
Kaur, Savleen; Singh Pandav, Surinder
ABSTRACT Young patients are more prone to ocular trauma but most of the published studies describe complicated cataract as a result of trauma with its treatment modality. As a result, little is known about the different causes, common presenting signs and symptoms, visual outcomes, and most frequent management modalities of traumatic glaucoma in children. This review aims to study the demographical profile, presentation, management and outcome of traumatic glaucoma in children as well as the various factors associated with advanced glaucomatous changes. How to cite this article: Kaur S, Kaushik S, Pandav SS. Traumatic Glaucoma in Children. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2014; 8(2):58-62. PMID:26997810
Kohlmoos, H. W.
Abnormal behavior in children may frequently be caused by impairment of hearing. Early detection of the impairment and of the cause are of utmost importance, not only to prevent irreversible changes where that is possible, but to permit early beginning of special training for children who are permanently deaf. Recent studies have shown that deafness of infants may follow rubella in the mother in early pregnancy, or kernicterus caused by Rh incompatibilities. Measures to control these disorders are being investigated. Adequate and careful treatment of diseases of the nose, as well as surgical drainage of infected ears when necessary, are important factors in the prevention of hearing loss in children. PMID:13009516
Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The
Three retrospective studies related children's socially inappropriate behavior to needs for approval and self assurance. Four girls and 16 boys (a sex difference of p=.006) involved in road accidents, aged 5 to 15, who were consecutively admitted to a hospital for arm and leg fractures were matched with controls. The accident children shared a…
Castaneto, Marisol S.; Barnes, Allan J.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Schaffer, Michael; Rogers, Kristen K.; Stewart, Deborah; Huestis, Marilyn A.
Introduction Methamphetamine (MAMP) use, distribution and manufacture remain a serious public health and safety problem in the United States, and children environmentally exposed to MAMP face a myriad of developmental, social and health risks, including severe abuse and neglect necessitating child protection involvement. It is recommended that drug-endangered children receive medical evaluation and care with documentation of overall physical and mental conditions and have urine drug testing.1 The primary aim of this study was to determine the best biological matrix to detect MAMP, amphetamine (AMP), methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) and methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) in environmentally exposed children. Method 91 children, environmentally exposed to household MAMP intake, were medically evaluated at the Child and Adolescent Abuse Resource and Evaluation (CAARE) Diagnostic and Treatment Center at the University of California, Davis (UCD) Children's Hospital. MAMP, AMP, MDMA, MDA and MDEA were quantified in urine and oral fluid (OF) by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) and in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMSMS). Results Overall drug detection rates in OF, urine and hair were 6.9%, 22.1% and 77.8%, respectively. Seventy children (79%) tested positive for 1 or more drugs in 1 or more matrices. MAMP was the primary analyte detected in all 3 biological matrices. All positive OF (n=5) and 18 of 19 positive urine specimens also had a positive hair test. Conclusion Hair analysis offered a more sensitive tool for identifying MAMP, AMP and MDMA environmental exposure in children than urine or OF testing. A negative urine, or hair test does not exclude the possibility of drug exposure, but hair testing provided the greatest sensitivity for identifying drug-exposed children. PMID:24263642
Children's literature is simple discussion of complicated issues. Neutron stars are discussed in several children's books. Using libraries in Chicago, I will review children's books on neutron stars and compare the literature to literature from scientific discussions of neutron stars on sites like the Chandra site, Hubble Space Telescope site and NASA site. The result will be a discussion of problems and issues involved in discussion of neutron stars. Do children's books leave material out? Do children's books discuss recent observations? Do children's books discuss anything discredited or wrong? How many children's books are in resources like World Cat, the Library of Congress catalog, and the Chicago Public Library catalog? Could children's books be useful to present some of your findings or observations or projects? Children's books are useful for both children and scientist as they present simplified discussion of topics, although sometimes issues are simplified too much.
While there are many outreach programs for the public and for children, there are few programs for special needs children. I describe a NASA-STScI-IDEAS funded outreach program I created for children using a telescope (including remote and robotic observations), hands-on astronomy demonstrations (often with edible ingredients). The target audience is seriously ill children with special medical needs and their families who are staying at the Long Island Ronald McDonald House in conjunction the children's surgery and medical treatments at local hospitals. These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. A related program for hospitalized children has been started at the Hagedorn Pediatric Inpatient Center at Winthrop University Hospital.
Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Abolghasemi, Naria; Smith, Thomas G
Sexuality education (SE) is hotly contested in the West and there is much abstinence-only education; however, it remains controversial in a variety of contexts, including in Iran. The lack of consensus about children's SE in Muslim societies obliges us to explore different aspects of this topic systematically. The qualitative research presented here was about how Iranian parents perceived children's sexuality. Data from parents of 26 children were collected during four focus group sessions. Informants were selected from Area 5 in West Tehran. This area included 72 primary schools for girls and 82 for boys. The sessions were facilitated by using a semi-structured focus group guide. Content analysis was adopted using combined free and analytical coding to reduce data, to extract meanings, and to categorize domains. One of the three main domains identified, family management of child sexuality, is comprised of the following: (1) understanding of child sexuality, (2) family rules, (3) parent-child interactions, and (4) opposite sex interactions. Parental misinformation, accumulated myths, and ignorance about children's sexual development were evident. Strict family rules and a lack of consistent policy and instruction for SE were also identified. Parents said they were neither well-prepared nor competent to educate their children about sexuality. In fact, a majority of mothers raised "incompetence" as an important determinant in their own parent-child interactions. Societal changes as well as children's socialization patterns have forced parents to accept their children's opposite sex friendships as a reality. Results suggest a community need for developing comprehensive and culturally sensitive SE for schools and parental use. PMID:24343162
Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J
• On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence
Nadel, H R
Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using iminodiacetic (IDA) radiopharmaceuticals provides clinically useful information on the function of the biliary tract in a variety of pathological processes in children, including neonatal jaundice, gallbladder dysfunction, trauma, and liver transplantation. Phenobarbital premedication (5 mg/kg per day for a minimum of 5 days in divided doses) is used in infants who are being examined for neonatal jaundice to increase the accuracy of 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in differentiating extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. Biliary atresia can be ruled out in an infant if a patent biliary tree is shown with passage of activity into the bowel. If no radiopharmaceutical is noted in the bowel on imaging up to 24 hours, distinction between severe hepatocellular disease and biliary atresia cannot be made. The literature reports 91% accuracy, 97% sensitivity, and 82% specificity for hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. The impairment of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary drainage is an important cause of liver disease in cystic fibrosis. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis has shown characteristic patterns of dilatation of mainly the left hepatic duct, narrowing of the distal common bile duct, gallbladder dysfunction, and delayed bowel transit. Cholecystitis in children may be acalculous. Sensitivity and specificity for the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is reported to range from 68% to 93% and 38% to 93%, respectively. Cholescintigraphy in a suspected bile leak provides information generally not available with other techniques, except for direct cholangiography. If the amount of intraperitoneal accumulation of the tracer is greater than that entering the gastrointestinal tract, surgery is usually indicated. Hepatobiliary imaging in children who have undergone liver transplantation will assess graft vascularity, parenchymal function, biliary drainage, presence of a leak
Migration is very often a family affair, and often involves children, directly or indirectly. It may give rise to better quality of life for an entire family, or to bitter disappointment, and may also increase vulnerability to HIV and AIDS. This review, carried out for the Joint Learning Initiative on Children and AIDS, links the literature on "migration", on "HIV and AIDS" and on "families". Three themes are sketched: (1) As both HIV prevalence and circular migration increase, former migrant workers affected by AIDS may return to their families for care and support, especially at the end of life, often under crisis conditions. Families thus lose promising members, as well as sources of support. However, very little is known about the children of such migrants. (2) Following patterns of migration established for far different reasons, children may have to relocate to different places, sometimes over long distances, if their AIDS-affected parents can no longer care for them. They face the same adaptation challenges as other children who move, but complicated by loss of parent(s), AIDS stigma, and often poverty. (3) The issue of migrant families living with HIV has been studied to some extent, but mainly in developed countries with a long history of migration, and with little attention paid to the children in such families. Difficulties include involuntary separation from family members, isolation and lack of support, disclosure and planning for children's care should the parent(s) die and differences in treatment access within the same family. Numerous research and policy gaps are defined regarding the three themes, and a call is made for thinking about migration, families and AIDS to go beyond description to include resilience theory, and to go beyond prevention to include care. PMID:22380978
Vieillevoye, Sandrine; Nader-Grosbois, Nathalie
This study investigated the symbolic behavior and the self-regulation in dyads of children with intellectual disability and of normally developing children. Specifically, these processes were studied in link with the children's characteristics (mental age, linguistic level, individual pretend play level). The sample included 80 participants, 40…
Chan, Yiu Man; Chan, Christine Mei-Sheung
The Self-esteem Inventory developed by Coopersmith (1967) was used to measure the self-esteem of 387 Chinese children. The sample included newly arrived mainland Chinese children and Hong Kong children. The results showed significant statistical differences when measuring the self-esteem level associated with the length of their stay in Hong Kong…
This book outlines the processes involved when children learn to write, and it shows how certain strategies can improve children's progress in writing. Dealing with the age range 3-13, the book addresses issues of the gender gap, children with English as an additional language, and left-handedness. It includes ideas for assessment of writing. It…
Talwar, Victoria; Renaud, Sarah-Jane; Conway, Lauryn
The current study investigated whether parents are accurate judges of their own children's lie-telling behavior. Participants included 250 mother-child dyads. Children were between three and 11 years of age. A temptation resistance paradigm was used to elicit a minor transgressive behavior from the children involving peeking at a forbidden toy and…
Association for Children of New Jersey, 2006
Through research and policy advocacy, the Association for Children of New Jersey (ACNJ) works to change state policies and improve programs for children, and advocates to bring together many more voices on behalf of children. The annual report reviews 2006 accomplishments, including: (1) More state funding for preschool ensure that more children…
Kouyoumdjian, Haig; Perry, Andrea R.; Hansen, David J.
This study examined the influence of parental expectations on the functioning of sexually abused children. Participants included 67 sexually abused youth and 63 of their nonoffending primary caregivers. Parental expectations about how sexual abuse will impact children were predictive of parents' ratings of children's behavior at pretreatment,…
Marsciani, Martino; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni
Asymptomatic proteinuria is a common finding in primary care practice. Most children with asymptomatic proteinuria, diagnosed at screening urinalysis, do not have kidney disease. When proteinuria is detected, it is important to determine whether it is transient, orthostatic or persistent. Transient proteinuria is most often associated with fever, exercise or stress and it resolves on urine testing when the cause is withdrawn. Orthostatic proteinuria is a benign and common condition in school-age children. Persistent proteinuria should be carefully evaluated because it is a marker of renal damage and associated with kidney disease. It is not necessary to extensively investigate all children found to have proteinuria. Children with persistent proteinuria should be referred to a pediatric nephrologist to get a diagnosis and start treatment when necessary. PMID:22028262
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000619.htm Medicine safety and children To use the sharing features ... especially careful if you have toddlers around. Keep Medicines out of Reach and Sight Safety tips: DO ...
Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M
Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349
Vesicoureteric reflux is defined as the retrograde passage of urine from the bladder into one or both ureters and often up to the kidneys, and mainly affects babies and infants. In severe cases dilatation of the ureter, renal pelvis, and calyces might be seen. Traditionally it was thought that only a low percentage of children have vesicoureteric reflux, but studies have suggested as many as 25-40% are affected. Guidelines recommend that the number of investigations for vesicoureteric reflux in children who have had a febrile urinary tract infection be reduced, but this approach is controversial. The recommendations also suggest that prophylactic antibiotics and surgery should be avoided in children with non-severe vesicoureteric reflux. In this Seminar I present data on the management of children with vesicoureteric reflux and give suggestions on how to navigate this difficult area. PMID:25164069
Ferullo, Robert J.
Excessive television viewing in the formative years can complicate, if not paralyze, children's psychological development and educational achievement. It distorts their perceptions of reality and it causes them to be overactive, overanxious, and inattentive. (Author/SJL)
... Nephrology American Kidney Fund National Kidney Foundation MedlinePlus Kidney and Urologic Disease Organizations Many organizations provide support ... Disease Organizations . (PDF, 345 KB) Alternate Language URL Kidney Stones in Children Page Content On this page: ...
... Accessed July 16, 2014. Helping Children Cope With Loss, Death, and Grief: Tips for Teachers and Parents. National Association of School Psychologists Web site. http://www.nasponline.org/resources/ ...
Smothergill, Daniel W.; And Others
Reports four experiments with preschool and elementary school children. The first study involved a localization task and the remaining three required the mental manipulation of spatial information. (Author/SDH)
Donate Find a Doctor Join eNewsletter Sidebar × MOBILE MENU About Us What is Incontinence? Prevalence Causes of Incontinence Fecal Incontinence in Children Reporter's Guide to Bowel Incontinence Signs & Symptoms Symptoms of ...
... children understand the difference between real guns and weapons they see on TV, movies, or video games. ... Poison Prevention Executive Committee; American Academy of Pediatrics. Firearm-related injuries affecting the pediatric population. Pediatrics . 2012; ...
Singer, Dorothy; Kelly, Helen Bryman
Television can be a source of knowledge and information or it can cause negative behavior. Parents can help their children understand the difference between fantasy and reality on television and help make television viewing a positive event. (DF)
... through the child’s body to break the kidney stone into smaller particles to pass more readily through the urinary tract. Children younger than age 12 may receive general anesthesia during the procedure. ...
Matthews, Susan; Reid, Rebecca; Sylvan, Anne; Woolard, Linda; Freeman, Evelyn B.
Presents brief annotations of 43 children's books, grouped around the theme of flight: flights of imagination, flights across time and around the globe, flights of adventure, and nature's flight. (SR)
... Plans & Reports Strategic plans, research progress reports, and statistical reports Advisory & Coordinating Committees NIDDK Advisory Council, Board ... age, more than 90 percent of children can control urination during the day. Nighttime wetting is more ...
... the same age. The child will have normal intelligence in most cases. In older children, puberty may ... hormones cause the body to make. Tests can measure these growth factors. Accurate growth hormone deficiency testing ...
... CBTF Justin's Hope Fund Grant Recipients Grants Children’s Brain Tumor Foundation, A non-profit organization, was founded ... and the long term outlook for children with brain and spinal cord tumors through research, support, education, ...
... Get Involved in your local community in the fight to End NF. Click here to learn more . ... Children's Tumor Foundation is making strides in the fight against NF. Calendar View Full Calendar Fri Sep ...
Terry, R L; Stockton, L A
The role of framed eyeglasses in children's person schemata was examined. American first graders (35 girls, 36 boys), rated by their teachers as low, medium, or high in cognitive development, judged peers photographed with and without glasses for physical attractiveness, school performance, conduct, sociability, and sociometric choice. There was a general same-sex bias in the children's ratings. The stimulus persons tended to be rated lower in attractiveness (especially if they were girls), school performance, and conduct when they were wearing glasses than when they were not wearing glasses. Glasses negatively influenced sociometric choice, but only for the most cognitively developed children. These results indicated that adults' stereotypes about people who wear glasses eventually become part of children's person schemata. PMID:8231122
... to munch on). If you call ahead, some airlines may be able to prepare special kid's meals. ... with children. Check with them. Remember to ask airlines, train, or bus companies and hotels for guidance ...
Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)
... other organized sports (such as soccer, swimming, and dancing) Younger children cannot stick with the same activity ... in a water sprinkler, or splashing in puddles. Dance to music. Skate, ice-skate, skate-board, or ...
Tongue, A C
Optical correction of refractive errors in infants and young children is indicated when the refractive errors are sufficiently large to cause unilateral or bilateral amblyopia, if they are impairing the child's ability to function normally, or if the child has accommodative strabismus. Screening for refractive errors is important and should be performed as part of the annual physical examination in all verbal children. Screening for significant refractive errors in preverbal children is more difficult; however, the red reflex test of Bruckner is useful for the detection of anisometropic refractive errors. The photorefraction test, which is an adaptation of Bruckner's red reflex test, may prove to be a useful screening device for detecting bilateral as well as unilateral refractive errors. Objective testing as well as subjective testing enables ophthalmologists to prescribe proper optical correction for refractive errors for infants and children of any age. PMID:3317238
Search The Children's Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF) is a national, non-profit organization focused on pediatric cardiomyopathy, a chronic disease of the heart muscle. CCF is dedicated to accelerating the search for ...
.org Forearm Fractures in Children The forearm is the part of the arm between the wrist and the elbow. It is ... two bones: the radius and the ulna. Forearm fractures are common in childhood, accounting for more than ...
Hoban, Timothy F
Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688
Young, N M
Children with such profound deafness that they are not helped by hearing aids are now candidates for cochlear implantation. This technology permits us to provide these children with a significant degree of useful hearing. The degree of improvement in speech perception and spoken language in pediatric cochlear implant recipients varies. However, the younger the children and the less time they have been completely deprived of auditory stimuli, the more likely they are to make significant progress. The evaluation of the deaf child for implantation is best done by a multidisciplinary team who understands the needs of hearing-impaired children and who can work with the family, the child, and classroom teachers, as well as other school professionals. The decision to proceed with cochlear implantation in a child is one that requires long-term commitment on the part of the family and the cochlear implant team. PMID:8039409
Discuss provisions of new federal Children's Online Privacy Protection Act that principals should know to protect student privacy on the Internet. Also discusses relevant provisions of the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. (PKP)
Byrnes, Deborah A.
Free color associations were collected from a total of 337 children in the fourth through sixth grades to 12 concepts: hope, anger, sadness, honesty, fear, happiness, pain, love, death, strength, school, and life. (Author/RH)
Buckley, S L
More children are participating in organized sports than ever before. Although improved coaching, equipment, officiating, and rules have been implemented to reduce injuries, a significant number of young athletes continue to be injured. Fortunately, most injuries sustained by young athletes are minor requiring only symptomatic treatment. However, because of the unique features of the immature skeleton, particularly the presence of open physes, these injuries can nonetheless result in permanent alteration of bone growth with long-term morbidity and disability. Furthermore, the prognosis and natural history of sports injuries in children may be different than that for similar injuries in adults. It is important that the practitioner dealing with young athletes be aware of the unique features of children's sports injuries so that proper treatment may be initiated and prognosis and expected outcome may be intelligently discussed with the patient and parents. This review provides current information regarding sports injuries in children by summarizing the most recent pertinent articles. PMID:8205179
Rottier, B L; Holl, R A; Draaisma, J M
Acute pancreatitis is probably commoner in children than was previously thought. In children it is most commonly associated with trauma or viral infection. The presentation may be subtler than in adults, requiring a high index of suspicion in the clinician. In three children, two boys aged 4 and 10 and a girl of 15 years, acute pancreatitis was suspected because of the findings at ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography performed when the disease recurred (the boy aged 4), apathy and immobility without dehydration or other obvious causes (the boy aged 10), and severe abdominal pain in combination with vomiting (the girl). All three patients had severely increased (urinary) amylase levels. Most often, acute pancreatitis in children tends to be a self-limiting disease which responds well to conservative treatment. PMID:9562770
... tract infections, such as the common cold. Healthy preschool children in day care can have up to ... meeting Browse your conditions Check pollen counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My ...
... a little closer to the front of the classroom may be an alternative. • Hyperopia (far-sighted) – Most ... others may voice concern about difficulties in the classroom. Most children who have difficulty with reading do ...
Pyle, Wilma J.
Children's literature and school texts have reflected society's relegation of women to inferior, passive roles; while there is now an awareness that stereotypes and sexist terms should be eliminated, there is the danger that overreaction will diminish literary quality. (JD)
Kelly, Joan B.; Wallerstein, Judith S.
Discusses the emotional trauma children experience at home and in school when their parents divorce. Also considers the actual and potential role of the school in providing support to these youngsters. (Author/LD)
Obesity means having too much body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means a ... they develop more fat cells and may develop obesity. Normally, infants and young children respond to signals ...
O'Hara, Mandy; Legano, Lori; Homel, Peter; Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Rojas, Mary; Laraque, Danielle
Neglected children, by far the majority of children maltreated, experience an environment most deficient in cognitive stimulation and language exchange. When physical abuse co-occurs with neglect, there is more stimulation through negative parent-child interaction, which may lead to better cognitive outcomes, contrary to Cumulative Risk Theory. The purpose of the current study was to assess whether children only neglected perform worse on cognitive tasks than children neglected and physically abused. Utilizing LONGSCAN archived data, 271 children only neglected and 101 children neglected and physically abused in the first four years of life were compared. The two groups were assessed at age 6 on the WPPSI-R vocabulary and block design subtests, correlates of cognitive intelligence. Regression analyses were performed, controlling for additional predictors of poor cognitive outcome, including socioeconomic variables and caregiver depression. Children only neglected scored significantly worse than children neglected and abused on the WPPSI-R vocabulary subtest (p=0.03). The groups did not differ on the block design subtest (p=0.4). This study shows that for neglected children, additional abuse may not additively accumulate risk when considering intelligence outcomes. Children experiencing only neglect may need to be referred for services that address cognitive development, with emphasis on the linguistic environment, in order to best support the developmental challenges of neglected children. PMID:25869185
Hillis M.D., Argye E.
Hemorrhagic stroke accounts for approximately half of stroke in childhood. Unlike arterial ischemic stroke, there are no consensus guidelines to assist in the evaluation and treatment of these children. We review the literature on the evaluation, treatment, etiology and neurologic outcome of hemorrhagic stroke in children. Important differences between pediatric and adult hemorrhage are highlighted, as treatment guidelines for adults may not be applicable in all cases. Needed future research and potential therapies are also discussed. PMID:17275656
Children's concepts of death grow with their age and development The three-year-old begins to notice that living things move and make sounds. The five-year-old thinks that life and death are reversable, but the six-year-old knows that death is final and brings sorrow. Children from eight through ten are interested in the causes of death and what…
Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph
Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277
Kurnik, Karin; Bidlingmaier, Christoph; Hütker, Sebastian; Olivieri, Martin
Haemorrhagic and thrombotic events occur in both children and adults. The underlying causes are congenital or acquired disorders. In contrast to haemorrhagic disorders, inherited thrombotic disorders nearly exclusively in association with additional external risk factors lead to thrombotic events predominantly during the newborn period and adolescence. It is necessary to be aware of age-specific properties of coagulation in order to correctly interpret clinical and laboratory findings and to provide optimal care for children with haemorrhagic and thrombotic complications. PMID:26988657
Wagner, Johana B Castro; Pine, Harold S
The management of chronic cough, a common complaint in children, is challenging for most health care professionals. Millions of dollars are spent every year on unnecessary testing and treatment. A rational approach based on a detailed interview and a thorough physical examination guides further intervention and management. Inexpensive and simple homemade syrups based on dark honey have proved to be an effective measure when dealing with cough in children. PMID:23905830
Goddard, J M; Pickup, S E
An audit project was designed to assess and improve the provision of postoperative analgesia in a children's hospital. Pain assessment for all children and analgesia standards for our institution were introduced prior to data collection. Data were collected on consecutive samples of 316 and 325 children undergoing surgery as inpatients during 10-week periods. Change was initiated between the two periods in response to our findings; our action plan involved education, changes to documentation, the widespread use of diclofenac in children over 2 years of age and recommendations for the prescription of analgesia. The initial prescription of analgesia increased from 95% to 98% (p = 0.019), administration of analgesia to children experiencing bad or severe pain increased from 57% to 71% (p = 0.032) and the number of children experiencing severe pain reduced from 17% to 11% (p = 0.050). Application of audit, by a clinical nurse specialist, enabled us to achieve and demonstrate improvements in the prescription, administration and effectiveness of postoperative analgesia. PMID:8694218
Esposito, Susanna; Tagliabue, Claudia; Bosis, Samantha
Tuberculosis (TB) in children is a neglected aspect of the TB epidemic despite it constituting 20% or more of all TB cases in many countries with high TB incidence. Childhood TB is a direct consequence of adult TB but remains overshadowed by adult TB because it is usually smear-negative. Infants and young children are more likely to develop life-threatening forms of TB than older children and adults due to their immature immune systems. Therefore, prompt diagnoses are extremely important although difficult since clinical and radiological signs of TB can be non-specific and variable in children. Despite undeniable advances in identifying definite, probable, or possible TB markers, pediatricians still face many problems when diagnosing TB diagnosis. Moreover, curing TB can be difficult when treatment is delayed and when multi-drug resistant (MDR) pathogens are the cause of the disease. In these cases, the prognosis in children is particularly poor because MDR-TB treatment and treatment duration remain unclear. New studies of diagnostic tests and optimal treatment in children are urgently needed with the final goal of developing an effective anti-TB vaccine. PMID:24363879
Nearly one in every four children in the United States is born to a mother who has not finished high school, and more than one in eight is reared by such a mother during the critical preschool period. Large-scale studies show that the health and welfare of children are linked to the education level of their parents, with parent education often being a stronger predictor of child well-being than family income, single parenthood, or family size. Higher parent education levels make it more likely that children will receive adequate medical care and that their daily environments will be protected and responsive to their needs. Average parent education levels have risen over the last 30 years, but progress has slowed because of high rates of immigration from countries with lower education standards and the tendency of more advantaged women to have children later than less advantaged women. The education system and community organizations must provide young people who are not doing well in school with positive alternatives to low- education, high-risk parenthood. Health care providers should be proactive, teaching parents with few resources how best to promote their children's growth and development. The changing global economy makes it more important than ever that current and future generations of children are reared by parents who have adequate skills and training to be competent members of society and effective and responsible parents. Images p34-a p35-a p36-a p39-a p41-a PMID:8610189
George Washington Univ., Washington, DC. Inst. for Educational Leadership.
The transcript of a radio program on gifted and talented children includes interviews with psychoanalysts, educators, and federal officials (including B. Bettelheim, J. Renzulli, B. Boston, and D. Sisk), as well as with parents and five gifted children. Topics considered include identification, separation of gifted students, teaching approaches,…
The purpose of this study was to examine the division procedures of preschool children to determine whether such procedures involved one-to-one correspondence. Large and small numerosity trials were included so that the amount of effort and ease of using other procedures would vary. Odd and even number trials were included to determine whether…
Colbert, Margaret, Comp.
This document is a compilation of honors awarded in the children's book field by organizations, schools, universities, publishers, and newspapers. Major international and foreign awards of English speaking countries are included. The awards are arranged alphabetically. Each award entry includes a brief history of the award and a list of all…
Profiles college programs and accompanying facilities that offer housing for single mothers with children, including College of St. Mary in Omaha, Nebraska; College of Misericordia in Dallas, Pennsylvania; and Baldwin-Wallace College in Berea, Ohio. Includes a sidebar on the University of Dayton's renovated child care center. (EV)
Kahle, Kristopher T; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Limbrick, David D; Warf, Benjamin C
Hydrocephalus is a common disorder of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) physiology resulting in abnormal expansion of the cerebral ventricles. Infants commonly present with progressive macrocephaly whereas children older than 2 years generally present with signs and symptoms of intracranial hypertension. The classic understanding of hydrocephalus as the result of obstruction to bulk flow of CSF is evolving to models that incorporate dysfunctional cerebral pulsations, brain compliance, and newly characterised water-transport mechanisms. Hydrocephalus has many causes. Congenital hydrocephalus, most commonly involving aqueduct stenosis, has been linked to genes that regulate brain growth and development. Hydrocephalus can also be acquired, mostly from pathological processes that affect ventricular outflow, subarachnoid space function, or cerebral venous compliance. Treatment options include shunt and endoscopic approaches, which should be individualised to the child. The long-term outcome for children that have received treatment for hydrocephalus varies. Advances in brain imaging, technology, and understanding of the pathophysiology should ultimately lead to improved treatment of the disorder. PMID:26256071
Morello, William; La Scola, Claudio; Alberici, Irene; Montini, Giovanni
Acute pyelonephritis is one of the most serious bacterial illnesses during childhood. Escherichia coli is responsible in most cases, however other organisms including Klebsiella, Enterococcus, Enterobacter, Proteus, and Pseudomonas species are being more frequently isolated. In infants, who are at major risk of complications such as sepsis and meningitis, symptoms are ambiguous and fever is not always useful in identifying those at high risk. A diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is initially made on the basis of urinalysis; dipstick tests for nitrites and/or leukocyte esterase are the most accurate indicators of infection. Collecting a viable urine sample for urine culture using clean voided methods is feasible, even in young children. No gold standard antibiotic treatment exists. In children appearing well, oral therapy and outpatient care is possible. New guidelines suggest less aggressive imaging strategies after a first infection, reducing radiation exposure and costs. The efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing recurrence is still a matter of debate and the risk of antibiotic resistance is a warning against its widespread use. Well-performed randomized controlled trials are required in order to better define both the imaging strategies and medical options aimed at preserving long-term renal function. PMID:26238274
Hudgins, Elizabeth; Naimark, Dana Wolfe
This Kids Count report examines statewide trends between 1990 and 1998 in the well-being of Arizona's children. The statistical portrait is based on several indicators of well-being, including: (1) children in poverty; (2) babies born at risk; (3) children in families receiving Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF); (4) children in…
Children who experience neglect require immediate help because severe deprivation can affect all aspects of children's development. Parental behaviors indicative of child neglect include failure to (1) feed children adequately, (2) insure adequate medical care, (3) maintain good personal hygiene, (4) clothe children appropriately, (5) supervise…
Schwartz-Kenney, Beth M.; Buford, Katherine B.
This study examined the influence of misleading information on children's memory of a real-life event. After participating in a play session, 10 three-year-old children and 10 six-year-old children heard a narrative that included inaccurate information about the play session. The children were then presented with items from the play session (event…
Boehm, Steven S., Ed.
By publishing a diverse range of views on a wide array of topics, "Children's Voice" seeks to encourage public discussion and debate among those who are committed to helping children and families. "Children's Voice" is published bimonthly by the Child Welfare League of America. This issue of "Children's Voice" includes: (1) Defining Family:…
Sammons, William A. H.; Lewis, Jennifer M.
Describes how teachers' observations of children can help behavioral pediatricians identify family situations contributing to marked changes in children's behavior related to divorce. Discusses ways teachers can support children of divorce, including maintaining consistency and discipline, making children feel competent, listening to the child's…
Singh, Delar K.
This paper discuses the findings of a research study that compared 191 families of children with spina bifida and 145 families of children with mental retardation. Findings include: (1) mothers of children with developmental disabilities (DD) perceived that they experienced more poor health/mood problems than the mothers of children with Spina…
Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael
In order to examine the roles of mental age, social interaction, and communication in self-representation abilities, typically-developing children were compared with children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. Typically-developing children (TD, n = 66) and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, n = 20), including subgroups of autistic disorder…
Research Findings: Concepts of children's citizenship are highly contested. Contemporary policy and rhetoric increasingly includes the concept of citizenship in relation to children, yet there is considerable ambiguity as to what children's citizenship actually means. Unlike other marginalized groups, it is not children claiming citizenship rights…
Ward, Teresa; Mason, Thornton B A
Sleep disorders are common in childhood, and may affect multiple aspects of a child's life and the lives of other family members. A sleep disorder assessment should begin with detailed sleep history and a review of interrelated health issues. Factors contributing to disturbed sleep may be discovered or confirmed by a thorough physical examination. Thereafter, appropriate ancillary testing can provide support for a specific clinical diagnosis. The spectrum of childhood sleep disorders includes OSA, narcolepsy, RLS/PLMD, sleep onset association disorder, and parasomnias. Diagnosing sleep disorders in children remains a challenge; however, a multidisciplinary approach may provide an opportunity for productive collaboration and, thereby, more effective patient management. Centers treating pediatric sleep disorders may include providers from a variety of disciplines in pediatric healthcare, such as child psychology, pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, nursing, and otolaryngology. Over the last decade, research in pediatric sleep disorders has expanded greatly, paralleled by an increased awareness of the importance of adequate, restorative sleep in childhood. PMID:12587368
Hedequist, Daniel J; Emans, John B
Instrumentation of the cervical spine enhances stability and improves arthrodesis rates in children undergoing surgery for deformity or instability. Various morphologic and clinical studies have been conducted in children, confirming the feasibility of anterior or posterior instrumentation of the cervical spine with modern implants. Knowledge of the relevant spine anatomy and preoperative imaging studies can aid the clinician in understanding the pitfalls of instrumentation for each patient. Preoperative planning, intraoperative positioning, and adherence to strict surgical techniques are required given the small size of children. Instrumentation options include anterior plating, occipital plating, and a variety of posterior screw techniques. Complications related to screw malposition include injury to the vertebral artery, neurologic injury, and instrumentation failure. PMID:27097300
Chan, Siu Mui
This study examined whether authoritarian parenting, children's negative emotionality and negative coping strategies independently or jointly predict children's aggressive behaviour at school. Participants included the teachers and mothers of 185 Hong Kong resident Chinese children (90 girls and 95 boys), aged 6-8. Teachers rated the children's…
King, Sara; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Pelham, William E.; Frankland, Bradley W.; Corkum, Penny V.; Jacques, Sophie
We examined aggressive behavior in 6- to 12-year-old children, including 20 children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on stimulant medication, 19 children with ADHD on placebo (n = 19), and 32 controls. Children completed a laboratory provocation task designed to measure hostile, instrumental, reactive, and proactive…
Zocca, Jaclyn M; Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Columbo, Kelli M; Raciti, Gina R; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Matheson, Brittany E; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A
Few studies have examined relationships between parents' and children's specific disinhibited eating behaviors. We investigated links among mothers' and children's binge/loss of control eating, eating in the absence of hunger, and children's adiposity in 305 non-treatment-seeking youth, aged 8-17 years (13.62±2.65 years; 49.8% female) and their mothers. Youths' loss of control eating and eating in the absence of hunger were assessed by interview and self-report questionnaire. Children's adiposity was assessed with BMI-z and air displacement plethysmography. Maternal binge eating, eating in the absence of hunger and highest, non-pregnant BMI were self-reported. In structural equation models controlling for mothers' BMI, mothers' binge eating related to children's loss of control eating, and mothers' eating in the absence of hunger related to children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers' binge eating and children's eating in the absence of hunger were unrelated, as were mothers' eating in the absence of hunger and children's loss of control. Further, mothers' binge eating was indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's loss of control eating. Likewise, mothers' eating in the absence of hunger indirectly related to children's adiposity through children's eating in the absence of hunger. Mothers and children share similar, specific disinhibited eating styles. PMID:21182882
Sekar, H R
In India, 69% of the children of the working class die, most of whom are child laborers. Economic pressure forces parents to make their children work. Employers want child workers because they can manipulate them and pay them low wages, thereby ensuring their viability. The caste system induces social inequality, inheritance invokes cultural inequality, and patriarchal socialization is responsible for gender inequality, all of which perpetuates exploitation of children by employers. In Sivakasi, an estimated 125,000 children make up the child labor force, comprising 30% of the entire labor force. 75% are from the lowest castes. 90% of child workers are girls because they are more obedient and accept even lower wages than boys, and girls need to save for their dowry. Girls often suffer verbal and physical abuse. Like their parents who were also child workers, child workers are illiterate and work long hours. A small rich elite in Sivakasi controls most of the trading and industrial capital, educational institutions, and voluntary organizations. Employers' agents give parents a loan and use their children's labor as security. Each day, they bring child workers to Sivakasi in factory buses from villages to work at least 12 hour days. They work under hazardous conditions, e.g., working with toxic chemicals. Coughing, sore throat, dizziness, methemoglobinemia, and anemia are common effects of ingestion or inhalation of chlorate dust. Inhalation of sulphur dust causes respiratory infections, eye infections, and chronic lung diseases (e.g., asthma). Fires and explosions are common risks for working children. Factory management seldom undertake fire prevention measures. An extensive survey of the problem of child labor is needed in Sivakasi before systematic planning to protect children could be done. Overall development, especially agricultural development, is needed. Parents, employers, enforcement authorities, trade unions, and social groups need to be sensitized to the
Salt, Alison; Sargent, Jenefer
Children with disability are at a substantially higher risk of visual impairment (VI) (10.5% compared with 0.16%) but also of ocular disorders of all types, including refractive errors and strabismus. The aetiology of VI in children with disability reflects that of the general population and includes cerebral VI, optic atrophy, as well as primary visual disorders such as retinal dystrophies and structural eye anomalies. VI and other potentially correctable ocular disorders may not be recognised without careful assessment and are frequently unidentified in children with complex needs. Although assessment may be more challenging than in other children, identifying these potential additional barriers to learning and development may be critical. There is a need to develop clearer guidelines, referral pathways and closer working between all professionals involved in the care of children with disability and visual disorders to improve our focus on the assessment of vision and outcomes for children with disability. PMID:25165073
Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Graham, Alice M.; Moore, William E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Mannering, Anne M.
Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than the foster children across several regions including the right anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior occipital cortex including the lingual gyrus and cuneus during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540
Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A; Graham, Alice M; Moore, William E; Peake, Shannon J; Mannering, Anne M
Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than did the foster children across several regions, including the right anterior cingulate cortex, the middle frontal gyrus, and the right lingual gyrus, during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and the right superior occipital cortex, including the lingual gyrus and cuneus, during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540
Stoecklin, Vicki L.
There has been increased interest in recent years on gardening with children and a variety of programs have been started to support different types of programmatic goals. Goals of gardening programs include environmental stewardship, personal growth/social skills, an integrated learning environment, nutrition/health, science education, practical…
Roff, Merrill; And Others
This book describes a series of studies included in a 5-year program of research on the social adjustment of school children in the third through sixth grades. The sample consists of a total of 40,000 children from Texas and Minnesota, including a small subsample of 5,000 used in a 4-year longitudinal study. Peer acceptance-rejection scores…
Walter, Virginia A.
Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…
Rosenberg, N M; Meert, K L; Knazik, S R; Yee, H; Kauffman, R E
We determined the prevalence of cocaine and cannabinoid exposure among young children presenting to an urban pediatric emergency department without signs or symptoms suggestive of the exposure. The study included 460 children between 1 and 60 months of age in whom urinalysis was required for investigation of routine pediatric complaints. Anonymously and without informed consent, an aliquot of urine was screened for cocaine metabolite (benzoylecgonine) and 11- or delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9 carboxylic acid with the enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique. Positive specimens were rescreened with a radioimmunoassay and confirmed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, if a sufficient quantity of urine was available. Benzoylecgonine was identified in 25 patients (5.4%) by both screening techniques. Enough urine was available for confirmatory testing in eight patients, and all eight urine specimens contained benzoylecgonine. Neither 11- nor delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9 carboxylic acid was detected in any patient. We documented the magnitude of the problem of occult passive cocaine exposure in young children living in an urban environment. Such exposure has serious implications for the assessment of outcomes in postnatal follow-up studies of prenatally exposed children as well as potential risks to children living in household environments where occult cocaine exposure occurs. PMID:1669673
Millions of children and adolescents live on the streets of urban Brazil and are being bypassed by existing social services. In the state of Rio de Janeiro, for example, there are only 2 shelters for street children. Many of these children are from single-parent households that could not produce enough income to support them; others are the victims of intrafamilial sexual abuse or violence. Early initiation into sexual activity is nearly universal among these street children, and provides gratification in an atmosphere of deprivation and a source of emotional connectedness. Many are forced into prostitution as a means of survival. The absence of familial support leads these marginalized adolescents vulnerable to pregnancy and illegal abortion; their illiteracy and non-school attendance isolates them from sources of information about sexuality and birth control. Government agencies must assume responsibility for providing these citizens with shelter, food, access to the public school system with a culturally sensitive curriculum, and health services that address the special needs of this population. Nongovernmental organizations, on the other hand, are urged to develop innovative programs for street children, including outreach programs, educational strategies and materials, legal advocacy, hot-lines, and itinerant van units. PMID:12345365
Spriggs, Merle; Gillam, Lynn
The aim of this article is to draw attention to an under-recognised but ethically important phenomenon involving the deception of children in research. The type of deception we are referring to is not planned deception that is part of the research design. Instead it is deception that occurs in individual cases where parents ask researchers not to reveal something about the research to their child. Our focus is children who do not have ultimate decisional authority--children around the ages of 7-14 years old who may have the cognitive capacity to understand but not to consent for themselves; children whose agreement is required but not sufficient to authorise research. We provide three illustrative scenarios for analysis. Then, we identify circumstances in which non-disclosure might be justified and set out reasons why providing information to non-competent children is ethically required. On this basis, we argue that non-planned deception requested by parents is very unlikely to be ethically acceptable. Finally, we recommend that guidelines should (a) require researchers to consider what to do if parents do not want to disclose information to a child and (b) clarify that the most ethical response is to simply not include that child in the research. PMID:24307618
Esposito, S; Tagliabue, C; Tagliaferri, L; Semino, M; Longo, M R; Principi, N
Influenza is common in infants and children: attack rates vary from 23% to 48% each year during inter-pandemic periods, and are even higher during pandemics. Severe cases occur more frequently in children with underlying chronic diseases; however, epidemiological studies have clearly shown that influenza also causes an excess of medical examinations, drug prescriptions and hospitalizations in otherwise healthy children (particularly those aged <5 years), as well as a considerable number of paediatric deaths. Childhood influenza also has a number of social and economic consequences. However, many European health authorities are still reluctant to include influenza vaccinations in their national vaccination programmes for healthy children because, among other things, there are doubts concerning their real ability to evoke a protective immune response, especially in children in the first years of life. New hope for the solution of these problems has come from the introduction of vaccines containing more antigens and the possibility of intradermal administration. However, further studies are needed to establish whether universal influenza vaccination in the first years of life should be recommended, and with which vaccine. PMID:22862744
Hershkowitz, Irit; Lamb, Michael E; Horowitz, Dvora
Children with disabilities (CWDs) are more likely to be victims of child abuse but may have more difficulty than their typically developing (TD) peers reporting their experiences. In this study, the authors examined the characteristics of abuse reported by CWDs based on forensic statements made by 40430 alleged abuse victims, 11% categorized as children with minor disabilities, and 1.2% categorized as children with severe disabilities. Proportionally more of the CWDs than of the TD children were allegedly victims of sexual rather than physical abuse. CWDs failed to disclose abuse and delayed disclosure more often than TD suspected victims. CWDs were more likely than TD children to be abused by parent figures and to experience physical abuse resulting in body injury or serious sexual offenses, including those involving penetration, repeated abuse, use of force, and threats. Higher levels of disability were associated with increased risk of sexual abuse. Both the heightened incidence of severe abuse among and the failure to disclose abuse by CWDs should be sources of considerable concern to social welfare and criminal justice agencies. PMID:18194043
There are many causes leading to breathing disorders in children. In the newborn period the immature central regulation of breathing can result in a pattern with apneas and bradycardias most commonly seen in the very premature infant. Therefore, during hospital stay many of these very tiny preterms and some of the very ill term infants do have severe apneas and do need medication and or mechanical support (nasal CPAP, positive pressure ventilation). In the first two to three months of life central dysmaturity can persist in some infants and apneas of infancy can occur further on. Infants with prolonged apneas and symptoms like paleness, cyanosis, stiffness or limpness are often investigated, treated or monitored. At the age of two to six, every tenth child is a loud snorer. Every fifth snorer at this age suffers from a severe upper airway obstruction. Factors that decrease pharyngeal size or increase pharyngeal compliance may lead to obstruction. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common associated condition, craniofacial disorders, central nervous system and neuromuscular problems and less obesity are disposing factors. Children may present nocturnal symptoms like snoring, difficult breathing or disturbed sleep, but most of them have daytime problems as initial complaint such as hyperactivity, behavioral problems, growth failure, poor school performance. Excessive daytime sleepiness is not so common in young children. The childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is a common and serious problem. Children with symptoms suggesting severe obstruction should be evaluated and treated. Most children are cured by adenotonsillectomy whilst some require further therapy. PMID:10953655
Ory, F G; Simons, M; Verhulst, F C; Leenders, F R; Wolters, W H
The subject of this study is the effects of transcultural sojourn and culture shock on the psycho-social development and school achievement of Dutch children. One hundred and three Dutch children in the age range 6-17 years who stayed abroad with their parents for at least two years and returned to Holland were compared with 81 Dutch classmates of the same age and sex. The class teacher and parent(s) were the informants. The transcultural group showed more behavioural problems on the Dutch version of the Child Behavior Checklist developed by Achenbach. Parents of the transcultural group regarded their children on a modified Graham & Rutter questionnaire as less happy than the control parents. However, no differences were found for academic achievement or problem behaviour at school as assessed by the teacher version of the CBCL, the 'Teacher's Report Form' (TRF). Organizations which send their employees abroad should direct more attention to employees' children. Attention given by parents and teachers to language problems and school performance should not pre-empt close attention to the psycho-social development of children. PMID:2008618
Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are one of the major reasons for morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children. The majority of IFIs are caused by Candida and Aspergillus species. Early diagnosis and prompt initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy is essential for favorable outcome. Micafungin is a member of the echinocandins, a novel class of antifungal agents that target the biosynthesis of β-1,3-D-glucan, a key fungal cell wall component. It has concentration-dependent fungicidal activity against Candida species and fungistatic activity against Aspergillus species. Although optimal dosing of micafungin in children has not been established, the recommended dosage in children is 2 mg/kg/day (100 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for invasive candidiasis, 1 mg/kg/day (50 mg/day if >40 kg bodyweight) for the prophylaxis of Candida infections in patients with anticipated prolonged and severe neutropenia or in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Micafungin has a favorable safety and drug-drug interaction profile. The most common adverse effects in children are diarrhea, epistaxis, abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, chills, elevation of alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase values, hypokalemia, thrombocytopenia, mucositis, and rash. Because of its different mechanisms of action, micafungin shows promise as part of the prophylactic and therapeutic management of IFIs, but larger prospective and comparative trials are needed for widespread use in children. PMID:21905789
Fractures in childhood have long been considered an unavoidable consequence of growth. Studies in recent years have documented the epidemiology of these very common fractures and have also documented considerable variation by fracture type and from country to country. There have also been a number of studies aimed at identifying risk factors particularly for the most common distal forearm fracture. These studies have consistently associated bone mineral density with these fractures. Other possible risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity, sports, cola beverages, calcium intake, risk taking, and coordination. While prospective studies are required to confirm these risk factors, accumulating evidence now suggests that a substantial proportion of fractures in children are preventable. PMID:16036086
Mathur, Anubhav N; Mathes, Erin F
Acute urticaria is a self-limited cutaneous condition marked by transient, erythematous, and pruritic wheals. It is a hypersensitivity response that is often secondary to infection, medications, or food allergies in children. In contrast, the urticarial "mimickers" described in this review article are often seen in the context of fever and extracutaneous manifestations in pediatric patients. The differential diagnosis ranges from benign and self-limited hypersensitivity responses to multisystem inflammatory diseases. Establishing the correct diagnosis of an urticarial rash in a pediatric patient is necessary to both prevent an unnecessary work up for self-limited conditions and to appropriately recognize and evaluate multisystem inflammatory disorders. Herein, we describe two cases to illustrate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, histopathology and differential diagnoses for several mimickers of acute urticaria including: urticaria multiforme, serum sickness like reaction, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy, systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, and urticarial vasculitis. PMID:24552410
Proteinuria is a common laboratory finding in children. It can be identified as either a transient or a persistent finding and can represent a benign condition or a serious disease. A rapid but qualitative assessment of proteinuria can be made using dipstick or sulfosalicylic acid methods. More precise quantitation is obtained by measuring protein excretion in 24-hour urine samples or by calculating the protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples. Orthostatic proteinuria is a benign condition characterized by the presence of protein in urine samples collected in the upright position during the day and its absence in samples collected in the supine position. Persistent proteinuria and proteinuria associated with hematuria or other signs of renal disease carry a more severe prognosis. The latter conditions require referral to a pediatric nephrologist for further evaluation, which may include renal biopsy. PMID:9787280
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... this kind of pain when they have a stomach virus, indigestion, gas, or when they become constipated. ...
Stomach pain in children; Pain - abdomen - children; Abdominal cramps in children; Belly ache in children ... When your child complains of abdominal pain, see if they can describe it to you. Here are different kinds of pain: ...
Gargallo, Ana; Gómez-Varela, Ana I.; González-Nuñez, Hector; Delgado, Tamara; Almaguer, Citlalli; Cambronero, Ferran; Garcia-Sanchez, Angel; Flores-Arias, Maria T.
USC-OSA is a student chapter whose objective is to bring Optics knowledge closer to the non-optics community. The activity developed at the Hospital school was one of the most important last year. It was consisted in a few Optics experiments and workshops with hospitalized children of different ages and pathologies. The experiments had to be adapted to their physical conditions with the aim of everyone could participate. We think this activity has several benefits including spreading Optics through children meanwhile they have fun and forget their illness for a while.
Séguéla, P-E; Tafer, N; Thambo, J-B; Mauriat, P
Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing drug with positive inotropic properties. As an inodilator, this molecule also has a vasodilation effect. While its efficacy has been demonstrated in the adult in the context of cardiac surgery, its pediatric use is still not widespread. Many studies have shown its safety of use in children, including in the newborn. Across the world, a growing number of teams use levosimendan to treat both acute and chronic heart failure. Through a review of the literature, we describe its pharmacodynamic effects, its current applications, and its perspectives of use in children. PMID:27369103
Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang
This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889
Berger, L R; Kalishman, S
Three children with grid-like second-degree burns of their extremities from contact with floor furnace registers prompted an examination of this thermal hazard. Average temperature of the gratings was 294 degrees F (146 degrees C), with a range of 180 degrees to 375 degrees F (82.2 degrees to 191 degrees C). All of the furnaces tested were positioned at the entrance to bedrooms and had so little clearance that it was impossible to walk around them without contact with their surface. Infants and toddlers are at particular risk: 1 or 2 seconds of exposure would be expected to produce a serious burn. Suggestions for preventing burns from floor furnaces include turning them off when young children are at home; installing barrier gates to prevent children from coming in contact with the registers; and developing a surface coating or replacement grate with less hazardous thermal properties. PMID:6848984
Kurkin, A V; Rybalkina, D Kh
The purpose of this study was the analysis of the buccal smears from 200 healthy children and children with chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox. The smears were stained using Pappenheim's method. The peculiarity of buccal mucosa cytograms of children of different ages was the significant increase in mature forms of the cells (presence of differentiation stage 5 and 6 cells) in adolescents. They also had a lower area of epitheliocytes at all the stages of differentiation and of their nuclei. In chronic tonsillitis and chicken pox, the complex of cytological changes was detected, that included the increase of the leukocyte number, changes in the proportions of epitheliocytes in cell population, augmentation of inflammation-destruction and destruction indexes. PMID:21539088
Meese, Ruth Lyn
Research regarding children of intercountry adoption is limited, and most children of intercountry adoption have complex histories that may place them at risk for difficulty or failure in the classroom. Although the performances of some children from orphanage environments approximate those of chronological-age peers 2 to 4 years postadoption,…
Ohio State Legislative Office of Education Oversight, Columbus.
The education and related services provided by the Ohio Veterans' Children's Home (OVCH) to its 211 residents (ages 6 to 19) were evaluated. Children in the home arrive either by placement through a public agency or by private placement, and the average length of stay is about a year. Approximately half of the children appear to have severe…
MacDonald, Rebecca; Green, Gina; Mansfield, Renee; Geckeler, Amy; Gardenier, Nicole; Anderson, Jennifer; Holcomb, William; Sanchez, June
Although stereotypy is one of the key diagnostic features of autism, few studies have compared stereotypic behavior in children with autism and typically developing children. The present study employed direct observational measurement methods to assess levels of stereotypic behavior in 2-, 3- and 4-year-old children with autism or pervasive…
Calvert, Sandra; Kotler, Jennifer; Kuhl, Alison; Riboli, Michael
The impact of the Children's Television Act, which requires broadcasters to provide educational and informational programs for children, was examined by having 141 second through sixth graders watch 16 popular and unpopular television programs and then assess the motivational appeal of, and children's learning from, these programs. Popular and…
Sutterby, John A.; Frost, Joe L.
Warns about a potential epidemic of obesity among children in the United States and urges early childhood practitioners to provide outdoor play that increases children's physical activity, muscle strength, and coordination. Maintains that playgrounds should offer a variety of equipment that challenges children at different ability levels. Asserts…
Crockenberg, Susan; Lourie, Andrea
A study investigated whether parents' use of power-assertive or negotiating strategies to resolve conflicts with children predicted children's psychosocial adjustment and use of comparable strategies with peers. The study also determined whether children's behavior with mothers at 2 years of age predicted their behavior with peers at age 6. The…
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.
This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…
Cooper, Patricia M.
Today's emphasis on using children's literature as a tool to teach reading and writing sub-skills distracts teachers' attention from looking to children's books for their historical role in helping children navigate the intellectual, social, and emotional terrains of childhood. This article argues, first, that early childhood educators must remain…