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Sample records for children increased efficacy

  1. Increased Serum Uric Acid Levels Blunt the Antihypertensive Efficacy of Lifestyle Modifications in Children at Cardiovascular Risk.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Rebora, Paola; Giussani, Marco; Orlando, Antonina; Stella, Andrea; Antolini, Laura; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Pontremoli, Roberto; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2016-05-01

    Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese;P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile;P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. PMID:27021006

  2. Examining the Efficacy of Truth/Lie Discussions in Predicting and Increasing the Veracity of Children's Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Kamala; Nunez, Narina

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether 4- to 6-year-olds' ability to reason about truths and lies influenced their truth-telling behavior. Found that children's performance on truth/lie questions did not predict their truth-telling. Regardless of performance on truth/lie questions, children receiving developmentally appropriate truth/lie discussions gave more…

  3. "Smart Bodies" school wellness program increased children's knowledge of healthy nutrition practices and self-efficacy to consume fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Tuuri, Georgianna; Zanovec, Michael; Silverman, Linda; Geaghan, James; Solmon, Melinda; Holston, Denise; Guarino, Annrose; Roy, Heli; Murphy, Ellen

    2009-04-01

    Diets rich in fruit and vegetables are important for long-term health yet children frequently do not like these foods. The "Smart Bodies" school wellness program sought to increase children's knowledge of healthy nutritional practices, improve psychosocial variables associated with eating fruit and vegetables, and develop preferences for these foods. A randomized controlled intervention trial was conducted in 14 low-income, urban, public elementary schools (seven pairs). Data from 278 fourth and 282 fifth graders (234 boys, 326 girls; 82% Black, 10% White, 1% Hispanic, 5% Asian, 2% Other) were examined using multi-level modeling. The 12-week intervention program included participation in an interactive wellness exhibit and a classroom curriculum that emphasized consumption of fruit and vegetables. After the intervention, children that participated in the "Smart Bodies" program had greater nutrition knowledge and expressed more confidence that they could eat fruit instead of a favorite dessert, drink fruit juice and consume the recommended number of fruits and vegetables servings each day. Preferences for fruit and vegetables did not change as a result of participating in the program. These findings demonstrate that the "Smart Bodies" school-based wellness intervention positively impacted children's nutrition knowledge and psychosocial variables associated with consuming fruit and vegetables. PMID:19135111

  4. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants' exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  5. Exercise Video Games and Exercise Self-Efficacy in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dos Santos, Hildemar; Bredehoft, Margaret Dinhluu; Gonzalez, Frecia M.; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article was to investigate the use of exergaming in promoting exercise behavior among children and to examine the impact of the intervention on participants’ exercise self-efficacy, in addition to assessing physiological changes. A sample of 55 children enrolled in the Family Fit program, where participants were categorized into 2 groups: healthy weight and overweight. Measures were taken at baseline, after the 7-week program, at the 12-week follow-up, and at the 24-month follow-up. Positive changes in exercise self-efficacy were significant for the overweight group, while the healthy weight group maintained their exercise self-efficacy. At the 24-month follow-up, 97% children reported being interested in participating in a future fitness program, and 96% children who did not play sports before the intervention started practicing sports. Exercise self-efficacy is a predictor of physical activity, and incorporating exergaming in a structured program may lead to increased self-efficacy in participants. PMID:27336015

  6. Children with Reading Disorders--I. Efficacy of Reading Remediation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gittelman, Rachel; Feingold, Ingrid

    1983-01-01

    The efficacy of reading remediation, which emphasizes phonic decoding, was examined in 61 children (ages 7 through 13 years) with pure reading disorders. Comparisons between pre- and post intervention data clearly support the efficacy of remediation. (MP)

  7. Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

  8. Efficacy of Attribution Retraining on Mental Health of Epileptic Children

    PubMed Central

    Pourmohamadreza Tajrishi, Masoume; Abbasi, Saeid; Najafi Fard, Tahereh; Yousefi, Saheb; Mohammadi Malek Abadi, Athar; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Epilepsy affects children’s quality of life and leads to social and mental problems. Promoting the mental health of children, especially epileptic ones, and preventing problems affecting them constitute major concerns for every country. Mental health promotion requires intervention programs. Objectives: We sought to assess the efficacy of attribution retraining on the mental health of epileptic children. Patients and Methods: The present study is a semi-experimental investigation with a pretest and posttest design and includes a control group. Thirty children, comprising 17 boys and 13 girls, were selected randomly from the Iranian epilepsy association in Tehran and assigned to experimental and control groups. They answered to the general health questionnaire (Goldberg and Hiller, 1979). The experimental group participated in 11 training sessions (twice a week; 45 minutes for each session) and received attribution retraining. The data were analyzed using the multiple analysis of covariance. Results: The findings showed that the experimental group, in comparison with the control group, experienced a reduction in physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and depression and an increase in mental health significantly (P < 0.01) after the training sessions. There were no significant differences, however, between the two groups at 6 weeks’ follow-up. Conclusions: Attribution retraining improved mental health in the epileptic children in our study. It, therefore, seems to be an appropriate intervention for promoting the mental health of children. PMID:26568854

  9. Helping African American Children Self-Manage Asthma: The Importance of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaul, Teri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Asthma is the leading cause of chronic illness among children in the United States, with a disproportionately higher incidence among minority children. In an attempt to increase understanding of the factors that may influence self-management of chronic disease, the study examined the relationship between self-efficacy belief and asthma…

  10. Young Children's Self-care and Independence Tasks: Applying Self-efficacy Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the theory of self-efficacy, the ways in which young children learn self-care and self-efficacy, and methods parents and other caregivers can use to encourage self-efficacy in young children. (RJC)

  11. Efficacy of Montessori Education in Attention Gathering Skill of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildirim Dogru, S. Sunay

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Montessori education which is offered to upskill the attention gathering skill of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. In total fifteen pre-schooler participants, six girls and nine boys who are diagnosed with ADHD (7 of the children with ADHD, 8 with only AD), joined to this…

  12. Intervention Efficacy and Intensity for Children with Speech Sound Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Clinicians do not have an evidence base they can use to recommend optimum intervention intensity for preschool children who present with speech sound disorder (SSD). This study examined the effect of dose frequency on phonological performance and the efficacy of the multiple oppositions approach. Method: Fifty-four preschool children with…

  13. Primary School Children's Self-Efficacy for Music Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Laura; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The Self-Efficacy for Musical Learning questionnaire was adapted and tested with 404 primary school children, producing a robust Cronbach alpha (0.87) and confirming a single underlying factor through exploratory factor analysis. Test-retest scores showed the measure's stability over a 9-month period. Data were collected on children's prior music…

  14. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  15. Fewer children equals increased savings.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    Although the precise mechanisms by which population growth affects economic development are very complex, it appears that slower growth is associated with higher savings and investment ratios, as well as income growth. A study prepared for the US's National Research Council revealed that among 70 countries, a shift from a high to a low fertility was associated with a 50& increase in the net national savings rate. In 38 countries with slower population growth during the 1980s, savings ratios averaged 18.5% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 1989, compared to savings rations averaging only 12% in 38 countries with higher population growth. At the same time, investment was 18% of GDP in the countries with higher population growth, compared to 21% in countries with slower population growth. from 1965-80, a period favorable to economic growth, 36 countries saw their per capita GDP grow by more than 3% a year. 17 of these countries had population growth rates of 2.5% or under, while 19 had growth rates above 2.5%. During these prosperous years, the average growth rate of incomes between the 2 sets of countries were nearly identical. But with the harsher economic climate of the 1980s, the fortunes of the countries diverged. Among the 19 countries with high growth rates, only 10 achieved any positive income growth in the 1980s -- and only 5 achieved annual income growth above 0.5% By contrast, among the 17 countries with slower population growth rates, 15 achieved positive income growth of a least 0.8% a year during the 1980s. The only 2 countries in this group that experienced declines in per capita income were Nigeria and Trinidad and Tobago, which suffered from declining oil prices. PMID:12285240

  16. Children with reading disorders--I. Efficacy of reading remediation.

    PubMed

    Gittelman, R; Feingold, I

    1983-04-01

    The efficacy of reading remediation, which emphasized phonetic decoding, was investigated in children with pure reading disorders, controlling for the influence on non-specific treatment effects. Sixty-one children were randomly assigned to receive instruction in reading or in other subjects for four months. Children were re-evaluated immediately after, and two and eight months after, the cessation of the intervention. At the end of treatment, the children who had received reading remediation obtained significantly higher scores than the controls on all reading tests. Some of the treatment advantages were maintained beyond the treatment period. Results clearly support the efficacy of reading remediation which emphasizes phonetic skills. The study does not address itself to whether this treatment method differs from other remedial interventions. PMID:6841505

  17. Does interprofessional simulation increase self-efficacy: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Watters, Colm; Reedy, Gabriel; Ross, Alastair; Morgan, Nicola J; Handslip, Rhodri; Jaye, Peter

    2015-01-01

    study provides evidence that simulation training enhances participants’ self-efficacy in clinical situations. It also leads to increases in their perceived abilities relating to communication/teamwork and leadership/management of clinical scenarios. Interprofessional training showed increased positive effects on self-efficacy for nurses and doctors. PMID:25586366

  18. Increasing spontaneous language in three autistic children.

    PubMed

    Matson, J L; Sevin, J A; Fridley, D; Love, S R

    1990-01-01

    A time delay procedure was used to increase spontaneous verbalizations of 3 autistic children. Multiple baseline across behaviors designs were used with target responses, selected via a social validation procedure, of two spontaneous responses ("please" and "thank you") and one verbally prompted response ("you're welcome"). The results indicate gains across target behaviors for all children, with occurrence across other stimuli and settings. These gains were validated socially with 10 adults. Furthermore, increases in appropriate language had no effect on levels of inappropriate speech. PMID:2373659

  19. Efficacy of cough suppressants in children.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J A; Novack, A H; Almquist, J R; Rogers, J E

    1993-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that codeine and dextromethorphan are effective in alleviating the symptoms of acute cough, we conducted a randomized, controlled trial. Eligible patients were children 18 months to 12 years of age, seen in private pediatric practices, with significant night cough of less than 14 days' duration. Study patients were randomly selected to receive codeine, dextromethorphan, or placebo at bedtime for 3 consecutive nights. Outcomes were assessed by the use of a parent questionnaire rating the severity of symptoms at the initiation of therapy, and after each night of the study. Every patient had a cough score (range 0 to 4) and composite symptom score (range 0 to 9) computed for each day of the study. One hundred forty-one doses of study medication were evaluated in 49 patients, including 13 children receiving placebo, 19 dextromethorphan, and 17 codeine. Mean cough and composite symptom scores decreased in each of the three treatment groups on each day of the study; there were no significant differences. Regression analysis, with reduction in cough score as the outcome of interest, showed that neither dextromethorphan nor codeine was significantly more effective than placebo (p = 0.41 and 0.70, respectively). Reduction in cough score was positively correlated with the severity of cough at the start of treatment (p = 0.007). Our data suggest that, in the doses used, neither codeine nor dextromethorphan is superior to placebo in treating night cough in children. PMID:8496765

  20. Circumvention of Learning Increases Intoxication Efficacy of Nematicidal Engineered Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bracho, Olena R; Manchery, Cyril; Haskell, Evan C; Blanar, Christopher A; Smith, Robert P

    2016-03-18

    Synthetic biology holds promise to engineer systems to treat diseases. One critical, yet underexplored, facet of designing such systems is the interplay between the system and the pathogen. Understanding this interplay may be critical to increasing efficacy and overcoming resistance against the system. Using the principles of synthetic biology, we engineer a strain of Escherichia coli to attract and intoxicate the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Our bacteria are engineered with a toxin module, which intoxicates the nematode upon ingestion, and an attraction module, which serves to attract and increase the feeding rate of the nematodes. When independently implemented, these modules successfully intoxicate and attract the worms, respectively. However, in combination, the efficacy of our bacteria is significantly reduced due to aversive associative learning in C. elegans. Guided by mathematical modeling, we dynamically regulate module induction to increase intoxication by circumventing learning. Our results detail the creation of a novel nematicidal bacterium that may have application against nematodes, unravel unique constraints on circuit dynamics that are governed by C. elegans physiology, and add to the growing list of design and implementation considerations associated with synthetic biology. PMID:26692340

  1. Involving Children in Reflective Discussions about Their Perceived Self-Efficacy and Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Määttä, Elina; Järvelä, Sanna

    2013-01-01

    Previous research indicates the importance of self-efficacy beliefs for young children's learning and achievement. However, the challenge has been to research young children's self-efficacy in authentic learning situations. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate young children's immediate experiences of confidence in…

  2. The Importance of Efficacy: Using the Extended Parallel Process Model to Examine Factors Related to Preschool-Age Children Enrolled in Medicaid Receiving Preventive Dental Visits.

    PubMed

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Chi, Donald L; Momany, Elizabeth T; Kuthy, Raymond A; Carter, Knute D; Field, Kathryn; Damiano, Peter C

    2015-12-01

    Early preventive dental visits are vital to the oral health of children. Yet many children, especially preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid, do not receive early visits. This study attempts to uncover factors that can be used to encourage parents to seek preventive dental care for preschool-age children enrolled in Medicaid. The extended parallel process model was used as a theoretical framework for this research. This model suggests that people will act if the perceived threat (severity and susceptibility) is high enough and if efficacy levels (self-efficacy and response efficacy) are likewise high. Following Witte's method of categorizing people's perceptions and emotions into one of four categories based on levels of threat and efficacy, this article describes four groups (high threat/high efficacy, high threat/low efficacy, low threat/high efficacy, and low threat/low efficacy) of parents and how they compare to each other. Using logistic regression to model if a child had a preventive visit, results indicate that parents with low threat/high efficacy and parents with high threat/high efficacy had approximately 2.5 times the odds of having a child with a preventive oral health visit compared to parents with low threat/low efficacy, when controlling for perceived oral health status, health literacy, and child's age. The importance of efficacy needs to be incorporated in interventions aimed at increasing preventive dental visits for young children. PMID:25862302

  3. An evaluation of choice on instructional efficacy and individual preferences among children with autism.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Karen A; Kodak, Tiffany; Vladescu, Jason C

    2016-03-01

    The current study compared the differential effects of choice and no-choice reinforcement conditions on skill acquisition. In addition, we assessed preference for choice-making opportunities with 3 children with autism, using a modified concurrent-chains procedure. We replicated the experiment with 2 participants. The results indicated that choice-making opportunities increased treatment efficacy for 2 of the 3 participants, and all 3 participants demonstrated a preference for choice-making opportunities. PMID:26510978

  4. Self-efficacy beliefs as shapers of children's aspirations and career trajectories.

    PubMed

    Bandura, A; Barbaranelli, C; Caprara, G V; Pastorelli, C

    2001-01-01

    This prospective study tested with 272 children a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences that shape children's career aspirations and trajectories. Familial socioeconomic status is linked to children's career trajectories only indirectly through its effects on parents' perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. The impact of parental self-efficacy and aspirations on their children's perceived career efficacy and choice is, in turn, entirely mediated through the children's perceived efficacy and academic aspirations. Children's perceived academic, social, and self-regulatory efficacy influence the types of occupational activities for which they judge themselves to be efficacious both directly and through their impact on academic aspirations. Perceived occupational self-efficacy gives direction to the kinds of career pursuits children seriously consider for their life's work and those they disfavor. Children's perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement is the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife. Analyses of gender differences reveal that perceived occupational self-efficacy predicts traditionality of career choice. PMID:11280478

  5. Atomoxetine and Methylphenidate Treatment in Children with ADHD: The Efficacy, Tolerability and Effects on Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yildiz, Ozlem; Sismanlar, Sahika G.; Memik, Nursu Cakin; Karakaya, Isik; Agaoglu, Belma

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the safety, efficacy, tolerability, and the effects of atomoxetine and OROS-MPH on executive functions in children with ADHD. This study was an open-label study that only included two medication groups. Children were randomized to open-label atomoxetine or OROS-MPH for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy measures were…

  6. The effects of equipment modification on children's self-efficacy and basketball shooting performance.

    PubMed

    Chase, M A; Ewing, M E; Lirgg, C D; George, T R

    1994-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of modification of basketball size and basket height on shooting performance and self-efficacy of girls and boys 9 to 12 years of age. Subjects (N = 74) completed a self-efficacy questionnaire before and after shooting 10 baskets under four conditions. Shooting conditions were a combination of basketball size (women's or men's) and basket height (10 or 8 ft). Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated that children made more baskets and had higher shooting scores at the 8-ft basket than the 10-ft basket. This was especially evident for girls and 9- and 10-year-old children. Self-efficacy was higher prior to shooting, and boys had higher self-efficacy than girls. Self-efficacy was highest when children shot at the 8-ft basket. These results indicated that basket height modification can positively influence children's shooting performance and self-efficacy. PMID:8047708

  7. That's a good one! Belief in efficacy of mnemonic strategies contributes to age-related increase in associative memory.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Ana M; Ofen, Noa

    2015-08-01

    The development of associative memory during childhood may be influenced by metacognitive factors. Here, one aspect of metamemory function--belief in strategy efficacy-was tested for a role in the effective use of encoding strategies. A sample of 61 children and adults (8-25 years of age) completed an associative recognition memory test and were assessed on belief in the efficacy of encoding strategies. Independent of age, belief ratings identified two factors: "deep" and "shallow" encoding strategies. Although the strategy factor structure was stable across age, adolescents and adults were more likely to prefer using a deep encoding strategy, whereas children were equally likely to prefer a shallow strategy. Belief ratings of deep encoding strategies increased with age and, critically, accounted for better associative recognition. PMID:25854595

  8. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Hollister, Emily B; Oezguen, Numan; Tsai, Cynthia M; McMeans, Ann R; Luna, Ruth A; Savidge, Tor C; Versalovic, James; Shulman, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole intestinal transit time, stool microbiome, and metabolite composition were collected and/or documented in eight children with IBS at baseline and during one week of an LFSD intervention. Pain frequency (P < 0.05), pain severity (P < 0.05), and pain-related interference with activities (P < 0.05) decreased in the subjects while on the LFSD. Responders vs. non-responders: four children (50%) were identified as responders (>50% decrease in abdominal pain frequency while on the LFSD). There were no differences between responders and non-responders with respect to hydrogen production, methane production, stooling characteristics, or gut transit time. Responders were characterized by increased pre-LFSD abundance of bacterial taxa belonging to the genera Sporobacter (P < 0.05) and Subdoligranulum (P < 0.02) and decreased abundance of taxa belonging to Bacteroides (P < 0.05) relative to non-responders. In parallel, stool metabolites differed between responders and non-responders and were associated with differences in microbiome composition. These pilot study results suggest that an LFSD may be effective in decreasing GI symptoms in children with IBS. Microbial factors such as gut microbiome composition and stool metabolites while on the diet may relate to LFSD efficacy. PMID:24637601

  9. Efficacy of an Emotion Self-regulation Program for Promoting Development in Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Raymond Trevor; Galvin, Patrick; Atkinson, Mike; Tomasino, Dana

    2012-03-01

    This work reports the results of an evaluation study to assess the efficacy of the Early HeartSmarts (EHS) program in schools of the Salt Lake City, Utah, School District. The EHS program is designed to guide teachers with methods that support young children (3-6 y old) in learning emotion self-regulation and key age-appropriate socioemotional competencies with the goal of facilitating their emotional, social, and cognitive development. The study was conducted over one school year using a quasiexperimental longitudinal field research design with 3 measurement points (baseline, preintervention, and postintervention) using The Creative Curriculum Assessment (TCCA), a teacher-scored, 50-item instrument measuring students growth in 4 areas of development: social/emotional, physical, cognitive, and language development. Children in 19 preschool classrooms in the Salt Lake City School District were divided into intervention and control group samples (n = 66 and n = 309, respectively; mean age = 3.6 y). The intervention classes were specifically selected to target children of lower socioeconomic and ethnic minority backgrounds. Overall, there is compelling evidence of the efficacy of the EHS program in increasing total psychosocial development and each of the 4 development areas measured by the TCCA: the results of a series of analyses of covariance found a strong, consistent pattern of large, significant differences on the development measures favoring preschool children who received the EHS program over those in the control group. PMID:24278801

  10. Connecticut's Children: Increasingly Poor. 1998 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michelle Doucette

    This Kids Count data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Connecticut's children. The report first examines the extent of child poverty in Connecticut, as well as its causes and effects, and suggests some possible courses of action. Following demographic information, the bulk of the report provides a statistical portrait of…

  11. [Cochlear implant in children: rational, indications and cost/efficacy].

    PubMed

    Martini, A; Bovo, R; Trevisi, P; Forli, F; Berrettini, S

    2013-06-01

    this advantage persists in the subsequent years. With regard to cochlear implantation in children older than 12 months the studies show better hearing and linguistic results in children implanted at earlier ages. A sensitive period under 24-36 months has been identified over which cochlear implantation is reported to be less effective in terms of improvement in speech and hearing results. With regard to clinical effectiveness of bilateral cochlear implantation, greater benefits from bilateral implants compared to monolateral ones when assessing hearing in quiet and in noise and in sound localization abilities are reported to be present in both case of simultaneous or sequential bilateral implantation. However, with regard to the delay between the surgeries in sequential bilateral implantation, although benefit is reported to be present even after very long delays, on average long delays between surgeries seems to negatively affect the outcome with the second implant. With regard to benefits after cochlear implantation in children with multiple disabilities, benefits in terms of speech perception and communication as well as in quality of the daily life are reported even if benefits are slower and lower in comparison to those generally attained by implanted children without additional disabilities. Regarding the costs/efficacy ratio, the CI is expensive, in particular because of the cost of the high technological device, long life support, but even if healthcare costs are high, the savings in terms of indirect costs and quality of life are important. The CI, in fact, has a positive impact in terms of quality of life. PMID:23685383

  12. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture in children: an overview of systematic reviews.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunsong; Hao, Zilong; Zhang, Ling-Li; Guo, Qin

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, acupuncture has increasingly being integrated into pediatric health care. It was used on ~150,000 children (0.2%). We aim to update the evidence for the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for children and evaluate the methodological qualities of these studies to improve future research in this area. We included 24 systematic reviews, comprising 142 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with 12,787 participants. Only 25% (6/24) reviews were considered to be high quality (10.00 ± 0.63). High-quality systematic reviews and Cochrane systematic reviews tend to yield neutral or negative results (P = 0.052, 0.009 respectively). The efficacy of acupuncture for five diseases (Cerebral Palsy (CP), nocturnal enuresis, tic disorders, amblyopia, and pain reduction) is promising. It was unclear for hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, mumps, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), asthma, nausea/vomiting, and myopia. Acupuncture is not effective for epilepsy. Only six reviews reported adverse events (AEs) and no fatal side effects were reported. The efficacy of acupuncture for some diseases is promising and there have been no fatal side effects reported. Further high-quality studies are justified, with five diseases in particular as research priorities. PMID:25950453

  13. Efficacy, Intent to Teach, and Implementation of Nutrition Education Increases after Training for Health Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, outcome value and strong intentions to teach are linked to teaching competence, curricular implementation and student outcomes. Purpose: The purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of nutrition in-service professional development to increase self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, outcome…

  14. Increased efficacy of photodynamic therapy via sequential targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessel, David; Aggarwal, Neha; Sloane, Bonnie F.

    2014-03-01

    Photokilling depends on the generation of death signals after photosensitized cells are irradiated. A variety of intracellular organelles can be targeted for photodamage, often with a high degree of specificity. We have discovered that a low level of photodamage directed against lysosomes can sensitize both a murine hepatoma cell line (in 2D culture) and an inflammatory breast cancer line of human origin (in a 3D model) to subsequent photodamage directed at mitochondria. Additional studies were carried out with hepatoma cells to explore possible mechanisms. The phototoxic effect of the `sequential targeting' approach was associated with an increased apoptotic response. The low level of lysosomal photodamage did not lead to any detectable migration of Fe++ from lysosomes to mitochondria or increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation after subsequent mitochondrial photodamage. Instead, there appears to be a signal generated that can amplify the pro-apoptotic effect of subsequent mitochondrial photodamage.

  15. Does Neglect Moderate the Impact of an Efficacious Preventive Intervention for Maltreated Children in Foster Care?

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward; Knudtson, Michael D.; Petrenko, Christie L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Physically neglected youth are at increased risk for mental health problems, but there are few interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing mental health symptoms for this vulnerable population. The Fostering Healthy Futures (FHF) program, which consists of mentoring and skills groups, was developed for preadolescent youth in foster care. In a published randomized controlled trial with 156 youth, FHF demonstrated positive impacts on mental health functioning. The current study sought to determine whether FHF might be particularly effective in ameliorating the impact of neglectful family environments. Because it was not possible to isolate a neglected-only subgroup, as most children with physical neglect histories had experienced other types of maltreatment, we tested the hypothesis that intervention effects would be stronger among children with more severe physical neglect. Findings did not support this hypothesis, however, as severity of physical neglect did not significantly moderate the impact of the intervention on psychosocial outcomes PMID:23076837

  16. Measuring Children's Self-Efficacy and Proxy Efficacy Related to Fruit and Vegetable Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Karly S.; Dzewaltowski, David A.; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Karteroliotis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social cognitive theory describes self-efficacy and proxy efficacy as influences on fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC). Proxy efficacy was defined as a child's confidence in his or her skills and abilities to get others to act in one's interests to provide fruit and vegetable (FV) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to…

  17. Increasing Response Diversity in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napolitano, Deborah A.; Smith, Tristram; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Goodkin, Karen; McAdam, David B.

    2010-01-01

    Repetitive and invariant behavior is a diagnostic feature of autism. We implemented a lag reinforcement schedule to increase response diversity for 6 participants with autism aged 6 to 10 years, 4 of whom also received prompting plus additional training. These procedures appeared to increase the variety of building-block structures, demonstrating…

  18. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  19. Increased perceived self-efficacy facilitates the extinction of fear in healthy participants

    PubMed Central

    Zlomuzica, Armin; Preusser, Friederike; Schneider, Silvia; Margraf, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Self-efficacy has been proposed as an important element of a successful cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT). Positive changes in perceived self-efficacy have been linked to an improved adaptive emotional and behavioral responding in the context of anxiety-provoking situations. Furthermore, a positive influence of increased self-efficacy on cognitive functions has been confirmed. The present study examined the effect of verbal persuasion on perceived self-efficacy and fear extinction. Healthy participants were subjected to a standardized differential fear conditioning paradigm. After fear acquisition, half of the participants received a verbal persuasion aimed at increasing perceived self-efficacy. The extinction of fear was assessed immediately thereafter on both the implicit and explicit level. Our results suggest that an increased perceived self-efficacy was associated with enhanced extinction, evidenced on the psychophysiological level and accompanied by more pronounced decrements in conditioned negative valence. Changes in extinction were not due to a decrease in overall emotional reactivity to conditioned stimuli (CS). In addition, debriefing participants about the false positive feedback did not affect the processing of already extinguished conditioned responses during a subsequent continued extinction phase. Our results suggest that positive changes in perceived self-efficacy can be beneficial for emotional learning. Findings are discussed with respect to strategies aimed at increasing extinction learning in the course of exposure-based treatments. PMID:26528152

  20. The efficacy of safety barriers for children: absolute efficacy, time to cross and action modes in children between 19 and 75 months.

    PubMed

    Cordovil, R; Barreiros, J; Vieira, F; Neto, C

    2009-09-01

    We examined the efficacy of safety barriers by testing their capabilities to prevent or delay crossing. Children between 19 and 75 months tried to climb different barriers selected for their age group, which represented the most common types of panel and horizontal bars barriers available on the market. Success or failure in crossing, time to cross and crossing techniques were analysed. Barrier characteristics' influenced its restraining efficacy. Children's success rate varied between 10% and 95.3%. None of the barriers assured a considerable protective delay. Three major action modes were identified: head over waist (HOW), head and waist (HAW) and head under waist (HUW). Generally, children adopted the safer action mode, HOW, to cross most barriers. Younger children often adopted unstable action mode in barriers with crossable gaps. Although some standards might need to be re-evaluated, there are no childproof barriers. Barriers are time-delaying devices that cannot substitute supervision and education. PMID:19941212

  1. Self-Efficacy Beliefs as Shapers of Children's Aspirations and Career Trajectories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandura, Albert; Barbaranelli, Claudio; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2001-01-01

    Tested a structural model of the network of sociocognitive influences shaping children's career aspirations and trajectories among 272 early adolescents. Found that subjects' perceived efficacy rather than their actual academic achievement was the key determinant of their perceived occupational self-efficacy and preferred choice of worklife.…

  2. Measuring Pre-Service Teachers' Self-Efficacy in Tutoring Children in Primary Mathematics: An Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjerke, Annette Hessen; Eriksen, Elisabeta

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the use of Rasch modelling to develop and validate an instrument measuring self-efficacy in tutoring children in primary mathematics (SETcPM). In response to the literature on teacher efficacy, the 20-item instrument aims to inform teacher educators, and is designed for novice pre-service teachers (nPSTs) preparing to teach…

  3. Changing the School Environment to Increase Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine; Foster, Randal C.; McCrady, Shelly K.; Manohar, Chinmay; Jensen, Teresa B.; Mitre, Naim G.; Hill, James O.; Levine, James A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the hypothesis that elementary school-age children will be more physically active while attending school in a novel, activity-permissive school environment compared to their traditional school environment RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES Twenty-four children were monitored with a single triaxial accelerometer worn on the thigh. The students attended school in three different environments: traditional school with chairs and desks, an activity-permissive environment, and finally their traditional school with desks which encouraged standing. Data from the school children was compared with another group of age-matched children (n = 16) whose physical activity was monitored during summer vacation. RESULTS When children attended school in their traditional environment, they moved an average (mean ± standard deviation) 71 ± 0.4 m/s2. When the children attended school in the activity-permissive environment, they moved an average of 115 ± 3 m/s2. The children moved 71 ± 0.7 m/s2 while attending the traditional school with standing desks. Children moved significantly more while attending school in the activity-permissive environment compared to the amount that they moved in either of the traditional school environments (P<0.0001 for both). Comparing children’s activity while they were on summer vacation (113 ± 8 m/s2) to school-bound children in their traditional environment showed significantly more activity for the children on summer vacation (P<0.0001). The school children in the activity-permissive environment were as active as children on summer vacation. DISCUSSION Children will move more in an activity-permissive environment. Strategies to increase the activity of school children may involve re-designing the school itself. PMID:18535550

  4. Has Poverty Really Increased among Children since 1970? Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    After a century of fairly steady decline, the official poverty rate among American children increased from 14.0% in 1969 to 19.6% in 1989, suggesting that the United States is losing the war on poverty. However, once various defects in the official poverty measure are corrected, it appears that the proportion of children in households with income…

  5. Hospitalizations of Children with Autism Increased from 1999 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nayfack, Aaron M.; Huffman, Lynne C.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Chan, Jia; Saynina, Olga; Wise, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a retrospective analysis of hospital discharges for children with autism, in comparison to children with cerebral palsy, Down syndrome, mental retardation/intellectual disability, and the general population. Hospitalizations for autism increased nearly threefold over 10 years, especially at the oldest ages, while hospitalizations for…

  6. Shared Relationship Efficacy of Dyad Can Increase Life Satisfaction in Close Relationships: Multilevel Study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Kenichi; Yoshida, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Characteristics of relationship itself play an important role in determining well-being of individuals who participate in the relationship. We used efficacy expectations mutually shared between close friends or romantic partners as a characteristic of relationship and investigated its impact on their life satisfaction. In Study 1, we conducted a cross-sectional study among 137 pairs of close same-sex friends to test whether the efficacy expectations shared between friends are associated with levels of life satisfaction. In Study 2, we conducted a longitudinal study among 114 heterosexual romantic couples to test predictive validity of the efficacy expectations shared between couples predict levels of life satisfaction 2 month later. In both studies we found a consistent result that as degrees of the efficacy expectations shared between individuals in a relationship increased, the degree of their life satisfaction also increased. Underlying mechanisms that explain how characteristics of relationship itself increase life satisfaction are discussed. PMID:27437946

  7. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    PubMed

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement. PMID:23171391

  8. The Efficacy of Family Camp Experience for Families Who Have Children with Visual Impairments. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Janice Neibaur; Kleinschmidt, Julia

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to address the paucity of research on the efficacy of camps for children with visual impairments and their families. The study evaluated the performance of a two-day camp for families with young visually impaired children at the Utah Schools for the Deaf and the Blind whose program was based on perceived family needs and…

  9. Efficacy of family-based weight control program for pre-school children in primary care

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an innovative family-based intervention for overweight pre-school children and overweight parents conducted in the primary care setting. METHODS: 96 children with BMI >85th percentile and an overweight parent were randomized to Intervention or Information Control...

  10. The Efficacy of Electronic Books in Fostering Kindergarten Children's Emergent Story Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jong, Maria T.; Bus, Adriana G.

    2004-01-01

    A counterbalanced, within-subjects design was carried out to study the efficacy of electronic books in fostering kindergarten children's emergent story understanding. The study compared effects of children's independent reading of stories electronically with effects of printed books read aloud by adults. Participants were 18 four- to five-year-old…

  11. Parents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Their Children's Psychosocial Adaptation during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steca, Patrizia; Bassi, Marta; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Fave, Antonella Delle

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that parents' perceived parental self-efficacy (PSE) plays a pivotal role in promoting their children's successful adjustment. In this study, we further explored this issue by comparing psychosocial adaptation in children of parents with high and low PSE during adolescence. One hundred and thirty Italian teenagers (55 males and…

  12. Japanese Children and Plate Waste: Contexts of Low Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abe, Keina; Akamatsu, Rie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Leaving a portion of meals uneaten, known as plate waste, is a serious problem among children in Japan. Although children's confidence that they can completely finish meals is related to plate waste, the circumstances that influence this confidence are not known. This study examined situations in which low self-efficacy for…

  13. Promoting Social Skill Development in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Feasibility and Efficacy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; White, Susan Williams; Pachler, Maryellen; Lau, Monika; Lewis, Moira; Klin, Ami; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    A randomized controlled design was employed to evaluate a social skills intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorders. Aims included evaluating the acceptability of the program and gathering preliminary evidence on efficacy. Forty-four children, ages 8-11 years, were randomly assigned to treatment or wait list. Treatment…

  14. Turkish Mothers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Styles of Interactions with Their Children with Language Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.

    2009-01-01

    Turkish mothers' self-efficacy beliefs and their interactional behaviors with their children with language delays are described and explored. Participants included 19 mother-child dyads. Mothers' interaction with their children with language delays was videotaped for 30 minutes in a free-play context. Regarding mothers' interactional behaviors,…

  15. Short-Term Safety and Efficacy of Calcium Montmorillonite Clay (UPSN) in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Nicole J.; Kumi, Justice; Aleser, Mildred; Elmore, Sarah E.; Rychlik, Kristal A.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Romoser, Amelia A.; Phillips, Timothy D.; Ankrah, Nii-Ayi

    2014-01-01

    Recently, an association between childhood growth stunting and aflatoxin (AF) exposure has been identified. In Ghana, homemade nutritional supplements often consist of AF-prone commodities. In this study, children were enrolled in a clinical intervention trial to determine the safety and efficacy of Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), a refined calcium montmorillonite known to be safe in adults. Participants ingested 0.75 or 1.5 g UPSN or 1.5 g calcium carbonate placebo per day for 14 days. Hematological and serum biochemistry parameters in the UPSN groups were not significantly different from the placebo-controlled group. Importantly, there were no adverse events attributable to UPSN treatment. A significant reduction in urinary metabolite (AFM1) was observed in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Results indicate that UPSN is safe for children at doses up to 1.5 g/day for a period of 2 weeks and can reduce exposure to AFs, resulting in increased quality and efficacy of contaminated foods. PMID:25135766

  16. Treatment Implications Derived from Self-Efficacy Research with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, William G.

    Self-efficacy, a person's perceived capacity to execute a behavior required to produce a desired oucome, can affect motivation and behavior. It appears that individuals gain self-efficacy information from performance accomplishments, vicarious experience, verbal persuasion, and emotional arousal. Effective clinical interventions must promote…

  17. Using Baby Books to Increase New Mothers' Self-Efficacy and Improve Toddler Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarran, Alejandra S.; Reich, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal self-efficacy (MSE) has been shown to be important, yet little is known about how it develops over time and whether increasing knowledge about child development and parenting results in feeling more efficacious, especially for first-time mothers. Furthermore, research is lacking about whether increased maternal self-efficacy results in…

  18. How can self-efficacy be increased? Meta-analysis of dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Prestwich, Andrew; Kellar, Ian; Parker, Richard; MacRae, Siobhan; Learmonth, Matthew; Sykes, Bianca; Taylor, Natalie; Castle, Holly

    2014-01-01

    Targeting individuals' beliefs that they are able to eat healthily can improve dietary-related behaviours. However, the most effective behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to promote dietary self-efficacy have not been systematically reviewed. This research addressed this gap. Studies testing the effect of interventions on healthy eating and underlying dietary-related self-efficacy, within randomised controlled trials, were systematically reviewed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCINFO. Two reviewers independently coded intervention content in both intervention and comparison groups. Data pertaining to study quality were also extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate an overall effect size on dietary self-efficacy for each study. The associations between 26 BCTs and self-efficacy effects were calculated using meta-regression. In some of the analyses, interventions that incorporated self-monitoring (tracking one's own food-related behaviour), provided feedback on performance, prompted review of behavioural goals, provided contingent rewards (rewarding diet success), or planned for social support/social change increased dietary self-efficacy significantly more than interventions that did not. Stress management was consistently associated with self-efficacy effects across all analyses. There was strong evidence for stress management and weaker evidence for a number of other BCTs. The findings can be used to develop more effective, theory- and evidence-based behavioural interventions. PMID:25053214

  19. Phone-based motivational interviewing to increase self-efficacy in individuals with phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Viau, Krista S.; Jones, Jessica L.; Murtaugh, Maureen A.; Gren, Lisa H.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Bilder, Deborah A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To measure change in patient activation and self-efficacy in individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) before and after a 6-month phone-based motivational interviewing (MI) intervention and determine the feasibility of implementing dietary counseling for PKU using an MI approach. Methods Participants (n = 31) included preadolescents (7–12 years), adolescents (13–17 years), and adults (18–35 years) with early-treated PKU. Participants completed online questionnaires assessing self-reported stage of change (SOC), patient activation, and self-efficacy for PKU self-management behaviors. The intervention included monthly phone-based dietary counseling using MI during which participants set monthly goals. Results Patient activation and self-efficacy were significantly different by age group (both p < 0.01) with higher scores in older participants. Self-efficacy significantly increased from baseline to month 6 among adolescents and adults (7.4 ± 1.9 and 8.6 ± 1.3, respectively, p = 0.002). Preadolescents did not have a significant change in self-efficacy (p = 0.79). There was no increase in patient activation for preadolescents or adolescents/adults (p = 0.19 and p = 0.24, respectively). Indicators of learning problems were not significantly associated with self-efficacy (p = 0.33) or patient activation (p = 0.83). Conclusion These results demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phone-based dietary counseling for PKU using MI. This study also supports further investigation of MI as an intervention approach to improving self-efficacy and self-management behaviors in adolescents and adults with PKU. PMID:27014576

  20. Increasing Children's Physical Activity During the School Day.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Daniel Philip; Chomitz, Virginia Rall

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient levels of daily physical activity (PA) among children in the USA and worldwide have profound implications for pediatric obesity and children's health and well-being more generally. Public health recommendations highlight the central role that schools play in providing equitable opportunities for PA for all children. This review identifies evidence-based approaches for increasing children's PA throughout the school day and discusses multilevel factors that support implementation of such approaches. Opportunities to increase school-day PA span not only in-school time (e.g., quality recess and physical education, classroom activity breaks) but also time before school (e.g., active commuting initiatives) and after school (e.g., intramural and interscholastic sports programs). For such approaches to impact children's PA, dimensions of implementation such as adoption, fidelity, penetration, implementation costs, and sustainability are critical. Multilevel factors that influence implementation include policies, school environment and organizational factors, teacher and classroom factors, child and family characteristics, and attributes of the PA approach itself. Research and field observations reinforce the importance of understanding challenges specific to working with schools, including multiple stakeholders, competing priorities, limited facilities and staff capacity, and heterogeneity of students. Thus, while schools hold promise as promoters and equalizers of PA engagement for all children, more research is needed on the levers that influence implementation of effective school-based PA policies and programs. PMID:26627212

  1. Increasing Self-Efficacy Expectations and Outcome Expectations: A Model to Facilitate Transfer of Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Jean M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Without organizationwide commitment to training programs, educators may be able to increase learners' self-efficacy to acquire desired skills or behavior. But behavior and skills will not be transferred to the job if learners have low expectations about their use or if positive reinforcement is lacking. (SK)

  2. Investigating the Efficacy of a Preschool Vocabulary Intervention Designed to Increase Vocabulary Size and Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwyer, Julie C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the efficacy of a supplementary preschool embedded multimedia curriculum that was designed to increase one type of conceptual knowledge: taxonomic categories. Named the World of Words (WOW), this curriculum focused on teaching the properties and concepts associated with seven taxonomic categories and providing…

  3. Increased efficacy of Eimeria oocysts delivery by gel beads or spray vaccination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel-beads containing a mixture of E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect ...

  4. Collaborative Curriculum Design to Increase Science Teaching Self-Efficacy: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velthuis, Chantal; Fisser, Petra; Pieters, Jules

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether participation in a teacher design team (TDT) is an effective way to increase the science teaching self-efficacy of primary school teachers who vary in their levels of experience and interest in science. A TDT is a group of at least 2 teachers from the same or related subjects working together to…

  5. A systematic review of the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine upon revaccination of children.

    PubMed

    Caspard, Herve; Heikkinen, Terho; Belshe, Robert B; Ambrose, Christopher S

    2016-07-01

    Four randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in 6090 children that investigated the efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) upon revaccination of children against laboratory-confirmed cases of influenza in consecutive seasons were reviewed. The efficacy in season 2 of LAIV administered over 2 consecutive seasons was 86.7% (95 % CI: 76.8%, 92.4%) against strains antigenically similar to those contained in the vaccine. The additional efficacy of LAIV administered in season 2 compared to LAIV recipients in season 1 only was 58.4% (28.3%, 75.9%). LAIV administered over 2 consecutive seasons also was more efficacious than was LAIV administered in season 2 only (relative efficacy: 53.9% [17.4%, 74.3%]). Residual efficacy of LAIV administered in season 1 only compared to placebo administered in two consecutive seasons was 56.4% (37.0%, 69.8%). This review did not find any evidence of decreasing efficacy of LAIV when administered during 2 consecutive seasons. PMID:26751513

  6. Maternal self-efficacy and feeding practices in children aged 3-6 years

    PubMed Central

    Doaei, Saeid; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition in childhood has an important role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother’s lifestyle has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child. This paper aimed to investigate the association between mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle with feeding practices in children aged 3- 6 years. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study which was carried out in 30 primary schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child’s demographics. Aspects of mother’s weight efficacy lifestyle and mother’s control practices were assessed using Weight Efficacy Lifestyle (WEL) questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices questionnaire (CFPQ) respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. The role of mother’s weight efficacy in predicting child’s feeding practices was assessed using linear regression. Results: Results showed that mother’s weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices. The mothers with similar weight efficacy lifestyle applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety, environmental control, child involvement and less emotion regulation using foods. Conclusion: ‎ ‏ ‏‎ The result of the ‎study showed that maternal ‎lifestyle was associated with ‎child feeding practices.‎ PMID:27006673

  7. Does finger training increase young children's numerical performance?

    PubMed

    Gracia-Bafalluy, Maria; Noël, Marie-Pascale

    2008-04-01

    Butterworth (1999) suggested that fingers are important in representing numerosities. Furthermore, scores on a finger gnosis test are a better predictor of numerical performance up to 3 years later than intellectual measures (Marinthe et al., 2001; Noël, 2005). We hypothesised that training in finger differentiation would increase finger gnosis and might also improve numerical performance. Accordingly, 47 first-grade children were selected and divided into 3 groups: children with poor finger gnosis who followed the finger-differentiation training programme (G1), a control-intervention who were trained in story comprehension (G2), and a group with high finger gnosis scores who just continued with normal school lessons (G3). The finger training consisted of 2 weekly sessions of half an hour each, for 8 weeks. Before the training period, children in G3 performed better in finger gnosis and enumeration than children in the two other groups. After the training period this pattern remained for the children in G2 and G3, but the children in G1 were significantly better than those in G2 at finger gnosis, representation of numerosities with fingers, and quantification tasks; they also tended to be better at the processing of Arabic digits. These results indicate that improving finger gnosis in young children is possible and that it can provide a useful support to learning mathematics. Such an approach could be particularly appropriate for children with a developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Theoretically, these results are important because they suggest a functional link between finger gnosis and number skills. PMID:18387567

  8. An Educational Intervention Designed to Increase Women's Leadership Self-Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Carol; Kaatz, Anna; Lee, Barbara; Carnes, Molly

    2012-01-01

    Women are sparsely represented in leadership in academic science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medicine (STEMM). Cultural stereotypes about men, women, and leaders influence the attitudes, judgments, and decisions that others make about women and the choices women make for themselves. Multilevel interventions are needed to counteract the impact of these pervasive and easily activated stereotypes, which conspire in multiple ways to constrain women's entry, persistence, and advancement in academic STEMM. We describe an individual-level educational intervention. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioral change as a framework, we assessed the success of a semester course on increasing women's leadership self-efficacy for the first three cohorts of course participants (n = 30). Pre/post questionnaires showed gains in leadership self-efficacy, personal mastery, and self-esteem, and decreases in perceived constraints. Qualitative text analysis of weekly journals indicated increasing leadership self-efficacy as course participants applied course information and integrated strategies to mitigate the impact of societal stereotypes into their own leadership practices. Follow-up queries of the first two cohorts supported the enduring value of course participation. We conclude that providing strategies to recognize and mitigate the impact of gender stereotypes is effective in increasing leadership self-efficacy in women at early stages of academic STEMM careers. PMID:22949427

  9. "Can Drama, through Icelandic Tales, Increase Children's Vocabulary"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorkelsdóttir, Rannveig Björk; Ragnarsdóttir, Ása Helga

    2013-01-01

    The article is based on a study, done by Ása Helga Ragnarsdóttir and Rannveig Björk Þorkelsdóttir in 2010-2011 were the authors explored the research question: Can drama, through Icelandic tales, increase children's vocabulary? Methodology of the study was quantitative approach (comparative research). Data was gathered through questionnaires and a…

  10. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  11. A Single Mutation at PB1 Residue 319 Dramatically Increases the Safety of PR8 Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine in a Murine Model without Compromising Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is preferentially recommended for use in most children yet remains unsafe for the groups most at risk. Here we have improved the safety of a mouse-adapted live attenuated influenza vaccine containing the same attenuating amino acid mutations as in human LAIV by adding an additional mutation at PB1 residue 319. This results in a vaccine with a 20-fold decrease in protective efficacy and a 10,000-fold increase in safety. PMID:26676793

  12. Efficacy Beliefs and the Learning Experiences of Children with Cancer in the Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossland, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    A study examined how self-efficacy beliefs influenced motivation, affect, and adjustment in five students aged 9-13 with cancer, receiving educational services in a hospital setting. Education was an effective vehicle through which children with cancer could experience control and autonomy and also achieve many necessary developmental outcomes for…

  13. Gut microbiota influences low fermentable substrate diet efficacy in children with irritable bowel syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We sought to determine whether a low fermentable substrate diet (LFSD) decreases abdominal pain frequency in children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to identify potential microbial factors related to diet efficacy. Pain symptoms, stooling characteristics, breath hydrogen and methane, whole ...

  14. The Efficacy of Social Skills Treatment for Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Lisa M.; Caterino, Linda C.; Chao, Janet; Shaknai, Dina; De Simone, Gina

    2006-01-01

    Children with Asperger Syndrome present with significant social skills deficits, which may contribute to clinical problems such as anxiety, depression, and/or other behavioral disorders. This article provides a description of the nature of Asperger Syndrome and provides possible treatment interventions, specifically focusing on the efficacy of…

  15. Parenting Efficacy and the Early School Adjustment of Poor and Near-Poor Black Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Choi, Jeong-Kyun; Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigates whether maternal educational attainment, maternal employment status, and family income affect African American children's behavioral and cognitive functioning over time through their impacts on mothers' psychological functioning and parenting efficacy in a sample of 100 poor and near-poor single…

  16. Efficacy of an Intervention to Improve Fluency in Children with Developmental Dyslexia in a Regular Orthography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Vio, Claudio; Iozzino, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of a method to improve reading fluency in children with dyslexia. The method, which we named "subsyllabic," was aimed at automatizing the recognition of syllables within words in connected texts, presented by ad hoc software. Two versions of this method--one self-paced and the other one with…

  17. Support and Self-Efficacy among Latino and White Parents of Children with ID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Shana R.; Holloway, Susan D.; Dominguez-Pareto, Irenka; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers of children with ID who receive familial support experience less stress than those who receive less support. Less is known about the relation of support to mothers' evaluation of parenting self-efficacy, particularly in Latino families. We examined the relationship of different types of family support to life…

  18. Parental Efficacy and the Development of Social Competence in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.; Hassell, Tammy

    This study examined the relation of two aspects of parental efficacy (locus of control and interpersonal support) to the social competence of 62 children aged 2 to 5 years in a preschool setting. The following assessment instruments were used: Schaefer's (1979) Locus of Control Inventory to measure parental locus of control; Paul's Home Support…

  19. Differential Efficacy of Home Monitoring and Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Decreasing Children's Maladaptive Nighttime Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pincus, Donna B.; Weiner, Courtney L.; Friedman, Alice G.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated the efficacy of brief cognitive-behavioral interventions for treating childhood nighttime fears. The purpose of the present study is to determine whether behavior changes could be initiated and maintained with home monitoring and reinforcement alone. Sixteen children, ages 6 to 11, with severe, disruptive…

  20. Self-Efficacy Beliefs amongst Parents of Young Children: Validation of a Self-Report Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meunier, Jean-Christophe; Roskam, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The self-efficacy belief (SEB) concept is discussed in the context of parenting. A questionnaire, the "Echelle Globale du Sentiment de Competence Parentale" (EGSCP), assessing several domain-specific SEBs and three related cognitive constructs, was developed with 705 French-speaking parents of 3- to 7-year-old children. The EGSCP displayed good…

  1. Efficacy of Sensory and Motor Interventions for Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baranek, Grace T.

    2002-01-01

    This article evaluates the scientific basis (primarily gained through uncontrolled, descriptive studies) of various sensory and motor interventions for children with autism and concludes that most categories of interventions, including sensory integration, sensory stimulation approaches, auditory integration training, and prism lenses, have shown…

  2. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Quality of Life of Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghati Barog, Zahra; Younesi, Seyyed Jalal; Sedaghati, Amir Hosein; Sedaghati, Zohre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The findings demonstrated that parents of children with cerebral palsy experience elevated levels of distress, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress symptom and subjective symptom of stress and low quality of life. Effective interventions targeting relapse have the potential to dramatically reduce the point prevalence of this condition. Many studies have shown that Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an intervention that has shown efficacy in improving quality of life. In this study, the effect of Mindfulness –Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) on increasing quality of life in mothers of children with cerebral palsy has been examined. Method: Three mothers of CP children with low scores on quality of life in WHOQOL-BREF inventory participated in this single- case study. Results: Findings revealed that the MBCT program elevated quality of life of the participants. The improvement quotient for quality of life of each participant was good . Conclusion: The results have implication for efficacy of mindfulness for improvement of psychosocial life of families of children with cerebral palsy. PMID:26884784

  3. Mesenchymal stem cells and cutaneous wound healing: novel methods to increase cell delivery and therapeutic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dylan E; Ayoub, Nagi; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) (also known as multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells) possess the capacity for self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, and their ability to enhance cutaneous wound healing has been well characterized. Acting via paracrine interactions, MSCs accelerate wound closure, increase angiogenesis, promote resolution of wound inflammation, favorably regulate extracellular matrix remodeling, and encourage regeneration of skin with normal architecture and function. A number of studies have employed novel methods to amplify the delivery and efficacy of MSCs. Non-traditional sources of MSCs, including Wharton's jelly and medical waste material, have shown efficacy comparable to that of traditional sources, such as bone marrow and adipose tissue. The potential of alternative methods to both introduce MSCs into wounds and increase migration of MSCs into wound areas has also been demonstrated. Taking advantage of the associations between MSCs with M2 macrophages and microRNA, methods to enhance the immunomodulatory capacity of MSCs have shown success. New measures to enhance angiogenic capabilities have also exhibited effectiveness, often demonstrated by increased levels of proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor. Finally, hypoxia has been shown to have strong wound-healing potential in terms of increasing MSC efficacy. We have critically reviewed the results of the novel studies that show promise for the continued development of MSC-based wound-healing therapies and provide direction for continued research in this field. PMID:26960535

  4. Premarket Safety and Efficacy Studies for ADHD Medications in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bourgeois, Florence T.; Kim, Jeong Min; Mandl, Kenneth D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic condition and pharmacotherapy is the mainstay of treatment, with a variety of ADHD medications available to patients. However, it is unclear to what extent the long-term safety and efficacy of ADHD drugs have been evaluated prior to their market authorization. We aimed to quantify the number of participants studied and their length of exposure in ADHD drug trials prior to marketing. Methods We identified all ADHD medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and extracted data on clinical trials performed by the sponsor and used by the FDA to evaluate the drug’s clinical efficacy and safety. For each ADHD medication, we measured the total number of participants studied and the length of participant exposure and identified any FDA requests for post-marketing trials. Results A total of 32 clinical trials were conducted for the approval of 20 ADHD drugs. The median number of participants studied per drug was 75 (IQR 0, 419). Eleven drugs (55%) were approved after <100 participants were studied and 14 (70%) after <300 participants. The median trial length prior to approval was 4 weeks (IQR 2, 9), with 5 (38%) drugs approved after participants were studied <4 weeks and 10 (77%) after <6 months. Six drugs were approved with requests for specific additional post-marketing trials, of which 2 were performed. Conclusions Clinical trials conducted for the approval of many ADHD drugs have not been designed to assess rare adverse events or long-term safety and efficacy. While post-marketing studies can fill in some of the gaps, better assurance is needed that the proper trials are conducted either before or after a new medication is approved. PMID:25007171

  5. Efficacy of different strategies to treat anemia in children: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anemia continues to be a major public health problem among children in many regions of the world, and it is still not clear which strategy to treat it is most effective. Objective To evaluate the efficacy and children's acceptance of several recognized strategies to treat anemia. Methods Non-breastfed children (n = 577), 6 to 43 mo of age, were screened for the trial; 267 were anemic (hemoglobin < 11.7 g/dL), and 266 of those were randomized into 1 of 5 treatments to received daily either: an iron supplement (IS), an iron+folic acid supplement (IFS), a multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS), a micronutrient-fortified complementary food as porridge powder (FCF), or zinc+iron+ascorbic acid fortified water (FW). The iron content of each daily dose was 20, 12.5, 10, 10 and 6.7 mg respectively. Hemoglobin (Hb), ferritin, total iron, weight and height were measured at baseline and after 4 months of treatment. Morbidity, treatment acceptability and adherence were recorded during the intervention. Results All treatments significantly increased Hb and total iron concentration; ferritin did not change significantly. Groups MMS, IS and IFS increased Hb (g/dL) [1.50 (95%CI: 1.17, 1.83), 1.48 [(1.18, 1.78) and 1.57 (1.26, 1.88), respectively] and total iron ((μg/dL) [0.15 (0.01, 0.29), 0.19 (0.06, 0.31) and 0.12(-0.01, 0.25), respectively] significantly more than FCF [0.92 (0.64, 1.20)] but not to FW group [0.14 (0.04, 0.24)]. The prevalence of anemia was reduced to a greater extent in the MMS and IFS groups (72% and 69%, respectively) than in the FCF group (45%) (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in anthropometry or in the number of episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections among treatment groups. The supplements MMS and IS were less acceptable to children, than IFS, FCF and FW. Conclusion The three supplements IS, ISF and MMS increased Hb more than the FCF; the supplements that contained micronutrients (IFS and MMS) were more effective for

  6. The toxin component of targeted anti-tumor toxins determines their efficacy increase by saponins.

    PubMed

    Weng, Alexander; Thakur, Mayank; Beceren-Braun, Figen; Bachran, Diana; Bachran, Christopher; Riese, Sebastian B; Jenett-Siems, Kristina; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Melzig, Matthias F; Fuchs, Hendrik

    2012-06-01

    Tumor-targeting protein toxins are composed of a toxic enzyme coupled to a specific cell binding domain that targets cancer-associated antigens. The anti-tumor treatment by targeted toxins is accompanied by dose-limiting side effects. The future prospects of targeted toxins for therapeutic use in humans will be determined by reduce side effects. Certain plant secondary metabolites (saponins) were shown to increase the efficacy of a particular epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted toxin, paralleled by a tremendous decrease of side effects. This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects of substituting different toxin moieties fused to an EGF ligand binding domain on the augmentative ability of saponins for each against therapeutic potential of the saponin-mediated efficacy increase for different anti-tumor toxins targeting the EGFR. We designed several EGFR-targeted toxins varying in the toxic moiety. Each targeted toxin was used in combination with a purified saponin (SA1641), isolated from the ornamental plant Gypsophila paniculata L. SA1641 was characterized and the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase was investigated on EGFR-transfected NIH-3T3 cells. We observed a high dependency of the SA1641-mediated efficacy increase on the nature of toxin used for the construction of the targeted toxin, indicating high specificity. Structural alignments revealed a high homology between saporin and dianthin-30, the two toxic moieties that benefit most from the combination with SA1641. We further demonstrate that SA1641 did not influence the plasma membrane permeability, indicating an intracellular interaction of SA1641 and the toxin components of targeted toxins. Surface plasmon resonance measurements point to a transient binding of SA1641 to the toxin components of targeted toxins. PMID:22309811

  7. Sex differences in yohimbine-induced increases in the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Sophia; Zou, Sheng; Coen, Kathleen; Funk, Douglas; Shram, Megan J; Lê, A D

    2014-03-01

    Stress is an important factor in the initiation and maintenance of smoking in adolescents. Women are more vulnerable to the development of addiction to smoking and have more difficulty quitting than men. Women also showe enhanced responses to stress. Despite these differences, no work has been done examining the effects of stress on the reinforcing efficacy of self-administered nicotine in adolescent rats, or if there are sex differences. Male and female adolescent Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer one of three different intravenous doses of nicotine (7.5, 15, 30 μg/kg/infusion) first on fixed ratio, and then on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule beginning on postnatal day 33. The effect of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (0.3, 0.6 mg/kg, i.p.) on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine was then determined using the PR schedule. Yohimbine stimulated nicotine intake and increased PR breakpoints and numbers of infusions received in both male and female adolescent rats. The infusion dose of nicotine was positively associated with yohimbine-induced increases in responding. Female rats showed significantly increased breakpoints at yohimbine doses and nicotine infusion doses at which males did not. The effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine on the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine are therefore linked to sex and nicotine infusion dose. Female rats are more sensitive to stress-induced potentiation of nicotine self-administration. PMID:22784103

  8. Evidence for clinical safety, efficacy, and parent and physician perceptions of levocetirizine for the treatment of children with allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Pampura, A N; Papadopoulos, N G; Spičák, V; Kurzawa, R

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic idiopathic urticaria (CIU) are highly burdensome diseases, which are increasing in prevalence, especially in the paediatric population. Despite the availability of a large number of medications for treatment of AR and CIU, their use in children has primarily been based on data obtained from a limited number of clinical trials in children and/or testing in adults. The H(1)-antihistamines have traditionally been used as first-line treatment for the relief of both AR and CIU symptoms in children. The first-generation H(1)-antihistamines are associated with marked adverse effects such as sedation, sleepiness/drowsiness as well as difficulties in learning and cognitive processing; thus, they are recommended for limited or discontinued use in children with AR or CIU. In contrast, second-generation H(1)-antihistamines are more adapted for the use in children with AR and CIU due to better safety profiles. However, only a limited number of trials with these agents have been conducted and generally, data from well-designed trials in children are lacking. Levocetirizine is one of the most extensively investigated H(1)-antihistamines for its pharmacologic properties, safety, efficacy as well as overall global satisfaction in children aged 2-12 years. Levocetirizine is the only H(1)-antihistamine launched in the 21st century shown to lack clinically relevant adverse effects on physical and psychomotor development or routine laboratory tests over a long-term period of 18 months in 1- to 3-year-old children predisposed to development of allergic disease. Available data suggest that levocetirizine is a suitable treatment option for AR and CIU in children aged 6 months to 12 years. PMID:21346367

  9. Sensory integration dysfunction affects efficacy of speech therapy on children with functional articulation disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Li-Chen; Lin, Chin-Kai; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Chen, Ching-Chi; Huang, Chin-Tsan; Wang, Chun-Hou

    2013-01-01

    Background Articulation disorders in young children are due to defects occurring at a certain stage in sensory and motor development. Some children with functional articulation disorders may also have sensory integration dysfunction (SID). We hypothesized that speech therapy would be less efficacious in children with SID than in those without SID. Hence, the purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of speech therapy in two groups of children with functional articulation disorders: those without and those with SID. Method: A total of 30 young children with functional articulation disorders were divided into two groups, the no-SID group (15 children) and the SID group (15 children). The number of pronunciation mistakes was evaluated before and after speech therapy. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in age, sex, sibling order, education of parents, and pretest number of mistakes in pronunciation between the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean and standard deviation in the pre- and post-test number of mistakes in pronunciation were 10.5 ± 3.2 and 3.3 ± 3.3 in the no-SID group, and 10.1 ± 2.9 and 6.9 ± 3.5 in the SID group, respectively. Results showed great changes after speech therapy treatment (F = 70.393; P < 0.001) and interaction between the pre/post speech therapy treatment and groups (F = 11.119; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Speech therapy can improve the articulation performance of children who have functional articulation disorders whether or not they have SID, but it results in significantly greater improvement in children without SID. SID may affect the treatment efficiency of speech therapy in young children with articulation disorders. PMID:23355780

  10. Relations of parenting and temperament to Chinese children's experience of negative life events, coping efficacy, and externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and temperament-externalizing relations. Parents reported on their own parenting. Parents and teachers rated temperament. Children reported on negative life events and coping efficacy. Parents, teachers, children, or peers rated children's externalizing problems. Authoritative and authoritarian parenting and anger/frustration uniquely predicted externalizing problems. The relation between authoritarian parenting and externalizing was mediated by children's coping efficacy and negative school events. The results suggest there is some cross-cultural universality in the developmental pathways for externalizing problems. PMID:18489409

  11. Parental self-efficacy and online support among parents of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Rachel M; Wright, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Families faced with the challenges of caring for a child newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus are often overwhelmed by the regimented demands of diabetes care management. Social support for families has been recognized as an important component to adaptation and has been deemed necessary for helping families develop healthy coping strategies. The purpose of this evidence-based practice (EBP) project was to develop a Web-based platform to enhance social support and increase self-efficacy of parents with a child with type 1 diabetes. The following clinical question guided the project: "Among parents of children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in a small Midwestern city, what are parents' self-reported self-efficacy scores related to diabetic care management pre- and post-implementation of a Web-based social support platform?" A one-group pretest/post-test descriptive design was used, with parental self-efficacy measured pre- and post-intervention (Web-based platform access) using the Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES) and Self-Efficacy for Diabetes Scale (SED), and parent satisfaction with the online support platform assessed through parental comments. Project outcomes corroborated the use of online social support as evidenced by improvement in parental self-efficacy scores in both the DES and SED survey measurements. A statistically significant increase (p < 0.05) was found between the pre- and post-implementation scores of the SED survey. Secondary data supported the positive relationship of social support and self-efficacy in raising a child with type 1 diabetes. This online social support platform was found to be an easily adaptable, cost-effective, and innovative means of networking and information sharing among families facing similar challenges in raising a child with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23362628

  12. Maize, switchgrass, and ponderosa pine biochar added to soil increased herbicide sorption and decreased herbicide efficacy.

    PubMed

    Clay, Sharon A; Krack, Kaitlynn K; Bruggeman, Stephanie A; Papiernik, Sharon; Schumacher, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Biochar, a by-product of pyrolysis made from a wide array of plant biomass when producing biofuels, is a proposed soil amendment to improve soil health. This study measured herbicide sorption and efficacy when soils were treated with low (1% w/w) or high (10% w/w) amounts of biochar manufactured from different feedstocks [maize (Zea mays) stover, switchgrass (Panicum vigatum), and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa)], and treated with different post-processing techniques. Twenty-four hour batch equilibration measured sorption of (14)C-labelled atrazine or 2,4-D to two soil types with and without biochar amendments. Herbicide efficacy was measured with and without biochar using speed of seed germination tests of sensitive species. Biochar amended soils sorbed more herbicide than untreated soils, with major differences due to biochar application rate but minor differences due to biochar type or post-process handling technique. Biochar presence increased the speed of seed germination compared with herbicide alone addition. These data indicate that biochar addition to soil can increase herbicide sorption and reduce efficacy. Evaluation for site-specific biochar applications may be warranted to obtain maximal benefits without compromising other agronomic practices. PMID:27153402

  13. Searching for control: priming randomness increases the evaluation of ritual efficacy.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Souza, André L

    2014-01-01

    Reestablishing feelings of control after experiencing uncertainty has long been considered a fundamental motive for human behavior. We propose that rituals (i.e., socially stipulated, causally opaque practices) provide a means for coping with the aversive feelings associated with randomness due to the perception of a connection between ritual action and a desired outcome. Two experiments were conducted (one in Brazil [n = 40] and another in the United States [n = 94]) to evaluate how the perceived efficacy of rituals is affected by feelings of randomness. In a between-subjects design, the Scramble Sentence Task was used as a priming procedure in three conditions (i.e., randomness, negativity, and neutral) and participants were then asked to rate the efficacy of rituals used for problem-solving purposes. The results demonstrate that priming randomness increased participants' perception of ritual efficacy relative to negativity and neutral conditions. Implications for increasing our understanding of the relationship between perceived control and ritualistic behavior are discussed. PMID:23941272

  14. Relations of Parenting and Temperament to Chinese Children's Experience of Negative Life Events, Coping Efficacy, and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Qing; Wang, Yun; Deng, Xianli; Eisenberg, Nancy; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2008-01-01

    The relations of parenting and temperament (effortful control and anger/frustration) to children's externalizing problems were examined in a 3.8-year longitudinal study of 425 native Chinese children (6-9 years) from Beijing. Children's experience of negative life events and coping efficacy were examined as mediators in the parenting- and…

  15. Relationship between maternal parenting and eating self-efficacy in overweight children when stressed

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung E.; Pan, Teresa Y.; Norman, Gregory J.; Crow, Scott; Boutelle, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotional eating is associated with negative eating habits and obesity. Parents may be able to decrease the risk of emotional eating in children by promoting greater self-efficacy to engage in healthy eating behaviors. Our goal was to determine the relationship between certain parenting behaviors and eating self-efficacy (ESE) to consume healthy foods during times of emotional stress in a population of overweight/obese children. Methods Eighty children (60% female; mean BMI percentile = 98.4%; 79.2% White) completed a survey that assessed their ESE when stressed, feeling down, or bored. Children also reported on mothers’ parenting behaviors coded along three factors: acceptance-based parenting (AC), psychological control (PC), and firm control (FC). Correlations and multiple linear regression models were used for analysis. Results AC was positively correlated with ESE when stressed. PC and FC were inversely correlated with ESE when feeling down. In the multivariate regression, only FC was significantly inversely associated with ESE when feeling down. Conclusion Results suggest that overweight children who perceive their mothers to exhibit firm control have lower ESE to make healthy choices when feeling sad. These results suggest that pediatric obesity programs should place a stronger focus on decreasing firm control behaviors among parents in order to help children engage in healthier eating behaviors. PMID:23868554

  16. Increasing Memory Self-Efficacy and Strategy Use in Hispanic Elders

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the effects of a 4-week, nine-session group intervention taught in Spanish to Hispanic older adults entitled “Quieres Mejorar Tu Memoria” (Do you wish to improve your memory?). The program was based on Bandura’s self-efficacy theory and was designed to increase memory self-efficacy and strategy use. A total of 33 older adults attending a senior center (mean--age = 69 years; education = 5 years; MMSE = 25) participated in the study. A booster session and a post-test were given at 3 months to the intervention group (n=22). At posttest the intervention reported greater confidence in preventing decline in their memories, and in particular greater use of the internal strategy of elaboration (2.99 vs. 3.41), and the external strategies of list (2.55 vs. 3.38) and note (3.27 vs. 3.75). PMID:18802497

  17. Exploring Young Children's Self-Efficacy Beliefs Related to Mathematical and Nonmathematical Tasks Performed in Kindergarten: Abused and Neglected Children and Their Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tirosh, Dina; Tsamir, Pessia; Levenson, Esther; Tabach, Michal; Barkai, Ruthi

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on young children's self-efficacy beliefs and their corresponding performance of mathematical and nonmathematical tasks typically encountered in kindergarten. Participants included 132 kindergarten children aged 5-6 years old. Among the participants, 69 children were identified by the social welfare department as being abused…

  18. Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased hematogones in children.

    PubMed

    Anton-Harisi, Marieta; Douna, Varvara; Baka, Margarita; Servitzoglou, Marina; Kosmidis, Helen V; Georgouli, Helen; Anastasiou, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    We describe 2 patients, a 4-month-old male and a 17-month-old female, with de novo acute megakaryoblastic leukemia with increased number of hematogones at diagnosis. Both children were admitted in the hospital with thrombocytopenia. The bone marrow smears in the first child revealed the presence of 60% cells with morphologic features consistent with acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. In the other, the initial bone marrow aspirate was dry tap but on the following aspirate 10% cells with lymphoblastic morphology could be seen. The bone marrow flow cytometry showed the presence of hematogones-38% in the first case and 20% in the second-with absence of blasts. Repeated bone marrow aspirates, trephines, and immunophenotypic as well as molecular studies, confirmed the diagnosis of M7. Both children were treated according to the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster 2004 protocol. PMID:22983420

  19. Field Experience + Inclusive ECE Classrooms = Increased Preservice Teacher Efficacy in Working with Students with Developmental Delays or Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiles, Julia T.; Jones, Jennifer L.; Kim, Hyunjin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether field placements within an inclusive classroom are associated with improved preservice teacher's efficacy when working with children with developmental delays or disabilities. Study participants were 165 undergraduate students enrolled in primary teacher education classes at a Midwestern university. Participants…

  20. Loading of Gemcitabine on chitosan magnetic nanoparticles increases the anti-cancer efficacy of the drug.

    PubMed

    Parsian, Maryam; Unsoy, Gozde; Mutlu, Pelin; Yalcin, Serap; Tezcaner, Aysen; Gunduz, Ufuk

    2016-08-01

    Targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs increase the efficacy, while decreasing adverse effects. Among various delivery systems, chitosan coated iron oxide nanoparticles (CsMNPs) gained attention with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity and targetability under magnetic field. This study aimed to increase the cellular uptake and efficacy of Gemcitabine. CsMNPs were synthesized by in situ co-precipitation and Gemcitabine was loaded onto the nanoparticles. Nanoparticle characterization was performed by TEM, FTIR, XPS, and zeta potential. Gemcitabine release and stability was analyzed. The cellular uptake was shown. Cytotoxicity of free-Gemcitabine and Gem-CsMNPs were examined on SKBR and MCF-7 breast cancer cells by XTT assay. Gemcitabine loading was optimized as 30µM by spectrophotometric analyses. Drug release was highest (65%) at pH 4.2, while it was 8% at pH 7.2. This is a desired release characteristic since pH of tumor-tissue and endosomes are acidic, while the blood-stream and healthy-tissues are neutral. Peaks reflecting the presence of Gemcitabine were observed in FTIR and XPS. At neutral pH, zeta potential increased after Gemcitabine loading. TEM images displayed, Gem-CsMNPs were 4nm with uniform size-distribution and have spherical shape. The cellular uptake and targetability of CsMNPs was studied on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. IC50 value of Gem-CsMNPs was 1.4 fold and 2.6 fold lower than free-Gem on SKBR-3 and MCF-7 cell lines respectively, indicating the increased efficacy of Gemcitabine when loaded onto nanoparticles. Targetability by magnetic field, stability, size distribution, cellular uptake and toxicity characteristics of CsMNPs in this study provides a useful targeted delivery system for Gemcitabine in cancer therapy. PMID:27181067

  1. Efficacy of tranexamic acid as compared to aprotinin in open heart surgery in children

    PubMed Central

    Muthialu, Nagarajan; Balakrishnan, Soundaravalli; Sundar, Rajani; Muralidharan, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Coagulopathy is a major issue in children undergoing high-risk pediatric cardiac surgery. Use of anti-fibrinolytics is well documented in adults, but recently there are questions raised about safety and effectiveness of their use on routine use. Tranexamic acid is a potent anti-fibrinolytic, but its role is not fully understood in children. This study aims to study the benefits tranexamic acid in controlling postoperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgical patients. Methods and Results: Fifty consecutive children who underwent cardiac surgery were randomized prospectively to receive either aprotinin (Group A; n = 24) or tranexamic acid (Group B; n = 26) from September 2009 to February 2010 were studied. Primary end points were early mortality, postoperative drainage, reoperation for bleeding and complications. Mean age and body weight was smaller in Group A (Age: 48.55 vs. 64.73 months; weight 10.75 vs. 14.80 kg) respectively. Group A had more cyanotic heart disease than Group B (87.5% vs. 76.92%). Mean cardiopulmonary bypass time (144.33 vs. 84.34 min) and aortic cross-clamp time (78.5 vs. 41.46 min) were significantly higher in group A. While the blood and products usage was significantly higher in Group A, there was no difference in indexed postoperative drainage in first 4, 8 and 12 h and postoperative coagulation parameters. Mean C-reactive protein was less in Group A than B and renal dysfunction was seen more in Group A (25% vs. 7.6%). Mortality in Group A was 16.66% and 7.6% in Group B. Conclusion: Anti-fibrinolytics have a definitive role in high-risk children who undergo open-heart surgery. Tranexamic acid is as equally effective as aprotinin with no additional increase in morbidity or mortality. Ultramini Abstract: Coagulopathy has been a major issue in pediatric cardiac surgery, and anti-fibrinolytics have been used fairly regularly in various settings. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid as compared against that

  2. Safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in children and adolescents with sickle/beta-thalassemia: two-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulou, E; Teli, A; Theodoridou, S; Gompakis, N; Economou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Hydroxyurea is a cytotoxic and myelosuppressive drug that has been used during recent years in the treatment of children with severe sickle cell disease. Nevertheless, questions remain regarding its role in young patients with no severe course, like sickle/beta-thalassemia (S/b-thal) patients often present. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of hydroxyurea in young patients with S/b-thal, which is the commonest form of the disease in Greece. Patients-Methods Hydroxyurea was given in thirteen children with S/b-thal for 24 months and for that period clinical and laboratory evaluation of the children was performed. Results A reduction in pain crises and rate of hospitalization was noted. None of the patients presented with a severe clinical event, related to the disease during the study period. A significant increase in hemoglobin, hemoglobin F, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin and a decrease in reticulocyte count, white blood cell and platelet count, and total bilirubin level was noted. With regards to adverse events, these were transient, short-term and dose-dependable. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to specifically assess the effect of hydroxyurea therapy in young patients with S/b-thal and the results indicate is safe and efficacious in this patient cohort. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):172-175.

  3. Improved in vitro efficacy of gold nanoconstructs by increased loading of G-quadruplex aptamer.

    PubMed

    Dam, Duncan Hieu M; Lee, Raymond C; Odom, Teri W

    2014-05-14

    This paper describes how in vitro efficacy of aptamer-loaded gold nanostars (Apt-AuNS) can be enhanced by the increased loading of a G-quadruplex homodimer AS1411 (Apt) on the AuNS surface. In a low pH buffer environment, the loading density of Apt on AuNS was increased up to 2.5 times that obtained using the conventional salt-aging process. These highly loaded AuNS nanoconstructs (*Apt-AuNS) were taken up in pancreatic cancer and fibrosarcoma cells ca. 2 times more and at faster rates compared to Apt-AuNS. When a similar number of AuNS carriers was internalized by the cancer cells, the amount of AS1411 delivered via *Apt-AuNS was effectively double that of Apt-AuNS, and *Apt-AuNS resulted in an average of 42% increase in cell death. These results suggest that increasing the loading density on AuNS could provide a simple means to improve uptake as well as in vitro efficacy of the nanoconstructs in cancer cells. PMID:24689438

  4. Blinded with science: Trivial graphs and formulas increase ad persuasiveness and belief in product efficacy.

    PubMed

    Tal, Aner; Wansink, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The appearance of being scientific can increase persuasiveness. Even trivial cues can create such an appearance of a scientific basis. In our studies, including simple elements, such as graphs (Studies 1-2) or a chemical formula (Study 3), increased belief in a medication's efficacy. This appears to be due to the association of such elements with science, rather than increased comprehensibility, use of visuals, or recall. Belief in science moderates the persuasive effect of graphs, such that people who have a greater belief in science are more affected by the presence of graphs (Study 2). Overall, the studies contribute to past research by demonstrating that even trivial elements can increase public persuasion despite their not truly indicating scientific expertise or objective support. PMID:25319823

  5. Safety and Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children A Review of the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Vanita; Ge, Adeline; Mansky, Patrick J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Acupuncture has been used therapeutically in China for thousands of years and is growing in prominence in Europe and the United States. In a recent review of complementary and alternative medicine use in the US population, an estimated 2.1 million people or 1.1% of the population sought acupuncture care during the past 12 months. Four percent of the US population used acupuncture at any time in their lives. We reviewed 31 different published journal articles, including 23 randomized controlled clinical trials and 8 meta-analysis/systematic reviews. We found evidence of some efficacy and low risk associated with acupuncture in pediatrics. From all the conditions we reviewed, the most extensive research has looked into acupuncture’s role in managing postoperative and chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting. Postoperatively, there is far more evidence of acupuncture’s efficacy for pediatrics than for children treated with chemotherapy. Acupuncture seems to be most effective in preventing postoperative induced nausea in children. For adults, research shows that acupuncture can inhibit chemotherapy-related acute vomiting, but conclusions about its effects in pediatrics cannot be made on the basis of the available published clinical trials data to date. Besides nausea and vomiting, research conducted in pain has yielded the most convincing results on acupuncture efficacy. Musculoskeletal and cancer-related pain commonly affectss children and adults, but unfortunately, mostly adult studies have been conducted thus far. Because the manifestations of pain can be different in children than in adults, data cannot be extrapolated from adult research. Systematic reviews have shown that existing data often lack adequate control groups and sample sizes. Vas et al, Alimi et al, and Mehling et al demonstrated some relief for adults treated with acupuncture but we could not find any well-conducted randomized controlled studies that looked at pediatrics and acupuncture

  6. Efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy options for the treatment of irritability in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kirino, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed. PMID:24932108

  7. Sonoporation Increases Therapeutic Efficacy of Inducible and Constitutive BMP2/7 In Vivo Gene Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Anna T.; Slezak, Paul; Schuetzenberger, Sebastian; Kaipel, Martin; Schwartz, Ernst; Neef, Anne; Nomikou, Nikolitsa; Nau, Thomas; van Griensven, Martijn; McHale, Anthony P.; Redl, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract An ideal novel treatment for bone defects should provide regeneration without autologous or allogenous grafting, exogenous cells, growth factors, or biomaterials while ensuring spatial and temporal control as well as safety. Therefore, a novel osteoinductive nonviral in vivo gene therapy approach using sonoporation was investigated in ectopic and orthotopic models. Constitutive or regulated, doxycycline-inducible, bone morphogenetic protein 2 and 7 coexpression plasmids were repeatedly applied for 5 days. Ectopic and orthotopic gene transfer efficacy was monitored by coapplication of a luciferase plasmid and bioluminescence imaging. Orthotopic plasmid DNA distribution was investigated using a novel plasmid-labeling method. Luciferase imaging demonstrated an increased trend (61% vs. 100%) of gene transfer efficacy, and micro-computed tomography evaluation showed significantly enhanced frequency of ectopic bone formation for sonoporation compared with passive gene delivery (46% vs. 100%) dependent on applied ultrasound power. Bone formation by the inducible system (83%) was stringently controlled by doxycycline in vivo, and no ectopic bone formation was observed without induction or with passive gene transfer without sonoporation. Orthotopic evaluation in a rat femur segmental defect model demonstrated an increased trend of gene transfer efficacy using sonoporation. Investigation of DNA distribution demonstrated extensive binding of plasmid DNA to bone tissue. Sonoporated animals displayed a potentially increased union rate (33%) without extensive callus formation or heterotopic ossification. We conclude that sonoporation of BMP2/7 coexpression plasmids is a feasible, minimally invasive method for osteoinduction and that improvement of bone regeneration by sonoporative gene delivery is superior to passive gene delivery. PMID:24164605

  8. Misfolding Ectodomain Mutations of the Lutropin Receptor Increase Efficacy of Hormone Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Charmandari, E; Guan, R; Zhang, M; Silveira, L G; Fan, Q R; Chrousos, G P; Sertedaki, A C; Latronico, A C; Segaloff, D L

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate 2 novel mutations of the LHCGR, each homozygous, in a 46,XY patient with severe Leydig cell hypoplasia. One is a mutation in the signal peptide (p.Gln18_Leu19ins9; referred to here as SP) that results in an alteration of the coding sequence of the N terminus of the mature mutant receptor. The other mutation (p.G71R) is also within the ectodomain. Similar to many other inactivating mutations, the cell surface expression of recombinant human LHR(SP,G71R) is greatly reduced due to intracellular retention. However, we made the unusual discovery that the intrinsic efficacy for agonist-stimulated cAMP in the reduced numbers of receptors on the cell surface was greatly increased relative to the same low number of cell surface wild-type receptor. Remarkably, this appears to be a general attribute of misfolding mutations in the ectodomains, but not serpentine domains, of the gonadotropin receptors. These findings suggest that there must be a common, shared mechanism by which disparate mutations in the ectodomain that cause misfolding and therefore reduced cell surface expression concomitantly confer increased agonist efficacy to those receptor mutants on the cell surface. Our data further suggest that, due to their increased agonist efficacy, extremely small changes in cell surface expression of misfolded ectodomain mutants cause larger than expected alterations in the cellular response to agonist. Therefore, for inactivating LHCGR mutations causing ectodomain misfolding, the numbers of cell surface mutant receptors on fetal Leydig cells of 46,XY individuals exert a more exquisite effect on the relative severity of the clinical phenotypes than already appreciated. PMID:26554443

  9. The Management of Increased Intracranial Pressure in Children

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Gary C.; Stein, Fernando

    1983-01-01

    Ten children with acute increased intracranial pressure, documented by the Cheek screw technique, were treated for Reye's syndrome, other toxic/metabolic encephalopathies, encephalitis, and traumatic encephalopathies. The rationale for the use of hyperventilation, head position, maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, hyperosmolar agents, steroids, adequate fluid balance, and barbiturates in the therapy of these patients is described. An analysis of these cases reveals that early monitoring of intracranial pressure, maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, and aggressive treatment of increased intracranial pressure may reduce the mortality of patients with increased intracranial pressure. Of all patients studied, those who survived demonstrated some neurological deficit as determined by clinical examination or neuropsychological testing. PMID:6655720

  10. Pilot study: efficacy of sensory integration therapy for Japanese children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Ryoichiro; Honda, Sumihisa; Nakane, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Koji; Toeda, Haruka; Tanaka, Goro

    2014-03-01

    This study's objective was to investigate the efficacy of sensory integration therapy (SIT) for children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). The subjects were 20 HFASD children with IQs above 70 selected from previously collected data. Eight participated in individual SIT sessions, and 12 participated in group therapy (GT) including social skill training, communication training, kinetic activities, and child-parent play for 8-10 months. Changes in Total score and five Index scores on the Japanese version of the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers before and after therapy between children in the SIT and GT groups were compared. The results showed that Total score and all Index scores except for Verbal Index increased significantly in the SIT group, while only Total score increased in the GT group. Furthermore, the SIT group showed more improvement compared with the GT group in Total score and on Coordination, Non-verbal, and Complex Index scores. SIT might have a more positive effect on motor coordination abilities, non-verbal cognitive abilities, and combined abilities of sensory motor and cognition in children with HFASD when compared with GT. This study has limitations such as being an analysis of previously collected data. Further study should be conducted with a randomized control trial. PMID:23893373

  11. Safety and efficacy of rivastigmine in children with Down syndrome: A double blind placebo controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spiridigliozzi, Gail A; Hart, Sarah J; Heller, James H; Schneider, Heather E; Baker, Jane Ann; Weadon, Cathleen; Capone, George T; Kishnani, Priya S

    2016-06-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) have decreased cholinergic function and an uneven profile of cognitive abilities, with more pronounced deficits in learning, memory, and expressive language. Cholinesterase inhibitors may improve cognitive function in adults and adolescents with DS, but studies in children with DS have been limited. This study aimed to: (i) investigate the safety and efficacy of rivastigmine treatment; (ii) build upon our open-label studies in children with DS in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and (iii) investigate specific cognitive domains that may respond to rivastigmine treatment. We conducted a 20-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the safety and efficacy of rivastigmine in 22 children and adolescents with DS aged 10-17 years. Safety measures included reports of adverse events, laboratory parameters, and electrocardiograms. Efficacy measures included parental assessments of adaptive behavior and executive function, and direct measures of language and memory. No group differences were found on safety measures and 22 of 24 participants that passed study screening completed the study. The results did not demonstrate evidence for significant improvement in aspects of cognition, language, or overall function in the children receiving rivastigmine. Our results suggest that rivastigmine is safe and well-tolerated for children and adolescents with DS, but may not be effective for improving performance on the selected measures in this study. However, larger samples and/or alternate measures could possibly reveal improvements in cognitive function with rivastigmine treatment. Further research is needed to define a battery of cognitive measures that is sensitive to treatment effects in DS. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061338

  12. Chronomodulation of topotecan or X-radiation treatment increases treatment efficacy without enhancing acute toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, Dana; Proulx, Denise; Saoudi, A.; Ng, Cheng E. . E-mail: cng@ohri.ca

    2005-05-01

    Purpose: Topotecan (TPT), a camptothecin analog, is currently used to treat human ovarian and small-cell lung cancer and is in clinical trials for other tumor sites. However, it is unknown whether chronomodulation of TPT treatment is beneficial. We examined the effects of administering TPT or X-radiation (XR) alone at different times of the day or night. Methods: We treated mice bearing human colorectal tumor xenografts at four different times representing the early rest period (9 AM or 3 HALO [hours after light onset]), late rest period (3 PM or 9 HALO), early active period (9 PM or 15 HALO), and late active period (3 AM or 21 HALO) of the mice. We gave either TPT (12 mg/kg, injected i.p.) or XR (4 Gy, directed to the tumor) twice weekly on Days 0, 4, 7, 10 within 2 weeks. Results: Treatment with either TPT or XR at 3 AM demonstrated the greatest efficacy (measured by a tumor regrowth assay) without significantly increasing acute toxicity (assessed by a decrease in leukocyte counts or body weight). Conversely, treatment at 3 PM, in particular, showed increased toxicity without any enhanced efficacy. Conclusions: Our study provided the first evidence that chronomodulation of TPT treatments, consistent with the findings of other camptothecin analogs, is potentially clinically beneficial. Additionally, our findings suggest that chronomodulation of fractionated XR treatments is also potentially clinically beneficial.

  13. Efficacy of Micromobile Foot Compression Device in Increasing Lower Limb Venous Blood Flow

    PubMed Central

    Weatherall, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background. A novel, micromobile foot compression device (MMC) has been developed to reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility. Objective. To compare the efficacy of the MMC with graduated compression stockings in augmenting lower limb venous blood flow. Patients/Methods. Twenty participants were randomised to wear the MMC or a graduated compression stocking (GCS) on either the left or right leg while seated. Doppler ultrasound measurements of popliteal vein blood flow and leg circumference measurements were made −30 and −10 minutes (baseline) and +30 and +60 minutes following application of the interventions. The primary outcome variable was peak systolic velocity. A mixed linear model was used, with covariates including baseline measurement, randomised side, time, and a time by interaction term. Results. The mean popliteal vein peak systolic velocity at 60 minutes with the MMC was 20.1 cm/s which was significantly higher than with the GCS (difference 14.1 cm/s 95% CI 12.1–16.2), representing a 3.8-fold increase from baseline. Conclusion. The MMC resulted in a marked increase in lower limb venous blood flow which suggests that it may have efficacy in reducing the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with prolonged seated immobility, such as long distance air travel. PMID:24319596

  14. The Influence of Africentric Values and Neighborhood Satisfaction on the Academic Self-Efficacy of African American Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Richard Q.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the relationships between Africentric values, racial/ethnic identity, neighborhood satisfaction, and academic self-efficacy beliefs among 88 African American elementary school children. Results indicated that Africentric values and neighborhood satisfaction were both predictive of academic self-efficacy beliefs.…

  15. Supervision and Increasing Self-Efficacy in the Therapist-Trainee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Jennifer E.

    This work includes a discussion of the concept of self-efficacy, originally introduced by Albert Bandura, as it pertains to the therapist-trainee. Therapist self-efficacy has only recently gained attention theoretically as well as empirically. Measures used to assess the self-efficacy of the therapist are highlighted as well as factors…

  16. Efficacy of midazolam as oral premedication in children in comparison to triclofos sodium

    PubMed Central

    Radhika, Kolathu Parambil; Sreejit, Melveetil S; Ramadas, Konnanath T

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The perioperative behavioural studies demonstrate that children are at greater risk of experiencing turbulent anaesthetic induction and adverse behavioural sequelae. We aimed to compare the efficacy of midazolam 0.5 mg/kg with triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg as oral premedication in children undergoing elective surgery. Methods: In this prospective, randomised and double-blind study, sixty children posted for elective lower abdominal surgery were enrolled. The patients were randomly divided into midazolam group (Group M) and triclofos sodium group (Group T) of thirty each. Group M received oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg 30 min before induction, and Group T received oral triclofos sodium 100 mg/kg 60 min before induction. All children were evaluated for level of sedation after premedication, behaviour at the time of separation from parents and at the time of mask placement for induction of anaesthesia. Mann–Whitney U-test was used for comparing the grade of sedation, ease of separation and acceptance of face mask. Results: Oral midazolam produced adequate sedation in children after premedication in comparison to oral triclofos (P = 0.002). Both drugs produced successful separation from parents, and the children were very cooperative during induction. No adverse effects attributable to the premedicants were seen. Conclusions: Oral midazolam is superior to triclofos sodium as a sedative anxiolytic in paediatric population. PMID:27330204

  17. [Clinical efficacy and achievement of a complete remission in depression: increasing interest in treatment with escitalopram].

    PubMed

    Favré, P

    2012-02-01

    Such a prevalent disease as Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), associated with prominent impairment in physical and social functioning, implies as well an increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatments are required due to the frequent occurrence of relapses. Patient compliance is a core factor in both acute and continuation treatment, closely related to tolerability issues. We have partially reviewed the literature published on PubMed since 2004 which assess the relative antidepressant efficacy of escitalopram and comparator antidepressants in adult patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants. These analyses are in favor of a superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20mg/day) compared with active controls, including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (paroxetine, citalopram, bupropion, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, sertraline), serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) (venlafaxine, milnacipran and duloxetine) and noradrenergic and specific serotonergic antidepressants (NaSSAs) (mirtazapine). Cipriani et al. (2009) have performed a network meta-analysis of 12 new generation antidepressants. They have shown that clinically important differences exist between commonly prescribed antidepressants for both efficacy and acceptability in favor of escitalopram and sertraline in acute treatment, defined as 8-week treatment. Kasper et al. (2009) conducted a post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomized controlled trials that revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. The pooled analysis of four randomized, double-blind, active comparator, 6-month trials in MDD, by Wade et al. (2009), showed that short-term outcomes may predict long-term treatment compliance and outcomes. A higher probability of achieving remission was associated with responding

  18. Increasing the Athletic Group Play of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Catherine A.; Charlop, Marjorie H.

    2014-01-01

    A multiple baseline design across three children with autism and within child across activity was used to assess the effects of interventions designed to teach children with autism to play two common athletic group games, handball and 4-square. Treatment consisted of two phases. In Phase I, athletic skills training, the children participated in…

  19. Increased Risk of Injury in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Li-Ching; Harrington, Rebecca A.; Chang, Jen Jen; Connors, Susan L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine injury risk in children with autism, ADD/ADD, learning disability, psychopathology, or other medical conditions. Children aged 3-5 years who participated in the National Survey of Children's Health were included. Six study groups were analyzed in this report: autism (n=82), ADD/ADHD (n=191), learning…

  20. DNA methyltransferase inhibition increases efficacy of adoptive cellular immunotherapy of murine breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Terracina, Krista P; Graham, Laura J; Payne, Kyle K; Manjili, Masoud H; Baek, Annabel; Damle, Sheela R; Bear, Harry D

    2016-09-01

    Adoptive T cell immunotherapy is a promising approach to cancer treatment that currently has limited clinical applications. DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNAMTi) have known potential to affect the immune system through multiple mechanisms that could enhance the cytotoxic T cell responses, including: upregulation of tumor antigen expression, increased MHC class I expression, and blunting of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) expansion. In this study, we have investigated the effect of combining the DNAMTi, decitabine, with adoptive T cell immunotherapy in the murine 4T1 mammary carcinoma model. We found that expression of neu, MHC class I molecules, and several murine cancer testis antigens (CTA) was increased by decitabine treatment of 4T1 cells in vitro. Decitabine also increased expression of multiple CTA in two human breast cancer cell lines. Decitabine-treated 4T1 cells stimulated greater IFN-gamma release from tumor-sensitized lymphocytes, implying increased immunogenicity. Expansion of CD11b + Gr1 + MDSC in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice was significantly diminished by decitabine treatment. Decitabine treatment improved the efficacy of adoptive T cell immunotherapy in mice with established 4T1 tumors, with greater inhibition of tumor growth and an increased cure rate. Decitabine may have a role in combination with existing and emerging immunotherapies for breast cancer. PMID:27416831

  1. Efficacy and safety of gelatine tannate for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Michałek, Dorota; Kołodziej, Maciej; Konarska, Zofia; Szajewska, Hania

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis in children, usually caused by viruses, leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment is aimed at preventing and treating dehydration, promoting weight gain after rehydration, and reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoea. Effective and inexpensive interventions that could add to the effect of oral rehydration therapy are of interest. Recently, in many European countries, gelatine tannate is being widely marketed for treating acute gastroenteritis. Gelatine tannate is a complex of tannic acid, which possesses astringent and anti-inflammatory properties, and a protective gelatine. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of gelatine tannate for treating acute gastroenteritis in children and only scant evidence to support the use of gelatine tannate in adults. We aim to assess the efficacy of gelatine tannate for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. Methods and analysis This will be a blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Children younger than 5 years of age with acute gastroenteritis defined as a change in stool consistency to loose or liquid form (according to the Bristol Stool Form scale or Amsterdam Stool Form scale) and/or an increase in the frequency of evacuations (typically ≥3 in 24 h), lasting for no longer than 5 days, will be recruited. A total of 158 children will be randomised to receive either gelatine tannate (children younger than 3 years of age will receive 250 mg, 4 times/day, and those older than 3 years of age will receive 500 mg, 4 times/day) or matching placebo for 5 days. The primary outcome measure is the duration of diarrhoea. Ethics and dissemination The Bioethics Committee approved the study protocol. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed paediatric journal. Abstracts will be submitted to relevant national and international conferences. Trial registration number NCT02280759; Pre-results. PMID

  2. The Efficacy of the Tomatis Method for Children with Learning and Communication Disorders: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmor, Tim

    1999-01-01

    Explains the Tomatis Method, a program of auditory stimulation and counseling used to assist children, adolescents, and adults with learning and communication disorders. Presents a meta-analysis of data from five research studies evaluating the efficacy of this method in assisting children with such disorders. Suggests that effect sizes favoring…

  3. A Pilot Study on the Efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy for Eliciting Speech in Nonverbal Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandiford, Givona A.; Mainess, Karen J.; Daher, Noha S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of Melodic Based Communication Therapy (MBCT) to traditional speech and language therapy for eliciting speech in nonverbal children with autism. Participants were 12 nonverbal children with autism ages 5 through 7 randomly assigned to either treatment group. Both groups made significant…

  4. The Efficacy of an Aquatic Program on Physical Fitness and Aquatic Skills in Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a 14-week aquatic program on physical fitness and aquatic skills for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their siblings without a disability. Children with ASD (n = 15) and their siblings (n = 15), between 7 and 12 years (8.55 [plus or minus] 2.19 years) participated. In the first 14-week phase,…

  5. Evaluating the Efficacy of the PEAK Relational Training System Using a Randomized Controlled Trial of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeel, Autumn Nicole; Dixon, Mark R.; Daar, Jacob H.; Rowsey, Kyle E.; Szekely, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation sought to examine the efficacy of the instructional curriculum described in the Direct Training Module of the PEAK Relational Training System on the language repertoires, as measured by the PEAK direct assessment, of children diagnosed with autism or related developmental disabilities. Twenty-seven children diagnosed with…

  6. The Efficacy of a Social Skills Group Intervention for Improving Social Behaviors in Children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRosier, Melissa E.; Swick, Danielle C.; Davis, Naomi Ornstein; McMillen, Janey Sturtz; Matthews, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of a new social skills intervention, "S ocial S kills GR oup IN tervention-High Functioning Autism" ("S.S.GRIN-HFA"), designed to improve social behaviors in children with high functioning autism spectrum disorders. Fifty-five children were randomly assigned to "S.S.GRIN-HFA" treatment (n = 27) or control (i.e.,…

  7. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on British Children Growing Up in Deprivation: A Developmental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odgers, Candice L.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Tach, Laura M.; Taylor, Alan; Caspi, Avshalom; Matthews, Charlotte L.; Sampson, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of neighborhood-level deprivation and collective efficacy on children's antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to characterize the developmental course of antisocial behavior among children in the E-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological…

  8. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  9. Efficacy of an Integrated School Curriculum Pedometer Intervention to Enhance Physical Activity and to Reduce Weight Status in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael; Birch, Samantha; Woodfield, Lorayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an integrated school curriculum pedometer intervention on children's physical activity and weight status. Following ethics approval and informed consent, 59 children (22 boys, 27 girls, aged 10-11) from a primary school in central England completed a four-week integrated physical activity…

  10. Increasing the efficacy of tumor cell vaccines by enhancing cross priming

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Brian M.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy has been attempted for more than a century, and investment has intensified in the last 20 years. The complexity of the immune system is exemplified by the myriad of immunotherapeutic approaches under investigation. While anti-tumor immunity has been achieved experimentally with multiple effector cells and molecules, particular promise is shown for harnessing the CD8 T cell response. Tumor cell-based vaccines have been employed in hundreds of clinical trials to date and offer several advantages over subunit and peptide vaccines. However, tumor cell-based vaccines, often aimed at cross priming tumor-reactive CD8 T cells, have shown modest success in clinical trials. Here we review the mechanisms of cross priming and discuss strategies to increase the efficacy of tumor cell-based vaccines. A synthesis of recent findings on tissue culture conditions, cell death, and dendritic cell activation reveals promising new avenues for clinical investigation. PMID:22809568

  11. Using Robotics and Game Design to Enhance Children's Self-Efficacy, STEM Attitudes, and Computational Thinking Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jacqueline; Buss, Alan; Gamboa, Ruben; Mitchell, Monica; Fashola, Olatokunbo S.; Hubert, Tarcia; Almughyirah, Sultan

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the findings of a pilot study that used robotics and game design to develop middle school students' computational thinking strategies. One hundred and twenty-four students engaged in LEGO® EV3 robotics and created games using Scalable Game Design software. The results of the study revealed students' pre-post self-efficacy scores on the construct of computer use declined significantly, while the constructs of videogaming and computer gaming remained unchanged. When these constructs were analyzed by type of learning environment, self-efficacy on videogaming increased significantly in the combined robotics/gaming environment compared with the gaming-only context. Student attitudes toward STEM, however, did not change significantly as a result of the study. Finally, children's computational thinking (CT) strategies varied by method of instruction as students who participated in holistic game development (i.e., Project First) had higher CT ratings. This study contributes to the STEM education literature on the use of robotics and game design to influence self-efficacy in technology and CT, while informing the research team about the adaptations needed to ensure project fidelity during the remaining years of the study.

  12. Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zheng-Tao; Song, Wen; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Cai-Hua; Gao, Fang; Yuan, Xiao-Cui; Liu, Ji-Hong; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is recognized as a widespread health problem in young children and adolescents. Clinical researches about acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis are increasing, while systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of acupuncture therapy are still lacking. Objective. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive literature search of 8 databases was performed up to June 2014; randomized controlled trials which compared acupuncture therapy and placebo treatment or pharmacological therapy were identified. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. This review included 21 RCTs and a total of 1590 subjects. The overall methodological qualities were low. The results of meta-analysis showed that acupuncture therapy was more effective for clinical efficacy when compared with placebo or pharmacological treatment. Adverse events associated with acupuncture therapy were not documented. Conclusion. Based on the findings of this study, we cautiously suggest that acupuncture therapy could improve the clinical efficacy. However, the beneficial effect of acupuncture might be overstated due to low methodological qualities. Rigorous high quality RCTs are urgently needed. PMID:26167190

  13. Efficacy of Acupuncture in Children with Nocturnal Enuresis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Zheng-tao; Song, Wen; Wu, Jing; Yang, Jun; Wang, Tao; Wu, Cai-hua; Gao, Fang; Yuan, Xiao-cui; Liu, Ji-hong; Li, Man

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis (NE) is recognized as a widespread health problem in young children and adolescents. Clinical researches about acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis are increasing, while systematic reviews assessing the efficacy of acupuncture therapy are still lacking. Objective. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture therapy for nocturnal enuresis. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive literature search of 8 databases was performed up to June 2014; randomized controlled trials which compared acupuncture therapy and placebo treatment or pharmacological therapy were identified. A meta-analysis was conducted. Results. This review included 21 RCTs and a total of 1590 subjects. The overall methodological qualities were low. The results of meta-analysis showed that acupuncture therapy was more effective for clinical efficacy when compared with placebo or pharmacological treatment. Adverse events associated with acupuncture therapy were not documented. Conclusion. Based on the findings of this study, we cautiously suggest that acupuncture therapy could improve the clinical efficacy. However, the beneficial effect of acupuncture might be overstated due to low methodological qualities. Rigorous high quality RCTs are urgently needed. PMID:26167190

  14. Parental Control, Nurturance, Self-Efficacy, and Screen Viewing among 5- to 6-Year-Old Children: A Cross-Sectional Mediation Analysis To Inform Potential Behavior Change Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lesley; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.; Sebire, Simon J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Children's screen viewing (SV) is associated with higher levels of childhood obesity. Many children exceed the American Academy of Pediatrics guideline of 2 hours of television (TV) per day. There is limited information about how parenting styles and parental self-efficacy to limit child screen time are associated with children's SV. This study examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children and whether any effects were mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. Methods: Data were from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2013. Child and parent SV were reported by a parent, who also provided information about their parenting practices and self-efficacy to restrict SV. A four-step regression method examined whether parenting styles were associated with the SV of young children. Mediation by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was examined using indirect effects. Results: On a weekday, 90% of children watched TV for <2 hours per day, decreasing to 55% for boys and 58% for girls at weekends. At the weekend, 75% of children used a personal computer at home, compared with 61% during the week. Self-reported parental control, but not nurturance, was associated with children's TV viewing. Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time was independently associated with child weekday TV viewing and mediated associations between parental control and SV. Conclusions: Parental control was associated with lower levels of SV among 5- to 6-year-old children. This association was partially mediated by parental self-efficacy to limit screen time. The development of strategies to increase parental self-efficacy to limit screen-time may be useful. PMID:25584518

  15. Grandmothers' familism values, adolescent mothers' parenting efficacy, and children's well-being.

    PubMed

    Zeiders, Katharine H; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined intergenerational processes related to familism values among grandmothers, adolescent mothers, and their children. Mexican-origin families (N = 180) participated in in-home interviews during adolescent mothers' third trimester of pregnancy and 10-, 24-, 48-, and 60-months postpartum. Using longitudinal path analyses, we linked grandmothers' familism values and behaviors to adolescent mothers' parenting processes and, in turn, their child's well-being, taking into account developmentally relevant needs of adolescent mothers. Results revealed that grandmothers' familism values before the birth of the baby predicted child-rearing support and communication within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad after the birth of the baby. Support, but not communication, was in turn predictive of adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy, but only at high levels of autonomy granting within the grandmother-adolescent mother dyad. Finally, adolescent mothers' parenting self-efficacy predicted children's greater social competence (48 months old), which in turn, predicted greater academic functioning (60 months old). Our findings shed light on the behavioral correlates of familism values within Mexican-origin families with adolescent mothers and highlight the need to consider factors that are developmentally salient (e.g., autonomy) when understanding how familism behaviors benefit adolescent mothers and their children. PMID:26075734

  16. Efficacy and Tolerability of Lacosamide in the Treatment of Children With Refractory Generalized Epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Miskin, Chandrabhaga; Khurana, Divya S; Valencia, Ignacio; Legido, Agustin; Hasbani, Daphne M; Carvalho, Karen S

    2016-06-01

    Lacosamide is FDA-approved in patients 17 years or older with partial-onset epilepsy. We evaluated the efficacy and tolerability of lacosamide in children with refractory generalized epilepsy. We retrospectively reviewed records of 21 children with refractory generalized epilepsy treated with lacosamide in our institution from 2009-2013 divided into 2 subgroups- I, Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome, and II, other generalized epilepsies. Efficacy was defined as seizure freedom or ≥50% seizure reduction. Descriptive data analysis including seizure freedom was compared using c(2) analysis. There were eleven females and ten males with a mean age, of 11.9 years. Five patients became seizure free, nine had ≥50% seizure reduction, and seven had no response. Group I: seven had ≥50% improvement, one did not respond. Group II: five became seizure free, two had ≥50% improvement, five had no response. Lacosamide is effective and well tolerated in children with refractory generalized epilepsy particularly patients with Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. PMID:26887412

  17. Drug efficacy of praziquantel and albendazole in school children in Mwea Division, Central Province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kihara, J H; Muhoho, N; Njomo, D; Mwobobia, I K; Josyline, K; Mitsui, Y; Awazawa, T; Amano, T; Mwandawiro, C

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this research was to assess drug efficacy in school children after mass chemotherapy with praziquantel and albendazole conducted in Mwea Division, Kirinyaga District, Central Kenya in 2004. In total 2300 children aged between 4 and 18 years in five primary schools were selected for the study. Before mass chemotherapy, prevalence of infection was 47.4% for Schistosoma mansoni, 16.7% for Necator americanus, 1.6% for Ascaris lumbricoides, and 0.8% for Trichuris trichiura. Post-treatment stool examination was carried out 8 weeks later, and a total of 1942 stool samples were collected. Prevalence decreased to 8.6% for S. mansoni, 0.2% for N. americunus, 0 for A. lumbricoides, and 0.6% for T. trichiura. Efficacy was good for S. mansoni and N. americanus (92.6% and 95.0%, respectively). Results of the first round of treatment of school-age children in Mwea indicate a good reduction in parasite burden. PMID:17572368

  18. Comparative clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (bronchial asthma) in children

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Arvind Kumar; Rajagopala, S.; Patel, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tamaka Shwasa is a chronic inflammatory condition of the lung airways resulting in episodic airflow obstruction. This disease is more predominant in children and aged population. Apart from being the leading cause of hospitalization for children, it is one of the most important chronic conditions causing elementary school absenteeism. The parallel disease entity in contemporary medical science to this disorder is Bronchial Asthma. Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Ashtangavaleha and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha on Tamaka Shwasa (Bronchial Asthma) in Children. Materials and Methods: The study was therapeutic interventional randomized clinical trial. Totally 100 patients suffering from Tamaka Shwasa were selected, and 74 patients completed the course of treatment. Patients were divided into two groups. Ashtangavaleha was administered in group AG and Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha was administerd in group VG (5-15g in divided doses) for 8 weeks duration. Comaprative assesment of both the drugs was done on the signs and symptoms of the disease, pulmonary function test and quality of life parameters. Results: When the individualized overall effect of therapy was considered, more number of patients treated with Ashtangavaleha reached moderate improvement zone than the patients treated with Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha. Conclusions: The trial showed a marginal better efficacy of Ashtangavaleha (66.66%) in comparison to Vyaghreehareetakee Avaleha (63.15%) on the overall condition of the patients even though the superiority was statistically insignificant (>0.05). PMID:26195900

  19. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects.

  20. Clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ambrisentan therapy in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Zuckerman, Warren; Brady, Daniela; Calderbank, Michelle; Ivy, D Dunbar

    2013-01-01

    Recent trials in adult PAH revealed the efficacy of ambrisentan. However, in children with PAH, the clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of ambrisentan has not been well studied. Our aim was to investigate the clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonist therapy with ambrisentan in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This retrospective cohort study provides clinical data from pediatric patients with PAH receiving ambrisentan as add-on therapy or transition from bosentan. Safety included evaluation of adverse events including aminotransferase abnormalities. The clinical impact was evaluated by improvement from baseline in clinical variables. A total of 38 pediatric patients with PAH received ambrisentan. Fifteen of 38 patients were switched from bosentan to ambrisentan. The remaining 23 children were treated with ambrisentan as an add-on therapy due to disease progression. In both transition and add-on cases, mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly improved (transition; 55 ± 18 vs. 45 ± 20 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.04, add-on; 52 ± 17 vs. 45 ± 19 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.03) during the follow-up. World Health Organization functional class improved in 31% of patients, but one patient required an atrial septostomy due to disease progression during the follow-up period (median, range; 20, 4-44 months). Five patients (13%) discontinued ambrisentan due to severe headache, lack of clinical efficacy, or near syncope. Ten patients (26%) had side effects associated with ambrisentan treatment, including nasal congestion, headache, and flushing. However, no patients had aminotransferase abnormalities and there were no deaths after initiation of ambrisentan during follow-up. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated in sixteen children treated with ambrisentan from 2.5 mg to 10.0 mg; the mean peak plasma concentration was 738 ± 452 ng/ml, mean time to peak plasma concentration was 3.2 ± 2.1 hours, and mean area under the

  1. Clinical Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Ambrisentan Therapy in Children With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Takatsuki, Shinichi; Rosenzweig, Erika B.; Zuckerman, Warren; Brady, Daniela; Calderbank, Michelle; Ivy, D. Dunbar

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent trials in adult PAH revealed the efficacy of ambrisentan. However, in children with PAH, the clinical safety and pharmacokinetics of ambrisentan has not been well studied. Our aim was to investigate the clinical safety, pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and efficacy of endothelin receptor antagonist therapy with ambrisentan in children with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This retrospective cohort study provides clinical data from pediatric patients with PAH receiving ambrisentan as add-on therapy or transition from bosentan. Safety included evaluation of adverse events including aminotransferase abnormalities. The clinical impact was evaluated by improvement from baseline in clinical variables. A total of 38 pediatric patients with PAH received ambrisentan. Fifteen of 38 patients were switched from bosentan to ambrisentan. The remaining 23 children were treated with ambrisentan as an add-on therapy due to disease progression. In both transition and add-on cases, mean pulmonary artery pressure significantly improved (transition; 55 ± 18 vs. 45 ± 20 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.04, add-on; 52 ± 17 vs. 45 ± 19 mmHg, n = 13, P = 0.03) during the follow-up. World Health Organization functional class improved in 31% of patients, but one patient required an atrial septostomy due to disease progression during the follow-up period (median, range; 20, 4–44 months). Five patients (13%) discontinued ambrisentan due to severe headache, lack of clinical efficacy, or near syncope. Ten patients (26%) had side effects associated with ambrisentan treatment, including nasal congestion, headache, and flushing. However, no patients had aminotransferase abnormalities and there were no deaths after initiation of ambrisentan during follow-up. Pharmacokinetics were evaluated in sixteen children treated with ambrisentan from 2.5 mg to 10.0 mg; the mean peak plasma concentration was 738 ± 452 ng/ml, mean time to peak plasma concentration was 3.2 ± 2.1 hours, and mean area

  2. Support and self-efficacy among Latino and White parents of children with ID.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Shana R; Holloway, Susan D; Domínguez-Pareto, Irenka; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that mothers of children with ID who receive familial support experience less stress than those who receive less support. Less is known about the relation of support to mothers' evaluation of parenting self-efficacy, particularly in Latino families. We examined the relationship of different types of family support to life satisfaction and parenting self-efficacy (PSE), and explored whether income and ethnicity moderated these relationships. Interviews with 84 Latino and 37 White participants revealed that partner emotional support predicted life satisfaction and PSE in both ethnic groups, with a stronger relationship evident for the PSE of Latino mothers. Income was not a significant moderator. These findings provide guidance for more effective family interventions targeted toward Latinos. PMID:25551264

  3. Efficacy and tolerability of levodropropizine and dropropizine in children with non-productive cough.

    PubMed

    Banderali, G; Riva, E; Fiocchi, A; Cordaro, C I; Giovannini, M

    1995-01-01

    The antitussive efficacy and tolerability of dropropizine and of its enantiomer levodropropizine were evaluated in children with non-productive cough; 258 were evaluable for tolerability and 254 for efficacy. Patients randomly received either 1 mg/kg dropropizine or 2 mg/kg levodropropizine orally, three times daily for 3 days. There were statistically significant decreases in the frequency of coughing spells and nocturnal awakenings after both levodropropizine and dropropizine treatments (P < 0.001). Gastro-intestinal symptoms were mild in the two groups; somnolence was twice as frequent in the dropropizine group (10.3% vs 5.3%) and the difference is clinically relevant, though not statistically significant. Levodropropizine is as effective as an antitussive as dropropizine, but appears to carry a lower risk of daytime somnolence. PMID:7649341

  4. Anti-PD-1 antibody significantly increases therapeutic efficacy of Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-LLO immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the significant tumor immune escape mechanisms and substantial barrier for successful immunotherapy is tumor-mediated inhibition of immune response through cell-to-cell or receptor/ligand interactions. Programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) interaction with its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, is one of the important strategies that many tumors employ to escape immune surveillance. Upon PD-Ls binding to PD-1, T cell receptor (TCR) signaling is dampened, causing inhibition of proliferation, decreased cytokine production, anergy and/or apoptosis. Thus PD-Ls expression by tumor cells serves as a protective mechanism, leading to suppression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in the tumor microenvironment. Lm-LLO immunotherapies have been shown to be therapeutically effective due to their ability to induce potent antigen-specific immune responses. However, it has been demonstrated that infection with Lm leads to up-regulation of PD-L1 on mouse immune cells that can inhibit effector T cells through PD-1/PD-L1 pathway. Methods Therapeutic and immune efficacy of Listeria-based vaccine (Lm-LLO-E7) in combination with anti-PD-1 antibody was tested in E7 antigen expressing TC-1 mouse tumor model. Tumor growth, survival, as well as peripheral and tumor-infiltrating immune cell profiles after immunotherapy were assessed. Results Here we demonstrate that the combination of an Lm-LLO immunotherapy with anti-PD-1 antibody that blocks PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, significantly improves immune and therapeutic efficacy of treatment in TC-1 mouse tumor model. Importantly, we show that in addition to significant reduction of regulatory T cells (Treg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in both spleen and tumor microenvironment that are mediated solely by the Lm-LLO immunotherapy, the addition of anti-PD-1 antibody to the treatment results in significant increase of antigen-specific immune responses in periphery and CD8 T cell infiltration into the tumor. As a result, this

  5. Increased extravascular lung water reduces the efficacy of alveolar recruitment maneuver in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smetkin, Alexey A; Kuzkov, Vsevolod V; Suborov, Eugeny V; Bjertnaes, Lars J; Kirov, Mikhail Y

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) the recruitment maneuver (RM) is used to reexpand atelectatic areas of the lungs aiming to improve arterial oxygenation. The goal of our paper was to evaluate the response to RM, as assessed by measurements of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) in ARDS patients. Materials and Methods. Seventeen adult ARDS patients were enrolled into a prospective study. Patients received protective ventilation. The RM was performed by applying a continuous positive airway pressure of 40 cm H(2)O for 40 sec. The efficacy of the RM was assessed 5 min later. Patients were identified as responders if PaO(2)/FiO(2) increased by >20% above the baseline. EVLWI was assessed by transpulmonary thermodilution before the RM, and patients were divided into groups of low EVLWI (<10 mL/kg) and high EVLWI (≥10 mL/kg). Results. EVLWI was increased in 12 patients. Following RM, PaO(2)/FiO(2) increased by 33 (4-65) % in the patients with low EVLWI, whereas those in the high EVLWI group experienced a change by only -1((-13)-(+5)) % (P = 0.035). Conclusion. In ARDS, the response to a recruitment maneuver might be related to the severity of pulmonary edema. In patients with incresed EVLWI, the recruitment maneuver is less effective. PMID:22649717

  6. A Parent-Mediated Intervention that Targets Responsive Parental Behaviors Increases Attachment Behaviors in Children with ASD: Results from a Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siller, Michael; Swanson, Meghan; Gerber, Alan; Hutman, Ted; Sigman, Marian

    2014-01-01

    The current study is a randomized clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of Focused Playtime Intervention (FPI) in a sample of 70 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. This parent-mediated intervention has previously been shown to significantly increase responsive parental communication (Siller et al. in "J Autism Dev Disord"…

  7. Impact of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Perceived Stress and Special Health Self-Efficacy in Seven to Fifteen-Year-Old Children With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Moazzezi, Mousa; Ataie Moghanloo, Vahid; Ataie Moghanloo, Roghayeh; Pishvaei, Malihe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) imposes restrictions on physical, emotional and social functioning of children and adolescents. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on perceived stress and special health self-efficacy in seven to fifteen-year-old children with DM. Patients and Methods: The present study was a clinical trial with a pretest-posttest control group design. The study population included all seven to fifteen-year-old patients who had referred to the Diabetes Mellitus Association of Tabriz, Iran, of whom 40 participants were selected using convenient sampling. They were randomly allocated to two matched groups (experimental and control). The experimental group participated in therapy sessions, while the control group did not receive any interventions. The research instruments were perceived stress and special health self-efficacy scales. Results: The multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) results showed that the treatment was effective on variables of perceived stress and special health self-efficacy (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The ACT is effective for reducing perceived stress and increasing special health self-efficacy in children with DM. PMID:26288639

  8. Promoting normal development and self-efficacy in school-age children managing chronic conditions.

    PubMed

    Mickley, Kristyn L; Burkhart, Patricia V; Sigler, April N

    2013-06-01

    Chronic conditions can affect school-age children in more ways than just physically. Normal childhood maturation is critical at this age, yet daily management of chronic symptoms can be challenging. This article describes 4 common childhood chronic illnesses (asthma, seizure disorders, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis), and the impact these conditions have on the developing child. Self-efficacy, the belief that one can effectively perform necessary skills, is essential to self-management of chronic conditions and contributes in a positive way to the child's normal development. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:23659816

  9. Pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of midazolam in children with severe malaria and convulsions

    PubMed Central

    Muchohi, Simon N; Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Edwards, Geoffrey; Ward, Steve A; Newton, Charles R J C

    2008-01-01

    AIM To investigate the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and buccal midazolam (MDZ) in children with severe falciparum malaria and convulsions. METHODS Thirty-three children with severe malaria and convulsions lasting ≥5 min were given a single dose of MDZ (0.3 mg kg−1) IV (n = 13), IM (n = 12) or via the buccal route (n = 8). Blood samples were collected over 6 h post-dose for determination of plasma MDZ and 1′-hydroxymidazolam concentrations. Plasma concentration–time data were fitted using pharmacokinetic models. RESULTS Median (range) MDZ Cmax of 481 (258–616), 253 (96–696) and 186 (64–394) ng ml−1 were attained within a median (range) tmax of 10 (5–15), 15 (5–60) and 10 (5–40) min, following IV, IM and buccal administration, respectively. Mean (95% confidence interval) of the pharmacokinetic parameters were: AUC(0,∞) 596 (327, 865), 608 (353, 864) and 518 (294, 741) ng ml−1 h; Vd 0.85 l kg−1; clearance 14.4 ml min−1 kg−1, elimination half-life 1.22 (0.65, 1.8) h, respectively. A single dose of MDZ terminated convulsions in all (100%), 9/12 (75%) and 5/8 (63%) children following IV, IM and buccal administration. Four children (one in the IV, one in the IM and two in the buccal groups) had respiratory depression. CONCLUSIONS Administration of MDZ at the currently recommended dose resulted in rapid achievement of therapeutic MDZ concentrations. Although IM and buccal administration of MDZ may be more practical in peripheral healthcare facilities, the efficacy appears to be poorer at the dose used, and a different dosage regimen might improve the efficacy. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECTMidazolam (MDZ), a water-soluble benzodiazepine, can be administered via several routes, including intravenously (IV), intramuscularly (IM) and buccal routes to terminate convulsions. It may be a suitable alternative to diazepam to stop convulsions in children with severe malaria, especially at

  10. Resources for Increasing Physical Activity in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Carol A.; Beighle, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    The number of children and youth who are overweight has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. According to the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), an estimated 17 percent of children and adolescents ages 2-19 years are obese. In…

  11. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  12. Do Chronic Conditions Increase Young Children's Risk of Being Maltreated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Mackey-Bilaver, Lucy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether and to what extent specific chronic health conditions place young children at risk of maltreatment. Methods: The study used a sample of Illinois children (born between January 1990 and March 1996) who were through age 3 continuously enrolled in Medicaid, a public health insurance program for low-income families. The…

  13. Increasing Social Reciprocity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leach, Debra; LaRocque, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research and education law support the use of routines-based interventions for young children with disabilities in the children's natural environments. However, systematic training and practice can provide individuals with the strategies and skills that can enhance these interventions. This article provides guidance for implementing intervention…

  14. Methionine splanchnic uptake is increased in critically ill children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During critical illness the splanchnic area is profoundly affected. There is no information on splanchnic uptake of amino acids in vivo, in critically ill children. Methionine splanchnic uptake in critically ill children will differ from estimates in healthy adults. We studied 24 critically ill chil...

  15. Increases in Maternal Education and Young Children's Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; Sexton, Holly R.; Davis-Kean, Pamela E., Huston, Aletha C.

    2009-01-01

    Maternal education is a strong correlate of children's language, cognitive, and academic development. In most prior research, mothers' education has been treated as a fixed characteristic, yet many mothers, particularly economically and educationally disadvantaged mothers, attend school after the birth of their children. In the present study, we…

  16. Shear induced carboplatin binding within the cavity of a phospholipid mimic for increased anticancer efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jingxin; Eggers, Paul K; Chen, Xianjue; Ahamed, Muhammad Rizwan Hussain; Becker, Thomas; Yong Lim, Lee; Raston, Colin L

    2015-01-01

    Vesicles 107 ± 19 nm in diameter, based on the self-assembly of tetra-para-phosphonomethyl calix[4]- arene bearing n-hexyl moieties attached to the phenolic oxygen centres, are effective in binding carboplatin within the cavity of the macrocycle under shear induced within a dynamic thin film in a continuous flow vortex fluidic device. Post shearing the vesicles maintain similar diameters and retain carboplatin within the cavity of the calixarene in a hierarchical structure, with their size and morphology investigated using DLS, TEM, SEM and AFM. Location of the carboplatin was confirmed using NMR, FTIR, ESI-MS and EFTEM, with molecular modelling favouring the polar groups of carboplatin hydrogen bonded to phosphonic acid moieties and the four member cyclobutane ring directed into the cavity of the calixarene. The loading efficiency and release profile of carboplatin was investigated using LC-TOF/MS, with the high loading of the drug achieved under shear and preferential released at pH 5.5, offering scope for anti-cancer drug delivery. The hierarchical structured vesicles increase the efficacy of carboplatin by 4.5 fold on ovarian cancer cells, lowered the IC50 concentration by 10 fold, and markedly increased the percent of cells in the S-phase (DNA replication) of the cell cycle. PMID:26000441

  17. New trends in breast cancer surgery: a therapeutic approach increasingly efficacy and respectful of the patient

    PubMed Central

    FRANCESCHINI, G.; SANCHEZ, A. MARTIN; DI LEONE, A.; MAGNO, S.; MOSCHELLA, F.; ACCETTA, C.; MASETTI, R.

    2015-01-01

    The surgical management of breast cancer has undergone continuous and profound changes over the last 40 years. The evolution from aggressive and mutilating treatment to conservative approach has been long, but constant, despite the controversies that appeared every time a new procedure came to light. Today, the aesthetic satisfaction of breast cancer patients coupled with the oncological safety is the goal of the modern breast surgeon. Breast-conserving surgery with adjuvant radiotherapy is considered the gold standard approach for patients with early stage breast cancer and the recent introduction of “oncoplastic techniques” has furtherly increased the use of breast-conserving procedures. Mastectomy remains a valid surgical alternative in selected cases and is usually associated with immediate reconstructive procedures. New surgical procedures called “conservative mastectomies” are emerging as techniques that combine oncological safety and cosmesis by entirely removing the breast parenchyma sparing the breast skin and nipple-areola complex. Staging of the axilla has also gradually evolved toward less aggressive approaches with the adoption of sentinel node biopsy and new therapeutic strategies are emerging in patients with a pathological positivity in sentinel lymph node biopsy. The present work will highlight the new surgical treatment options increasingly efficacy and respectful of breast cancer patients. PMID:26712068

  18. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day−1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg∗min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  19. Improved targeting of JAK2 leads to increased therapeutic efficacy in myeloproliferative neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Neha; Koppikar, Priya; Keller, Matthew; Marubayashi, Sachie; Shank, Kaitlyn; Rampal, Raajit; Qi, Jun; Kleppe, Maria; Patel, Hardik J.; Shah, Smit K.; Taldone, Tony; Bradner, James E.; Chiosis, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of JAK2/MPL mutations in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) led to clinical development of Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors for treatment of MPN. These inhibitors improve constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly but do not significantly reduce mutant allele burden in patients. We recently showed that chronic exposure to JAK inhibitors results in inhibitor persistence via JAK2 transactivation and persistent JAK–signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling. We performed genetic and pharmacologic studies to determine whether improved JAK2 inhibition would show increased efficacy in MPN models and primary samples. Jak2 deletion in vivo led to profound reduction in disease burden not seen with JAK inhibitors, and deletion of Jak2 following chronic ruxolitinib therapy markedly reduced mutant allele burden. This demonstrates that JAK2 remains an essential target in MPN cells that survive in the setting of chronic JAK inhibition. Combination therapy with the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitor PU-H71 and ruxolitinib reduced total and phospho-JAK2 and achieved more potent inhibition of downstream signaling than ruxolitinib monotherapy. Combination treatment improved blood counts, spleen weights, and reduced bone marrow fibrosis compared with ruxolitinib alone. These data suggest alternate approaches that increase JAK2 targeting, including combination JAK/HSP90 inhibitor therapy, are warranted in the clinical setting. PMID:24470592

  20. Using Asynchronous AV Communication Tools to Increase Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girasoli, Anthony J.; Hannafin, Robert D.

    2008-01-01

    Technology-enhanced learning environments (TELEs) deliver instructional content and provide an array of scaffolding features designed to support independent student learning. TELEs also support teacher efforts to guide student inquiry within these sometimes complex environments. Self-efficacy, defined by Bandura [Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy.…

  1. Effects of a Rape Awareness Program on College Women: Increasing Bystander Efficacy and Willingness to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foubert, John D.; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Brasfield, Hope; Hill, Brent

    2010-01-01

    An experimental study evaluated the efficacy of a sexual assault risk-reduction program on 279 college women that focused on learning characteristics of male perpetrators and teaching bystander intervention techniques. After seeing The Women's Program, participants reported significantly greater bystander efficacy and significantly greater…

  2. Motivational Interviewing as an intervention to increase adolescent self-efficacy and promote weight loss: Methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is associated with serious physiological and psychological consequences including type 2 diabetes, higher rates of depression and low self-esteem. With the population of overweight and obese youth increasing, appropriate interventions are needed that speak to the issue of readiness to change and motivation to maintain adherence to healthy behavior changes. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a method of therapy found to resolve ambivalence, enhance intrinsic motivation and promote confidence in a person's ability to make behavior changes. While MI has shown promise in the adult obesity literature as effecting positive lifestyle change, little is known about the effectiveness of MI with overweight and obese youth. This study aims to: 1) demonstrate that MI is an effective intervention for increasing a person's self-efficacy; 2) demonstrate that exposure to MI will facilitate healthy behavior changes; 3) explore psychological changes related to participation in MI and 4) compare physiological and anthropometric outcomes before and after intervention. Methods/Design The current investigation is a prospective study conducted with ongoing participants who regularly attend an outpatient pediatric care center for weight-loss. Overweight youth (BMI > 85th %ile) between the ages of 10 and 18 who meet eligibility criteria will be recruited. Participants will be randomly assigned to a control group (social skills training) or a treatment group (MI). Participants will meet with the therapist for approximately 30 minutes prior to seeing the dietician, over the course of 6 months. Participants will also undergo a full day assessment at the beginning and end of psychology intervention to evaluate body fat, and metabolic risk (screening for diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure and fitness level). The paper and pencil portions of the assessments as well as the clinical testing will occur at baseline and at the conclusion of the intervention (6

  3. Efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival of channel catfish infected with saprolegniasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rach, J.J.; Schreier, T.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Schleis, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of formalin and hydrogen peroxide to increase survival associated with external saprolegniasis on fingerlings of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus was evaluated in four laboratory trials. Fungal epizootics were initiated according to procedures developed in a fungal-disease model. Fish were abraded with a dremel tool and then placed in an aerated static infection tank containing fungal-infected hemp seeds held in teaballs that were suspended in 100 L of water for 24 h (trials 1-3) or 6 h (trial 4). In the formalin trials, treatment regimens of 0, 82, and 166 mg/L (trial 1) or 0 and 83 mg/L (trial 2) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments (trial 1) or once daily for a total of seven treatments (trial 2). In the hydrogen peroxide trials, treatment regimens of 0, 75, and 102 mg/L (trial 3) or 0 and 75 mg/L (trial 4) were administered to channel catfish for 60 min once every other day for a total of three treatments. Each treatment regimen was tested in triplicate, with 10 fish per replicate. Formalin exposures of 83 (seven treatments; 33% survival) and 166 mg/L (three treatments; 63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with controls (of which 3% and 13%, respectively, survived). In trial 4, hydrogen peroxide exposure of 75 mg/L (63% survival) for 60 min significantly (P <= 0.01) increased channel catfish survival in comparison with the untreated controls (13% survival). Formalin and hydrogen peroxide treatments were effective in increasing survival in channel catfish infected with fungus.

  4. Safety and efficacy of levetiracetam for the treatment of partial onset seizures in children from one month of age

    PubMed Central

    Cormier, Justine; Chu, Catherine J

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in the pediatric population, affecting up to one percent of children, and for which the mainstay of treatment is anticonvulsant medication. Despite the frequent use of anticonvulsant drugs, remarkably little is known about the safety and efficacy of most of these medications in the pediatric epilepsy population. Of 34 anticonvulsants currently approved for use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), only 13 have been approved for use in children. Although infants and young children are disproportionately affected by epilepsy, there are currently only three anticonvulsant medications that have been specifically evaluated and approved for use in children younger than 2 years of age. In 2012, the FDA approved levetiracetam as an adjunctive treatment for partial onset seizures in infants and children from one month of age. Here we review the available data on levetiracetam in the pediatric epilepsy population. We first discuss the pharmacological profile of levetiracetam, including its mechanism of action, formulations and dosing, and pharmacokinetics in children. We then review the available efficacy, safety, and tolerability data in children from one month of age with partial onset seizures. We conclude that the current data leading to the approval of levetiracetam for use in infants and children with partial onset seizures is encouraging, although more work needs to be done before definitive conclusions can be drawn about the efficacy of levetiracetam across different pediatric age groups. PMID:23458993

  5. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  6. Decreased circulation time offsets increased efficacy of PEGylated nanocarriers targeting folate receptors of glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeeley, Kathleen M.; Annapragada, Ananth; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2007-09-01

    Liposomal and other nanocarrier based drug delivery vehicles can localize to tumours through passive and/or active targeting. Passively targeted liposomal nanocarriers accumulate in tumours via 'leaky' vasculature through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect. Passive accumulation depends upon the circulation time and the degree of tumour vessel 'leakiness'. After extravasation, actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers efficiently deliver their payload by receptor-mediated uptake. However, incorporation of targeting moieties can compromise circulation time in the blood due to recognition and clearance by the reticuloendothelial system, decreasing passive accumulation. Here, we compare the efficacy of passively targeted doxorubicin-loaded PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers to that of actively targeted liposomal nanocarriers in a rat 9L brain tumour model. Although folate receptor (FR)-targeted liposomal nanocarriers had significantly reduced blood circulation time compared to PEGylated liposomal nanocarriers; intratumoural drug concentrations both at 20 and 50 h after administration were equal for both treatments. Both treatments significantly increased tumour inoculated animal survival by 60-80% compared to non-treated controls, but no difference in survival was observed between FR-targeted and passively targeted nanocarriers. Therefore, alternate approaches allowing for active targeting without compromising circulation time may be important for fully realizing the benefits of receptor-mediated active targeting of gliomas.

  7. A genetically adjuvanted influenza B virus vector increases immunogenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Christian; Wressnigg, Nina; Shurygina, Anna Polina; Wolschek, Markus; Stukova, Marina; Romanovskaya-Romanko, Ekatherina; Romanova, Julia; Kiselev, Oleg; Muster, Thomas; Egorov, Andrej

    2015-10-01

    The existence of multiple antigenically distinct types and subtypes of influenza viruses allows the construction of a multivalent vector system for the mucosal delivery of foreign sequences. Influenza A viruses have been exploited successfully for the expression of extraneous antigens as well as immunostimulatory molecules. In this study, we describe the development of an influenza B virus vector whose functional part of the interferon antagonist NS1 was replaced by human interleukin 2 (IL2) as a genetic adjuvant. We demonstrate that IL2 expressed by this viral vector displays immune adjuvant activity in immunized mice. Animals vaccinated with the IL2 viral vector showed an increased hemagglutination inhibition antibody response and higher protective efficacy after challenge with a wild-type influenza B virus when compared to mice vaccinated with a control virus. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to construct influenza B vaccine strains expressing immune-potentiating foreign sequences from the NS genomic segment. Based on these data, it is now hypothetically possible to create a trivalent (or quadrivalent) live attenuated influenza vaccine in which each component expresses a selected genetic adjuvant with tailored expression levels. PMID:26215439

  8. Engineering novel targeted nanoparticle formulations to increase the therapeutic efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics against multiple myeloma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Jonathan D.

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy which results from the uncontrolled clonal expansion of plasma cells within the body. Despite recent medical advances, this disease remains largely incurable, with a median survival of ˜7 years, owing to the development of drug resistance. This dissertation will explore new advances in nanotechnology that will combine the cytotoxic effects of small molecule chemotherapeutics with the tumor targeting capabilities of nanoparticles to create novel nanoparticle formulations that exhibit enhanced therapeutic indices in the treatment of MM. First, doxorubicin was surfaced conjugated onto micellar nanoparticles via an acid labile hydrazone bond to increase the drug accumulation at the tumor. The cell surface receptor Very Late Antigen-4 (VLA-4; alpha4beta1) is expressed on cancers of hematopoietic origin and plays a vital role in the cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) in MM. Therefore, VLA-4 antagonist peptides were conjugated onto the nanoparticles via a multifaceted procedure to actively target MM cells and simultaneously inhibit CAM-DR. The micellar doxorubicin nanoparticles were able to overcome CAM-DR and demonstrated improved therapeutic index relative to free doxorubicin. In addition to doxorubicin, other classes of therapeutic agents, such as proteasome inhibitors, can be incorporated in nanoparticles for improved therapeutic outcomes. Utilizing boronic acid chemistry, bortezomib prodrugs were synthesized using a reversible boronic ester bond and then incorporated into liposomes. The different boronic ester bonds that could be potentially used in the synthesis of bortezomib prodrugs were screened based on stability using isobutylboronic acid. The liposomal bortezomib nanoparticles demonstrated significant proteasome inhibition and cytotoxicity in MM cells in vitro, and dramatically reduced the non-specific toxicities associated with free bortezomib while maintaining significant tumor growth

  9. Eye-closure increases children's memory accuracy for visual material

    PubMed Central

    Mastroberardino, Serena; Vredeveldt, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that closing the eyes during retrieval can help both adults and children to remember more about witnessed events. In this study, we investigated whether the eye-closure effect in children is explained by general cognitive load, modality-specific interference, or a combination. 120 children (60 female) aged between 8 and 11 years viewed a 5-min clip depicting a theft and were questioned about the event. During the cued-recall interview, children either viewed a blank screen (blank-screen condition), kept their eyes closed (eye-closure condition), were exposed to visual stimuli (visual-distraction condition), or were exposed to auditory stimuli (auditory-distraction condition). Children in the blank-screen and eye-closure conditions provided significantly more correct and fewer incorrect responses about visual details than children in the visual- and auditory-distraction conditions. No advantage was found for auditory details. These results support neither a pure cognitive-load explanation (in which the effect is expected to be observed for recall of both visual and auditory details), nor a pure modality-specific account (in which recall of visual details should only be disrupted by visual distractions). Practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:24715881

  10. A Randomized Trial of a Classroom Intervention to Increase Peers' Social Inclusion of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Griggs, Marissa Swaim; Lerner, Matthew D.; Emeh, Christina C.; Reuland, Meg M.; Jack, Allison; Anthony, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for peer problems among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) typically focus on improving these children's behaviors. This study tested the proposition that an adjunctive component encouraging the peer group to be socially inclusive of children with ADHD would augment the efficacy of traditional…

  11. Phosphodiesterase Type 5 Inhibitors Increase Herceptin Transport and Treatment Efficacy in Mouse Metastatic Brain Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Satoshi; Konda, Bindu; Patil, Rameshwar; Ding, Hui; Espinoza, Andres; Wawrowsky, Kolja A.; Patil, Chirag; Ljubimov, Alexander V.; Black, Keith L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemotherapeutic drugs and newly developed therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are adequately delivered to most solid and systemic tumors. However, drug delivery into primary brain tumors and metastases is impeded by the blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB), significantly limiting drug use in brain cancer treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the effect of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors in nude mice on drug delivery to intracranially implanted human lung and breast tumors as the most common primary tumors forming brain metastases, and studied underlying mechanisms of drug transport. In vitro assays demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitors enhanced the uptake of [14C]dextran and trastuzumab (Herceptin®, a humanized monoclonal antibody against HER2/neu) by cultured mouse brain endothelial cells (MBEC). The mechanism of drug delivery was examined using inhibitors for caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis and coated pit/clathrin endocytosis. Inhibitor analysis strongly implicated caveolae and macropinocytosis endocytic pathways involvement in the PDE5 inhibitor-enhanced Herceptin uptake by MBEC. Oral administration of PDE5 inhibitor, vardenafil, to mice with HER2-positive intracranial lung tumors led to an increased tumor permeability to high molecular weight [14C]dextran (2.6-fold increase) and to Herceptin (2-fold increase). Survival time of intracranial lung cancer-bearing mice treated with Herceptin in combination with vardenafil was significantly increased as compared to the untreated, vardenafil- or Herceptin-treated mice (p<0.01). Log-rank survival analysis of mice bearing HER2-positive intracranial breast tumor also showed a significant survival increase (p<0.02) in the group treated with Herceptin plus vardenafil as compared to other groups. However, vardenafil did not exert any beneficial effect on survival of mice bearing intracranial breast tumor with low HER2 expression and co-treated with Herceptin (p>0.05). Conclusions

  12. Efficacy of oral ketamine compared to midazolam for sedation of children undergoing laceration repair

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Orit; Barkan, Shiri; Breitbart, Rachelle; Berkovitch, Sofia; Toledano, Michal; Weiser, Giora; Karadi, Natali; Nassi, Anat; Kozer, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. Methods: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg). Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation. Secondary outcomes included VAS by physician, pain assessment by child, maximal sedation depth assessed by the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, time until University of Michigan Sedation Scale 2 or more, general satisfaction of a parent and treating physician, length of procedure, total sedation time, and the incidence of any adverse events. Results: Sixty-eight children were recruited of which 33 were girls. Average age was 5.08 ± 2.14 years. Thirty-seven children were treated with ketamine and 31 with midazolam. Parent-assessed VAS in ketamine treated patients was 5.07 ± 0.75 compared with 3.68 ± 0.7 in midazolam treated patients [mean difference = 1.39 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.47 to 3.26]. Twelve (32%) of the children treated with ketamine required the addition of IV sedation compared to only 2 children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam [odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) 6.1, 95% CI: 1.2 to 30.5]. The rest of the measured variables were similar between the groups, with no statistical significance. Discussion: No difference in the level of pain was found between ketamine and midazolam treated patients. Compared with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg), oral ketamine (5 mg/kg) was associated with higher rates of sedation failure, and thus is not recommended as a single agent for oral sedation in children requiring laceration repair. PMID:27368000

  13. Artesunate-amodiaquine efficacy in Congolese children with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Brazzaville

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congo-Brazzaville adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2006. Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS + AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine are the first-line and second-line anti-malarial drugs to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, respectively. The baseline efficacy of AS + AQ was evaluated from February to August 2005 in patients living in Brazzaville, the capital city of the Republic of Congo. Methods One hundred and ninety-seven patients (96 ≤5 years old and 101 >5 years old, including adults) were recruited in a non-randomized study, treated under supervision with AS + AQ, and were followed up for 28 days in accordance with the 2003 World Health Organization protocol. Plasmodium falciparum recrudescent isolates from day 7 to day 28 were compared to pretreatment isolates by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to distinguish between re-infection and recrudescence. Results The overall efficacy of AS + AQ after PCR correction on day 28 was 94.4%. An adequate clinical and parasitological response was observed in 94.3% and 94.4% of children aged ≤5 years old and those aged >5 years old (including adults), respectively. The main reported adverse events were dizziness, vomiting, diarrhoea, pruritus, headache, anorexia, and abdominal pain. Conclusion This study has shown the high efficacy of AS + AQ in Congolese patients of all ages with acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria and serves as the baseline efficacy and tolerance of this ACT in Brazzaville. PMID:23384005

  14. Efficacy and complications of polyethylene glycols for treatment of constipation in children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Le; Cai, Shi-Rong; Deng, Liang; Zhang, Xin-Hua; Luo, Te-Dong; Peng, Jian-Jun; Xu, Jian-Bo; Li, Wen-Feng; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Ma, Jin-Ping; He, Yu-Long

    2014-10-01

    Constipation is a common childhood complaint. In 90% to 95% of children, constipation is functional, which means that there is no objective evidence of an underlying pathological condition. Polyethylene glycol (PEG or macrogol) solution is an osmotic laxative agent that is absorbed in only trace amounts from the gastrointestinal tract and routinely used to treat chronic constipation in adults. Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of PEG-based laxatives compared with lactulose, milk of magnesia (magnesium hydroxide), oral liquid paraffin (mineral oil), or acacia fiber, psyllium fiber, and fructose in children. This meta-analysis was conducted in accordance with PRISMA guidelines and involved searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases up to February 10, 2014, using the keywords (Constipation OR Functional Constipation OR Fecal Impaction) AND (Children) AND (Polyethylene Glycol OR Laxative). Primary efficacy outcomes included a number of stool passages/wk and percentage of patients who reported satisfactory stool consistency. Secondary safety outcomes included diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, pain or straining at defecation, bloating or flatulence, hard stool consistency, poor palatability, and rectal bleeding. We identified 231 articles, 27 of which were suitable for full-text review and 10 of which were used in the meta-analysis. Patients who were treated with PEG experienced more successful disimpaction compared with those treated with non-PEG laxatives. Treatment-related adverse events were acceptable and generally well tolerated. PEG-based laxatives are effective and safe for chronic constipation and for resolving fecal impaction in children. Children's acceptance of PEG-based laxatives appears to be better than non-PEG laxatives. Optimal dosages, routes of administration, and PEG regimens should be determined in future randomized controlled studies and meta-analyses. PMID:25310742

  15. The Puzzle of Problem-Solving Efficacy: Understanding Anxiety Among Urban Children Coping with Asthma-Related and Life Stress

    PubMed Central

    Murdock, Karla Klein; Greene, Carolyn; Adams, Sue K.; Hartmann, William; Bittinger, Sally; Will, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Children with asthma living in urban environments are at risk for experiencing anxiety by virtue of both social context and health-related stressors. Although the use of active coping strategies is generally associated with more optimal psychosocial functioning, there is evidence that active coping is less helpful in response to uncontrollable or severe stress. Expectations that one can fix a problem that is uncontrollable or insurmountable may create distress. Problem-solving efficacy was examined as a moderator of the association between stress and anxiety among children residing in inner-city neighborhoods. It was hypothesized that children’s perceptions of high problem-solving efficacy would exacerbate their vulnerability to stress. Forty-five parent-child dyads were recruited from urban community health centers. Most participants were members of ethnic minority groups. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed main effects of asthma-related stress and life stress on children’s anxiety. However, these effects were moderated by problem-solving efficacy. Asthma-related stress and life stress were positively associated with anxiety only for children who had the highest levels of problem-solving efficacy. In other words, positive expectations about the ability to solve problems functioned as a liability for highly stressed children. Implications for psychosocial interventions with at-risk children are discussed. PMID:19636994

  16. Preliminary Efficacy of a Behavioral Parent Training Program for Children With ADHD in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tamkeen Ashraf; Rooney, Mary; Chronis-Tuscano, Andrea; Tariq, Naeem

    2014-03-12

    Objective: In an effort to address the lack of evidence-based interventions for ADHD in developing South Asian countries, we examined the preliminary efficacy of a behavioral parent training program in Pakistan. Method: A quasi-experimental design was utilized. Eighty-five 4- to 12-year-old children with clinically significant ADHD symptoms participated: 55 were recruited from hospital clinics (active treatment group) and 30 were recruited from schools (waitlist control group). Parent and teacher ratings of ADHD, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and impairment were collected. Results: Using intent-to-treat analyses, the treatment group showed significant pre-post improvement on parent-reported ODD symptoms and ADHD-related impairment. Teacher ratings showed no improvement. Conclusion: This study provides preliminary evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of behavioral parenting training for children with ADHD in Pakistan and represents a critical first step in identifying evidence-based treatments for Pakistani children with ADHD. PMID:24621459

  17. An Efficacy Trial of an Intervention Program for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Graham-Bermann, Sandra A; Miller-Graff, Laura E; Howell, Kathryn H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) are at high risk for adjustment problems, especially internalizing disorders. Few evidence-based interventions are available to address internalizing behavior problems in this population. An efficacy trial compared outcomes for 4-6 year old children randomly assigned to a program designed to address the effects of exposure to IPV with those allocated to a waitlist comparison condition. Mothers (N = 120) and children from the United States and Canada were assessed at baseline, 5 weeks later (post-intervention) and at 8-month follow-up. The evaluation compared rates of change over time for child internalizing problems. Results were analyzed using both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) approaches. ITT analyses indicated the program reduced internalizing problems for girls at follow-up. PP analyses indicated the program reduced internalizing problems for both boys and girls at post-intervention. In this study, child internalizing problems were significantly reduced through an intervention for the mother and the child. PMID:25596929

  18. Mindful parenting decreases aggression and increases social behavior in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nirbhay N; Lancioni, Giulio E; Winton, Alan S W; Singh, Judy; Curtis, W John; Wahler, Robert G; McAleavey, Kristen M

    2007-11-01

    Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with 4 parents of children who had developmental disabilities, exhibited aggressive behavior, and had limited social skills. After mindfulness training, the parents were able to decrease aggressive behavior and increase their children's social skills. They also reported a greater practice of mindfulness, increased satisfaction with their parenting, more social interactions with their children, and lower parenting stress. Furthermore, the children showed increased positive and decreased negative social interactions with their siblings. We speculate that mindfulness produces transformational change in the parents that is reflected in enhanced positive behavioral transactions with their children. PMID:17932234

  19. Increased arterial stiffness in South Dakota American Indian children.

    PubMed

    Litz, Andrew M; Van Guilder, Gary P

    2016-02-01

    Arterial stiffness has been observed in white American obese children, yet there are no data in American Indian youth, who are affected disproportionately by the cardiovascular consequences of childhood obesity and its accompanying risk factors. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of childhood overweight-obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors with arterial stiffness in South Dakota white American and American Indian children. Thirty-six (28 white American and 8 American Indian) children (age, 13 ± 1 years; grades 6-8) from a rural South Dakota elementary and middle school were studied: 18 had a healthy weight (body mass index (BMI), 19.5 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)) and 18 were overweight-obese (BMI, 26.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)). Arterial stiffness was assessed using applanation tonometry via pulse wave analysis to determine carotid-radial pulse wave velocity (crPWV) and aortic augmentation index (AIx). There were no differences (P = 0.94) in crPWV between healthy weight (7.1 ± 1.4 m/s) and overweight-obese (7.3 ± 1.0 m/s) children, even after controlling for risk factors. However, crPWV was markedly elevated (P = 0.002) in overweight-obese American Indian children (7.7 ± 1.1 m/s) compared with white American children (6.8 ± 0.5 m/s), and these differences remained after controlling for blood pressure and more severe obesity in the American Indians. An obesity-matched subgroup analysis indicated that crPWV (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 6.8 ± 0.4 m/s) remained significantly greater in the American Indians (P = 0.03). There were no between-group differences in aortic AIx. These findings indicate an adverse influence of American Indian ethnicity on arterial stiffening in children with elevated adiposity. Arterial stiffness in American Indian children may accelerate early adulthood vascular disease. PMID:26761621

  20. Increased Congregational Support for Parents of Children with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Zou, Yuanshu; Wetzel, J. Denise; Krause, Neal; Grossoehme, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Positive health outcomes are related to adults’ religious congregational participation. For parents of children with chronic disease, structured daily care routines and or strict infection-control precautions may limit participation. For this exploratory study, we examined the relationship between congregational support and religious coping by parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) compared to parents for whom child health issues were not significant stressors. CF parents reported higher levels of emotional support from congregation members and use of religious coping. Within-group differences were found for CF parents by denominational affiliation. Congregational support for parents dealing with child chronic disease is important. PMID:25119628

  1. Increasing Social Capital and Personal Efficacy through Small-Scale Community Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Rossi, Melissa; Branton, Lisa; Field, Julie

    2011-01-01

    California's voter-approved Children and Families Act of 1998 calls for money collected from tobacco taxes to support services for families with children up to 5 years of age. Sacramento County uses a portion of its allocation for small community grants with the specific intent of building social capital among neighbors and across communities. The…

  2. Emerald Dragon Bites vs Veggie Beans: Fun Food Names Increase Children's Consumption of Novel Healthy Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.; Oehlhof, Marissa Wagner; Young, Kathleen M.; Hauser, Jessica C.; Galliger, Courtney; Sommer, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Caregivers often struggle with food neophobia on the part of young children. This study examined whether labeling novel healthy foods with fun names would increase children's willingness to try those foods and encourage them to eat more of those foods in a child care setting. Thirty-nine toddler and preschool age children (mean age = 3.9 years)…

  3. Using Education, Exposure, and Environments to Increase Preschool Children's Knowledge about Fruit and Vegetables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niemeier, Brandi S.; Tande, Desiree L.; Hwang, Joyce; Stastny, Sherri; Hektner, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    Because children's eating habits predict their adult eating habits, educating children about healthy foods is essential (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2000). A Midwest Extension Service created and delivered an educational experience for preschool children to increase knowledge of fruits and vegetables. The knowledge assessment…

  4. Exposure to foods' non-taste sensory properties. A nursery intervention to increase children's willingness to try fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Dazeley, Paul; Houston-Price, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Activities that engage young children with the sensory properties of foods are popular with nursery schools, despite the lack of evidence for their efficacy in increasing children's consumption of healthy foods. This study provides the first empirical exploration of the effectiveness of a non-taste sensory activity program in a nursery school setting. Ninety-two children aged between 12 and 36 months were allocated either to an intervention group, who took part in looking, listening, feeling and smelling activities with unusual fruits and vegetables every day for 4 weeks, or to a non-intervention control group. In a subsequent mealtime taste test, children touched and tasted more of the vegetables to which they had been familiarized in their playtime activities than of a matched set of non-exposed foods. The results demonstrate that hands-on activities with unfamiliar fruits and vegetables can enhance children's willingness to taste these foods, and confirm the potential for such activities to support healthy eating initiatives. PMID:25218879

  5. Increasing Physical Activity in Children: From Evidence to Action.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Tami L; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Lindberg, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Daily physical activity has the potential to improve health and well-being, yet worldwide surveillance of physical activity levels indicate a growing number of children and adolescents do not meet current physical activity recommendations. The current symptom-reactive paradigm should be reconsidered, and preventive actions initiated, before inactive children become resistant to targeted interventions and require pharmacotherapy, and expensive medical procedures for treatment of preventable illnesses. A cascade of adverse events are associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Nurses are uniquely qualified to identify youth with exercise deficits and encourage daily participation in a variety of age-related physical activities that enhance both health- and skill-related components of physical fitness.Physical activity guidelines should support evidence-based activity recommendations by nurses working with children. New insights regarding the importance of improving muscular strength and motor skill performance early in life are valuable to nurses in formulating exercise recommendations for school-age youth. Specific education in pediatric exercise science provides the foundation for prescribing age-related exercise interventions consistent with the needs, abilities, and interests of infants, toddlers, children, and adolescents. Given the critical importance of primary prevention, transformational change in the current system for identifying and treating youth with exercise deficits is warranted. PMID:25811394

  6. Increasing Observational Learning of Children with Autism: A Preliminary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Bridget A.; DeQuinzio, Jaime A.; Stine, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of monitoring responses on the acquisition of sight words with 3 children with autism. In the training condition, we taught participants a vocal imitation and matching response related to a peer's reading response. In another condition, participants were exposed only to a peer's reading responses. Participants read the…

  7. Increasing Children's Self-Control through Cognitive Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Research is reviewed on cognitive interventions which affect children's self-control. Five types of effective manipulations are discussed: self-verbalization; external verbalization; affect manipulation; cognitive transformation; and manipulation of attention. Self-control behaviors include modification of impulsive behaviors; delay of…

  8. Increasing Physical Activity of Children during School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Lynda B.; Van Camp, Carole M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is crucial for children's health. Fitbit accelerometers were used to measure steps of 6 elementary students during recess. The intervention included reinforcement, self-monitoring, goal setting, and feedback. Steps taken during the intervention phase (M?=?1,956 steps) were 47% higher than in baseline (M?=?1,326 steps), and the…

  9. Multilingual Children Increase Language Differentiation by Indexing Communities of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shannessy, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    An area in need of study in child language acquisition is that of complex multilingual contexts in which there is little language separation by interlocutor or domain. Little is known about how multilingual children use language to construct their identities in each language or in both languages. Identity construction in monolingual contexts has…

  10. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 6 months to 17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Belshe, Robert B.; Toback, Seth L.; Yi, Tingting; Ambrose, Christopher S.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Belshe et al. (2010). Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 6 months to 17 years of age. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 4(3), 141–145. Background  It has been suggested that live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) may be less effective in older individuals because of prior wild‐type influenza infections. LAIV is currently approved in the United States, South Korea and Hong Kong for individuals 2–49 years of age. Objective  To examine data from previously published pediatric studies to determine the efficacy of LAIV in various age groups. Methods  Four studies in which the subject age range exceeded 36 months were identified: one 2‐year study comparing LAIV with placebo and three 1‐year studies comparing LAIV with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Efficacy against any strain regardless of antigenic similarity to vaccine was analyzed by age; age groups were based on the study design and sample size. A logistic regression model was used to assess whether age, as a continuous variable, was an effect modifier on LAIV efficacy. Results  The efficacy of LAIV did not vary with age in children aged 15–84 months compared with placebo or in children aged 6 months to 17 years compared with TIV. Conclusions  The available data from prospective, randomized studies in children does not support the concept that prior repeated exposure to influenza, either through wild‐type infection or vaccination with live, attenuated or inactivated vaccines, reduces the efficacy of LAIV compared with placebo or TIV. The decreased immunologic responses to LAIV reported in older individuals or those with pre‐existing immunity do not appear to translate into reduced protection from influenza in children. PMID:20409210

  11. Efficacy of increasing the therapeutic index of irinotecan, plasma and tissue selenium concentrations is methylselenocysteine dose dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to understand the basis for the efficacy of methylselenocysteine (MSC) in increasing the therapeutic index of irinotecan against human tumore xenografts. Nude mice bearing human FaDu and A253 tumors were treated orally with different doses of MSC and irinotecan. Plasma, tum...

  12. Evaluation Efficacy of Ferrous Sulfate Therapy on Headaches of 5-15 Years Old Iron Deficient Children with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, R; Zare Bidoki, S; Ordooei, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Some researches have shown the association between iron deficiency and migraine headache in adults. The aim of present study was to evaluate efficacy of ferrous sulfate treatment on migraine headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children with iron deficiency. Materials and Methods In a quasi- experimental study, monthly frequency, severity, duration and disability of headaches of 5-15 years old migraineur children that prophylactic therapy was indicated in them and had iron deficiency who were referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinic of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran between 2013 and 2015 and were treated with 2mg/kg/day topiramate plus 4mg/kg/day of ferrous sulfate for three consecutive months, were evaluated and headache characteristics before and after treatment were compared. Results In this study, 98 children with mean age of 9.72±3.19 were evaluated that 31children (31.6%) had iron deficiency. Monthly frequency (22.89±7.18 vs.14.5±4.56, P= 0.02), severity score (8.12± 1.76 vs. 5.03±1.15, P= 0.02) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7vs. 30.12±7.46, P= 0.03) were more in children with iron deficiency. Iron therapy was effective in decreasing of monthlyfrequency 22.89± 7.18 vs. 10.13±4.51, P = 0.001), severity score (8.12±1.76 vs. 5.11±1.62, P =0.001), duration (2.14±1.23 vs.1.14±1.01, P= 0.001) and disability score of headache (38.23±10.7 vs. 22.87±8.65, P= 0.01). Conclusion In children, iron deficiency increased monthly frequency, severity and disability of migraine headache and ferrous sulfate can be used as a safe and effective drug in migraine prophylaxis. PMID:27222700

  13. Increasing Coverage and Decreasing Inequity in Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Use among Rural Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. Methods and Findings We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0–4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor

  14. Behavioral intervention to increase compliance with electroencephalographic procedures in children with developmental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Slifer, Keith J.; Avis, Kristin T.; Frutchey, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    The EEG, or electroencephalogram, is a neurophysiological technique used to detect and record electrical activity in the brain. It is critical to the diagnosis and management of seizure disorders, such as epilepsy, as well as other neurological conditions. The EEG procedure is often not well tolerated by children with developmental disabilities because of anxiety about unfamiliar equipment, difficulty inhibiting motion, and tactile defensiveness. The inability of children with developmental disabilities to tolerate an EEG procedure is especially problematic because the incidence of epilepsy is considerably higher in children with disabilities. This clinical outcome study sought to determine the efficacy of using behavioral intervention to teach children with developmental disorders to cooperate with an EEG procedure. The behavioral training employed modeling, counterconditioning, escape extinction, and differential reinforcement-based shaping procedures. Results indicated that behavioral training is successful in promoting EEG compliance without restraint, anesthesia, or sedation. PMID:18348911

  15. Desiccation increases the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored grain pest insects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of desiccation stress on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for stored-product insects was investigated in laboratory bioassays. The mortality of B. bassiana-treated Plodia interpunctella larvae was greater at a vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of 2.42 kPa or 1.87 kPa than at 1.06 kPa. Moist...

  16. Cage-Fighting Bees: Can Aggressive Competition Increase Pollination Efficacy for an Oligolectic Native Bee?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollination efficacy of the oligolectic bee Ptilothrix bombiformis was measured as the number of pollen grains delivered to virgin Hibiscus stigmas. Such specialized bee foragers are often assumed to be highly efficient pollinators. Intriguingly, however, we discovered females fight over host blooms...

  17. The Use of Peer Modeling to Increase Self-Efficacy in Research Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Chad

    2015-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges students face in any undergraduate methods course is a lack of confidence in their mathematical abilities, leading to a struggle for both retention of information and for continued involvement in research-based courses. In my article, I present a new approach to improving self-efficacy in undergraduate methods…

  18. Increasing Student Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Efficacy through Gamification Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banfield, James; Wilkerson, Brad

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess gamification as a method of experiential learning theory (ELT) on student motivation and self-efficacy to perform System Engineering/Information Assurance (IA) tasks. The study was a basic qualitative method, whereby data was collected via semi-structured interview and then analyzed for recurring themes and…

  19. Reducing Anxiety and Increasing Self-Efficacy within an Advanced Graduate Psychology Statistics Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, April L.; Ferns, Alyssa; Greiner, Leigh; Wanamaker, Kayla; Brown, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    In this study we assessed the usefulness of a multifaceted teaching framework in an advanced statistics course. We sought to expand on past findings by using this framework to assess changes in anxiety and self-efficacy, and we collected focus group data to ascertain whether students attribute such changes to a multifaceted teaching approach.…

  20. Genotype-dependency of butyrate efficacy in children with congenital chloride diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Congenital chloride diarrhea (CLD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by life-long, severe diarrhea with intestinal Cl- malabsorption. It results from a reduced activity of the down regulated in adenoma exchanger (DRA), due to mutations in the solute carrier family 26, member 3 (SLC26A3) gene. Currently available therapies are not able to limit the severity of diarrhea in CLD. Conflicting results have been reported on the therapeutic efficacy of oral butyrate. Methods We investigated the effect of oral butyrate (100 mg/kg/day) in seven CLD children with different SLC26A3 genotypes. Nasal epithelial cells were obtained to assess the effect of butyrate on the expression of the two main Cl- transporters: DRA and putative anion transporter-1 (PAT-1). Results A variable clinical response to butyrate was observed regarding the stool pattern and fecal ion loss. The best response was observed in subjects with missense and deletion mutations. Variable response to butyrate was also observed on SLC26A3 (DRA) and SLC26A6 (PAT1) gene expression in nasal epithelial cells of CLD patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a genotype-dependency for butyrate therapeutic efficacy in CLD. The effect of butyrate is related in part on a different modulation of the expression of the two main apical membrane Cl- exchangers of epithelial cells, members of the SLC26 anion family. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical trial Registry ACTRN12613000450718. PMID:24350656

  1. Synergism between carvacrol or thymol increases the antimicrobial efficacy of soy sauce with no sensory impact.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyeree; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-01-18

    Here, we examined the antimicrobial effects of soy sauce containing essential oils (EOs) against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes at 22°C and 4°C. To screen a variety of combined effects, soy sauce was mixed with six different EOs (carvacrol, thymol, eugenol, trans-cinnamaldehyde, β-resorcylic acid, and vanillin), each at a concentration of 1mM for 10 min. None of the oils showed bactericidal activity when used alone. Soy sauce combined with carvacrol and thymol induced the greatest antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria; therefore, these oils were further tested at 0.25, 0.5, and 1mM (0.0039%, 0.0078%, and 0.0157%) for 1, 5, and 10 min at 4°C and 22°C. In addition, sensory evaluation of soy sauce containing each EO at 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2mM was performed using the nine point hedonic test. Carvacrol or thymol (1mM) eliminated all the test bacteria (initial population, 7.0-7.5logCFU/ml) in 1-5 min at 22°C and within 10 min at 4°C. L. monocytogenes was slightly more tolerant at 4°C, which may be attributable to the ability of the cell membrane to adapt to low temperatures. The sensory scores for soy sauce containing EOs were not significantly different from that of soy sauce without EOs (P>0.05). The stability of EO efficacy in soy sauce was also verified. These results suggest that carvacrol and thymol act synergistically with other factors present in soy sauce to increase antimicrobial activity against major foodborne pathogens at both 4°C and 22°C. The synergism may be attributable to the combination of factors (mainly high salt concentration and low pH imparted by organic acids) present in soy sauce and the membrane attacking properties of carvacrol and thymol. This method will facilitate the production of microbiologically safe soy sauce, soy sauce-based marinades, and various marinated foods. PMID:26490647

  2. Incorporation of Farnesol Significantly Increases the Efficacy of Liposomal Ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Bandara, H M H N; Herpin, M J; Kolacny, D; Harb, A; Romanovicz, D; Smyth, H D C

    2016-08-01

    The challenge of eliminating Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, such as in cystic fibrosis lungs, remains unchanged due to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. Poor drug penetration into dense P. aeruginosa biofilms plays a vital role in ineffective clearance of the infection. Thus, the current antibiotic therapy against P. aeruginosa biofilms need to be revisited and alternative antibiofilm strategies need to be invented. Fungal quorum sensing molecule (QSM), farnesol, appears to have detrimental effects on P. aeruginosa. Thus, this study aimed to codeliver naturally occurring QSM farnesol, with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin as a liposomal formulation to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilms. Four different liposomes (with ciprofloxacin and farnesol, Lcip+far; with ciprofloxacin, Lcip; with farnesol, Lfar; control, Lcon) were prepared using dehydration-rehydration method and characterized. Drug entrapment and release were evaluated by spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The efficacy of liposomes was assessed using standard biofilm assay. Liposome-treated 24 h P. aeruginosa biofilms were quantitatively assessed by XTT reduction assay and crystal violet assay, and qualitatively by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ciprofloxacin release from liposomes was higher when encapsulated with farnesol (Lcip+far) compared to Lcip (3.06% vs 1.48%), whereas farnesol release was lower when encapsulated with ciprofloxacin (Lcip+far) compared to Lfar (1.81% vs 4.75%). The biofilm metabolism was significantly lower when treated with Lcip+far or Lcip compared to free ciprofloxacin (XTT, P < 0.05). When administered as Lcip+far, the ciprofloxacin concentration required to achieve similar biofilm inhibition was 125-fold or 10-fold lower compared to free ciprofloxacin or Lcip, respectively (P < 0.05). CLSM and TEM confirmed predominant biofilm disruption, greater dead cell ratio, and increased depth of

  3. An Evaluation of the Relative Efficacy of and Children's Preferences for Teaching Strategies that Differ in Amount of Teacher Directedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heal, Nicole A.; Hanley, Gregory P.; Layer, Stacy A.

    2009-01-01

    The manner in which teachers mediate children's learning varies across early childhood classrooms. In this study, we used a multi-element design to evaluate the efficacy of three commonly implemented strategies that varied in teacher directedness for teaching color- and object-name relations. Strategy 1 consisted of brief exposure to the target…

  4. Measures of parents' self-efficacy and perceived barriers to children's sun protection: construct validity and reliability in melanoma survivors.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Mary K; Diamond, Pamela M; Vernon, Sally W; Swank, Paul R; Dolan Mullen, Patricia; Gritz, Ellen R

    2013-10-01

    Valid and reliable psychosocial measures for parents are lacking in the children's sun protection literature. We examined the construct validity and reliability of measures of parents' self-efficacy and perceived barriers specific to four sun protection behaviors in children: sunscreen, clothing, shade and limiting time outdoors. Melanoma survivors (N = 205) with children aged 12 years and younger completed an interview. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a four-factor structure of self-efficacy in which each factor was specific to one of the sun protection behaviors. This structure, consistent with Bandura's conceptualization, suggests using behavior-specific scores. A bifactor model best fit the perceived barriers data. Each item loaded on both a general barriers factor and one of four behavior-specific factors. Based on the magnitude of general factor loadings relative to behavior-specific factor loadings, use of subscale scores or a total score is recommended. Correlations between self-efficacy measures (0.30-0.46) and between perceived barriers measures (0.22-0.42) suggested convergent validity. Correlations between self-efficacy and perceived barriers were strongest within behavior (-0.34 to -0.63), suggesting discriminant validity. Almost all measures were most strongly associated with corresponding behaviors, supporting construct validity. Reliabilities ranged from 0.72 to 0.90. Measures are valid and reliable for use in children's sun protection studies. PMID:23204537

  5. Maternal Self-Efficacy and Children's Influence on Stress and Parenting among Single Black Mothers in Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the relations among perceived self-efficacy, social support, children's behaviors, and maternal parenting in a sample of 188 single Black mothers of a preschool-age child. Results show a positive relationship between child behavior problems and parenting stress. Fewer child behavior problems and higher material educational attainment were…

  6. Physical Education Students' Attitudes and Self-Efficacy Towards the Participation of Children with Special Needs in Regular Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu (Shayke); Zach, Sima; Gafni, Ofra

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between personal variables of physical education students and their attitudes towards participation of children with disabilities and self-efficacy (SE) in teaching students with disabilities in regular classes. A total 153 PE majors (95 females and 58 males) participated in the…

  7. Do Children Prefer Contingencies? An Evaluation of the Efficacy of and Preference for Contingent versus Noncontingent Social Reinforcement during Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczynski, Kevin C.; Hanley, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering whether children prefer reinforcement via a contingency or independent of their behavior is important considering the ubiquity of these programmed schedules of reinforcement. The current study evaluated the efficacy of and preference for social interaction within differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and…

  8. A Validation and Reliability Study of the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Christina M.; De Ayala, R. J.; Lebow, Ryan; Hayden, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain validity evidence for the Physical Activity and Healthy Food Efficacy Scale for Children (PAHFE). Construct validity evidence identifies four subscales: Goal-Setting for Physical Activity, Goal-Setting for Healthy Food Choices, Decision-Making for Physical Activity, and Decision-Making for Healthy Food…

  9. Bully/Victim Problems and Their Association with Machiavellianism and Self-Efficacy in Greek Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, E.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Previous research demonstrated that Machiavellian beliefs are linked with bully/victim problems at school. However, Machiavellianism was treated as a single construct and not as multidimensional. Children's perceptions of self-efficacy in both social and academic domains have been related to conflictual peer interactions but not…

  10. The Protective Effects of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy on British Children Growing Up in Deprivation: A Developmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Tach, Laura M.; Sampson, Robert J.; Taylor, Alan; Matthews, Charlotte L.; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the influence of neighborhood-level deprivation and collective efficacy on children’s antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10 years. Latent growth curve modeling was applied to characterize the developmental course of antisocial behavior among children in the E-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological cohort of 2,232 children. Children in deprived versus affluent neighborhoods had higher levels of antisocial behavior at school entry (24.1 vs. 20.5, p < .001) and a slower rate of decline from involvement in antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10 (−0.54 vs. −0.78, p < .01). Neighborhood collective efficacy was negatively associated with levels of antisocial behavior at school entry (r =−.10, p < .01) but only in deprived neighborhoods; this relationship held after controlling for neighborhood problems and family-level factors. Collective efficacy did not predict the rate of change in antisocial behavior between the ages of 5 and 10. Findings suggest that neighborhood collective efficacy may have a protective effect on children living in deprived contexts. PMID:19586172

  11. Group Intervention to Promote Social Skills in School-Age Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: Reconsidering Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Kathleen; De Los Reyes, Andres; Cicchetti, Domenic; Scahill, Lawrence; Klin, Ami

    2009-01-01

    A consistent result in the evaluation of group-delivered intervention to promote social reciprocity in children with PDDs is that outcome data are inconclusive. Lack of robust evidence of efficacy confounds understanding of these interventions and their value to the field. It is conceivable that the construct of impaired social reciprocity in PDD…

  12. Single Mothers' Self-Efficacy, Parenting in the Home Environment, and Children's Development in a Two-Wave Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Aurora P.; Scheines, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 178 single black mothers and their young children who were ages three to five at time 1 and ages five to eight at time 2, this study examined the links between and among low-wage employment, mothers' self-efficacy beliefs, depressive symptoms, and a constellation of parenting behaviors in the preschool years to…

  13. A Small-Scale Randomized Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Enhancing Children's Social Development in Child Care Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusby, Julie C.; Smolkowski, Keith; Marquez, Brion; Taylor, Ted K.

    2008-01-01

    The quality of the child care environment and caregiver practices can potentially have significant, lasting impact on children's social development. This study involves the development and a small-scale efficacy trial of the Carescapes program, a video-based training program that focuses on promoting positive social development in young children…

  14. Labels Increase Attention to Novel Objects in Children with Autism and Comprehension-Matched Children with Typical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mcduffie, Andrea S.; Yoder, Paul J.; Stone, Wendy L.

    2006-01-01

    This study used an intact group comparison to examine attention following in 34 children aged 2 years diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) matched pairwise for vocabulary comprehension with a group of typically developing toddlers. For both groups of children, the presence of verbal labels during a referential task increased attention to…

  15. Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koposov, Roman; Gundersen, Knut K.; Svartdal, Frode

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART) programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32), their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups.…

  16. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  17. Kindergarten children's growth trajectories in reading and mathematics: who falls increasingly behind?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Wu, Qiong

    2011-01-01

    The authors used a large sample of children (N ≈ 7,400) participating in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K) to estimate kindergarten children's academic achievement growth trajectories in reading and mathematics. The authors were particularly interested in whether the growth trajectories of children with learning disabilities (LD) or speech language impairments (SLI)--as well as those of other groups of children--were consistent with a cumulative or compensatory developmental cycle. Both LD and SLI children displayed significantly lower levels of kindergarten reading achievement than nondisabled children. However, and over the subsequent 5 years of elementary school, only children with SLI lagged increasingly behind nondisabled peers in their reading skills growth. The authors observed a different pattern for mathematics achievement. Children with LD, but not SLI, lagged increasingly behind nondisabled children in their mathematics skills growth. The authors also observed some consistency in "poor-get-poorer" effects across reading and mathematic achievement for additional population subgroups. Those kindergarten children who were from lower socioeconomic status families, who were African American, and who more frequently displayed learning-related behavior problems initially had lower levels of reading and mathematics achievement and also lagged increasingly behind in their acquisition of these skills over time. Some groups of children, including those with SLI, experience a cumulative rather than a compensatory cycle of achievement growth. PMID:21856991

  18. A School-Based Intervention to Increase Lyme Disease Preventive Measures Among Elementary School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Zibit, Melanie J.; Nardone, Elizabeth; DeMaria, Alfred; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Cui, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Educational interventions to reduce Lyme disease (LD) among at-risk school children have had little study. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a short in-class LD education program based on social learning theory and the Health Belief Model (HBM) impacted a child's knowledge, attitude, and preventive behavior. Methods: Students in grades 2–5 in 19 elementary schools were selected in an area that was highly endemic for LD. The children received an educational intervention or were on a wait list as controls. Their knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported preventive behaviors were surveyed before implementing the program and 1 year later. General linear regression analyses adjusting for age, gender, and baseline variables were used to measure the impact of the intervention. Results: There were 3570 participants in the study: 1562 received the intervention, and 2008 were controls. The mean age for both groups was 9.1 years, with 53% women in the intervention group and 50% women in the control group. The children in the intervention group increased their overall knowledge of LD more than the children in the control group (overall knowledge score improvement, mean difference (SD) 1.38 (1.3) vs. 0.36 (1.3) p < 0.0001). All children in classes receiving the intervention reported an increase in precautionary behavior, positive attitude toward taking precautions, and self-efficacy compared with the wait list controls. Two LD cases were confirmed during the follow-up period, one in the intervention group and one in the controls. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that a short in-class educational program that includes elements of the HBM, including: (1) awareness and knowledge about the disease, (2) benefits of preventive behavior, and (3) confidence in ability to perform preventive behaviors can improve knowledge, attitude, and self-reported precautionary behavior among at-risk children. www.clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00594997 PMID

  19. Contrasting two models of academic self-efficacy--domain-specific versus cross-domain--in children receiving and not receiving special instruction in mathematics.

    PubMed

    Jungert, Tomas; Hesser, Hugo; Träff, Ulf

    2014-10-01

    In social cognitive theory, self-efficacy is domain-specific. An alternative model, the cross-domain influence model, would predict that self-efficacy beliefs in one domain might influence performance in other domains. Research has also found that children who receive special instruction are not good at estimating their performance. The aim was to test two models of how self-efficacy beliefs influence achievement, and to contrast children receiving special instruction in mathematics with normally-achieving children. The participants were 73 fifth-grade children who receive special instruction and 70 children who do not receive any special instruction. In year four and five, the children's skills in mathematics and reading were assessed by national curriculum tests, and in their fifth year, self-efficacy in mathematics and reading were measured. Structural equation modeling showed that in domains where children do not receive special instruction in mathematics, self-efficacy is a mediating variable between earlier and later achievement in the same domain. Achievement in mathematics was not mediated by self-efficacy in mathematics for children who receive special instruction. For normal achieving children, earlier achievement in the language domain had an influence on later self-efficacy in the mathematics domain, and self-efficacy beliefs in different domains were correlated. Self-efficacy is mostly domain specific, but may play a different role in academic performance depending on whether children receive special instruction. The results of the present study provided some support of the Cross-Domain Influence Model for normal achieving children. PMID:24952956

  20. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  1. Short-Term Efficacy and Correlates of Change in Health Weight Management Program for Chinese American Children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Kwan, Monica

    2016-05-01

    A pretest and posttest study design was used to test a healthy weight management intervention with overweight and/or obese Chinese American children. Children attended 8-weekly small group sessions while parents attended a single 2-hour parent workshop. Children had their weight, height, blood pressure, waist and hip circumference, and fast lipids data assessed and completed several questions questionnaires regarding food choices, self-efficacy, and knowledge at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Parents completed questionnaires regarding demographic, acculturation level and family environment. We found significant reduction of body mass index, waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and improvement of child's eating style, physical activity knowledge, self-efficacy, and children's quality of life at 6-month follow-up. In addition, significant improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decrease in triglyceride were found at 6-month follow-up. Improvement of nutrition self-efficacy and decreased stimulus environment were associated with decreased body mass index in overweight and obese Chinese American children. PMID:26149851

  2. Increased production of IL-17 in children with autism spectrum disorders and co-morbid asthma.

    PubMed

    Akintunde, Marjannie Eloi; Rose, Melissa; Krakowiak, Paula; Heuer, Luke; Ashwood, Paul; Hansen, Robin; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Van de Water, Judy

    2015-09-15

    Inflammation and asthma have both been reported in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further assess this connection, peripheral immune cells isolated from young children with ASD and typically developing (TD) controls and the production of cytokines IL-17, -13, and -4 assessed following ex vivo mitogen stimulation. Notably, IL-17 production was significantly higher following stimulation in ASD children compared to controls. Moreover, IL-17 was increased in ASD children with co-morbid asthma compared to controls with the same condition. In conclusion, children with ASD exhibited a differential response to T cell stimulation with elevated IL-17 production compared to controls. PMID:26298322

  3. An Open-Label Extension Study of the Safety and Efficacy of Risperidone in Children and Adolescents with Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hough, David; Singh, Jaskaran; Karcher, Keith; Pandina, Gahan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of risperidone in treating irritability and related behaviors in children and adolescents with autistic disorders. Methods: In this 6 month (26 week) open-label extension (OLE) study, patients (5–17 years of age, who completed the previous fixed-dose, 6 week, double-blind [DB] phase) were flexibly dosed with risperidone based on body weight. The maximum allowed dose was 1.25 mg/day for those weighing 20 to <45 kg, and 1.75 mg/day for those weighing ≥45 kg. The study primarily assessed risperidone's safety; efficacy was assessed as a secondary end-point. Results: Fifty-six (71%) out of 79 enrolled patients completed the OLE; the most common discontinuations were for insufficient response (7 [9%]) or adverse events (AE) (5 [6%]). The most common (≥5% frequency in the total group) AEs were increased appetite (11% [n=9]); increased weight and vomiting (9% [n=7] each); sedation, pyrexia, and upper respiratory tract infection (8% [n=6] each); nasopharyngitis (6% [n=5]); and somnolence and fatigue (5% [n=4] each). Extrapyramidal AEs were reported in 6 (8%) patients. Increase in mean weight (11–15%) and body mass index (5–10%) occurred; one patient discontinued because of weight increase. One potentially prolactin-related AE (irregular menstruation) was reported. The risperidone high-dose group had the greatest mean improvement in sleep visual analog scale (24.6). All groups showed additional improvement in efficacy scale scores during the OLE. Conclusions: During this OLE, safety findings with risperidone treatment (maximum weight-based dose of 1.25 mg/day or 1.75 mg/day) were consistent with those observed in the DB phase, and with the current safety information for risperidone in autistic, psychiatric, and behavioral disorders. Patients experienced some additional improvement in irritability and related behaviors. Clinical Trials Registry: This phase-4

  4. An Efficacy Trial of Carescapes: Home-Based Child-Care Practices and Children's Social Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rusby, Julie C; Jones, Laura B; Crowley, Ryann; Smolkowski, Keith

    2016-07-01

    This study reported findings from a longitudinal randomized controlled trial of Carescapes, a professional development program for home-based child-care providers in promoting children's social competence. Participants included 134 child-care providers and 310 children, ages 3-5 years, in Oregon. The Carescapes intervention group made significant improvements in observed caregiver responsiveness and monitoring, and showed decreased caregiver-reported child problem behavior and improved parent-reported peer relationships compared to the control group. Increased caregiver-reported cooperation skills were found for the intervention group at follow-up. No differences in condition were found for kindergarten teacher-reported social-behavioral, classroom, and academic skills. Moderation effects on children's behavior and peer relations were found for child age and exposure to the intervention child care. PMID:27174665

  5. Phase II trial of standard versus increased transfusion volume in Ugandan children with acute severe anemia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Severe anemia (SA, hemoglobin <6 g/dl) is a leading cause of pediatric hospital admission in Africa, with significant in-hospital mortality. The underlying etiology is often infectious, but specific pathogens are rarely identified. Guidelines developed to encourage rational blood use recommend a standard volume of whole blood (20 ml/kg) for transfusion, but this is commonly associated with a frequent need for repeat transfusion and poor outcome. Evidence is lacking on what hemoglobin threshold criteria for intervention and volume are associated with the optimal survival outcomes. Methods We evaluated the safety and efficacy of a higher volume of whole blood (30 ml/kg; Tx30: n = 78) against the standard volume (20 ml/kg; Tx20: n = 82) in Ugandan children (median age 36 months (interquartile range (IQR) 13 to 53)) for 24-hour anemia correction (hemoglobin >6 g/dl: primary outcome) and 28-day survival. Results Median admission hemoglobin was 4.2 g/dl (IQR 3.1 to 4.9). Initial volume received followed the randomization strategy in 155 (97%) patients. By 24-hours, 70 (90%) children in the Tx30 arm had corrected SA compared to 61 (74%) in the Tx20 arm; cause-specific hazard ratio = 1.54 (95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.18, P = 0.01). From admission to day 28 there was a greater hemoglobin increase from enrollment in Tx30 (global P <0.0001). Serious adverse events included one non-fatal allergic reaction and one death in the Tx30 arm. There were six deaths in the Tx20 arm (P = 0.12); three deaths were adjudicated as possibly related to transfusion, but none secondary to volume overload. Conclusion A higher initial transfusion volume prescribed at hospital admission was safe and resulted in an accelerated hematological recovery in Ugandan children with SA. Future testing in a large, pragmatic clinical trial to establish the effect on short and longer-term survival is warranted. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.Gov identifier: NCT01461590

  6. An Evaluation of the My ParticipACTION Campaign to Increase Self-Efficacy for Being More Physically Active.

    PubMed

    Craig, Cora Lynn; Bauman, Adrian; Latimer-Cheung, Amy; Rhodes, Ryan E; Faulkner, Guy; Berry, Tanya R; Tremblay, Mark S; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the My ParticipACTION campaign was to inspire Canadian adults to increase their physical activity through messaging that was relevant, engaging, and designed to build self-efficacy to be more active. This research examined the communication effects of the campaign according to the a priori Hierarchy of Effects Model (saliency → cognitive engagement → self-efficacy to become more active → trial behavior) and investigated how these effects related to overall self-efficacy for physical activity, intention to be active, and current activity level. Participants (N = 1,110) were recruited from an existing panel of Canadian adults 18 years and older and completed a short online questionnaire about the potential communication effects. Logistic regression models were constructed to test the communication effects adjusting for age, gender, and education. The relations were consistent with those hypothesized in the model. In addition, some earlier outcomes in the sequence of effects were associated with other outcomes further down the progression. When intention to be active was included, the initial relation between ad-specific self-efficacy and current physical activity disappeared. This analysis suggested that the campaign was successful in increasing self-efficacy to be more active and that using the Hierarchy of Effects Model was useful in guiding the design of campaign messages and assessing communication effects. Given the limited amount of theoretical testing of the Hierarchy of Effects Model, future research employing longitudinal designs is required to further confirm the communication effects of such an intervention and further test the model. PMID:26151315

  7. Measurement of Self-Efficacy for Diet-Related Behaviors among Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parcel, Guy S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of the Child Dietary Self-Efficacy Scale (CDSS) to measure self-efficacy for selecting and consuming healthful food. Third and fourth graders completed the CDSS, and results revealed acceptable estimates of internal consistency for the dietary self-efficacy scale. Self-efficacy strongly related to students' usual food…

  8. Associations between general self-efficacy and health-related quality of life among 12-13-year-old school children: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Haraldstad, Kristin; Helseth, Sølvi; Sørum, Ragnhild; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background While research on school children's health has mainly focused on risk factors and illness, few studies have examined aspects of health promotion. Thus, this study focuses on health promotional factors including general self-efficacy (GSE) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). GSE refers to a global confidence in coping ability across a wide range of demanding situations, and is related to health. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between GSE and HRQOL, and associations between HRQOL and socio-demographic characteristics. Knowledge of these associations in healthy school children is currently lacking. Methods During 2006 and 2007, 279 school children in the seventh grade across eastern Norway completed a survey assessing their GSE and HRQOL. The children were from schools that had been randomly selected using cluster sampling. T-tests were computed to compare mean subscale values between HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Single and multiple regression analyses were performed to explore associations among GSE, HRQOL and socio-demographic variables. Results Regression analyses showed a significant relationship between increasing degrees of GSE and increasing degrees of HRQOL. In analyses adjusted for socio-demographic variables, boys scored higher than girls on self-esteem. School children from single-parent families had lower scores on HRQOL than those from two-parent families, and children who had relocated within the last five years had lower scores on HRQOL than those who had not relocated. Conclusion The strong relationship between GSE and HRQOL indicates that GSE might be a resource for increasing the HRQOL for school children. PMID:19772673

  9. Endothelin-1 Is Increased in Cerebrospinal Fluid and Associated with Unfavorable Outcomes in Children after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Empey, Philip E.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Klamerus, Megan; Ozawa, Haishin; Wagner, Amy K.; Ruppel, Randall; Bell, Michael J.; Feldman, Keri; Adelson, P. David; Clark, Robert S.B.; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with unfavorable outcomes secondary to injury from activation of the inflammatory cascade, the release of excitotoxic neurotransmitters, and changes in the reactivity of cerebral vessels, causing ischemia. Hypoperfusion of injured brain tissues after TBI is also associated with unfavorable outcomes. Therapeutic hypothermia is an investigational treatment strategy for use in patients with severe TBI that has shown differential effects on various cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) mediators in pediatric patients. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a powerful vasoconstrictor that exerts its effects on the cerebrovascular endothelium for sustained periods after TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine if CSF concentrations of ET-1 are increased after severe TBI in children, and if they are associated with demographics and outcomes that are affected by therapeutic hypothermia. This was an ancillary study to a prospective, randomized-controlled trial of early hypothermia in a tertiary care pediatric intensive care unit. Children (n = 34, age 3 months–15 years) suffering from severe TBI were randomized to hypothermia (n = 19) and normothermia (n = 15) as part of the efficacy study. Children undergoing diagnostic lumbar puncture (n = 11) to rule out infection were used as controls. Patients received either mild to moderate hypothermia (32–33°C) or normothermia as part of their treatment protocol. CSF was serially collected during the first 5 days after TBI. ET-1 concentrations were quantitated in patient and control CSF samples by a validated ELISA in duplicate with a limit of quantification of 0.195 pg/mL. CSF ET-1 concentrations were increased by two- to threefold in children after TBI compared to controls, and the increase was sustained for up to 5 days post-TBI. This relationship was not affected by hypothermia, and there were no differences in ET-1 response between children with inflicted

  10. The International Children's Digital Library: Increasing Children's Access to Books through Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Ann Carlson

    2007-01-01

    The International Children's Digital Library (ICDL) began as a research project funded primarily by the National Science Foundation (NSF), the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS), and Microsoft Research and creates a digital library of outstanding children's books from all over the world (http://www. childrenslibrary.org). The project…

  11. Mindfulness Training for Parents and Their Children with ADHD Increases the Children's Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Singh, Ashvind N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Judy; Winton, Alan S. W.; Adkins, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Children with ADHD are often non-compliant with parental instructions. Various methods have been used to reduce problem behaviors in these children, with medication and manipulation of behavioral contingencies being the most prevalent. An objection often raised by parents is that these management strategies require them to impose external control…

  12. Increased freezing and decreased positive affect in post-institutionalized children

    PubMed Central

    Stellern, Sarah; Esposito, Elisa; Mliner, Shanna; Pears, Katherine; Gunnar, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Background Early neglect is associated with increased risk of internalizing disorders in humans and with increased fear behavior in animals. When children are adopted out of orphanages in which they experienced institutional neglect, anxiety and depressive disorders often are not seen until adolescence. What has not been examined is whether even young children adopted from institutional care exhibit heightened fear or behavioral inhibition. Method Children adopted between 15 and 35 months from institutional care were examined twice during their first year post-adoption and compared to children of the same age reared in their birth families. A modified version of the Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery for Preschoolers was used with the children being exposed to two mechanical toys designed to be highly arousing and fear-eliciting. Because children in institutions tend to exhibit low levels of positive affect, the children were also examined during exposure to two positive stimuli. Sessions were videotaped and coded by observers blind to the study purpose. Results Post-institutionalized children froze more in fear vignettes and were less positive in both fear and positive vignettes than non-adopted children. Group differences did not diminish significantly from the first session to the next, 6 months later. Conclusions Children exposed to early institutional neglect exhibit emotional biases that are consistent with their previously demonstrated risk for the development of internalizing disorders. PMID:24482804

  13. Increasing nurses' knowledge and behavior changes in nonpharmacological pain management for children in China.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Pölkki, Tarja

    2008-01-01

    This study implemented pain education for Chinese nurses using a pre-post test design and compared their use of nonpharmacological methods in children's postoperative pain management. Results show that nurses' use of most of these methods for pain relief increased significantly, which helped to improve the quality of care for children. This study enriches nurses' knowledge in children's pain management and develops evidence for practice by demonstrating the need for hospitals to provide continuous pain education to nurses. PMID:18344784

  14. Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability: A Review of the Efficacy of Medication Treatments.

    PubMed

    Gray, Christina; Climie, Emma A

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child's academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity. Among the academic struggles experienced by children with ADHD are challenges with word reading, decoding, or reading comprehension. Similarly, children with SLD-R frequently encounter difficulties in the development of appropriate reading skills. SLD-R incorporates dysfunctions in basic visual and auditory processes that result in difficulties with decoding and spelling words. There have been limited empirical studies investigating the efficacy of interventions to improve the reading ability of children with both ADHD and SLD-R. Research studies that have focused on reading interventions for children from this population have predominantly included the use of medication treatments with stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate) and non-stimulants (e.g., atomoxetine). This review paper will present and integrate findings from empirical studies on successful medication treatments for children with comorbid ADHD and SLD-R. Furthermore, this paper will extend findings from empirically successful medication treatments to provide directions for future research. PMID:27458398

  15. Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Reading Disability: A Review of the Efficacy of Medication Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Christina; Climie, Emma A.

    2016-01-01

    Reading is a multifaceted skillset that has the potential to profoundly impact a child’s academic performance and achievement. Mastery of reading skills is often an area of difficulty for children during their academic journey, particularly for children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Specific Learning Disorder with Impairment in Reading (SLD-R), or children with a comorbid diagnosis of both ADHD and SLD-R. ADHD is characterized by executive functioning and impulse control deficits, as well as inattention and impulsivity. Among the academic struggles experienced by children with ADHD are challenges with word reading, decoding, or reading comprehension. Similarly, children with SLD-R frequently encounter difficulties in the development of appropriate reading skills. SLD-R incorporates dysfunctions in basic visual and auditory processes that result in difficulties with decoding and spelling words. There have been limited empirical studies investigating the efficacy of interventions to improve the reading ability of children with both ADHD and SLD-R. Research studies that have focused on reading interventions for children from this population have predominantly included the use of medication treatments with stimulants (e.g., methylphenidate) and non-stimulants (e.g., atomoxetine). This review paper will present and integrate findings from empirical studies on successful medication treatments for children with comorbid ADHD and SLD-R. Furthermore, this paper will extend findings from empirically successful medication treatments to provide directions for future research. PMID:27458398

  16. The Efficacy of Adjuvant Intratympanic Steroid Treatment for Otitis Media with Effusion in Children

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Hazem Saeed; El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed; Elfeky, Alaa Eldin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction  Otitis media with effusion (OME) is a leading cause of hearing impairment in children. Therefore, early and proper management is essential. Objectives  The objective of this research is to assess the efficacy of intratympanic (IT) steroids injection for management of otitis media with effusion (OME). Methods  This study involved 42 children (84 ears) with bilateral OME. We used tympanometry to confirm the childreńs middle ear effusion and pure tone audiometry to determine hearing threshold. We performed myringotomy and inserted ventilation tubes (VTs) bilaterally, followed by a steroid injection of 0.4–0.6 mL methylprednisolone (40 mg/mL) into one randomly selected middle ear. This procedure was followed by once-weekly administration of steroids (0.5 mL methylprednisolone at a concentration of 40 mg/mL) into the middle ear for three consecutive weeks. Results  We found recurrent OME after VT alone in nine (21.4%) ears; whereas, after VT combined with steroid administration, we found two (4.76%), with statistically significant difference. We noted tympanosclerosis postoperatively in six (12.9%) ears and in one of the injected ears (2.3%) (p = 0.0484). Otorrhea occurred in eight (19%) ears with VT alone and in three (7.1%) injected ears, with non-significant difference. The duration between VT insertion and its extrusion was 6.6 = 1.1 months for ears with VT alone and 6.95 =1.12 months in injected ears (p = 0.1541 NS). Conclusion  IT Steroids injection for treatment of OME is a safe and simple intervention with lower incidence of symptoms recurrence and postoperative complications. Thus, its use in management of OME is recommended.

  17. Efficacy and safety of Gammaplex(®) 5% in children and adolescents with primary immunodeficiency diseases.

    PubMed

    Melamed, I R; Gupta, S; Stratford Bobbitt, M; Hyland, N; Moy, J N

    2016-05-01

    This open-label multi-centre study evaluated Gammaplex(®) 5%, a human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) 5% liquid, in 25 children and adolescent patients (aged 3-16 years) with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). Subjects received Gammaplex 5% (at doses of 300-800 mg/kg/infusion) for 12 months, with a 3-month follow-up. The primary efficacy end-point was the incidence of serious acute bacterial infections (SABIs) during the 12-month treatment period. Secondary objectives assessed safety and tolerability. Nineteen males and six females were treated using the same infusion schedule as their prior IVIG treatment (14 and 11 subjects on 21- and 28-day dosing schedules, respectively). Two SABIs of pneumonia were reported, resulting in an annual SABI event rate of 0·09 [upper one-sided 99% confidence interval (CI) = 0·36]. Twenty-one subjects (84%) experienced ≥ 1 infection during the study, with a median infective episode per subject/year of 3·08 (range = 0-10·4). Sixteen subjects (64%) missed ≥ 1 day of nursery or school because of infection or other illness. All trough immunoglobulin G levels exceeded 7·00 g/l after 15 weeks (mean = 9·69 g/l; range = 7·04-15·35 g/l). Product-related adverse events occurred in 14 subjects (56%); none were serious. Of 368 total infusions, 97 (26%) were associated temporally with an adverse event (≤ 72 h after infusion), regardless of causality. Laboratory test results and adverse-reaction data showed no evidence of product-related haemolysis or thromboembolic events. These data demonstrate that Gammaplex 5% is effective in preventing SABIs and well tolerated in children and adolescents with PID. PMID:26696596

  18. Radiation Segmentectomy: A Novel Approach to Increase Safety and Efficacy of Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel; Lewandowski, Robert J.; Mulcahy, Mary F.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Baker, Talia; Kulik, Laura; Gupta, Ramona; Abecassis, Michael; Benson, Al B.; Omary, Reed; Millender, Laura; Kennedy, Andrew; Salem, Riad

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To describe a technique of segmental radioembolization for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiation segmentectomy was defined as radioembolization of two or fewer hepatic segments. We sought to (1) calculate dose when activity is delivered segmentally assuming uniform and nonuniform distribution and, (2) determine safety and efficacy of this novel technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients with HCC who were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization using a segmental approach were included in this analysis. The dose delivered to the segment was calculated assuming uniform and nonuniform microsphere distribution within the treatment volume. To calculate dose assuming nonuniform distribution, a tumor hypervascularity ratio was assigned. Posttreatment response (using size and necrosis guidelines), toxicity, time to progression, and survival were determined. Results: The median treatment volume was 110 cm{sup 3}. The median radiation-naive liver volume was 1403 cm{sup 3}. The median dose delivered to the segment(s) assuming uniform distribution was 521 Gy. Taking into account tumor hypervascularity (nonuniform distribution), the median dose delivered to the tumor and normal infused hepatic volume was 1214 Gy and 210 Gy, respectively. Response by size and necrosis guidelines was seen in 59% and 81% of patients. Grade 3/4 biochemical toxicities were observed in 8 patients (9%). Median time to progression was 13.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.3-18.7 months); median survival was 26.9 months (95% confidence interval, 20.5-30.2 months). Conclusions: Radiation segmentectomy is a safe and efficacious method of selectively delivering high dose to the tumor with minimal exposure of normal parenchyma.

  19. Efficacy of a child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy behaviors in Chinese American children: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jyu-Lin; Weiss, Sandra; Heyman, Melvin B.; Lustig, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the efficacy of an interactive, child-centred and family-based program in promoting healthy weight and healthy lifestyles in Chinese American children. Design A randomized controlled study of a culturally sensitive behavioral intervention. Subjects Sixty-seven Chinese American children (ages, 8–10 years; normal weight and overweight) and their families. Measurements Anthropometry, blood pressure, measures of dietary intake, physical activity, knowledge and self-efficacy regarding physical activity and diet at baseline and 2, 6 and 8 months after baseline assessment. Results Linear mixed modeling indicated a significant effect of the intervention in decreasing body mass index, diastolic blood pressure and fat intake while increasing vegetable and fruit intake, actual physical activity and knowledge about physical activity. Conclusion This interactive child-centred and family-based behavioral program appears feasible and effective, leading to reduced body mass index and improved overweight-related health behaviors in Chinese American children. This type of program can be adapted for other minority ethnic groups who are at high risk for overweight and obesity and have limited access to programs that promote healthy lifestyles. PMID:19933120

  20. Increased Clinical and Neurocognitive Impairment in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Comorbid Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissman, Adam S.; Bates, Marsha E.

    2010-01-01

    Bipolar (BD) symptomatology is prevalent in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and may lead to increased impairment. The current study compared clinical and neurocognitive impairment in children (7-13 years) diagnosed with ASD (n=55), BD (n=34), ASD + BD (n=23), and a non-clinical control group (n=27). Relative to the ASD group, the ASD…

  1. Increasing Young Children's Contact with Print during Shared Reading: Longitudinal Effects on Literacy Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; McGinty, Anita S.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal results for a randomized-controlled trial (RCT) assessing the impact of increasing preschoolers' attention to print during reading are reported. Four-year-old children (N = 550) in 85 classrooms experienced a 30-week shared reading program implemented by their teachers. Children in experimental classrooms experienced shared-book…

  2. Smile Alabama! Initiative: Interim Results from a Program To Increase Children's Access to Dental Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene-McIntyre, Mary; Finch, Mary Hayes; Searcy, John

    2003-01-01

    An Alabama initiative aimed to improve access to oral health care for Medicaid-eligible children through four components: improved Medicaid claims processing, increased reimbursement for providers, outreach and educational activities to support providers, and parent and patient education about children's oral health. In the first 3 program years,…

  3. A Review of Interventions Designed to Increase Sharing Behaviors in Children with Social Delays or Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Justin D.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Sharing materials is a complex social behavior that may lead to long-term development of friendships and concomitant increases in related prosocial behaviors. Given the complexities of sharing behaviors, children with social delays or deficits may not recognize when, how, and with whom to share. Because children with social delays or deficits,…

  4. Mindful Parenting Decreases Aggression and Increases Social Behavior in Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Judy; Curtis, W. John; Wahler, Robert G.; McAleavey, Kristen M.

    2007-01-01

    Research shows that after training in the philosophy and practice of mindfulness, parents can mindfully attend to the challenging behaviors of their children with autism. Parents also report an increased satisfaction with their parenting skills and social interactions with their children. These findings were replicated and extended with four…

  5. Children Increase Their Sensitivity to a Speaker's Nonlinguistic Cues Following a Communicative Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yow, W. Quin; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual children regularly face communicative challenges when speakers switch languages. To cope with such challenges, children may attempt to discern a speaker's communicative intent, thereby heightening their sensitivity to nonverbal communicative cues. Two studies examined whether such communication breakdowns increase sensitivity to…

  6. Parent-Implemented Natural Language Paradigm to Increase Language and Play in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillett, Jill N.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2007-01-01

    Three parents of children with autism were taught to implement the Natural Language Paradigm (NLP). Data were collected on parent implementation, multiple measures of child language, and play. The parents were able to learn to implement the NLP procedures quickly and accurately with beneficial results for their children. Increases in the overall…

  7. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  8. Using Voice Output Devices To Increase Initiations of Young Children with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicarlo, Cynthia F.; Banajee, Meher

    2000-01-01

    A multiple baseline study evaluated effects of using voice output devices to facilitate communicative initiation behaviors of two young nonverbal children with developmental delays. Both children increased their specific initiations and decreased unclear initiations and adult prompted communication behaviors. Results support the use of…

  9. Behavioral training for increasing preschool children's adherence with positive airway pressure: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Slifer, Keith J; Kruglak, Deborah; Benore, Ethan; Bellipanni, Kimberly; Falk, Lroi; Halbower, Ann C; Amari, Adrianna; Beck, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral training was implemented to increase adherence with positive airway pressure (PAP) in 4 preschool children. The training employed distraction, counterconditioning, graduated exposure, differential reinforcement, and escape extinction. A non-concurrent multiple baseline experimental design was used to demonstrate program effects. Initially, the children displayed distress and escape-avoidance behavior when PAP was attempted. With training, all 4 children tolerated PAP while sleeping for age appropriate durations. For the 3 children with home follow-up data, the parents maintained benefits. The results are discussed in relation to behavior principles, child health, and common barriers to PAP adherence. PMID:17441784

  10. Development Parenting Model to Increase the Independence of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunarty, Kustiah; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2015-01-01

    This study examines parenting and the child's independence model. The research problem is whether there is a relationship between parenting and the child's independence. The purpose of research is to determine: firstly, the type of parenting in an effort to increase the independence of the child; and the relationship between parenting models and…