Science.gov

Sample records for children population dejstvoto

  1. Human paraoxonase polymorphism: Hungarian population studies in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Szabó, I; Róna, K; Czinner, A; Gachályi, B

    1991-06-01

    The paraoxonase phenotype distribution pattern was studied in a Hungarian population of 102 children and 100 adults. All the subjects were of Caucasian origin and are not related. The adult population showed the trimodality in phenotype distribution similar to other European population data. The gene frequencies obtained were statistically not significantly different either. There was no correlation between the activity of serum paraoxonase and activity of cholinesterase, sex, age and body weight. The phenotype distribution was trimodal in the children's population too. There was a significant difference in gene frequency, however, compared to data from adult population. PMID:1651288

  2. Population, Education, and Children's Futures. Fastback 150.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjork, Robert M.; Fraser, Stewart E.

    This monograph discusses world population problems, examines the underlying concepts and issues in population education, and looks at the future. The monograph begins by describing an attempt at population education in a village of India. Eight guiding concepts that are considered to be essential for population educators are then discussed. These…

  3. Obesity Rates in Special Populations of Children and Potential Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holcomb, Matthew J.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.; McIntosh, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has become a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States, but much of the research has focused on prevention and intervention programs, which target the general population of school children. Overlooked in the literature are children with special needs (including autism, genetic disorders, Down syndrome, and Prader-Willi…

  4. Children's Living Arrangements and Characteristics: March 2002. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Jason

    As part of the 2002 Current Population Survey, this report presents information on several characteristics of children, covering different aspects of their lives. It focuses on demographic characteristics of the child population of the United States and family living arrangements, including single parent families, cohabiting parent families, and…

  5. Costs and benefits of children: implications for population policy.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1989-03-01

    Family size preferences are strongly affected by parents' perceptions of the value, economic contributions, and costs of children. Better understanding of these factors can help policy-makers to improve the effectiveness of population IEC campaigns, design strategies to persuade couples to have smaller families, assess the relationship between economic development and family size preferences, and devise national population policies and family planning programs that reflect individual choices. Parents in high-fertility countries are more likely to perceive children as productive investments than those in low-fertility countries. Parents in the former countries maintain children are an economic advantage or provide practical assistance in the household; they are less likely to emphasize the psychological advantages of children. As economic development occurs, and parents no longer value children for their economic contributions, psychological and social reasons become more important. Changing fertility preferences is more complex than providing couples with family planning services. Similarly, efforts to persuade families that large families are a burden are successful only when families are already interested in reducing their family size. Efforts to persuade couples to have smaller families are likely to be more successful if there are alternative sources of old-age support available, for example, from increased household savings, public or private pensions, or greater contributions from 1st and 2nd children. Investments in education and training, especially for women and children, would also support these goals. PMID:12315609

  6. Anthropometric data peculiarities in early school children population.

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, L; Karseladze, R; Vekua, M; Chkhartishvili, E; Bigvava, T

    2011-01-01

    The anthropometric data were studied in early school aged (6-7 years old) children and the degree of harmonization during physical development was evaluated. Representative population of 400 otherwise healthy early school aged children was included in study group. Study period covered the end of school year. In the selected under observation focused population the level of individual anthropometric data was determined in percentile intervals according its position. Anthropometric data assessments by using percentile method it was revealed in early school aged (6-7 years of old children) excess in body height and weight in comparison with normal values. This phenomenon indicates the prevalence of acceleration and weight gain. Anthropometric data in boys were increased while comparing with physical development data in girls. This result difference has the tendency to statistically insignificant. Physical development harmonization values were studied in 200 children. Harmonized physical development revealed in 50 children (25%); disharmonized physical development I 50 children (15%), among them with I degree weight gain were 48 (24%), and with I degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). Markedly disharmonized development had 100 children (50%), among them with II degree weight gain were 98 (49%), and with II degree weight deficit were 2 (1%). According to the children's anthropometric data and assessment by physical development harmonization percentiles tables three groups of children were organized: main, risk group and the group with deviation in physical development. On the basis of resulted data the study of early school age children's physical development gives possibility for risk groups stratification, which in turn itself makes a strong basis for reasonable preventive measurements and stepwise monitoring implementation. PMID:21873758

  7. Costs of children--benefit theory and population control.

    PubMed

    Tian, X

    1989-01-01

    fertile women are also important. The State's population policy of rewards and penalties also affects the costs and benefits. Administrative intervention to implement the FP program have been effectively and adequately used in the past to control population growth, even though it is recognized that social and economic development is another way of affecting population growth. Parents still need to be guaranteed that 1 child will indeed be a benefit. Children's economic value has been accepted, and policy is moving in the direction of correcting the imbalances between children's costs and benefits, such as increasing fines along with improving education and income distribution. PMID:12316996

  8. Population pharmacokinetics of ketamine in children with heart disease.

    PubMed

    Elkomy, Mohammed H; Drover, David R; Hammer, Gregory B; Galinkin, Jeffery L; Ramamoorthy, Chandra

    2015-01-15

    This study aims at developing a population pharmacokinetic model for ketamine in children with cardiac diseases in order to rationalize an effective 2-h anesthetic medication, personalized based on cardiac function and age. Twenty-one children (6 months to 18 years old) were enrolled in this prospective, open label study. Ketamine 2mg/kg IV was administered and blood samples were then collected over 8h for ketamine assay. Pharmacokinetic data analysis using NONMEM, was undertaken. Ketamine pharmacokinetics was adequately described by a two-compartment linear disposition model. Typical population parameters were: total clearance: 60.6 ×(weight/70)(0.75)L/h, intercompartmental clearance: 73.2 ×(weight/70)(0.75)L/h, central distribution volume: 57.3 ×(weight/70)L, and peripheral distribution volume: 152 ×(weight/70)L. Ketamine clearance in children with pre-existing congenital heart disease was comparable to values reported in healthy subjects. Computer simulations indicated that an initial loading dose of ketamine 2mg/kg IV over 1 min followed by a constant rate infusion of 6.3mg/kg/h for 29 min, 4.5mg/kg/h from 30 to 80 min, and 3.9 mg/kg/h from 80 to 120 min achieves and maintains anesthetic plasma level for 2h in children 1 year or older (weight ≥ 10 kg). PMID:25448584

  9. Too old to have children? Lessons from natural fertility populations

    PubMed Central

    Eijkemans, Marinus J.C.; van Poppel, Frans; Habbema, Dik F.; Smith, Ken R.; Leridon, Henri; te Velde, Egbert R.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Is it possible to construct an age curve denoting the ages above which women are biologically too old to reproduce? SUMMARY ANSWER We constructed a curve based on the distribution of female age at last birth in natural fertility populations reflecting the ages above which women have become biologically too old to have children. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The median age at last birth (ALB) for females is ∼40–41 years of age across a range of natural fertility populations. This suggests that there is a fairly universal pattern of age-related fertility decline. However, little is known about the distribution of female ALB and in the present era of modern birth control, it is impossible to assess the age-specific distribution of ALB. Reliable information is lacking that could benefit couples who envisage delaying childbearing. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This study is a review of high-quality historical data sets of natural fertility populations in which the distributions of female age at last birth were analysed. The studies selected used a retrospective cohort design where women were followed as they age through their reproductive years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Using a common set of eligibility criteria, large data files of natural fertility populations were prepared such that the analysis could be performed in parallel across all populations. Data on the ALB and confounding variables are presented as box and whisker plots denoting the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th percentile distribution of the age at last birth for each population. The analysis includes the estimation of Kaplan–Meier curves for age at last birth of each population. The hazard curve for ALB was obtained by plotting the smoothed hazard curve of each population and taking the lowest hazard within a time period of at least 5 years. This lowest hazard curve was then transformed into a cumulative distribution function representing the composite curve of the end of

  10. A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Depression in Children with Developmental Disabilities in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shooshtari, Shahin; Brownell, Marni; Dik, Natalia; Chateau, Dan; Yu, C. T.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Burchill, Charles A.; Wetzel, Monika

    2014-01-01

    In this population-based study, prevalence of depression was estimated and compared between children with and without developmental disability (DD). Twelve years of administrative data were linked to identify a cohort of children with DD living in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Children in the study cohort were matched with children without DD…

  11. Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and amodiaquine in African children

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacokinetic (PK) data on amodiaquine (AQ) and artesunate (AS) are limited in children, an important risk group for malaria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PK properties of a newly developed and registered fixed dose combination (FDC) of artesunate and amodiaquine. Methods A prospective population pharmacokinetic study of AS and AQ was conducted in children aged six months to five years. Participants were randomized to receive the new artesunate and amodiaquine FDC or the same drugs given in separate tablets. Children were divided into two groups of 70 (35 in each treatment arm) to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of AS and AQ, respectively. Population pharmacokinetic models for dihydroartemisinin (DHA) and desethylamodiaquine (DeAq), the principal pharmacologically active metabolites of AS and AQ, respectively, and total artemisinin anti-malarial activity, defined as the sum of the molar equivalent plasma concentrations of DHA and artesunate, were constructed using the non-linear mixed effects approach. Relative bioavailability between products was compared by estimating the ratios (and 95% CI) between the areas under the plasma concentration-time curves (AUC). Results The two regimens had similar PK properties in young children with acute malaria. The ratio of loose formulation to fixed co-formulation AUCs, was estimated as 1.043 (95% CI: 0.956 to 1.138) for DeAq. For DHA and total anti-malarial activity AUCs were estimated to be the same. Artesunate was rapidly absorbed, hydrolysed to DHA, and eliminated. Plasma concentrations were significantly higher following the first dose, when patients were acutely ill, than after subsequent doses when patients were usually afebrile and clinically improved. Amodiaquine was converted rapidly to DeAq, which was then eliminated with an estimated median (range) elimination half-life of 9 (7 to 12) days. Efficacy was similar in the two treatments groups, with cure rates of 0.946 (95% CI: 0.840

  12. Parenting Children with Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Unique Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2007-01-01

    Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive…

  13. Family and Friend Relationships of Only Children: A Study of Adult Population in China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Gary

    If personal networks of only children differ from those of children with siblings, then study of the different patterns of personal association is especially relevant to the understanding of social change in China, where the population of children without siblings is rapidly increasing. A study of these differential social networks used data…

  14. Psychopathology in a Swedish Population of School Children with Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Najah; Von Knorring, Anne-Liis

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns of psychiatric comorbid disorders and associated problems in a school population of children with tic disorders. Method: From a total population of 4,479 children, 25 with Tourette's disorder (TD), 34 with chronic motor tics (CMT), 24 with chronic vocal tics (CVT), and 214 with transient tics (TT) during the past…

  15. Nutritional evaluation of children in high-risk rural and indigenous populations in Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panama continues to have a substantial incidence of malnutrition. Among the most affected populations are children in rural areas and in indigenous populations. We evaluated nutritional status of preschool (PS) and school-aged (SA) children in two high-risk areas in Panama to determine the prevalenc...

  16. Relationship Status among Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Brian H.; Kalb, Luther G.; Zablotsky, Benjamin; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite speculation about an 80% divorce rate among parents of children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), very little empirical and no epidemiological research has addressed the issue of separation and divorce among this population. Data for this study was taken from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health, a population-based,…

  17. Validation of the Social Communication Questionnaire in a Population Cohort of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…

  18. Parenting Children With Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Unique Risk Population

    PubMed Central

    Fenning, Rachel M.; Baker, Jason K.; Baker, Bruce L.; Crnic, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    Parenting was examined among families of children with borderline intelligence in comparison to families of typically developing children and children with developmental delays. Parenting data were obtained at child age 5 via naturalistic home observation. Mothers of children with borderline intelligence exhibited less positive and less sensitive parenting behaviors than did other mothers and were least likely to display a style of positive engagement. Children with borderline intelligence were not observed to be more behaviorally problematic than other children; however, their mothers perceived more externalizing symptoms than did mothers of typically developing children. Findings suggest the importance of mothers’ explanatory models for child difficulties and highlight children with borderline intelligence as uniquely at risk for poor parenting. PMID:17295551

  19. Chronically Ill Children: A Psychologically and Emotionally Deviant Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavormina, J. B.; And Others

    To investigate vulnerability to psychological and emotional stress among chronically ill children, a battery of personality tests was selectively administered to 144 children (5- to 19-years-old) afflicted with one of the following conditions: diabetes, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or hearing impairment. Analyses centered on comparisons of norms…

  20. Developmental Outcomes of Foster Children: A Meta-Analytic Comparison With Children From the General Population and Children at Risk Who Remained at Home.

    PubMed

    Goemans, Anouk; van Geel, Mitch; van Beem, Merel; Vedder, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Foster care is often preferred to other placement options for children in the child welfare system. However, it is not clear how the developmental outcomes of foster children relate to children in other living arrangements. In this study, a series of meta-analyses are performed to compare the cognitive, adaptive, and behavioral functioning of children placed in foster care (n = 2,305) with children at risk who remained with their biological parents (n = 4,335) and children from the general population (n = 4,971). A systematic literature search in PsycINFO, Medline, ERIC, and ProQuest identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion (N = 11,611). Results showed that foster children had generally lower levels of functioning than children from the general population. No clear differences were found between foster children and children at risk who remained at home, but both groups experienced developmental problems. Improving the quality of foster care and future research to identify which children are best served by either foster care or in-home services are recommended. PMID:27481915

  1. Dental health of children with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablotsky, Benjamin; Waldman, H Barry; Zablotsky, Nevin; Perlman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were used to investigate how autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom severity and comorbidity are associated with the dental health needs of children. The results of this study help provide insights into the greater oral needs of the increasing population of children with ASD that reside in our communities and their dependency upon local practitioners for treatment. PMID:23930328

  2. Risk Factors for Psychopathology in Children with Intellectual Disability: A Prospective Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallander, J. L.; Dekker, M. C.; Koot, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. Methods: A population sample of 968 children, aged 6-18, enrolled in special schools in the Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed…

  3. Sleep Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Problems: A Longitudinal Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivertsen, Borge; Posserud, Maj-Britt; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Hysing, Mari

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and chronicity of sleep problems in children who manifest problems believed to be typical of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Using data from a longitudinal total population study, symptoms of ASD, insomnia and potential explanatory factors were assessed at ages 7-9 and 11-13. Children were included in a group…

  4. Behavioural and Emotional Symptoms of Preschool Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Solveig; Indredavik, Marit S.; Eiriksdottir, Audur; Einarsdottir, Katrin; Gudmundsson, Halldor S.; Vik, Torstein

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To describe behavioural and emotional symptoms among Icelandic preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: Children with congenital CP, assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist/1 1/2-5 (CBCL/1 1/2-5) and Caregiver-Teacher Report Form (C-TRF), were enrolled in the study. A comparison group was recruited from the general population.…

  5. A Staged Approach for Identifying Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder from the Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; Cairney, John; Pollock, Nancy; Russell, Dianne; Macdonald, Kathryn; Cousins, Martha; Veldhuizen, Scott; Schmidt, Louis

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the motor, attention and intellectual characteristics of a population-based sample of children first screened for motor impairment and to discuss the recruitment and identification methods employed. A two stage cross-sectional, school-based survey was conducted to screen for children with motor…

  6. Associated Medical Disorders and Disabilities in Children with Autistic Disorder: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kielinen, Marko; Rantala, Heikki; Timonen, Eija; Linna, Sirkka-Liisa; Moilanen, Irma

    2004-01-01

    A population-based survey was conducted among 152,732 Finnish children and adolescents aged under 16 years and living in northern Finland. Diagnoses and associated medical conditions were derived from the hospital and institutional records of this area. One hundred and eighty-seven children with DSM-IV autistic disorder were identified. Associated…

  7. Chronically Ill Children. A Psychologically and Emotionally Deviant Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavormina, J. B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Evaluated were the psychosocial functioning levels of a group of 144 chronically ill (diabetic, asthmatic, cystic fibrotic, and hearing-impaired) children (5 to 19 years old) across a battery of standardized personality instruments. (Author)

  8. Chicago Children and Youth 1990-2010: Changing Population Trends and their Implications for Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerge, Robert; Dilts, John; Yang, Duck-Hye; Wasserman, Miriam; Clary, Anne

    2007-01-01

    This report draws on demographic data to examine and project trends in the size and composition of the child population in all seventy-seven Chicago communities up to the year 2010. The report highlights the changing age mix of Chicago children and provides some context in which to consider these demographic trends. It describes population changes…

  9. Prevalence of microvascular and neurologic abnormalities in a population of diabetic children.

    PubMed

    Karavanaki, K; Baum, J D

    1999-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-nine (87%) of a total county population of 150 eligible diabetic children together with 144 age- and sex-matched control children participated in a longitudinal, epidemiological study of the evolution of diabetic microvascular disease. At enrollment the median (range) age of the diabetic children was 12.5 (3.7-16.8) years with a median diabetes duration of 2.9 (0.1-13.4) years and a median HbAl of 11.1 (6.8-17.9)%. Two sets of measurements were made over a period of 18 months for all indices of microvascular disease, while autonomic function was studied on one occasion. Urinary albumin excretion in diabetic children was assessed from all voidings during two timed 48-h urine collections and was expressed as urinary albumin/creatinine ratios (ACR). Blood pressure (BP) was measured using a random zero sphygmomanometer. Autonomic function was assessed by pupillary adaptation in darkness, using a portable Polaroid pupillometer, and by heart rate (HR) variation recorded by dedicated computer. Vibration sensation thresholds (VST) (as indices of peripheral neuropathy) were recorded using a Biothesiometer. Limited joint mobility (LJM) was assessed by the "prayer sign". Five (3.9%) diabetic children presented raised mean ACR in more than two of four 24-h urine collections. Fourteen (10.8%) diabetic children were identified as having persistently raised BP during both study periods. Impaired HR response in one HR test was observed in 20 (15.5%) diabetic children, while ten (7.7%) diabetic children demonstrated abnormalities in two or more HR tests. Reduced pupillary adaptation in darkness was found in eight (7.9%) diabetic children. Persistent vibration sensation impairment (VST) in lower limbs was detected in eight (6.2%) diabetic children, while LJM was present in 12 (9.3%) diabetic children. Eight of the 129 diabetic children (6.2%) were found to have abnormality in two and one in three indices of microvascular and autonomic function. Six of nine

  10. Psychosocial Development in a Danish Population of Children with Cochlear Implants and Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dammeyer, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown a prevalence of psychosocial difficulties ranging from about 20% to 50% among children with hearing loss. This study evaluates the prevalence of psychosocial difficulties in a Danish population in relation to different explanatory variables. Five scales and questionnaires measuring sign language, spoken language, hearing…

  11. Population-Based Studies on the Epidemiology of Insulin Resistance in Children

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, M. P.; Fazeli Farsani, S.; Knibbe, C. A. J.; de Boer, A.; van der Vorst, M. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background. In view of the alarming incidence of obesity in children, insight into the epidemiology of the prediabetic state insulin resistance (IR) seems important. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review was to give an overview of all population-based studies reporting on the prevalence and incidence rates of IR in childhood. Methods. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library were searched in order to find all available population-based studies describing the epidemiology of IR in pediatric populations. Prevalence rates together with methods and cut-off values used to determine IR were extracted and summarized with weight and sex specific prevalence rates of IR if available. Results. Eighteen population-based studies were identified, describing prevalence rates varying between 3.1 and 44%, partly explained by different definitions for IR. Overweight and obese children had higher prevalence rates than normal weight children. In seven out of thirteen studies reporting sex specific results, girls seemed to be more affected than boys. Conclusion. Prevalence rates of IR reported in children vary widely which is partly due to the variety of definitions used. Overweight and obese children had higher prevalence and girls were more insulin resistant than boys. Consensus on the definition for IR in children is needed to allow for comparisons between different studies. PMID:26273668

  12. Sleep habits and sleep disturbances in Dutch children: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Waumans, Ruth C.; van den Berg, Gerrit; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep disorders can lead to significant morbidity. Information on sleep in healthy children is necessary to evaluate sleep disorders in clinical practice, but data from different societies cannot be simply generalized. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the prevalence of sleep disturbances in Dutch healthy children, (2) describe sleep habits and problems in this population, (3) collect Dutch norm data for future reference, and (4) compare sleep in children from different cultural backgrounds. A population-based descriptive study was conducted using the Children’s sleep habits questionnaire and the sleep self-report. One thousand five hundred seven proxy-reports and 262 self-reports were analyzed. Mean age was 8.5 years (95% confidence interval, 8.4–8.6), 52% were boys. Sleep problems in Dutch children were present in 25%, i.e., comparable to other populations. Sleep habits were age-related. Problem sleepers scored significantly higher on all scales. Correlations between parental and self-assessments were low to moderate. Dutch children had significantly more sleep disturbances than children from the USA and less than Chinese children. Cognitions and attitudes towards what is considered normal sleep seem to affect the appraisal of sleep, this probably accounts partly for cultural differences. For a better understanding of cultural influences on sleep, more information on these determinants and the establishment of cultural norms are mandatory. PMID:20191392

  13. Optimizing Population Screening of Bullying in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Trinh, Vi; McDougall, Patricia; Duku, Eric; Cunningham, Lesley; Cunningham, Charles; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    A two-part screening procedure was used to assess school-age children's experience with bullying. In the first part 16,799 students (8,195 girls, 8,604 boys) in grades 4 to 12 were provided with a definition of bullying and then asked about their experiences using two general questions from the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (1996). In the…

  14. Haemophilus influenzae Type b Carriage and Novel Bacterial Population Structure among Children in Urban Kathmandu, Nepal▿

    PubMed Central

    Williams, E. J.; Lewis, J.; John, T.; Hoe, J. C.; Yu, L.; Dongol, S.; Kelly, D. F.; Griffiths, D. T.; Shah, A.; Limbu, B.; Pradhan, R.; Mawas, F.; Shrestha, S.; Thorson, S.; Werno, A. M.; Murdoch, D. R.; Adhikari, N.; Pollard, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a major cause of invasive bacterial infection in children that can be prevented by a vaccine, but there is still uncertainty about its relative importance in Asia. This study investigated the age-specific prevalence of Hib carriage and its molecular epidemiology in carriage and disease in Nepal. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from children in Kathmandu, Nepal, from 3 different settings: a hospital outpatient department (OPD), schools, and children's homes. Hib was isolated using Hib antiserum agar plates, and serotyping was performed with latex agglutination. Hib isolates from children with invasive disease were obtained during active microbiological surveillance at Patan Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Genotyping of disease and carriage isolates was undertaken using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Swabs were taken from 2,195 children, including 1,311 children at an OPD, 647 children attending schools, and 237 children in homes. Overall, Hib was identified in 5.0% (110/2,195; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.9% to 6.4%). MLST was performed on 108 Hib isolates from children carrying Hib isolates and 15 isolates from children with invasive disease. Thirty-one sequence types (STs) were identified, and 20 of these were novel STs. The most common ST isolates were sequence type 6 (ST6) and the novel ST722. There was marked heterogeneity among the STs from children with disease and children carrying Hib. STs identified from invasive infections were those commonly identified in carriage. This study provides evidence of Hib carriage among children in urban Nepal with genetically diverse strains prior to introduction of universal vaccination. The Hib carriage rate in Nepal was similar to the rates observed in other populations with documented high disease rates prior to vaccination, supporting implementation of Hib vaccine in Nepal in 2009. PMID:21270225

  15. Oral Hygiene Levels in Children of Tribal Population of Eastern Ghats: An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Raju, P Krishnam; Vasanti, D; Kumar, J Raghavendra; Niranjani, K; Kumar, M S Saravana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene has been given due importance since ages. Different cultures have been using different methods for the maintenance of good oral hygiene. The study was done to find out the oral hygiene levels in children of tribal population and to correlate the brushing methods used and the oral hygiene levels. Methodology: A total of 5129 children of 5-12 years age (boys 2778, girls 2351) were checked for the simplified oral hygiene index in the study. Results: The overall oral hygiene status of 1267 girls and 1348 boys was fair, whereas 821 girls and 937 boys was good and 263 girls and 493 boys was poor. It has been shown that fair oral hygiene practices were being followed by the children. Conclusion: Children using twigs and other materials for oral hygiene had nearly equally good oral hygiene when compared to the tooth brush and tooth paste, though children using toothbrush and tooth paste had slightly better oral hygiene. PMID:26229382

  16. Violence against children in humanitarian settings: A literature review of population-based approaches.

    PubMed

    Stark, Lindsay; Landis, Debbie

    2016-03-01

    Children in humanitarian settings are thought to experience increased exposure to violence, which can impair their physical, emotional, and social development. Violence against children has important economic and social consequences for nations as a whole. The purpose of this review is to examine population-based approaches measuring violence against children in humanitarian settings. The authors reviewed prevalence studies of violence against children in humanitarian contexts appearing in peer-reviewed journals within the past twenty years. A Boolean search procedure was conducted in October 2014 of the electronic databases PubMed/Medline and PsychInfo. If abstracts contained evidence of the study's four primary themes--violence, children, humanitarian contexts and population-based measurement--a full document review was undertaken to confirm relevance. Out of 2634 identified articles, 22 met the final inclusion criteria. Across studies, there was varying quality and no standardization in measurement approach. Nine out of 22 studies demonstrated a relationship between conflict exposure and adverse health or mental health outcomes. Among studies that compared rates of violence between boys and girls, boys reported higher rates of physical violence, while girls reported higher rates of sexual violence. Children in infancy and early childhood were found to be among the most under-researched. Ultimately, the body of evidence in this review offers an incomplete picture regarding the prevalence, nature and impact of violence against children in emergencies, demonstrating a weak evidence base for some of the basic assumptions underpinning humanitarian practice. The development of standardized approaches to more rigorously measure violence against children is urgently needed in order to understand trends of violence against children in humanitarian contexts, and to promote children's healthy development and well-being. PMID:26854623

  17. Genetic disorders in children and young adults: a population study.

    PubMed Central

    Baird, P A; Anderson, T W; Newcombe, H B; Lowry, R B

    1988-01-01

    The data base of an ongoing population-based registry with multiple sources of ascertainment was used to estimate the present population load from genetic disease in more than 1 million consecutive live births. It was found that, before approximately age 25 years, greater than or equal to 53/1,000 live-born individuals can be expected to have diseases with an important genetic component. This total was composed of single-gene disorders (3.6/1,000), consisting of autosomal dominant (1.4/1,000), autosomal recessive (1.7/1,000), and X-linked recessive disorders (0.5/1,000). Chromosomal anomalies accounted for 1.8/1,000, multifactorial disorders (including those present at birth and those of onset before age 25 years) accounted for 46.4/1,000, and cases of genetic etiology in which the precise mechanism was not identified accounted for 1.2/1,000. Previous studies have usually considered all congenital anomalies (ICD 740-759) as part of the genetic load, but only those judged to fit into one of the above categories were included in the present study. Data for congenital anomalies are therefore also presented separately, to facilitate comparison with earlier studies. If all congenital anomalies are considered as part of the genetic load, then greater than or equal to 79/1,000 live-born individuals have been identified as having one or other genetic disorder before approximately age 25 years. These new data represent a better estimate of the genetic load in the population than do previous studies. PMID:3358420

  18. The Diagnostic Interview of Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children: psychometric properties in the general population.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; de la Osa, Núria; Granero, Roser; Domènech, Josep Maria; Reich, Wendy

    2011-11-30

    There is a need for reliable and well-validated diagnostic measures for studying psychopathology in preschool and young children. The goal is to study the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents for Parents of Preschool and Young Children (DICA-PPYC) in the general population. A sample of 852 Spanish school children, aged 3 to 7 years, were randomly selected and screened for a double phase design. A total of 251 families were interviewed with the DICA-PPYC and 244 participated in a test-retest design. Different measures of psychopathology and functional impairment were also administered. Test-retest agreement with a mean interval of 8.8 days ranged from excellent to slight (kappa from 1 to 0.39) for DSM-IV-TR and from good to fair (kappa from 0.77 to 0.49) for Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age diagnoses. Attenuation between test and retest was not significant for the prevalence of diagnoses, although it was significant for the number of externalising and total symptoms in the interview. The diagnoses converged moderately with the CBCL and Dominic scores. The presence of diagnoses in the DICA-PPYC significantly differentiated preschoolers and young children who had used mental health services, were more impaired, and presented more severe psychopathology measured by dimensional scales. The DICA-PPYC is a reliable and valid semi-structured interview schedule for preschool and young children, and can serve to advance the knowledge and mental health care of this population. PMID:21620481

  19. Population-based study of the association between asthma and pneumococcal disease in children

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Kimberly M; Lash, Timothy L; Antonsen, Sussie; Jick, Susan S; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2015-01-01

    Background Although asthma has recently been established as a risk factor for pneumococcal disease (PD), few studies have specifically evaluated this association in children. Methods We conducted a nation-wide population-based cohort study of the effect of asthma on childhood PD among all singleton live births in Denmark from 1994 to 2007, before the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. All data were abstracted from Danish medical registries. Because underlying comorbidity substantially increases the PD risk in children, standard methods were used to assess the evidence of biologic interaction between comorbidity and asthma on the risk of PD. Results There were 2,253 cases of childhood PD among 888,655 children born in Denmark from 1994 to 2007. The adjusted incidence rate ratio of the effect of asthma on childhood PD was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0, 2.5). Age-stratified incidence rate ratios were 2.1 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.9) in children 6 months to <24 months, 4.1 (95% CI: 3.3, 5.1) in children 24 months to <60 months, and 2.3 (95% CI: 1.6, 3.2) in children ≥60 months. Evaluation of the biologic interaction between asthma and comorbidity in older children revealed that 55% (24 months to <60 months) to 73% (≥60 months) of cases among asthma-exposed children can be accounted for by the interaction between asthma and comorbidity. Conclusion These results confirm that asthma is an important risk factor for PD in children and suggest that children with underlying comorbidities are more sensitive to the effect of asthma on PD than children without comorbidities. PMID:26203278

  20. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. PMID:26712558

  1. Use of Medical Imaging Procedures With Ionizing Radiation in Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Dorfman, Adam L.; Fazel, Reza; Einstein, Andrew J.; Applegate, Kimberly E.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; Wang, Yongfei; Christodoulou, Emmanuel; Chen, Jersey; Sanchez, Ramon; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine population-based rates of use of diagnostic imaging procedures with ionizing radiation in children, stratified by age and gender. Design Retrospective cohort analysis. Setting All settings utilizing imaging procedures with ionizing radiation. Patients Individuals less than 18 years old, alive and continuously enrolled in Unitedhealthcare between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2007 in 5 large U.S. healthcare markets. Main Outcome Measure Number and type of diagnostic imaging procedures utilizing ionizing radiation in children. Results 355,088 children were identified. A total of 436,711 imaging procedures using ionizing radiation were performed in 150,930 (42.5%) patients. The highest rates of use were in children greater than 10 years old, with frequent use in infants under 2 years old as well. Plain radiography accounted for nearly 85% of imaging procedures performed. Computed tomography (CT) scans – associated with substantially higher doses of radiation – were commonly used, accounting for 12% of all procedures during the study period. Overall, 7.9% of children received at least one CT and 3.5% received 2 or more, with CT of the head most frequent. Conclusions Exposure to ionizing radiation from medical diagnostic imaging procedures may occur frequently among children. Efforts to optimize and ensure appropriate use of these procedures in the pediatric population should be encouraged. PMID:21199972

  2. Prevalence of Psychopathology across a Service Population of Parents with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Sue; Shaw, Tom; Beckley, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    This study identified and investigated the incidence of childhood trauma and psychopathology across a population of parents with intellectual disabilities (IDs) known to a parenting service in the United Kingdom over a 5-year period and examined the emotional and physical welfare of their children. Data were gathered from 49 parents with ID and 58…

  3. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to…

  4. Physical Activity in a Total Population of Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauruschkus, Katarina; Westbom, Lena; Hallstrom, Inger; Wagner, Philippe; Nordmark, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the participation in physical activity of children with cerebral palsy (CP) at school and during leisure time and to identify characteristics associated with physical activity. The frequency of receiving physiotherapeutic interventions were described as a variable of interest. A total population of 364…

  5. The Factor Structure of ADHD in a General Population of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullebo, Anne Karin; Breivik, Kyrre; Gillberg, Christopher; Lundervold, Astri J.; Posserud, Maj-Britt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether a bifactor model with a general ADHD factor and domain specific factors of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity was supported in a large general population sample of children. We also explored the utility of forming subscales based on the domain-specific factors. Methods: Child mental health questionnaires were…

  6. Diverse Populations of Gifted Children: Meeting Their Needs in the Regular Classroom and beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cline, Starr; Schwartz, Diane

    This book is designed to help classroom teachers identify and plan for gifted children from special populations. It examines ways in which teachers can help these students reach their potential. The first section of the book, "Background for Changing the Present Educational Paradigm," includes chapters that discuss reasons for the failure to…

  7. Passive Range of Motion in a Population-Based Sample of Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy Who Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Salazar-Torres, Jose J.; Kerr, Claire; Cosgrove, Aidan P.

    2012-01-01

    -While passive range of motion (PROM) is commonly used to inform decisions on therapeutic management, knowledge of PROM of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is limited. A population-based sample of 178 children with spastic CP (110 male; unilateral, n = 94; bilateral, n = 84; age range 4-17 years) and 68 typically developing children (24…

  8. Characteristics of American Children and Youth: 1976. Current Population Reports, Special Studies Series P-23, No. 66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Karen A.; Mills, Karen M.

    The special report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of American children and youth. Children are considered to be persons under 14 years of age, and youth are seen to be between the ages of 14 and 24. Data in the report analyze trends among children and youth in the areas of population growth…

  9. Epidemiology and Outcome of Gram-Negative Bloodstream Infection in Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hasan, M. N.; Huskins, W. C.; Lahr, B. D.; Eckel-Passow, J. E.; Baddour, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Population-based studies of gram-negative bloodstream infection (BSI) in children are lacking. Therefore, we performed this population-based investigation in Olmsted County, Minnesota, to determine the incidence rate, site of acquisition, and outcome of gram-negative BSI in children under 18 years old. We used Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression for mortality analysis. We identified 56 unique children with gram-negative BSI during the past decade. The gender-adjusted incidence rate of gram-negative BSI per 100,000 person-years was 129.7 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8-181.6]) in infants, with a sharp decline to 14.6 (95% CI: 6.0-23.2) and 7.6 (95% CI: 4.3-10.9) in children 1-4 and 5-18 years old, respectively. The urinary tract was the most common identified source of infection (34%) and Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated (38%). Over two-thirds (68%) of children had underlying medical conditions that predisposed to gram-negative BSI. The overall 28-day and 1-year all-cause mortality rates were 11% (95% CI: 3-18%) and 18% (95% CI: 8-28%), respectively. Younger age and number of underlying medical conditions were associated with 28-day and 1-year mortality, respectively. Nosocomial or healthcare-associated acquisition was associated with both 28-day and 1-year mortality. PMID:20598212

  10. Identifying children in need of ancillary and enabling services: a population approach.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Ruth E; Farel, Anita M

    2003-12-01

    Children with chronic or disabling conditions use health, education and social services at a higher rate than their healthy peers. Estimates of the number of children in need of these specialized services are widely varied and often depend on categorical definitions that do not account for either the diversity or commonality of their experiences. Developing methods for identifying the population in need of services, particularly children likely to use long-term ancillary (audiology, occupational, physical or speech therapy, or social work) and/or enabling services (special equipment, personal care assistance, respite care, transportation, or environmental modifications), is essential for effective policy and program implementation. This study examines several recent attempts to operationalize definitions of children with chronic conditions using a noncategorical classification approach. Particular emphasis is placed on the subgroup of children identified as having functional limitations. Proposed operational definitions of children with functional limitations are compared using data from the 1994-1995 Disability Supplement to the US National Health Interview Survey. Estimates of the number of children reported to be using ancillary and enabling services are generated and compared across operational definitions of functional limitation as well as by the number, severity, and type (i.e. mobility, self-care, communication/sensory, social cognition/learning ability) of limitation. Depending on the operational definition selected, 9-14% of US community-dwelling children are estimated to have functional limitations. Among children with limitations, 26-30% regularly use ancillary services and 11-14% use enabling services. The strengths, limitations, and potential applications for each operational definition are discussed. PMID:14512235

  11. Caries and dental fluorosis in a western Saharan population of refugee children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Montiel-Company, José María; Ruiz-Miravet, Anna

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between dental fluorosis and dental caries among western Saharan refugee children. The western Saharan child population is characterized by adverse living conditions, an unbalanced diet, poor oral hygiene habits, and a concentration of fluoride in the drinking water of around 2 p.p.m. (2 mg l(-1)). A sample consisting of 360 children, 6-7 yr of age, and 212 children, 11-13 yr of age, was obtained from four refugee camps (Smara, Awsard, El-Aaiun, and 27-February) situated in the vicinity of Tindouf (southern Algeria). The children were examined using the World Health Organization criteria for caries diagnosis and Dean's index for fluorosis. The decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) score was 0.48 in the 6-7-yr-old children and 1.69 in the 11-13-yr-old children, with a caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 or decayed and filled primary teeth (dft) > 0) of 47.2% and 63.2%, respectively. Among the 6-7 yr-old children examined, 36.9% were free of fluorosis, 15.6% presented moderate fluorosis, and 7.8% presented severe fluorosis. Among 11-13 yr-old children, only 4.2% were free of fluorosis, 30.2% exhibited moderate fluorosis, and 27.4% presented severe fluorosis. The mean DMFT, decayed permanent teeth (DT), and caries prevalence (DMFT > 0 and DMFT or dft > 0) scores were significantly higher among the children affected by severe fluorosis, suggesting that severe fluorosis might increase the susceptibility to dental caries. PMID:19049520

  12. Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. Methods 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th percentile. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). Results We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI values, and 100 children under the 15th percentile. LVMI values have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI percentiles ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in >95th percentile group. LVMI values in children < 15th BMI percentile were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI values evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower values of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). Conclusion In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size. PMID:27140179

  13. Biomonitoring exposure assessment to contemporary pesticides in a school children population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Roca, Marta; Miralles-Marco, Ana; Ferré, Joan; Pérez, Rosa; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-05-01

    The exposure to pesticides amongst school-aged children (6-11 years old) was assessed in this study. One hundred twenty-five volunteer children were selected from two public schools located in an agricultural and in an urban area of Valencia Region, Spain. Twenty pesticide metabolites were analyzed in children's urine as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, and herbicides. These data were combined with a survey to evaluate the main predictors of pesticide exposure in the children's population. A total of 15 metabolites were present in the urine samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 5% to 86%. The most frequently detected metabolites with DF>53%, were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos), diethyl phosphate (DEP, generic metabolite of OP insecticides), 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY, metabolite of diazinon) and para-nitrophenol (PNP, metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion). The calculated geometric means ranged from 0.47 to 3.36 µg/g creatinine, with TCPy and IMPY showing the higher mean concentrations. Statistical significant differences were found between exposure subgroups (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) for TCPy, DEP, and IMPY. Children living in the agricultural area had significantly higher concentrations of DEP than those living in the urban area. In contrast, children aged 6-8 years from the urban area, showed statistically higher IMPY levels than those from agricultural area. Higher levels of TCPy were also found in children with high consumption of vegetables and higher levels of DEP in children whose parents did not have university degree studies. The multivariable regression analysis showed that age, vegetable consumption, and residential use of pesticides were predictors of exposure for TCPy, and IMPY; whereas location and vegetable consumption were factors associated with DEP concentrations. Creatinine concentrations were the most

  14. Covariate effects and population pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in HIV-infected children

    PubMed Central

    Piana, Chiara; Zhao, Wei; Adkison, Kimberly; Burger, David; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Danhof, Meindert; Della Pasqua, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Aim Lamivudine is used as first line therapy in HIV-infected children. Yet, like many other paediatric drugs, its dose rationale has been based on limited clinical data, without thorough understanding of the effects of growth on drug disposition. Here we use lamivudine to show how a comprehensive population pharmacokinetic model can account for the influence of demographic covariates on exposure (i.e. AUC and Cmax). Methods Data from three paediatric trials were used to describe the pharmacokinetics across the overall population. Modelling was based on a non-linear mixed effects approach. A stepwise procedure was used for covariate model building. Results A one compartment model with first order elimination best described the pharmacokinetics of lamivudine in children. The effect of weight on clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (V) was characterized by an exponential function, with exponents of 0.705 and 0.635, respectively. For a child with median body weight (17.6 kg), CL and V were 16.5 (95% CI 15.2, 17.7) l h−1 and 46.0 (95% CI 42.4, 49.5) l, respectively. There were no differences between formulations (tablet and solution). The predicted AUC(0,12 h) after twice daily doses of 4 mg kg−1 ranged from 4.44 mg l−1 h for children <14 kg to 7.25 mg l−1 h for children >30 kg. Conclusions The use of meta-analysis is critical to identify the correct covariate-parameter relationships, which must be assessed before a model is applied for predictive purposes (e.g. defining dosing recommendations for children). In contrast to prior modelling efforts, we show that the covariate distribution in the target population must be considered. PMID:24118070

  15. Determinants of environmental tobacco smoke in a population of Puerto Rican children.

    PubMed

    Preston, A M; Rodríguez, C; Rivera, C E; Sahai, H

    2001-02-01

    This study was designed to determine among various personal, socioeconomic, and environmental factors those which had the greatest influence on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in a population of children residing in a tropical environment and to compare these results with those obtained in the literature of tobacco exposed children in temperate climates. Urine specimens were collected from 606 healthy Puerto Rican children (2-12 years) living in an industrial area and analyzed for cotinine, a quantitative biomarker for exposure to ETS. Parents completed a questionnaire covering smoking habits and socioeconomic information. Seventy per cent of the children were reported to be exposed to ETS, 50% resulting from exposure to smoke from either or both parents. Major determinants to ETS exposure were found to be presence of smoker, number of smokers, identity of smoker, number of cigarettes smoked in the household and child age with the youngest children suffering twice the exposure of older children. Non-determinants were exposure to smoke other than from the parent, sex of the child, season of the year and several socioeconomic factors including civil and employment status of the mother, mother's age and educational background and whether food stamps were being received. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that our predictors accounted for 40% of cotinine appearing in the urine. Reasons for this relatively low value may be due in part to precision of our analytic method and lower levels of ambient smoke in our population vs. others that reported higher R(2) values. Predictions from questionnaire information for high ETS exposure were not always the same as those indicated by urinary cotinine emphasizing that the bioindicator, which indicates the actual inhalation of ETS, is a better predictor of exposure than responses from a questionnaire. PMID:11260812

  16. Validation study of human figure drawing test in a Colombian school children population.

    PubMed

    Vélez van Meerbeke, Alberto; Sandoval-Garcia, Carolina; Ibáñez, Milciades; Talero-Gutiérrez, Claudia; Fiallo, Dolly; Halliday, Karen

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the validity of the emotional and developmental components of the Koppitz human figure drawing test. 2420 children's drawings available in a database resulting from a previous cross sectional study designed to determine the prevalence of neurological diseases in children between 0 and 12 years old in Bogota schools were evaluated. They were scored using the criteria proposed by Koppitz, and classified into 16 groups according to age, gender, and presence/absence of learning or attention problems. The overall results were then compared with the normative study to assess whether descriptive parameters of the two populations were significantly different. There were no significant differences associated with presence/absence of learning and attention disorders or school attended within the overall sample. An Interrater reliability test has been made to assure the homogeneity of scoring by the evaluator team. There were significant differences between this population and that of the original study. New scoring tables contextualized for our population based on the frequency of appearance in this sample are presented. We can conclude that various ethnic, social, and cultural factors can influence the way children draw the human figure. It is thus important to establish local reference values to adequately distinguish between normality and abnormality. The new scoring tables proposed here should be followed up with a clinical study to corroborate their validity. PMID:21568202

  17. Development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hägglund, Gunnar; Wagner, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The development of spasticity with age in children with cerebral palsy (CP) has, to our knowledge, not been studied before. In 1994, a register and a health care program for children with CP in southern Sweden were initiated. In the programme the child's muscle tone according to the modified Ashworth scale is measured twice a year until six years of age, then once a year. We have used this data to analyse the development of spasticity with age in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods All measurements of muscle tone in the gastrocnemius-soleus muscle in all children with CP from 0 to 15 years during the period 1995–2006 were analysed. The CP subtypes were classified according to the Surveillance of Cerebral Palsy in Europe network system. Using these criteria, the study was based on 6218 examinations in 547 children. For the statistical analysis the Ashworth scale was dichotomized. The levels 0–1 were gathered in one category and levels 2–4 in the other. The pattern of development with age was evaluated using piecewise logistic regression in combination with Akaike's An Information Criterion. Results In the total sample the degree of muscle tone increased up to 4 years of age. After 4 years of age the muscle tone decreased each year up to 12 years of age. A similar development was seen when excluding the children operated with selective dorsal rhizotomy, intrathecal baclofen pump or tendo Achilles lengthening. At 4 years of age about 47% of the children had spasticity in their gastro-soleus muscle graded as Ashworth 2–4. After 12 years of age 23% of the children had that level of spasticity. The CP subtypes spastic bilateral and spastic unilateral CP showed the same pattern as the total sample. Children with dyskinetic type of CP showed an increasing muscle tone up to age 6, followed by a decreasing pattern up to age 15. Conclusion In children with CP, the muscle tone as measured with the Ashworth scale increases up to 4

  18. Population Pharmacokinetics of Micafungin and Its Metabolites M1 and M5 in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kaibara, Atsunori; Roy, Michael; Arrieta, Antonio; Azie, Nkechi; Kovanda, Laura L.; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify therapeutic micafungin regimens for children that produce the same micafungin exposures known to be effective for the prevention and treatment of Candida infections in adults. Pediatric pharmacokinetic data from 229 patients between the ages of 4 months and <17 years were obtained from four phase I and two phase III clinical trials. Population pharmacokinetic models were used to simulate the proportion of children who had a steady-state area under the concentration-time curve at 24 hours (AUC24) of micafungin within the 10th to 90th percentile range observed in a population of adults receiving a dose of micafungin with established efficacy for invasive candidiasis (100 mg/day), i.e., 75 to 139 μg · h/ml. Simulated pediatric dosages of 0.5 to 5 mg/kg of body weight/day were explored. A two-compartment model was used that incorporated body weight as a predefined covariate for allometric scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters. During construction of the model, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin were also identified as covariates that had a significant effect on micafungin clearance. A dose of 2 mg/kg resulted in the highest proportion of children within the predefined micafungin AUC24 target range for invasive candidiasis. Cutoffs of 40 or 50 kg for weight-based dosing resulted in heavier children being appropriately dosed. Thus, dose regimens of 1, 2, and 3 mg/kg/day micafungin are appropriate for the prevention of invasive candidiasis, the treatment of invasive candidiasis, and the treatment of esophageal candidiasis, respectively, in children aged 4 months to <17 years. PMID:25421470

  19. Population pharmacokinetics of pyrimethamine and sulfadoxine in children with congenital toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Trenque, T; Simon, N; Villena, I; Chemla, C; Quereux, C; Leroux, B; Jaussaud, R; Rémy, G; Dupouy, D; Millart, H; Pinon, J-M; Urien, S

    2004-01-01

    Aims To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for pyrimethamine (PYR) and sulfadoxine (SDX) in children with congenital toxoplasmosis. Methods Children were treated with PYR (1.25 mg kg−1) and SDX (25 mg kg−1) (Fansidar®) plus folinic acid (Lederfoline® 5 mg). Plasma concentrations, available from a therapeutic drug monitoring database, were determined by high-performance liquid chromatogrphy. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed effects model. Results Eighty-nine children, aged 1 week to 14 years and weighing 2.9–59 kg, were available for evaluation. Both PYR and SDX concentration-time profiles were best described by a one-compartment open model. Volume of plasma distribution (V) and clearance (CL) were significantly related to body weight (BW) using an allometric function. Typical CL and V estimates (95% confidence interval), for a child weighing 11 kg were 5.50 (5.28, 5.73) l day−1 and 36 (33, 39) l for PYR and 0.26 (0.25, 0.27) l day−1 and 2.1 (1.9, 2.3) l for SDX. For BW between 3.5 and 60 kg, plasma half-lives were predicted to vary from 4.0 to 5.2 days for PYR, and from 5.0 to 7.5 days for SDX. Conclusion This study indicated that body weight influences PYR and SDX pharmacokinetics in children. To optimize PYR/SDX combination treatment in congenital toxoplasmosis, short dosing intervals in very young low-wight children are probably appropriate. PMID:15151519

  20. Children's head injuries in the Vietnamese refugee population in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Goh, K Y; Poon, W S

    1995-10-01

    All Vietnamese patients with head injuries from two of the largest refugee camps in Hong Kong are routinely referred to the Neurosurgical Unit of the Prince of Wales Hospital for management. In order to determine the epidemiology of head injuries in this population group, we have retrospectively reviewed all hospitalized cases over a 4 year period from January 1990 to December 1993. We have found a unique social situation in this population group, with an unusually high proportion of paediatric cases (2253 per 100,000 children aged 5 years or less), compared with other epidemiological studies. The most common mechanism of injury in between 57 and 75 per cent of cases was a fall from bed. Based on this information, appropriate preventive measures have been recommended and have successfully decreased the incidence of head injuries. This study demonstrates the value and effectiveness of epidemiological studies in identifying a previously unrecognized health risk in a specified population group. PMID:8550142

  1. Developmental Regression in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder Identified by a Population-Based Surveillance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Rice, Catherine E.; Baio, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the phenomenon of autistic regression using population-based data. The sample comprised 285 children who met the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) case definition within an ongoing surveillance program. Results indicated that children with a previously documented ASD diagnosis had higher rates of autistic regression than children…

  2. Prevalence and Predictors of Drooling in 7- to 14-Year-Old Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Susan M.; McCutcheon, Jennifer; Reddihough, Dinah S.; Johnson, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To establish a prevalence estimate for drooling and explore factors associated with drooling in a population sample of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged 7 to 14 years living in Victoria, Australia. Method: A self-report questionnaire was used to collect data on drooling from parents of children born between 1996 and 2001, and registered…

  3. A population study of severe aplastic anemia in children. Incidence, etiology and course.

    PubMed

    Clausen, N

    1986-01-01

    The total number of registered cases of severe aplastic anemia in Denmark was 39 among children aged 0-14 years in 1967 to 1982 giving an annual incidence of 2.2 cases per 1 million children in a well defined and stable population. A probable cause of the aplastic anemia was found in 21 cases (54%). Exposure of the population to known etiological factors of aplastic anemia such as chloramphenicol, pesticides and hepatitis was constant in the study period, and accounted for 2, 5, and 2 cases, respectively. Other infections caused 6 cases, other drugs 2 cases, and organic diluents one case. Three children with constitutional aplasia developed severe aplastic anemia among a total of 6 Fanconi's anemias, 3 probable Fanconi's anemias, and 10 cases of erythrogenesis imperfecta diagnosed during the same 16 years. Thirteen patients (33%) died within 3 months after the diagnosis while on supportive treatment and low dose prednisolone supplemented with androgen treatment. Long term survival occurred in 10 patients (26%), of which 5 patients were in complete and 5 in partial remission. PMID:3953278

  4. Family reintegration of children and adolescents in foster care in Brazilian municipalities with different population sizes.

    PubMed

    Iannelli, Andrea M; Assis, Simone Gonçalves; Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Pinto, Liana Wenersbach

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this article is to present and analyze data from Brazilian foster care services for children / adolescents from the perspective of family reintegration. It also seeks to support the implementation of public policies in order to provide effective reintegration in accordance with the differing local contexts. It uses data from 1,157 municipalities that have foster care services. The methodology takes into account the data collection of 2,624 Brazilian centers and 36,929 children and adolescents in care. The growing number of children/adolescents in care is in line with the increase in population size: 8.4 per small city; 60 per large city and 602.4 per metropolis. With respect to care residence in a different municipality there are varying indices: 12.4% in metropolises and 33.6% in small cities, revealing the absence of centers close to family units in the smaller communities. Regarding the activities promoted together with families, it was seen that there are still units that do not perform any activities, which runs contrary to Brazilian law. It is clear that policies for the child/adolescent in foster care centers need to consider the capacity of the municipality in accordance with population size to implement support actions for families to assist in family reintegration. PMID:25650596

  5. Association between gross motor function (GMFCS) and manual ability (MACS) in children with cerebral palsy. A population-based study of 359 children

    PubMed Central

    Carnahan, Katharina Delhusen; Arner, Marianne; Hägglund, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Background The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) has become an important tool to describe motor function in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). The Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) was developed recently as a corresponding classification of manual ability. The aim of this study was to describe the association between gross motor function and manual ability in a total population of children with cerebral palsy. Methods 365 children, born 1992 to 2001, who were registered in a population-based health care programme (CPUP) for children with CP living in the south of Sweden were included in the study. GMFCS was evaluated by the child's physiotherapist and MACS by the occupational therapist. CP diagnosis and subtype were determined by the neuropaediatrician at or after the age of four. Results GMFCS levels were available in all 365 children, MACS levels in 359 (98%). There was a poor overall correlation between gross motor function and manual ability. However, different associations between gross motor function and manual ability were found in the different diagnostic subtypes. Children with spastic hemiplegia generally had a lower level of manual ability than gross motor function (p < 0.001). The reverse association was generally found in children with spastic diplegia (p < 0.001). Children with dyskinetic CP had large limitations in both gross motor function and manual ability, with no significant discrepancy between GMFCS and MACS levels. Conclusion Gross motor function and manual ability are often discrepant in children with CP, and the patterns seem to vary across the different subgroups based on the predominant neurological findings. To give a complete clinical picture when evaluating these children, both aspects have to be described. The GMFCS and the MACS seem to work well in this context and seem very useful in population-based studies, in health care registers for children with CP, and in clinical practice. PMID:17584944

  6. [The scientometric analysis of dissertation studies in the field of specialty public health and health care concerning children population].

    PubMed

    Albitskiy, V S; Ustinova, N V; Antonova, Ye V

    2014-01-01

    The article considers trends and priority directions of research studies of the field of public health and health care of children population. The interpretative content analysis was applied to study dissertations in the field of public health and health care in 1991-2012. The sampling included 4194 units of information. The first stage of study established that problems of children population are considered in 14.8% dissertations defended on the mentioned specialty. The next stage the categories of content-analysis were examined. They were divided on the following axes: axis I "Main problem of study", axis II "Localization of study", axis III "Examined age groups", axis IV "Distribution of studies on gender of examined contingent", axis V "Examined contingent", axis VI "Additional medical specialty". It is established that in dissertations on public health and health care of children population on axis I prevails organizational subject matter (27.2%). The health condition of various contingents of children population (16.8%), preventive aspects of pediatrics (12.2%), examination of particular conditions/diseases/classes of diseases (10.8%) are fixed as priority directions. In the most dissertations the regional character of studies is presented (98.2%). The prevailing age group in studies is the adolescent group (19.9%). The inter-disciplinary relationships of dissertations on problems of public health and health care of children population are revealed with such specialties as "Pediatrics" (16.2%), "Obstetrics and gynecology" (3.8%) and "Hygiene" (3.4%). With consideration for recognition of health promotion and optimization of health care of children population as priority directions of public health policy amount of research studies in this field is to be admitted as inadequate. With purpose of optimization of scientific knowledge and development of system of medical social care to children population it is needed to promote research studies of problems of

  7. Orphans and Vulnerable Children in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Veronica C.; Muriithi, Patrick; Gilbert-Nandra, Ulrike; Kim, Andrea A.; Schmitz, Mary E.; Odek, James; Mokaya, Rose; Galbraith, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Kenya, it is estimated that there are approximately 3.6 million children aged <18 years who have been orphaned or who are vulnerable. We examined the data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to determine the number and profile of orphans and vulnerable children (OVC) in Kenya who were aged <18 years. Methods KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative, population-based household survey. We analyzed the data for all the children from birth to age 17 years who resided in an eligible household so as to determine whether their parents were alive or had been very ill to define their OVC status. Results We estimated that there were 2.6 million OVC in Kenya in 2012, of whom 1.8 million were orphans and 750,000 were vulnerable. Among orphans, 15% were double orphans. Over one-third of all the OVC were aged between 10 and 14 years. Households with ≥1 OVC (12% of all households) were usually in the lowest 2 wealth quintiles, and 22% of OVC households had experienced moderate or severe hunger. Receipt of OVC support services was low for medical (3.7%), psychological (4.1%), social (1.3%), and material support (6.2%); educational support was slightly more common (11.5%). Orphanhood among children aged <15 years increased from 1993 to 2003 (P < 0.01) but declined from 2003 to 2012 (P < 0.01). Conclusions The 2.6 million OVC constitute a significant proportion of Kenya’s population aged <18 years. Special attention should be paid to OVC to prevent further vulnerability and ensure their well-being and development as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24732824

  8. A Calibration Protocol for Population-Specific Accelerometer Cut-Points in Children

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, Kelly A.; Fairclough, Stuart J.; Stratton, Gareth; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To test a field-based protocol using intermittent activities representative of children's physical activity behaviours, to generate behaviourally valid, population-specific accelerometer cut-points for sedentary behaviour, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Methods Twenty-eight children (46% boys) aged 10–11 years wore a hip-mounted uniaxial GT1M ActiGraph and engaged in 6 activities representative of children's play. A validated direct observation protocol was used as the criterion measure of physical activity. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve analyses were conducted with four semi-structured activities to determine the accelerometer cut-points. To examine classification differences, cut-points were cross-validated with free-play and DVD viewing activities. Results Cut-points of ≤372, >2160 and >4806 counts•min−1 representing sedentary, moderate and vigorous intensity thresholds, respectively, provided the optimal balance between the related needs for sensitivity (accurately detecting activity) and specificity (limiting misclassification of the activity). Cross-validation data demonstrated that these values yielded the best overall kappa scores (0.97; 0.71; 0.62), and a high classification agreement (98.6%; 89.0%; 87.2%), respectively. Specificity values of 96–97% showed that the developed cut-points accurately detected physical activity, and sensitivity values (89–99%) indicated that minutes of activity were seldom incorrectly classified as inactivity. Conclusion The development of an inexpensive and replicable field-based protocol to generate behaviourally valid and population-specific accelerometer cut-points may improve the classification of physical activity levels in children, which could enhance subsequent intervention and observational studies. PMID:22590635

  9. Population pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid and dose optimization with limited sampling strategy in liver transplant children

    PubMed Central

    Barau, Caroline; Furlan, Valérie; Debray, Dominique; Taburet, Anne-Marie; Barrail-Tran, Aurélie

    2012-01-01

    AIMS The aims were to estimate the mycophenolic acid (MPA) population pharmacokinetic parameters in paediatric liver transplant recipients, to identify the factors affecting MPA pharmacokinetics and to develop a limited sampling strategy to estimate individual MPA AUC(0,12 h). METHODS Twenty-eight children, 1.1 to 18.0 years old, received oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy combined with either tacrolimus (n= 23) or ciclosporin (n= 5). The population parameters were estimated from a model-building set of 16 intensive pharmacokinetic datasets obtained from 16 children. The data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed effect modelling, using a one compartment model with first order absorption and first order elimination and random effects on the absorption rate (ka), the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) and apparent clearance (CL/F). RESULTS Two covariates, time since transplantation (≤ and >6 months) and age affected MPA pharmacokinetics. ka, estimated at 1.7 h−1 at age 8.7 years, exhibited large interindividual variability (308%). V/F, estimated at 64.7 l, increased about 2.3 times in children during the immediate post transplantation period. This increase was due to the increase in the unbound MPA fraction caused by the low albumin concentration. CL/F was estimated at 12.7 l h−1. To estimate individual AUC(0,12 h), the pharmacokinetic parameters obtained with the final model, including covariates, were coded in Adapt II® software, using the Bayesian approach. The AUC(0,12 h) estimated from concentrations measured 0, 1 and 4 h after administration of MMF did not differ from reference values. CONCLUSIONS This study allowed the estimation of the population pharmacokinetic MPA parameters. A simple sampling procedure is suggested to help to optimize pediatric patient care. PMID:22329639

  10. HIV in Children in a General Population Sample in East Zimbabwe: Prevalence, Causes and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Pufall, Erica L.; Nyamukapa, Constance; Eaton, Jeffrey W.; Mutsindiri, Reggie; Chawira, Godwin; Munyati, Shungu; Robertson, Laura; Gregson, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background There are an estimated half-million children living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The predominant source of infection is presumed to be perinatal mother-to-child transmission, but general population data about paediatric HIV are sparse. We characterise the epidemiology of HIV in children in sub-Saharan Africa by describing the prevalence, possible source of infection, and effects of paediatric HIV in a southern African population. Methods From 2009 to 2011, we conducted a household-based survey of 3389 children (aged 2–14 years) in Manicaland, eastern Zimbabwe (response rate: 73.5%). Data about socio-demographic correlates of HIV, risk factors for infection, and effects on child health were analysed using multi-variable logistic regression. To assess the plausibility of mother-to-child transmission, child HIV infection was linked to maternal survival and HIV status using data from a 12-year adult HIV cohort. Results HIV prevalence was (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.8%) and did not differ significantly by sex, socio-economic status, location, religion, or child age. Infected children were more likely to be underweight (19.6% versus 10.0%, p = 0.03) or stunted (39.1% versus 30.6%, p = 0.04) but did not report poorer physical or psychological ill-health. Where maternal data were available, reported mothers of 61/62 HIV-positive children were deceased or HIV-positive. Risk factors for other sources of infection were not associated with child HIV infection, including blood transfusion, vaccinations, caring for a sick relative, and sexual abuse. The observed flat age-pattern of HIV prevalence was consistent with UNAIDS estimates which assumes perinatal mother-to-child transmission, although modelled prevalence was higher than observed prevalence. Only 19/73 HIV-positive children (26.0%) were diagnosed, but, of these, 17 were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusions Childhood HIV infection likely arises predominantly from mother-to-child transmission and is

  11. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  13. Translating Research on Healthy Lifestyles for Children: Meeting the Needs of Diverse Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Christine; Floriani, Victoria

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis This paper provides two examples of approaches nursing can take to reach diverse populations of children and their families to enhance health lifestyles. First a descriptive summary of a brief after-school intervention program aimed at influencing 8 and 9 year-old children’s media habits and the prevention of negative health behaviors will be presented. Design consideration for translating health lifestyles research findings into a Nurse managed inner city primary care practice will be reviewed in the 2nd example. PMID:18674672

  14. "Every Family": A Population Approach to Reducing Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Children Making the Transition to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Matthew R.; Ralph, Alan; Sofronoff, Kate; Gardiner, Paul; Thompson, Rachel; Dwyer, Sarah; Bidwell, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale population trial using the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program (TPS) was evaluated. The target population was all parents of 4- to 7-year-old children residing in ten geographical catchment areas in Brisbane (intervention communities) and ten sociodemographically matched catchment areas from Sydney (5) and Melbourne (5), care as…

  15. Diagnostic Ionizing Radiation Exposure in a Population-based Sample of Children with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lena; Herfarth, Hans; Porter, Carol Q.; Fordham, Lynn A.; Sandler, Robert S.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims The degree of diagnostic radiation exposure in children with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is largely unknown. Here we describe this exposure in a population-based sample of children with IBD and determine characteristics associated with moderate radiation exposure. Methods We ascertained radiological study use, demographic characteristics, IBD medication use, and the requirement for hospitalization, emergency department (ED) encounter, or inpatient GI surgery among children with IBD within a large insurance claims database. Characteristics associated with moderate radiation exposure (at least one computed tomography (CT) or three fluoroscopies over two years) were determined using logistic regression models. Results We identified 965 children with Crohn’s Disease (CD) and 628 with Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Over 24 months, 34% of CD subjects and 23% of UC subjects were exposed to moderate diagnostic radiation [odds ratio (OR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36–2.14]. CT accounted for 28% and 25% of all studies in CD and UC subjects, respectively. For CD subjects, moderate radiation exposure was associated with hospitalization (OR 4.89, 95% CI 3.37–7.09), surgery (OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.59–5.39), ED encounter (OR 2.65, 1.93–3.64 95% CI), oral steroids (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.50–3.38), and budesonide (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10–3.06); an inverse association was seen with immunomodulator use (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47–0.97). Except for oral steroids and immunomodulators, similar relationships were seen in UC. Conclusion A substantial proportion of children with IBD are exposed to moderate amounts of radiation as a result of diagnostic testing. This high utilization may impart long-term risk given the chronic nature of the disease. PMID:19690524

  16. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population.

    PubMed

    de Meij, Tim G J; Budding, Andries E; de Groot, Evelien F J; Jansen, Fenna M; Frank Kneepkens, C M; Benninga, Marc A; Penders, John; van Bodegraven, Adriaan A; Savelkoul, Paul H M

    2016-04-01

    Numerous diseases linked to microbial imbalance can be traced back to childhood, illustrating the impact of the juvenile microbiota development from infancy toward adulthood. However, knowledge on this subject is currently very limited. The primary aim of this study was to characterize composition and short- and long-term stability of the intestinal microbiota in healthy children. Between November 2011 and June 2014, 61 children 2 to 18 yr of age from different areas in The Netherlands were included and instructed to collect fecal samples weekly, for 6 wk, and a follow-up sample after 18 mo. The intergenic spacer profiling technique (IS-pro) was used to analyze all available fecal samples. Microbial diversity was calculated by the Shannon diversity index and individual compositional stability by comparing all collection time points. Microbial stability varied per phylum (P< 0.0005), declined rapidly in a short time period, and subsequently stabilized on the long run with very gradual variation, leading to an overall compositional stability of 70% on average over a period of 18 mo. Higher species diversity was correlated to a higher overall compositional stability (P< 0.001). We observed an age-independent bacterial shared core consisting of a limited number of species. In conclusion, in this study, we showed that microbial composition stability in children varied per phylum, at both short-term and long-term intervals. Healthy children seem to share a microbiome core consisting of a limited number of species.-De Meij, T. G. J., Budding, A. E., de Groot, E. F. J., Jansen, F. M., Kneepkens, C. M. F., Benninga, M. A., Penders, J., van Bodegraven, A. A., Savelkoul, P. H. M. Composition and stability of intestinal microbiota of healthy children within a Dutch population. PMID:26655704

  17. Cross-sectional study of coeliac autoimmunity in a population of Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Sara; De Leo, Luigina; Nguyen-Ngoc-Quynh, Le; Nguyen-Duy, Bo; Not, Tarcisio; Tran-Thi-Chi, Mai; Phung-Duc, Son; Le-Thanh, Hai; Malaventura, Cristina; Vatta, Serena; Ziberna, Fabiana; Mazzocco, Martina; Volpato, Stefano; Phung-Tuyet, Lan; Le-Thi-Minh, Huong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The prevalence of coeliac disease (CD) in Vietnam is unknown. To fill this void, we assessed the prevalence of serological markers of CD autoimmunity in a population of children in Hanoi. Setting The outpatient blood drawing laboratory of the largest paediatric hospital in North Vietnam was used for the study, which was part of an international project of collaboration between Italy and Vietnam. Participants Children having blood drawn for any reason were included. Exclusion criteria were age younger than 2 years, acquired or congenital immune deficiency and inadequate sample. A total of 1961 children (96%) were enrolled (838 females, 1123 males, median age 5.3 years). Outcomes Primary outcome was the prevalence of positive autoimmunity to both IgA antitransglutaminase antibodies (anti-tTG) assessed with an ELISA test and antiendomysial antibodies (EMA). Secondary outcome was the prevalence of CD predisposing human leucocyte antigens (HLA) (HLA DQ2/8) in the positive children and in a random group of samples negative for IgA anti-tTG. Results The IgA anti-tTG test was positive in 21/1961 (1%; 95% CI 0.61% to 1.53%); however, EMA antibodies were negative in all. HLA DQ2/8 was present in 7/21 (33%; 95% CI 14.5% to 56.9%) of the anti-tTG-positive children and in 72/275 (26%; 95% CI 21% to 32%) of those who were negative. Conclusions Coeliac autoimmunity is rare in Vietnam, although prevalence of HLA DQ2/8 is similar to that of other countries. We hypothesise that the scarce exposure to gluten could be responsible for these findings. PMID:27329441

  18. Underlying Factors Associated with Anemia in Amazonian Children: A Population-Based, Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marly A.; Scopel, Kézia K.G.; Muniz, Pascoal T.; Villamor, Eduardo; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although iron deficiency is considered to be the main cause of anemia in children worldwide, other contributors to childhood anemia remain little studied in developing countries. We estimated the relative contributions of different factors to anemia in a population-based, cross-sectional survey. Methodology We obtained venous blood samples from 1111 children aged 6 months to 10 years living in the frontier town of Acrelândia, northwest Brazil, to estimate the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency by measuring hemoglobin, erythrocyte indices, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, and C-reactive protein concentrations. Children were simultaneously screened for vitamin A, vitamin B12, and folate deficiencies; intestinal parasite infections; glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; and sickle cell trait carriage. Multiple Poisson regression and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were used to describe associations between anemia and the independent variables. Principal Findings The prevalence of anemia, iron deficiency, and iron-deficiency anemia were 13.6%, 45.4%, and 10.3%, respectively. Children whose families were in the highest income quartile, compared with the lowest, had a lower risk of anemia (aPR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.37–0.98). Child age (<24 months, 2.90; 2.01–4.20) and maternal parity (>2 pregnancies, 2.01; 1.40–2.87) were positively associated with anemia. Other associated correlates were iron deficiency (2.1; 1.4–3.0), vitamin B12 (1.4; 1.0–2.2), and folate (2.0; 1.3–3.1) deficiencies, and C-reactive protein concentrations (>5 mg/L, 1.5; 1.1–2.2). Conclusions Addressing morbidities and multiple nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers and improving the purchasing power of poorer families are potentially important interventions to reduce the burden of anemia. PMID:22574149

  19. An overview of children as a special population-Relevance to predictive biomarkers

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmel, Gary L. . E-mail: glkimmel@comcast.net

    2005-08-07

    There has been an increasing focus on children as a special population in the fields of toxicology and epidemiology. At the same time, there has been considerable improvement in the technology for defining normal development and pathways of pathogenesis. Increased support of these areas has culminated in stronger research programs and greater professional involvement in addressing the specific challenges of applying new techniques and data to the improvement of children's health. Part of these challenges relates to the ever changing environment of the child. Not only does a child's anatomy, physiology, and metabolism change with time, but their lifestyle and awareness change as well. All of these can have a significant impact on a child's exposure and the potential of that exposure to have an effect on health and development. This paper will provide a brief overview of the susceptibility of the child relative to sensitive developmental life stages, the changing nature of exposure parameters during development, and how these factors can impact the relevance of predictive biomarkers of chemical toxicity in children.

  20. Melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults: a clinical pathological study in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Paula C F; Noda, Aliene Y I; Franco, Dilcilea D G S; Lourenço, Silvia V; Sangueza, Martin; Neto, Cyro F

    2014-08-01

    Malignant melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults is unusual, especially before puberty. In children (age, 0-14 years), most primary lesions are thick and atypical (amelanotic, simulating pyogenic granuloma). In the population of adolescents and young adults (age, 15-39 years), melanoma is the third most common cancer, only behind lymphoma and breast cancer. Our study investigated the records of 89 patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma at age 0-39 years at Hospital das Clínicas, Medical School, University of São Paulo between 1992 and 2002. They were divided into group A (0-14 years of age) and group B (15-39 years of age). The histopathology of all cases was reexamined. Statistical analysis of the data presented was performed, and the obtained data were compared with the literature. The frequency of melanoma in the group aged 15-39 years was higher in women, and the most affected site was the trunk. Additionally, melanomas were more frequent at an earlier age in patients with family history of melanoma (P = 0.014). Most cases were diagnosed, at histopathology, as superficial spreading melanoma. Thick nodular melanomas with Breslow values higher than 2 mm were associated with lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05). Our study revealed that melanoma in children, adolescents, and young adults may present peculiar behavior and outcome, which might reflect the genetic and yet not fully unraveled pathogenesis of this complex disease. PMID:25051040

  1. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  2. High prevalence of anemia in children and adult women in an urban population in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006-2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  3. High Prevalence of Anemia in Children and Adult Women in an Urban Population in Southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Silla, Lucia Mariano da Rocha; Zelmanowicz, Alice; Mito, Ingrid; Michalowski, Mariana; Hellwing, Tania; Shilling, Marco Antonio; Friedrisch, João Ricardo; Bittar, Christina M.; Albrecht, Cristina Arthmar Mentz; Scapinello, Elaine; Conti, Claudia; Albrecht, Marcia Arthmar Mentz; Baggio, Letícia; Pezzi, Annelise; Amorin, Bruna; Valim, Vanessa; Fogliatto, Laura; Paz, Alessandra; Astigarraga, Claudia; Bittencourt, Rosane Isabel; Fischer, Gustavo; Daudt, Liane

    2013-01-01

    This population-based study was designed to detect the prevalence of anemia in a healthy population of children (18 months to 7 years) and women (14 to 30 years) tested in 2006–2007 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil as part of an effort to tackle this massive problem that still affects so many people in the XXI century. Anemia was defined according to the WHO. Capillary blood was measured and socioeconomic status was determined according to the Brazilian Association of Market Research Agencies. The median prevalence of anemia in 2198 children was 45.4% and in 1999 women 36.4%. Anemia decreased with age during childhood; although significantly more prevalent in lower classes individuals, it was also high in the upper classes. There are indirect evidences that the lack of iron supplementation and/or iron fortified food may play a role in it. Professionals and society wise measures of education have to be implemented in order to address possible biologic factors involved in childhood psychosocial development in southern Brazil. PMID:23922664

  4. Where children and adolescents drown in Queensland: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C; Nixon, James W; Kimble, Roy M

    2015-01-01

    Objective This retrospective population-based study examined drowning location by the site of immersion for both fatal and non-fatal drowning events in Queensland. Drowning location is not routinely collected, and this study used data linkage to identify drowning sites. The resulting enhanced quality data quantify drowning incidence for specific locations by geographic region, age group and by severity for the first time. Design Linked data were accessed from the continuum of care (prehospital, emergency, hospital admission and death data) on fatal and non-fatal drowning episodes in children aged 0–19 years in Queensland for the years 2002–2008 inclusive. Results Drowning locations ranked in order of overall incidence were pools, inland water, coastal water, baths and other man-made water hazards. Swimming pools produced the highest incidence rates (7.31/100 000) for overall drowning events and were more often privately owned pools and in affluent neighbourhoods. Toddlers 0–4 years were most at risk around pools (23.94/100 000), and static water bodies such as dams and buckets—the fatality ratios were highest at these 2 locations for this age group. Children 5–14 years incurred the lowest incidence rates regardless of drowning location. Adolescents 15–19 years were more frequently involved in a drowning incident on the coast shoreline, followed by inland dynamic water bodies. Conclusions Linked data have resulted in the most comprehensive data collection on drowning location and severity to date for children in the state of Queensland. Most mortality and morbidity could have been prevented by improving water safety through engaged supervision around pools and bath time, and a heightened awareness of buckets and man-made water hazards around the farm home for young children. These data provide a different approach to inform prevention strategies. PMID:26610762

  5. Apgar-score in children prenatally exposed to antiepileptic drugs: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Jakob; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It is unknown if prenatal exposure to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) increases the risk of low Apgar score in offspring. Setting Population-based study using health registers in Denmark. Participants We identified all 677 021 singletons born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 and linked the Apgar score from the Medical Birth Register with information on the women's prescriptions for AEDs during pregnancy from the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. We used the Danish National Hospital Registry to identify mothers diagnosed with epilepsy before birth of the child. Results were adjusted for smoking and maternal age. Results Among 2906 children exposed to AEDs, 55 (1.9%) were born with an Apgar score ≤7 as compared with 8797 (1.3%) children among 674 115 pregnancies unexposed to AEDs (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=1.41 (95% CI 1.07 to 1.85). When analyses were restricted to the 2215 children born of mothers with epilepsy, the aRR of having a low Apgar score associated with AED exposure was 1.34 (95% CI 0.90 to 2.01) When assessing individual AEDs, we found increased, unadjusted RR for exposure to carbamazepine (RR=1.86 (95% CI 1.01 to 3.42)), valproic acid (RR=1.85 (95% CI 1.04 to 3.30)) and topiramate (RR=2.97 (95% CI 1.26 to 7.01)) when compared to unexposed children. Conclusions Prenatal exposure to AEDs was associated with increased risk of being born with a low Apgar score, but the absolute risk of a low Apgar score was <2%. Risk associated with individual AEDs indicate that the increased risk is not a class effect, but that there may be particularly high risks of a low Apgar score associated with certain AEDs. PMID:26359281

  6. Determinants of Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children: A General Population Study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Houben-van Herten, Marieke; Bai, Guannan; Hafkamp, Esther; Landgraf, Jeanne M.; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Background Health related quality of life is the functional effect of a medical condition and/or its therapy upon a patient, and as such is particularly suitable for describing the general health of children. The objective of this study was to identify and confirm potential determinants of health-related quality of life in children aged 4-11 years in the general population in the Netherlands. Understanding such determinants may provide insights into more targeted public health policy. Methods As part of a population based cross sectional study, the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) Parental Form 28 was used to measure health-related quality of life in school-aged children in a general population sample. Parents of 10,651 children aged 4-11 years were interviewed from January 2001 to December 2009. Results Multivariate and regression analyses demonstrated a declined CHQ Physical Summary score for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints and who were greater consumers of healthcare; children with a non-western immigrant background; and children whose parents did not work. Lower CHQ Psychosocial Summary score was reported for children who had >1 conditions, disorders or acute health complaints, boys, children of single parents and obese children. Conclusion The best predictors of health-related quality of life are variables that describe use of health care and the number of disorders and health complaints. Nonetheless, a number of demographic, socio-economic and family/environmental determinants contribute to a child’s health-related quality of life as well. PMID:25933361

  7. Prophylactic ranitidine treatment in critically ill children – a population pharmacokinetic study

    PubMed Central

    Hawwa, Ahmed F; Westwood, Paul M; Collier, Paul S; Millership, Jeffrey S; Yakkundi, Shirish; Thurley, Gillian; Shields, Mike D; Nunn, Anthony J; Halliday, Henry L; McElnay, James C

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of ranitidine in critically ill children and to determine the influence of various clinical and demographic factors on its disposition. Methods Data were collected prospectively from 78 paediatric patients (n = 248 plasma samples) who received oral or intravenous ranitidine for prophylaxis against stress ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding or the treatment of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Plasma samples were analysed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the data were subjected to population pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. Results A one-compartment model best described the plasma concentration profile, with an exponential structure for interindividual errors and a proportional structure for intra-individual error. After backward stepwise elimination, the final model showed a significant decrease in objective function value (−12.618; P < 0.001) compared with the weight-corrected base model. Final parameter estimates for the population were 32.1 l h−1 for total clearance and 285 l for volume of distribution, both allometrically modelled for a 70 kg adult. Final estimates for absorption rate constant and bioavailability were 1.31 h−1 and 27.5%, respectively. No significant relationship was found between age and weight-corrected ranitidine pharmacokinetic parameters in the final model, with the covariate for cardiac failure or surgery being shown to reduce clearance significantly by a factor of 0.46. Conclusions Currently, ranitidine dose recommendations are based on children's weights. However, our findings suggest that a dosing scheme that takes into consideration both weight and cardiac failure/surgery would be more appropriate in order to avoid administration of higher or more frequent doses than necessary. PMID:23016949

  8. A comparison of the spatial dependence of body mass index among adults and children in a Swiss general population

    PubMed Central

    Guessous, I; Joost, S; Jeannot, E; Theler, J-M; Mahler, P; Gaspoz, J-M; Cantoreggi, Nicola; Chételat, Joël; Simos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body mass index (BMI) may cluster in space among adults and be spatially dependent. Whether BMI clusters among children and how age-specific BMI clusters are related remains unknown. We aimed to identify and compare the spatial dependence of BMI in adults and children in a Swiss general population, taking into account the area's income level. Methods: Geo-referenced data from the Bus Santé study (adults, n=6663) and Geneva School Health Service (children, n=3601) were used. We implemented global (Moran's I) and local (local indicators of spatial association (LISA)) indices of spatial autocorrelation to investigate the spatial dependence of BMI in adults (35–74 years) and children (6–7 years). Weight and height were measured using standardized procedures. Five spatial autocorrelation classes (LISA clusters) were defined including the high–high BMI class (high BMI participant's BMI value correlated with high BMI-neighbors' mean BMI values). The spatial distributions of clusters were compared between adults and children with and without adjustment for area's income level. Results: In both adults and children, BMI was clearly not distributed at random across the State of Geneva. Both adults' and children's BMIs were associated with the mean BMI of their neighborhood. We found that the clusters of higher BMI in adults and children are located in close, yet different, areas of the state. Significant clusters of high versus low BMIs were clearly identified in both adults and children. Area's income level was associated with children's BMI clusters. Conclusions: BMI clusters show a specific spatial dependence in adults and children from the general population. Using a fine-scale spatial analytic approach, we identified life course-specific clusters that could guide tailored interventions. PMID:24614662

  9. Blood Lead Levels and Associated Factors among Children in Guiyu of China: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Pi; Xu, Xijin; Huang, Binliang; Sun, Di; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children's health problems caused by the electronic waste (e-waste) lead exposure in China remains. To assess children's blood lead levels (BLLs) in Guiyu of China and investigate risk factors of children's elevated BLLs in Guiyu. Material and Methods 842 children under 11 years of age from Guiyu and Haojiang were enrolled in this population-based study during 2011–2013. Participants completed a lifestyle and residential environment questionnaire and their physical growth indices were measured, and blood samples taken. Blood samples were tested to assess BLLs. Children's BLLs between the two groups were compared and factors associated with elevated BLLs among Guiyu children were analyzed by group Lasso logistic regression model. Results Children living in Guiyu had significant higher BLLs (7.06 µg/dL) than the quantity (5.89 µg/dL) of Haojiang children (P<0.05). Subgroup analyses of BLLs exceeding 10 µg/dL showed the proportion (24.80%) of high-level BLLs for Guiyu children was greater than that (12.84%) in Haojiang (P<0.05). Boys had greater BLLs than girls, irrespectively of areas (P<0.05). The number of e-waste piles or recycling workshops around the house (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37 to 3.87) significantly contributed to the elevated BLLs of children in Guiyu, and girls had less risk (odds ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.83) of e-waste lead exposure than boys. Conclusions This analysis reinforces the importance of shifting e-waste recycling piles or workshops to non-populated areas as part of a comprehensive response to e-waste lead exposure control in Guiyu. To correct the problem of lead poisoning in children in Guiyu should be a long-term mission. PMID:25136795

  10. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Pat; Landahl, John

    This pamphlet has been prepared in response to a new problem, a rapidly increasing population, and a new need, population education. It is designed to help teachers provide their students with some basic population concepts with stress placed on the elements of decision making. In the first section of the pamphlet, some of the basic concepts of…

  11. [Indicators for population and individual risk in assessing the effect of environmental factors on the health of children].

    PubMed

    Berdnik, O V; Serykh, L V; Antomonov, M Iu

    2001-01-01

    Populational studies define a risk for abnormalities forming in children residing in varying polluted areas and compare it with the risk due to other health-forming factors. To define an individual risk, the authors have developed scales rating the likelihood of abnormalities that can occur in each child in relation to the biomedical or social risk factors in children, to their residence in poor environmental areas, to the child's age and sex. PMID:11665543

  12. Epilepsy among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-10-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to four controls by gender, date of birth, place of birth, and residence in Finland. Epilepsy was associated with ASD regardless of the subgroup after adjusting for covariates. The associations were stronger among cases with intellectual disability, especially among females. Epilepsy's age at onset was similar between the cases and controls regardless of the ASD subgroup. These findings emphasize the importance to examine the neurodevelopmental pathways in ASD, epilepsy and intellectual disability. PMID:24803367

  13. Multiplexed immunoglobulin E sensitization in relation to exhaled nitric oxide in a population sample of children.

    PubMed

    Yao, T-C; Tsai, H-J; Tu, Y-L; Chang, S-W; Hua, M-C; Liao, S-L; Tsai, M-H; Chiu, C-Y; Lai, S-H; Yeh, K-W; Huang, J-L

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) profile for 40 allergens using a novel microarray technique (BioIC) and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in a population sample of 1321 children. Significant positive associations were found between FeNO and sensitization to mites (P < 0.001), animals (P = 0.001), cockroaches (P < 0.001), and foods (P = 0.042), and furthermore, between FeNO and the number of sensitizations (all P < 0.05) or the sum of specific IgE (all P ≤ 0.01) against the aforementioned allergen categories. Specifically, sensitization to the following allergens was significantly related to higher FeNO: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farina, Blomia tropicalis, cat, German cockroach, Oriental cockroach, codfish, crab, shrimp, and cheese (all P ≤ 0.01). In conclusion, IgE sensitization to mites, pets, cockroaches, seafood, and cheese, respectively, is significantly associated with elevated FeNO levels in a dose-dependent fashion in children. Our results provide new evidence that sensitization to certain food allergens may contribute to prompt inflammation in the airways. PMID:24576320

  14. Multidimensional morphometric 3D MRI analyses for detecting brain abnormalities in children: impact of control population.

    PubMed

    Wilke, Marko; Rose, Douglas F; Holland, Scott K; Leach, James L

    2014-07-01

    Automated morphometric approaches are used to detect epileptogenic structural abnormalities in 3D MR images in adults, using the variance of a control population to obtain z-score maps in an individual patient. Due to the substantial changes the developing human brain undergoes, performing such analyses in children is challenging. This study investigated six features derived from high-resolution T1 datasets in four groups: normal children (1.5T or 3T data), normal clinical scans (3T data), and patients with structural brain lesions (3T data), with each n = 10. Normative control data were obtained from the NIH study on normal brain development (n = 401). We show that control group size substantially influences the captured variance, directly impacting the patient's z-scores. Interestingly, matching on gender does not seem to be beneficial, which was unexpected. Using data obtained at higher field scanners produces slightly different base rates of suprathreshold voxels, as does using clinically derived normal studies, suggesting a subtle but systematic effect of both factors. Two approaches for controlling suprathreshold voxels in a multidimensional approach (combining features and requiring a minimum cluster size) were shown to be substantial and effective in reducing this number. Finally, specific strengths and limitations of such an approach could be demonstrated in individual cases. PMID:25050423

  15. Committee report: Method for evaluating conditions nominated for population-based screening of newborns and children.

    PubMed

    Calonge, Ned; Green, Nancy S; Rinaldo, Piero; Lloyd-Puryear, Michele; Dougherty, Denise; Boyle, Coleen; Watson, Michael; Trotter, Tracy; Terry, Sharon F; Howell, R Rodney

    2010-03-01

    The Secretary's Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children is charged with evaluating conditions nominated for addition to the uniform screening panel and consequently making recommendations to the secretary of the US Department of Health and Human Services. This report describes the framework by which the committee approaches its task. Key decision nodes include initial review of every nomination to determine whether conditions are amenable for systematic evidence review, review of systematic evidence reviews conducted by the committee's external review group, and deliberation and formal recommendation for addition or exclusion to the uniform panel. Data analyzed include the accuracy and specificity of screening and diagnostic tests for nominated disorders, the extent of predicted health benefits, harms impact on disease course, and cost from early diagnosis and treatment. The committee process is guided by approaches used by similar entities, but more flexible criteria are sometimes needed to accommodate data limitations stemming from the rarity of many of these conditions. Possible outcomes of committee review range from recommendation to add a nominated condition to the uniform panel; provide feedback on specific gaps in evidence that must be addressed before making a decision; or rejection of a nomination (e.g., because of identified harms). The committee's structured evidence-based assessment of nominated conditions supports a consistently rigorous, iterative and transparent approach to its making recommendations regarding broad population-based screening programs for rare conditions in infants and children. PMID:20154628

  16. Population Intervention Models to Estimate Ambient NO2 Health Effects in Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Snowden, Jonathan M.; Mortimer, Kathleen M.; Dufour, Mi-Suk Kang; Tager, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a real-world air pollution scenario. In the present study, we employ population intervention modeling to estimate the effect of an air pollution intervention that makes explicit reference to the observed exposure data and is identifiable in those data. We calculate the association between ambient summertime NO2 and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25–75) in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, California. We scale the effect size to reflect NO2 abatement on a majority of summer days. The effect estimates were small, imprecise, and consistently indicated improved pulmonary function with decreased NO2. The effects ranged from −0.8% of mean FEF25–75 (95% Confidence Interval: −3.4 , 1.7) to −3.3% (95% CI: −7.5, 0.9). We conclude by discussing the nature and feasibility of the exposure change analyzed here given the observed air pollution profile, and we propose additional applications of the population intervention model in environmental epidemiology. PMID:25182844

  17. Population intervention models to estimate ambient NO2 health effects in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Jonathan M; Mortimer, Kathleen M; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Tager, Ira B

    2015-01-01

    Health effects of ambient air pollution are most frequently expressed in individual studies as responses to a standardized unit of air pollution changes (e.g., an interquartile interval), which is thought to enable comparison of findings across studies. However, this approach does not necessarily convey health effects in terms of a real-world air pollution scenario. In the present study, we use population intervention modeling to estimate the effect of an air pollution intervention that makes explicit reference to the observed exposure data and is identifiable in those data. We calculate the association between ambient summertime nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25-75) in a cohort of children with asthma in Fresno, California. We scale the effect size to reflect NO2 abatement on a majority of summer days. The effect estimates were small, imprecise, and consistently indicated improved pulmonary function with decreased NO2. The effects ranged from -0.8% of mean FEF25-75 (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.4, 1.7) to -3.3% (95% CI: -7.5, 0.9). We conclude by discussing the nature and feasibility of the exposure change analyzed here given the observed air pollution profile, and we propose additional applications of population intervention models in environmental epidemiology. PMID:25182844

  18. Children's height and weight in rural and urban populations in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, Christopher J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Urban living affects children's nutrition and growth, which are determinants of their survival, cognitive development, and lifelong health. Little is known about urban–rural differences in children's height and weight, and how these differences have changed over time. We aimed to investigate trends in children's height and weight in rural and urban settings in low-income and middle-income countries, and to assess changes in the urban–rural differentials in height and weight over time. Methods We used comprehensive population-based data and a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate trends in children's height-for-age and weight-for-age Z scores by rural and urban place of residence, and changes in urban–rural differentials in height and weight Z scores, for 141 low-income and middle-income countries between 1985 and 2011. We also estimated the contribution of changes in rural and urban height and weight, and that of urbanisation, to the regional trends in these outcomes. Findings Urban children are taller and heavier than their rural counterparts in almost all low-income and middle-income countries. The urban–rural differential is largest in Andean and central Latin America (eg, Peru, Honduras, Bolivia, and Guatemala); in some African countries such as Niger, Burundi, and Burkina Faso; and in Vietnam and China. It is smallest in southern and tropical Latin America (eg, Chile and Brazil). Urban children in China, Chile, and Jamaica are the tallest in low-income and middle-income countries, and children in rural areas of Burundi, Guatemala, and Niger the shortest, with the tallest and shortest more than 10 cm apart at age 5 years. The heaviest children live in cities in Georgia, Chile, and China, and the most underweight in rural areas of Timor-Leste, India, Niger, and Bangladesh. Between 1985 and 2011, the urban advantage in height fell in southern and tropical Latin America and south Asia, but changed little or not at all in most

  19. Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and acute diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis of South Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, N; Singian, E; Jarjanazi, H; Steiner, T S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the association of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) with acute diarrhea in children of South Asian populations. Our meta-analysis included 18 studies published between 1989 and 2011. The odds ratio (OR) was used to evaluate all available observational epidemiology studies. Modifying effects on the overall OR were approached with outlier, subgroup, cumulative, and cumulative recursive analyses. Synthesis of the 18 observational studies revealed an association between EAEC carriage and acute diarrhea, with an overall OR of 1.51, which was significant (p = 0.008), heterogeneous (Pheterogeneity < 0.0001), and unaffected by outlier analysis. This analysis, however, affected the subgroups by eliminating the following: (i) heterogeneity (from Pheterogeneity < 0.0001 to 0.30-0.72) of pooled ORs in the underpowered (OR 1.37, p = 0.15), Indian (OR 1.92, p = 0.09), and hospital-based (OR 1.66, p = 0.06) studies; (ii) non-significance of these three subgroups (OR 1.56-2.01, p < 0.0001-0.003); (iii) significance of the high-powered studies (from OR 1.70, p = 0.02 to OR 1.15, p = 0.28); (iv) heterogeneity (from Pheterogeneity < 0.0001-0.0002 to 0.11-0.15) of pooled ORs in period three (OR 1.85, p = 0.14), population-based (OR 1.36, p = 0.09), and pCVD432 (OR 1.53, p = 0.07) studies. In general, outlier treatment increased precision with the narrowing of confidence intervals, overall, and in the subgroups. Cumulative meta-analysis generally resulted in increases in the frequencies of significant effects and of heterogeneity. This meta-analysis on observational studies suggests that the association between EAEC and acute diarrhea in children is that of increased risk. This effect generally comes from heterogeneous studies of South Asian populations, but is modified with outlier and subgroup treatments. PMID:23179250

  20. A preliminary examination of child well-being of physically abused and neglected children compared to a normative pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L; Raghavan, Ramesh; Auslander, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Federal mandates require state child welfare systems to monitor and improve outcomes for children in three areas: safety, permanency, and well-being. Research across separate domains of child well-being indicates maltreated children may experience lower pediatric health-related quality of life (HRQL). This study assessed well-being in maltreated children using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0), a widely used measure of pediatric HRQL. The PedsQL 4.0 was used to assess well-being in a sample of children (N = 129) receiving child welfare services following reports of alleged physical abuse or neglect. We compared total scores and domain scores for this maltreated sample to those of a published normative sample. Within the maltreated sample, we also compared well-being by child and family demographic characteristics. As compared with a normative pediatric population, maltreated children reported significantly lower total, physical, and psychosocial health. We found no significant differences in total and domain scores based on child and parent demographics within the maltreated sample. This preliminary exploration indicates children receiving child welfare services have significantly lower well-being status than the general child population and have considerable deficits in social and emotional functioning. These findings support continued investment in maltreatment prevention and services to improve the well-being of victims of maltreatment. PMID:25366676

  1. A prospective assessment of food and nutrient intake in a population of Malawian children at risk for kwashiorkor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine what foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns are associated with development of kwashiorkor in populations of vulnerable 1- to 3-year-old Malawian children. This was a prospective observational study conducted in 8 rural villages. Upon enrollment, demographic, anthropom...

  2. The Combined Burden of Cognitive, Executive Function, and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Epilepsy: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoie, B.; Sommerfelt, K.; Waaler, P. E.; Alsaker, F. D.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Mykletun, A.

    2008-01-01

    The combined burden of psychosocial (Achenbach scales), cognitive (Raven matrices), and executive function (EF) problems was studied in a population-based sample of 6- to 12-year-old children with epilepsy (n = 162; 99 males, 63 females) and in an age- and sex-matched control group (n = 107; 62 males, 45 females). Approximately 35% of the children…

  3. Interobserver Agreement of the Gross Motor Function Classification System in an Ambulant Population of Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Brona C.; Kerr, Claire; Parkes, Jackie

    2007-01-01

    Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level was reported by three independent assessors in a population of children with cerebral palsy (CP) aged between 4 and 18 years (n=184; 112 males, 72 females; mean age 10y 10mo [SD 3y 7mo]). A software algorithm also provided a computed GMFCS level from a regional CP registry. Participants had…

  4. Validation Theory and Research for a Population-Level Measure of Children's Development, Wellbeing, and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Janus, Magdalena; Hertzman, Clyde

    2011-01-01

    This paper delineates general validity and research questions that are underlying an ongoing program of research pertaining to the Early Development Instrument (EDI, Janus and Offord 2007), a population-level measure, on which teachers rate kindergarten children's developmental outcomes in the social, emotional, physical, cognitive, and…

  5. The Impact of Population Density on the Likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) Clients Becoming Economically Self-Sufficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen-Noe, Mary K.; And Others

    The impact of population density on the likelihood of Aid to Dependent Children (ADC) clients becoming economically self-sufficient was examined through a study of 2,647 ADC recipients referred to a total of 8 comprehensive vocational assessment centers (CVACs) for ADC clients that were established in Ohio in 1992. Of the CVACs, two were from each…

  6. New Insights into the Molecular Epidemiology and Population Genetics of Schistosoma mansoni in Ugandan Pre-school Children and Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2013-01-01

    Significant numbers of pre-school children are infected with Schistosoma mansoni in sub-Saharan Africa and are likely to play a role in parasite transmission. However, they are currently excluded from control programmes. Molecular phylogenetic studies have provided insights into the evolutionary origins and transmission dynamics of S. mansoni, but there has been no research into schistosome molecular epidemiology in pre-school children. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of S. mansoni in pre-school children and mothers living in lakeshore communities in Uganda and monitored for changes over time after praziquantel treatment. Parasites were sampled from children (<6 years) and mothers enrolled in the longitudinal Schistosomiasis Mothers and Infants Study at baseline and at 6-, 12- and 18-month follow-up surveys. 1347 parasites from 35 mothers and 45 children were genotyped by direct sequencing of the cytochrome c oxidase (cox1) gene. The cox1 region was highly diverse with over 230 unique sequences identified. Parasite populations were genetically differentiated between lakes and non-synonymous mutations were more diverse at Lake Victoria than Lake Albert. Surprisingly, parasite populations sampled from children showed a similar genetic diversity to those sampled from mothers, pointing towards a non-linear relationship between duration of exposure and accumulation of parasite diversity. The genetic diversity six months after praziquantel treatment was similar to pre-treatment diversity. Our results confirm the substantial genetic diversity of S. mansoni in East Africa and provide significant insights into transmission dynamics within young children and mothers, important information for schistosomiasis control programmes. PMID:24349589

  7. Hip pain is more frequent in severe hip displacement: a population-based study of 77 children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ramstad, Kjersti; Terjesen, Terje

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether hip pain was associated with radiographic hip displacement (migration percentage, MP) in a population-based cohort of children with cerebral palsy. Seventy-seven children, mean age 9.5 (SD 1.6) years and Gross Motor Function Classification System level III-V, were assessed. Caregivers responded to the Child Health Questionnaire pain questions and located recurrent pain on a body map. Hip pain was reported in 22 children (29%) and 27 hips (18%). Hip pain was significantly more frequent in hips with MP more than or equal to 50%, in children with spastic quadriplegia, and in those with Gross Motor Function Classification System level V. We conclude that severe hip displacement with MP more than or equal to 50% was associated with hip pain, whereas slight or moderate subluxation did not influence the occurrence of such pain. PMID:26895291

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Survival of United States Children with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Gang; Canfield, Mark A.; Mai, Cara T.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Meyer, Robert E.; Anderka, Marlene; Copeland, Glenn E.; Kucik, James E.; Nembhard, Wendy N.; Kirby, Russell S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine racial/ethnic-specific survival of children with major birth defects in the US. Study design We pooled data on live births delivered during 1999-2007 with any of 21 birth defects from 12 population-based birth defects surveillance programs. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to calculate cumulative survival probabilities and Cox proportional hazards models to estimate mortality risk. Results For most birth defects, there were small-to-moderate differences in neonatal (<28 days) survival among racial/ethnic groups. However, compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, postneonatal infant (28 days to <1 year) mortality risk was significantly greater among children born to non-Hispanic black mothers for 13 of 21 defects (hazard ratios [HRs] 1.3-2.8) and among children born to Hispanic mothers for 10 of 21 defects (HRs 1.3-1.7). Compared with children born to non-Hispanic white mothers, a significantly increased childhood (≤8 years) mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.6), tetralogy of Fallot, and atrioventricular septal defect (HRs 1.6-1.8) and among children born to American Indian/Alaska Native mothers for encephalocele (HR 2.8), whereas a significantly decreased childhood mortality risk was found among children born to Asian/Pacific Islander mothers for cleft lip with or without cleft palate (HR 0.6). Conclusion Children with birth defects born to non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers carry a greater risk of mortality well into childhood, especially children with congenital heart defect. Understanding survival differences among racial/ethnic groups provides important information for policy development and service planning. PMID:25641238

  9. Using Electronic Health Records to Examine Disease Risk in Small Populations: Obesity Among American Indian Children, Wisconsin, 2007–2012

    PubMed Central

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Weinert, Bethany A.; Godfrey, Liz; Adams, Alexandra K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tribe-based or reservation-based data consistently show disproportionately high obesity rates among American Indian children, but little is known about the approximately 75% of American Indian children living off-reservation. We examined obesity among American Indian children seeking care off-reservation by using a database of de-identified electronic health records linked to community-level census variables. Methods Data from electronic health records from American Indian children and a reference sample of non-Hispanic white children collected from 2007 through 2012 were abstracted to determine obesity prevalence. Related community-level and individual-level risk factors (eg, economic hardship, demographics) were examined using logistic regression. Results The obesity rate for American Indian children (n = 1,482) was double the rate among non-Hispanic white children (n = 81,042) (20.0% vs 10.6%, P < .001). American Indian children were less likely to have had a well-child visit (55.9% vs 67.1%, P < .001) during which body mass index (BMI) was measured, which may partially explain why BMI was more likely to be missing from American Indian records (18.3% vs 14.6%, P < .001). Logistic regression demonstrated significantly increased obesity risk among American Indian children (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6–2.1) independent of age, sex, economic hardship, insurance status, and geographic designation. Conclusion An electronic health record data set demonstrated high obesity rates for nonreservation-based American Indian children, rates that had not been previously assessed. This low-cost method may be used for assessing health risk for other understudied populations and to plan and evaluate targeted interventions. PMID:26916900

  10. Survival of children with trisomy 13 and trisomy 18: A multi-state population-based study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Robert E; Liu, Gang; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Ethen, Mary K; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Powell, Cynthia M; Flood, Timothy J; Mai, Cara T; Wang, Ying; Canfield, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Trisomy 13 (T13) and trisomy 18 (T18) are among the most prevalent autosomal trisomies. Both are associated with a very high risk of mortality. Numerous instances, however, of long-term survival of children with T13 or T18 have prompted some clinicians to pursue aggressive treatment instead of the traditional approach of palliative care. The purpose of this study is to assess current mortality data for these conditions. This multi-state, population-based study examined data obtained from birth defect surveillance programs in nine states on live-born infants delivered during 1999-2007 with T13 or T18. Information on children's vital status and selected maternal and infant risk factors were obtained using matched birth and death certificates and other data sources. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate age-specific survival probabilities and predictors of survival up to age five. There were 693 children with T13 and 1,113 children with T18 identified from the participating states. Among children with T13, 5-year survival was 9.7%; among children with T18, it was 12.3%. For both trisomies, gestational age was the strongest predictor of mortality. Females and children of non-Hispanic black mothers had the lowest mortality. Omphalocele and congenital heart defects were associated with an increased risk of death for children with T18 but not T13. This study found survival among children with T13 and T18 to be somewhat higher than those previously reported in the literature, consistent with recent studies reporting improved survival following more aggressive medical intervention for these children. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663415

  11. Malocclusion and early orthodontic treatment requirements in the mixed dentitions of a population of Nigerian children

    PubMed Central

    daCosta, Oluranti Olatokunbo; Aikins, Elfleda Angelina; Isiekwe, Gerald Ikenna; Adediran, Virginia Efunyemi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aims of this study were to establish the prevalence of dental features that indicate a need for early intervention and to ascertain the prevalence of different methods of early treatment among a population of Nigerian children in mixed dentition. Methods: Occlusal relationships were evaluated in 101 children in mixed dentition between the ages of 6 and 12 years who presented at the Orthodontic Unit, Department of Child Dental Health, Lagos University Teaching Hospital over a 2 years period. The need for different modes of early orthodontic treatment was also recorded. Results: Anterior tooth rotations (61.4%) and increased overjet (44.6%) were the most prevalent occlusal anomalies. Others included deep bite (31.7%), reverse overjet (13.9%), and anterior open bite (14.8%). Severe maxillary spacing and crowding were exhibited in 12.0% and 5.0%, respectively. About a third (35.7%) of the subjects presented with crossbite while lip incompetence was observed in 43.6% of the subjects. About 44% of the subjects also presented with various oral habits with digit (15.8%) and lip sucking (9.9%) being the most prevalent. Subjects were recommended for treatment with 2 by 4 fixed orthodontic appliances (22.3%), habit breakers (20.7%), removable orthodontic appliances (16.5%), and extractions (15.7%). Conclusions: Increased overjet and anterior tooth rotation were the majority of occlusal anomalies seen, which are not only esthetically displeasing but may also cause an increased susceptibility to trauma to these teeth. Treatment options varied from extractions only to the use of appliance therapy. PMID:27556019

  12. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of oxaliplatin in adults and children identifies important covariates for dosing

    PubMed Central

    Nikanjam, Mina; Stewart, Clinton F.; Takimoto, Chris H.; Synold, Timothy W.; Beaty, Orren; Fouladi, Maryam; Capparelli, Edmund V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the determinants of variability for oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics including age, renal function, and hepatic function in children and adults. Methods Oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic data were combined from phase I and II clinical trials: 3 pediatric trials (Peds1–3) and 2 adult NCI organ dysfunction studies (Hepatic, Renal). A population pharmacokinetic model was developed utilizing platinum ultrafiltrate concentrations to characterize changes in oxaliplatin disposition with age and organ dysfunction along with other potential sources of oxaliplatin pharmacokinetic variability. Results A total of 1508 concentrations from 186 children and adults were used in the study. The data were well described by a three-compartment model. Serum creatinine was an independent predictor of clearance while age was an independent predictor of volume of distribution. While age was a significant covariate on clearance in the univariate analysis, age effects on clearance were entirely accounted for by serum creatinine. Gender, hepatic function, and race had no effect on clearance or volume of distribution. Median clearance values were 0.58 (Hepatic), 0.34 (Renal), 0.78 (Peds1), 0.74 (Peds2), and 0.81 (Peds3) (L/hr/kg0.75). Monte Carlo simulations of the final model with 130 mg/m2 yielded median AUC values of: 14.2 (2–6 yr), 16.8 (6–12 yr), 16.5 (12–18 yr), and 17.3 (>18 yr) (μg*hr/mL). Conclusions Renal function had the greatest effect on clearance with a small age effect seen on the distribution of oxaliplatin. Young pediatric patients had higher clearance values than adults as a result of better renal function. PMID:25557868

  13. Central nervous system tumors in chinese children under the age of 3: a population study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Shing, Matthew Ming-Kong; Yuen, Hui-Leung; Li, Chak-Ho; Ling, Siu-Cheung; Luk, Chung-Wing; Ha, Shau-Yin; Li, Chi-Kong; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2015-03-01

    The management of central nervous system tumors in children below the age of 3 years represents a special challenge to pediatric oncologists with distinctive epidemiology, treatment considerations, and prognosis. Population-based epidemiological data on this particular patient group is lacking in Chinese. We reviewed the population-based pediatric tumor registry in Hong Kong between 1999 and 2011. Eighty-one children with primary central nervous system tumors from 0 to 3 years of age were identified (annual incidence: 4.16 cases per 100,000). Forty-one (50.6%) were male and the mean duration of follow-up was 94 months (±8.1). Primary tumors were infratentorial in 43 (53.1%). The tumor types in decreasing frequency were astrocytoma (n=17), medulloblastoma (n=16), ependymoma (n=13), choroid plexus tumor (n=7), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n=7), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n=6), germ cell tumor (GCT, n=5), craniopharyngioma (n=4), and ganglioglioma (n=3). Three patients presented antenatally. Treatment included surgery in 82.7%, chemotherapy in 50.6%, and radiotherapy in 25.9%. There were 29 deaths (35.8%) and 19 relapses (23.5%) during the review period with the 1-year overall survival (OS), 5-year OS, 1-year event-free survival (EFS), and 5-year EFS being 79.4% (±4.6), 63.5% (±5.9), 68.9% (±5.3), and 52.5% (±5.9), respectively. Significantly better OS and EFS were observed in patients who received gross total resection, but those with high-grade tumors, antenatal diagnosis, or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor/primitive neuroectodermal tumor had worse outcome. Survival did not differ with age. Comparison with statistics from other studies revealed higher rates of embryonal tumor, GCT, and craniopharyngioma in Hong Kong Chinese. Disease outcome appeared to be better in our cohort comparing to previous reports probably due to the higher proportion of GCT locally. PMID:24608077

  14. Population Pharmacokinetics Study of Recommended Zidovudine Doses in HIV-1-Infected Children

    PubMed Central

    Treluyer, Jean-Marc; Frange, Pierre; Urien, Saik; Foissac, Frantz; Bouazza, Naim; Benaboud, Sihem; Blanche, Stephane; Hirt, Déborah

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the pharmacokinetics of zidovudine (ZDV) and its biotransformation to its metabolite, 3*-azido-3*-deoxy-5*-glucuronylthymidine (G-ZDV), in HIV-infected children, to identify factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of ZDV, and to compare and evaluate the doses recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). ZDV concentrations in 782 samples and G-ZDV concentrations in 554 samples from 247 children ranging in age from 0.5 to 18 years were retrospectively measured. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM software (version 6.2), and the pharmacokinetics of ZDV were best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The effect of body weight on the apparent elimination clearance and volume of distribution was significant. The mean population parameter estimates were as follows: absorption rate, 2.86 h−1; apparent elimination clearance, 89.7 liters · h−1 (between-subject variability, 0.701 liters · h−1); apparent volume of distribution, 229 liters (between-subject variability, 0.807 liters); metabolic formation rate constant, 12.6 h−1 (between-subject variability, 0.352 h−1); and elimination rate constant of G-ZDV, 2.27 h−1. On the basis of simulations with FDA and WHO dosing recommendations, the probabilities of observing efficient exposures (doses resulting in exposures of between 3 and 5 mg/liter · h) with less adverse events (doses resulting in exposures below 8.4 mg/liter · h) were higher when the FDA recommendations than when the WHO recommendations were followed. In order to improve the FDA recommendations, ZDV doses should be reconsidered for the weight band (WB) of 20 to 40 kg. The most appropriate doses should be decreased from 9 to 8 mg/kg of body weight twice a day (BID) for the WB from 20 to 29.9 kg and from 300 to 250 mg BID for the WB from 30 to 39.9 kg. The highest dose, 300 mg BID, should be

  15. Population Pharmacokinetics of Bevacizumab in Children with Osteosarcoma: Implications for Dosing

    PubMed Central

    Turner, David C.; Navid, Fariba; Daw, Najat C.; Mao, Shenghua; Wu, Jianrong; Santana, Victor M.; Neel, Michael; Rao, Bhaskar; Willert, Jennifer Reikes; Loeb, David M.; Harstead, K. Elaine; Throm, Stacy L.; Freeman, Burgess B.; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe sources of interindividual variability in bevacizumab disposition in pediatric patients and explore associations among bevacizumab pharmacokinetics and clinical wound healing outcomes. Experimental Design Prior to tumor resection, three doses of bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) were administered to patients (median age 12.2 years) enrolled on a multi-institutional osteosarcoma trial. Serial sampling for bevacizumab pharmacokinetics was obtained from 27 patients. A population pharmacokinetic model was fit to the data, and patient demographics and clinical chemistry values were systematically tested as predictive covariates on model parameters. Associations between bevacizumab exposure and wound healing status were evaluated by logistic regression. Results Bevacizumab concentration-time data were adequately described by a two-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were similar to those previously reported in adults with a long median (range) terminal half-life of 12.2 days (8.6 to 32.4 days) and a volume of distribution indicating confinement primarily to the vascular space,49.1 mL/kg (27.1 to 68.3 mL/kg). Body composition was a key determinant of bevacizumab exposure as body mass index percentile was significantly (p<0.05) correlated to body-weight normalized clearance and volume of distribution. Furthermore, bevacizumab exposure prior to primary tumor resection was associated with increased risk of major wound healing complications after surgery (p<0.05). Conclusion A population pharmacokinetic model for bevacizumab was developed which demonstrated that variability in bevacizumab exposure using weight-based dosing is related to body composition. Bevacizumab dosage scaling using ideal body weight would provide an improved dosing approach in children by minimizing pharmacokinetic variability and reducing likelihood of major wound healing complications. PMID:24637635

  16. Population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children with tuberculosis: in silico evaluation of currently recommended doses

    PubMed Central

    Zvada, Simbarashe P.; Denti, Paolo; Donald, Peter R.; Schaaf, H. Simon; Thee, Stephanie; Seddon, James A.; Seifart, Heiner I.; Smith, Peter J.; McIlleron, Helen M.; Simonsson, Ulrika S. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid in children and evaluate the adequacy of steady-state exposures. Patients and methods We used previously published data for 76 South African children with tuberculosis to describe the population pharmacokinetics of rifampicin, pyrazinamide and isoniazid. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict steady-state exposures in children following doses in fixed-dose combination tablets in accordance with the revised guidelines. Reference exposures were derived from an ethnically similar adult population with tuberculosis taking currently recommended doses. Results The final models included allometric scaling of clearance and volume of distribution using body weight. Maturation was included for clearance of isoniazid and clearance and absorption transit time of rifampicin. For a 2-year-old child weighing 12.5 kg, the estimated typical oral clearances of rifampicin and pyrazinamide were 8.15 and 1.08 L/h, respectively. Isoniazid typical oral clearance (adjusted for bioavailability) was predicted to be 4.44, 11.6 and 14.6 L/h for slow, intermediate and fast acetylators, respectively. Higher oral clearance values in intermediate and fast acetylators also resulted from 23% lower bioavailability compared with slow acetylators. Conclusions Simulations based on our models suggest that with the new WHO dosing guidelines and utilizing available paediatric fixed-dose combinations, children will receive adequate rifampicin exposures when compared with adults, but with a larger degree of variability. However, pyrazinamide and isoniazid exposures in many children will be lower than in adults. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings in children administered the revised dosages and to optimize pragmatic approaches to dosing. PMID:24486870

  17. Hospitalizations and Associated Costs in a Population-Based Study of Children with Down Syndrome Born in Florida

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, April; Cassell, Cynthia H.; Oster, Matthew E.; Olney, Richard S.; Tanner, Jean Paul; Kirby, Russell S.; Correia, Jane; Grosse, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to examine differences in hospital resource utilization for children with Down syndrome by age and the presence of other birth defects, particularly severe and non-severe congenital heart defects (CHDs). Methods This was a retrospective, population-based, statewide study of children with Down syndrome born 1998-2007, identified by the Florida Birth Defects Registry (FBDR) and linked to hospital discharge records for 1-10 years after birth. To evaluate hospital resource utilization, descriptive statistics on number of hospitalized days and hospital costs were calculated. Results were stratified by isolated Down syndrome (no other coded major birth defect); presence of severe and non-severe CHDs; and presence of major FBDR-eligible birth defects without CHDs. Results For 2,552 children with Down syndrome, there were 6,856 inpatient admissions, of which 68.9% occurred during the first year of life (infancy). Of the 2,552 children, 31.7% (n=808) had isolated Down syndrome, 24.0% (n=612) had severe CHDs, 36.3% (n=927) had non-severe CHDs, and 8.0% (n=205) had a major FBDR-eligible birth defect in the absence of CHD. Infants in all three non-isolated DS groups had significantly higher hospital costs compared to those with isolated Down syndrome. From infancy through age 4, children with severe CHDs had the highest inpatient costs compared to children in the other sub-groups. Conclusions Results support findings that for children with Down syndrome the presence of other anomalies influences hospital use and costs, and children with severe CHDs have greater hospital resource utilization than children with other CHDs or major birth defects without CHDs. PMID:25124730

  18. Anthelmintics residues in raw milk. Assessing intake by a children population.

    PubMed

    Tsiboukis, D; Sazakli, E; Jelastopulu, E; Leotsinidis, M

    2013-01-01

    Anthelmintics, such as benzimidazoles and probenzimidazoles, are veterinary drugs used against endoparasites in food producing animals. A number of these drugs are considered responsible for embryotoxicity and teratogenicity. The residue levels of Albendazole, Febantel, Fenbendazole, Mebendazole and some of their metabolites (Albendazole sulphoxide, Albendazole sulphone, Fenbendazole sulfone) were assessed in 123 (42 goat, 69 sheep, 12 bovine) raw milk samples collected from all farms throughout Southern Greece. Sample analysis was performed by HPLC with Diode Array Detector. A high percentage (27.6%) of the samples examined was found to be positive for the investigated compounds. In 14 samples (11.4%), the residues' concentration exceeded the established Maximum Residue Limits. Estimated Daily Intakes were calculated for a population of 723 children aged 10-12 years. Data on milk consumption were obtained by personal interview through a 7-day food frequency questionnaire. The maximum Estimated Daily Intakes for the anthelmintic residues, concerning raw milk, did not exceed the current Acceptable Daily Intake. PMID:23691580

  19. Pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drug varies with formulation in the target population of children with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Kasirye, P; Kendall, L; Adkison, K K; Tumusiime, C; Ssenyonga, M; Bakeera-Kitaka, S; Nahirya-Ntege, P; Mhute, T; Kekitiinwa, A; Snowden, W; Burger, D M; Gibb, D M; Walker, A S

    2012-02-01

    The bioequivalence of formulations is usually evaluated in healthy adult volunteers. In our study in 19 HIV-1-infected Ugandan children (1.8-4 years of age, weight 12 to <15 kg) receiving zidovudine, lamivudine, and abacavir solutions twice a day for ≥24 weeks, the use of scored tablets allowed comparison of plasma pharmacokinetics of oral solutions vs. tablets. Samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 h after each child's last morning dose of oral solution before changing to scored tablets of Combivir (coformulated zidovudine + lamivudine) and abacavir; this was repeated 4 weeks later. Dose-normalized area under curve (AUC)(0-12) and peak concentration (C(max)) for the tablet formulation were bioequivalent with those of the oral solution with respect to zidovudine and abacavir (e.g., dose-normalized geometric mean ratio (dnGMR) (tablet:solution) for zidovudine and abacavir AUC(0-12) were 1.01 (90% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.18) and 0.96 (0.83-1.12), respectively). However, lamivudine exposure was ~55% higher with the tablet formulation (AUC(0-12) dnGMR = 1.58 (1.37-1.81), C(max) dnGMR = 1.55 (1.33-1.81)). Although the clinical relevance of this finding is unclear, it highlights the impact of the formulation and the importance of conducting bioequivalence studies in target pediatric populations. PMID:22190066

  20. School Injury among Ottawa-Area Children: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josse, Jonathan M.; MacKay, Morag; Osmond, Martin H.; MacPherson, Alison K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Injuries are the leading cause of death among Canadian children and are responsible for a substantial proportion of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. This investigation sought to identify the factors associated with the likelihood of sustaining an injury at school among Ottawa-area children. Methods: Children presenting…

  1. School-Age Children of Fathers with Substance Use Disorder: Are They a High Risk Population?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the association between parental substance use and the increased risk among school-age children to developing psychosocial problems. Data were collected from 148 children aged 8-11 from urban areas in Israel. The following variables were assessed by four self-report questionnaires administered to the children: …

  2. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Among 3 to 7-Year-Old Strabismic and Nonstrabismic Children in an Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3–7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively. These mean scores in normal children were 91.89±47.53, 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  3. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children With High IQ: Results from a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Katusic, Maja Z.; Voigt, Robert G.; Colligan, Robert C.; Weaver, Amy L.; Homan, Kendra J.; Barbaresi, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To compare the characteristics of children with ADHD who have high IQ versus normal and low IQ through long-term follow-up of children with ADHD from a population-based birth cohort. Methods Subjects included children with research-identified ADHD (N=379) from a birth cohort (N=5,718). Full scale IQ scores obtained between ages 6 –18 years were used to categorize children into three groups: Low (IQ<80), Normal (80≤IQ<120) and High IQ (IQ≥120). Subjects were retrospectively followed from birth until emigration, death, or high school graduation/dropout. The groups were compared on demographic characteristics, age at which ADHD case criteria were met, co-morbidities, treatment, and school outcomes. Results There were no significant differences among children with high (N=34), normal (N=276) or low IQ (N=21) and ADHD in numerous characteristics, including median age at which ADHD criteria were fulfilled (9.5, 9.7, and 9.8 years); rates of co-morbid learning disorders (85.3%, 78.3%, 76.2%), psychiatric disorders (47.1%, 50.4%, 47.6%), and substance abuse (17.6%, 23.6%, 19.0%); and rates of stimulant treatment (79%, 75%, 90%). In comparison to children with normal or low IQ, those with high IQ had mothers with higher educational levels (e.g., college graduation rates 44.1%, 11.6%, 14.3%), and higher reading achievement (median national percentiles on standardized reading tests 77.0, 42.0, 29.0, p<0.001). Conclusions These findings suggest that ADHD is similar among children with high, normal and low IQ, although high IQ may favorably mediate some outcomes such as reading achievement. Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD are important for all children, regardless of cognitive ability. PMID:21200330

  4. Comparing Intelligence Quotient (IQ)among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Ghaderpanah, Mahboubeh; Farrahi, Feraidoon; Khataminia, Gholamreza; Jahanbakhshi, Ahmad; Rezaei, Leila; Tashakori, Ashraf; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the Intelligence Quotient (IQ) among 3 to 7-year-old strabismic and nonstrabismic children in an Iranian population. In this cross-sectional study, 108 preschool children with equal numbers of strabismic/non-strabismic disorder (age 3-7 years) were randomly selected from exceptional strabismus clinics of Ahvaz and were evaluated with the preschool and primary scale of intelligence versions of Wechsler (WPPSI). In the current study, 108 children were evaluated. In strabismic patients the mean performance, verbal and total IQ were 89.46±19.79, 89.57±21.57 and 91.54±22.08 respectively.These mean scores in normal children  were 91.89±47.53 , 87.56±15.6 and 89.96±17.62 consecuently. The results showed that these three different IQ subscales were not significantly different among 3 to 7 years old strabismic and nonstrabismic children ((P>0.05 for all comparisons). There was no significant difference in IQ between two sexes (P>0.05) while Persian tribe children had greater IQ score compared to other tribes (P<0.05). Also, higher paternal educational status of children related to higher IQ score. IQ score was better in combined deviations and was higher in exotropes than esotropes; however, these differences were not statistically significant.(p>0.05) In this evaluation, we did not found a significant negative interference of strabismus on IQ score of preschool children. It can be concluded that paternal educational level and tribe have a significant effect on intelligent quotient, while this is not the case on sex and ocular deviation. PMID:26493422

  5. Hospitalization risk factors for children's lower respiratory tract infection: A population-based, cross-sectional study in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Dagvadorj, Amarjargal; Ota, Erika; Shahrook, Sadequa; Baljinnyam Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Takehara, Kenji; Hikita, Naoko; Bavuusuren, Bayasgalantai; Mori, Rintaro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the potential risk factors for lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-related hospital admissions in Mongolian children. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in rural Mongolia in 2013, and 1,013 mother-child pairs were included. Of the participating children, 38.9% were admitted to hospital with LRTIs. Home smoking, low birthweight, being a male child, exclusive breastfeeding and healthcare-seeking behaviour showed substantial association with LRTI-related hospital admissions. Number of cigarettes smoked by family members showed a dose-response relationship and increased hospital admissions. Strategies to prevent second-hand-smoke exposure from adult smokers, especially inside the home, are crucial to preventing LRTI-related hospital admissions for children in Mongolia. Improving rates of exclusive breastfeeding and increasing birthweight have great potential to decrease the likelihood of children acquiring a LRTI. Educational initiatives are also necessary for women who are less likely to seek out care for their children's symptoms. PMID:27090182

  6. Rapid Growth from 12 to 23 Months of Life Predicts Obesity in a Population of Pacific Island Children

    PubMed Central

    Okihiro, May; Davis, James; White, Lon; Derauf, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Background Rapid growth (RG) in early childhood has been associated with increased risk of obesity. The specific intervals when risk is highest have not been well examined and may help identify modifiable risk factors. Objective To determine the correlation between RG in consecutive time intervals during the first 2 years of life with obesity at 4–5 years. Methods This was a retrospective study of children attending the largest community health center in Hawaii. Children, aged 4–5 years, with a pre-kindergarten (PreK) well-child physical examination were included; data were abstracted from medical charts. Analyses Children were classified as overweight (BMI for age/sex 85–94%) or obese (BMI for age/sex ≥ 95%). Moderate and severe rapid growth was defined as an increase in weight-for-height z-score of .67–1.0 SD and ≥1.0, respectively. Relationship between RG and PreK obesity was assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results 389 children were included: 66% Hawaiian, 21.6% Samoan and 12.3% Filipino. At the PreK 19.6% were obese, and 20.9% were overweight. Severe RG from 12 to 23 months was strongly associated with PreK obesity (OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.85–10.27). Of children with severe RG from 12–23 months, 48% were obese at PreK compared with 16.7% of children with moderate RG and 19.3% of children without RG. Conclusion Rapid growth between 12 and 23 months, a key period of nutritional transition in toddlers, was strongly associated with obesity at 4 to 5 years of age in this high-risk population of Pacific Island minority subgroups. PMID:23140074

  7. Children of the Road: Migrant Students, Our Nation's Most Mobile Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branz-Spall, Angela Maria; Rosenthal, Roger; Wright, Al

    2003-01-01

    Children of migrant farmworkers face many obstacles (poverty, geographic and cultural isolation, discrimination, language minority status, and mobility). Congress established the Title I Migrant Education Program to enable them to meet the same standards as other children. States that oversee Title I migrant education programs have created…

  8. Speech Characteristics of 8-Year-Old Children: Findings from a Prospective Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wren, Yvonne; McLeod, Sharynne; White, Paul; Miller, Laura L.; Roulstone, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Speech disorder that continues into middle childhood is rarely studied compared with speech disorder in the early years. Speech production in single words, connected speech and nonword repetition was assessed for 7390 eight-year-old children within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The majority (n=6399) had typical…

  9. Divorce in Families of Children with Down Syndrome: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbano, Richard C.; Hodapp, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we examined the nature, timing, and correlates of divorce in families of children with Down syndrome (647), other birth defects (10,283) and no identified disability (361,154). Divorce rates among families of children with Down syndrome were lower than in the other two groups. When divorce did occur in the Down syndrome group,…

  10. Does Head Start Help Hispanic Children? Labor and Population Program, Working Paper Series 96-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Thomas, Duncan

    Poor educational attainment is a persistent problem among Latino children relative to non-Latinos. This study examined the effects of participation in the Head Start program on Latinos. Large and significant benefits were found to accrue to Head Start children when compared to siblings who did not participate in the program. On average, Head Start…

  11. A Model of Communicative Perspective-Taking for Typical and Atypical Populations of Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Elizabeth S.; Fecica, Agnieszka M.

    2011-01-01

    Successful communication requires that individuals attend to the perspective of their conversational partners and use this information to modify their behavior accordingly. This paper presents a framework by which to understand children's communicative perspective-taking skills and, within this framework, outlines three routes by which children's…

  12. A Population-Based Twin Study of Parentally Reported Tactile and Auditory Defensiveness in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, H. H.; Van Hulle, C. A.; Arneson, C. L.; Schreiber, J. E.; Gernsbacher, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Some adults and children exhibit defensive behaviors to tactile or auditory stimulation. These symptoms occur not only in subsets of children with ADHD, autism, and Fragile X syndrome, but also in the apparent absence of accompanying disorders. Relatively little research explores the correlates and antecedents of sensory defensiveness. Using a…

  13. Children Living without Their Fathers: Population Estimates and Indicators of Educational Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the number of American children in grades K-12 who live without their biological fathers and examines the association of absent-father status with children's well-being. The 2003 Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (n = 12,426) shows that 28% percent of White…

  14. A Population Study of Children's Acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    To, Carol K. S.; Cheung, Pamela S. P.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated children's acquisition of Hong Kong Cantonese. Method: Participants were 1,726 children ages 2;4 to 12;4 (years;months). Single-word speech samples were collected to examine 4 measures: initial consonants, final consonants, vowels/diphthongs, and lexical tones. A 2-way analysis of variance was performed to examine…

  15. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  16. Extending the Parameters: An Inquiry into Teaching Practices for Children from Diverse Populations and Homeless Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Grace Ann

    2012-01-01

    The number of homeless children in the United States is increasing. The National Center on Family Homelessness (2010) reports that on average one in 50 children in the United States have experienced homelessness, defined as unstable housing. The needs of this student demographic are varied and complex. For the purpose of this study, the homeless…

  17. Assessment of environmental health children's population living in environmental injustice scenarios.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Cifuentes, Enrique; Escobar, Edna Rico; Martínez, Fernando Díaz-Barriga

    2012-12-01

    We conducted a cross sectional study, involving 145 children randomly selected from three different socioeconomic locations. We selected social, environment and health indicators and measured the prevalence and prevalence odds ratios. Children from the brick producing site (segregation index 5), are exposed to high levels of multiple toxic agents, and showed the highest morbidity rates and malnutrition, anemia, dental fluorosis, and the lowest IQ, followed by children from municipal garbage dump (segregation index 4), where we detected the highest prevalence of dermatological and enteric diseases. Children from the Central Zone (segregation index 2) showed the lowest rates of malnutrition and higher IQ than the other two groups. A unified vision of social, health and environmental indicators opens the possibility of novel intervention programs and a legal framework that specifically protect children against environmental exposures. PMID:22418761

  18. [Epidemiologic studies after the disaster in Czernobyl in the population of children in the Krakow region].

    PubMed

    Rybakowa, M; Tylek, D; Sołtysik-Wilk, E; Glonek, G; Stanuch, H; Szafran, Z; Sucharski, P

    1991-01-01

    In 1989-1990 the epidemiologic studies about the impact of of Czarnobyl events on the health of children in Kraków and Nowy Sacz region were performed. The morphologic and functional changes of thyroid gland in children were estimated. Almost 90% of children in both districts received the iodine preparations for prophylactic reason. The mean time of intake was between 5-10 days following the Czarnobyl explosion. There were no relationship between the dose of iodine absorbed during prophylactic action and incidence of goiter. The prevalence of goiter amounted to 34.8-47.6% in boys and girls consecutively in Kraków district and 53.8-70.5% in Nowy Sacz. No hormonal changes in T3, T4 and TSH serum concentration were found in children with goiter and those without goiter. The complications after iodine intake were transient and seen only in a small number of children. PMID:1364477

  19. Should urinary iodine concentrations of school-aged children continue to be used as proxy for different populations? Analysis of data from Chinese national surveys.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Su, Xiaohui; Li, Mu; Shen, Hongmei; Yu, Jun; Kelly, Patrick J; Meng, Fangang; Liu, Lixiang; Fan, Lijun; Li, Ming; Liu, Shoujun; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-09-01

    I deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Median urinary I concentration in school-aged children has been used globally as a proxy for all populations. This study aims to determine whether median urinary I concentration of school-aged children is an appropriate indicator of I nutritional status in different adult populations. This is a secondary data analysis of two national I Deficiency Disorder surveys (2011, 2014) and two regional surveys (in coastal areas, 2009, and in high-risk areas, 2009-2014). Population groups included in these surveys were school-aged children (8-10 years), pregnant women, lactating women, women of childbearing age and adults (men and women, 18-45 years). All participants were self-reported healthy without history of thyroid diseases or were not using thyroid medicines. The median urinary I concentration of school-aged children was matched with that of the other population at the county level. The matched populations had similar iodised salt supply, food and water I, food composition and I content in salt. Weak or moderate correlation of median urinary I concentrations was observed between school-aged children and pregnant women and between children and lactating women. However, the agreement was stronger between children and women of childbearing age and between children and adult men and women. The results could be affected by cut-off values, data aggregation level and sample size. Using median urinary I concentration of school-aged children tends to overestimate that of pregnant women and lactating women. Median urinary I concentration of school-aged children can be used for assessing I nutrition in the adult population. PMID:27498626

  20. Psychosocial effects on siblings of children with autism and mental retardation: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Bågenholm, A; Gillberg, C

    1991-08-01

    The probands of this study were 60 children and young adults between 5 and 20 years of age, 20 of whom had siblings with autism, 20 of whom had siblings with mental retardation, and 20 of whom had siblings who were free of handicap. The three proband groups were matched for gender, birth order and socioeconomic status. The children were questioned about their sibling relationships and about particular problems they faced concerning their handicapped brothers or sisters and about problems concerning themselves. Parents were interviewed about the healthy child's behaviour and social adjustment. Mothers completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory concerning themselves. Siblings of handicapped children and especially siblings of children with autism were more concerned about the future. They also felt lonely more often and many of them had peer problems. They often regarded their handicapped siblings as a burden. They tended to have only one sibling. Siblings often did not know why their handicapped brother or sister was different from other children. There were more behaviour disturbances in the siblings of handicapped children and mothers with a child with autism reported more 'stressful events'. There were no differences as regards the personality of the mothers and the self-concept of the children between the three groups. PMID:1757979

  1. WIC Eligibles and Coverage--1994 To 2007: Estimates of the Population of Women, Infants, and Children Eligible for WIC Benefits. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) provides food, nutrition education, breastfeeding support, and health care and social service referrals to nutritionally at-risk low-income pregnant women, new mothers, infants, and children through age 4. This report offers updated estimates of the population that…

  2. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  3. Incidence of leukemias in children from El Salvador and Mexico City between 1996 and 2000: Population-based data

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel; Bonilla, Miguel; Lorenzana, Rodolpho; Juárez-Ocaña, Servando; de Reyes, Gladys; Pérez-Saldivar, María Luisa; González-Miranda, Guadalupe; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Ortiz-Fernández, Antonio; Ortega-Alvarez, Manuel; Martínez-García, María del Carmen; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo

    2005-01-01

    Background There are very few studies that report the incidence of acute leukemias in children in Latin America. This work assesses the incidence of acute leukemias, between 1996 and 2000, in children from 0–14 years old who were attended at the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City and in children from 0–11 years old in El Salvador. Methods Design: Population-based data. Hospitals: In San Salvador, El Salvador, Hospital Nacional de Niños "Benjamín Bloom", the only center in El Salvador which attends all children, younger than 12 years, with oncologic disease. The Pediatric Hospital and the General Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute in Mexico City, the only centers in Mexico City which attend all those children with acute leukemia who have a right to this service. Diagnosis: All patients were diagnosed by bone marrow smear and were divided into acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and unspecified leukemias (UL). The annual incidence rate (AIR) and average annual incidence rate (AAIR) were calculated per million children. Cases were stratified by age and assigned to one of four age strata: 1) <1 year; 2) 1–4 years; 3) 5–9 years, or 4) 10–14 or 10–11 years, for Mexico City and El Salvador, respectively. Results The number of cases was 375 and 238 in El Salvador and Mexico City, respectively. AAIRs in Mexico City were 44.9, 10.6, 2.5, 0.5, and 58.4 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. The AAIRs in El Salvador could not be calculated because the fourth age stratum in El Salvador included children only from 0–11 years old. The incidence rates for the Salvadoran group of 0–11 year olds were 34.2, 7.1, 0.6, 0.2, and 43.2 per million children for ALL, AML, CML, UL, and total leukemias, respectively. Conclusion Reported AIRs for each age group in El Salvador were similar to those from other American countries. The AAIR of ALL in

  4. A Population Health Approach to System Transformation for Children's Healthy Development.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Paul H; Sood, Aradhana Bela

    2016-04-01

    What if the goal of child health services was not "merely" treating, or even preventing, childhood diseases and disorders, but was expanded to that of promoting children's optimal healthy development? Pediatrics has evolved from an exclusive focus on the treatment of illness to the opportunity to promote children's healthy development. This evolution has profound implications for the content of child health services and programs, for system transformation, and for public policy. Enhanced understanding of the impact of social determinants on children's health and developmental outcomes underscores the importance of an evolving framework for system transformation with key policy implications. PMID:26980132

  5. Population Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Praziquantel in Ugandan Children with Intestinal Schistosomiasis: Higher Dosages Are Required for Maximal Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Waterhouse, David; de Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Roberts, Stephen A.; Atuhaire, Aaron; Van Dam, Govert J.; Corstjens, Paul L. A. M.; Scott, Janet T.; Stanton, Michelle C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; Ward, Stephen; Hope, William W.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Each year, millions of African children receive praziquantel (PZQ) by mass drug administration (MDA) to treat schistosomiasis at a standard single dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight, a direct extrapolation from studies of adults. A higher dose of 60 mg/kg is also acceptable for refractory cases. We conducted the first PZQ pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) study in young children comparing dosing. Sixty Ugandan children aged 3 to 8 years old with egg patent Schistosoma mansoni received PZQ at either 40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg. PK parameters of PZQ racemate and enantiomers (R and S) were quantified. PD outcomes were assessed by standard fecal egg counts and novel schistosome-specific serum (circulating anodic antigen [CAA]) and urine (circulating cathodic antigen [CCA]) antigen assays. Population PK and PD analyses were performed to estimate drug exposure in individual children, and the relationship between drug exposure and parasitological cure was estimated using logistic regression. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify better, future dosing regimens. There was marked PK variability between children, but the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of PZQ was strongly predictive of the parasitological cure rate (CR). Although no child achieved antigenic cure, which is suggestive of an important residual adult worm burden, higher AUC was associated with greater CAA antigenic decline at 24 days. To optimize the performance of PZQ, analysis of our simulations suggest that higher doses (>60 mg/kg) are needed, particularly in smaller children. PMID:27507822

  6. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  7. A psychotherapeutic approach to treatment of a population at high risk for alcoholism: adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Eve, S I

    1989-01-01

    It is estimated that there are between 25 and 28 million children of alcoholic parent(s) in the United States today. These individuals are at high risk for development of intrapsychic, interpersonal, and behavioural disorder, ie, developing alcoholism (40-60 per cent), becoming involved with an alcoholic (co-alcoholism), feeling a consistent sense of personal inadequacy or an inability to develop satisfying mutually supportive relationships. Major cognitive and emotional deficits appear to exist. Adult children of alcoholics who often experience many years of less-than-fruitful therapy report better results when alcoholic family issues have been adequately addressed. Developmental, existential and systems approaches may be well utilized, as well as non-verbal modalities, in treatment of adult children of alcoholics. Assessment, diagnosis and treatment issues particular to this population will be discussed as well as methods of working with specific barriers exhibited by children of alcoholics in the therapy setting. Implications of treatment will be discussed in relation to primary alcoholism prevention, relapse prevention and the effectiveness of alcoholism treatment programme staff. PMID:2509840

  8. Vitamin D Insufficiency and Bone Mineral Status in a Population of Newcomer Children in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vatanparast, Hassanali; Nisbet, Christine; Gushulak, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low levels of circulating vitamin D are more likely to be found in those with darker skin pigmentation, who live in areas of high latitude, and who wear more clothing. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in newcomer immigrant and refugee children. Methods: We evaluated circulating vitamin D status of immigrant children at the national level. Subsequently, we investigated vitamin D intake, circulating vitamin D status, and total body bone mineral content (TBBMC) in newcomer children living in Saskatchewan. Results: In the sample of newcomer children in Saskatchewan, the prevalence of inadequacy in calcium and vitamin D intakes was 76% and 89.4%, respectively. Vitamin D intake from food/supplement was significantly higher in immigrants compared to refugees, which accords with the significant difference in serum status. Circulating vitamin D status indicated that 29% of participants were deficient and another 44% had inadequate levels of serum 25(OH)D for bone health. Dietary vitamin D intake, sex, region of origin, and length of stay in Canada were significant predictors of serum vitamin D status. Results for TBBMC revealed that 38.6% were found to have low TBBMC compared to estimated values for age, sex, and ethnicity. In the regression model, after controlling for possible confounders, children who were taller and had greater circulating vitamin D also had greater TBBMC. Nationally, immigrant children, particularly girls, have significantly lower plasma 25(OH)D than non-immigrant children. Interpretation: Newcomer immigrant and refugee children are at a high risk of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy, which may have serious negative consequences for their health. PMID:23673607

  9. Familial appraisal of colorblindness in school children of an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Srikumari, C R; Rajanikumari, J; Rao, T V

    1985-01-01

    A total 2000 unrelated school children were screened for colorblindness in Vishakhapatnam, India. Whether the protan and deutan defects are the result of mutations at one locus or at two loci has not been completely resolved, although the evidence favors two discrete loci. The investigation was extended to the families of the 40 color vision anomalous children to study the descendance patterns of these two loci. The importance of these observations are discussed. PMID:3872323

  10. Children Whose Fathers Seek Help for Partner Violence Victimization: Descriptive Characteristics and Their Behavioral Health as Compared to a Population-Based Sample.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Emily M; Hines, Denise A

    2016-01-01

    Children whose parents seek help for partner violence (PV) victimization are at an increased risk for internalizing and externalizing behavioral health problems. The literature has examined this phenomenon primarily among children of battered women. This study examines the sociodemographic characteristics and behavioral health of children whose fathers have sought help for PV victimization and compares them to children of men from the general population. Children whose fathers sought help for PV victimization were less likely to live with their fathers. Bivariate analyses showed that children of male victims had elevated scores in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-related areas of behavioral health; many of these findings remain in multivariate analyses, especially among older children. The implications of the results are discussed for researchers and social service practitioners. PMID:26822486

  11. Growth Curves of Preschool Children in the Northeast of Iran: A Population Based Study Using Quantile Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Payande, Abolfazl; Tabesh, Hamed; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Saki, Azadeh; Safarian, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Growth charts are widely used to assess children’s growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. The objectives of this study are going to construct growth charts and normal values of weight-for-age for children aged 0 to 5 years using a powerful and applicable methodology. The results compare with the World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green. Methods: A total of 70737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks as a part of a national survey. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantiles curves using for estimation of curves and normal values. Results: The weight-for-age growth curves for boys and girls aged from 0 to 5 years were derived utilizing a population of children living in the northeast of Iran. The results were similar to the ones obtained by the semi-parametric LMS method in the same data. Among all age groups from 0 to 5 years, the median values of children’s weight living in the northeast of Iran were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups. Conclusion: The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus international ones necessitate using local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) as a flexible method which doesn’t require restricted assumptions, proposed for estimation reference curves and normal values. PMID:23618470

  12. Predictive Characteristics of Diabetes-Associated Autoantibodies Among Children With HLA-Conferred Disease Susceptibility in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Siljander, Heli T.A.; Simell, Satu; Hekkala, Anne; Lähde, Jyrki; Simell, Tuula; Vähäsalo, Paula; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE As data on the predictive characteristics of diabetes-associated autoantibodies for type 1 diabetes in the general population are scarce, we assessed the predictive performance of islet cell autoantibodies (ICAs) in combination with autoantibodies against insulin (IAAs), autoantibodies against GAD, and/or islet antigen 2 for type 1 diabetes in children with HLA-defined disease predisposition recruited from the general population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We observed 7,410 children from birth (median 9.2 years) for β-cell autoimmunity and diabetes. If a child developed ICA positivity or diabetes, the three other antibodies were measured in all samples available from that individual. Persistent autoantibody positivity was defined as continued positivity in at least two sequential samples including the last available sample. RESULTS Pre-diabetic ICA positivity was observed in 1,173 subjects (15.8%), 155 of whom developed type 1 diabetes. With ICA screening, 86% of 180 progressors (median age at diagnosis 5.0 years) were identified. Positivity for four antibodies was associated with the highest disease sensitivity (54.4%) and negative predictive values (98.3%) and the lowest negative likelihood ratio (0.5). The combination of persistent ICA and IAA positivity resulted in the highest positive predictive value (91.7%), positive likelihood ratio (441.8), cumulative disease risk (100%), and specificity (100%). Young age at seroconversion, high ICA level, multipositivity, and persistent positivity for IAA were significant risk markers for type 1 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS Within the general population, the combination of HLA and autoantibody screening resulted in disease risks that are likely to be as high as those reported among autoantibody-positive siblings of children with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19755526

  13. Lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among American Indian/Alaska Native children and the general United States child population

    PubMed Central

    Foote, Eric M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Holman, Robert C.; Seeman, Sara M.; Steiner, Claudia A.; Bartholomew, Michael; Hennessy, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background The lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)-associated hospitalization rate in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged <5 years declined during 1998–2008, yet remained 1.6 times higher than the general US child population in 2006–2008. Purpose Describe the change in LRTI-associated hospitalization rates for AI/AN children and for the general US child population aged <5 years. Methods A retrospective analysis of hospitalizations with discharge ICD-9-CM codes for LRTI for AI/AN children and for the general US child population <5 years during 2009–2011 was conducted using Indian Health Service direct and contract care inpatient data and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, respectively. We calculated hospitalization rates and made comparisons to previously published 1998–1999 rates prior to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. Results The average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined from 1998–1999 to 2009–2011 in AI/AN (35%, p<0.01) and the general US child population (19%, SE: 4.5%, p<0.01). The 2009–2011 AI/AN child average annual LRTI-associated hospitalization rate was 20.7 per 1,000, 1.5 times higher than the US child rate (13.7 95% CI: 12.6–14.8). The Alaska (38.9) and Southwest regions (27.3) had the highest rates. The disparity was greatest for infant (<1 year) pneumonia-associated and 2009–2010 H1N1 influenza-associated hospitalizations. Conclusions Although the LRTI-associated hospitalization rate declined, the 2009–2011 AI/AN child rate remained higher than the US child rate, especially in the Alaska and Southwest regions. The residual disparity is likely multi-factorial and partly related to household crowding, indoor smoke exposure, lack of piped water and poverty. Implementation of interventions proven to reduce LRTI is needed among AI/AN children. PMID:26547082

  14. Impact of malocclusion on oral health-related quality of life among Brazilian preschool children: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Anita Cruz; Paiva, Saul Martins; Viegas, Claudia Marina; Scarpelli, Ana Carolina; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of malocclusion on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of children and their families. A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. A representative sample of 1069 male and female preschoolers aged 60 to 71 months was randomly selected from public and private preschools and daycare centers. Data were collected using the B-ECOHIS. In addition, a questionnaire addressing socioeconomic and demographic data was self-administered by the parents/guardians. The criteria used to diagnose malocclusion were based on Foster and Hamilton (1969), Graboswki et al. (2007) and Oliveira et al. (2008). Descriptive, univariate and multiple Poison logistic regression analyses were carried out. The prevalence of malocclusion was observed in 46.2% of the children and deep overbite was the most prevalent type of malocclusion (19.7%), followed by posterior crossbite (13.1%), accentuated overjet (10.5%), anterior open bite (7.9%) and anterior crossbite (6.7%). The impact of malocclusion on OHRQoL was 32.7% among the children and 27.1% among the families. In Poisson multiple regression model adjusted for socioeconomic status, no significant association was found between malocclusion and OHRQoL of the children (PR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.96-1.24) and their families (PR=1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.31). It is concluded that children with malocclusion in this sample did not have a negative impact on their OHRQoL and of their families. PMID:24474365

  15. Growth monitoring still has a place in selected populations of children.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M; John, C M; Mohamed, K; Zbaeda, M; Ng, S M; Chanderasekaran, S; Didi, M; Blair, J C

    2011-01-01

    In 1998, a multiprofessional group developed a consensus on growth monitoring in the UK. While routine serial measurements were not recommended in healthy children, it is clear that there is a subset of children at increased risk of growth-modifying disease who may benefit from growth monitoring. This subset includes children with genetic disorders at increased risk of thyroid dysfunction. Symptoms and signs of thyroid dysfunction are non-specific in the early stages of disease and are easily mistaken for features of an underlying genetic disorder. In this article, we report the case of a 2.8-year-old girl with 18q deletion syndrome who was profoundly weak, hypotonic and poorly responsive at diagnosis of Grave's disease. She was tall and her bone age was 2 years advanced, indicating long-standing disease. Growth monitoring of this patient should have enabled earlier diagnosis and avoided a serious and potentially fatal episode. PMID:22700067

  16. Quantifying the distribution of inhalation exposure in human populations: distribution of minute volumes in adults and children.

    PubMed Central

    Beals, J A; Funk, L M; Fountain, R; Sedman, R

    1996-01-01

    Assessments of inhalation exposure to environmental agents necessitate quantitative estimates of pulmonary ventilation rates. Estimating a range of exposures in a given population requires an understanding of the variability of ventilation rates in the population. Distributions of ventilation rates (Ve) were described based on the results of a large study where Ve were measured while subjects performed a variety of physical tasks. Three distinct ventilation levels were identified using cluster analyses of the mean Ve and then various activities were assigned to the three levels using a k-means procedure. Separate distributions were identified for the three Ve levels for adult males, adult females, and children. The variability of Ve was consistent with a lognormal distribution for all groups. An aggregate daily inhalation rate can be estimated based on the distributions of Ve. Images Figure 1. Figure 1. Figure 1. PMID:8899377

  17. The Missing Children: Mortality and Fertility in a Southeast Asian Refugee Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Linda W.

    1989-01-01

    Presents the age-sex structures of refugee populations arriving in the United States from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam from 1975 through 1986. Differences in the composition of these young populations reflect varying flight and resettlement experiences and changing factors influencing migration. High fertility rates predict a generation of rapid…

  18. Mass population screening for celiac disease in children: the experience in Republic of San Marino from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of celiac disease in developed countries is assessed about 1:100–1:150. The real prevalence is unknown because mass screenings are expensive and difficult to organize. Moreover celiac disease can affect people at every age and studies on asymptomatic subjects at different ages are not comparable. In this study we wanted to know the real prevalence of celiac disease in children in the Republic of San Marino. We also analysed concordance of different tests used and costs of mass screening. Methods The study started in 1993. From 1993 to 1997 children aged 6, 10 and 14 were screened. Since 1997 only children aged 6 were monitored, in order to have a homogeneous population. In fact, every child born since 1980 was taken into account. Children were recruited by classroom lists of students for general paediatric examination. Until 2005 the screening test was based on dosage of antibodies anti-gliadin (AGA) IgA and IgG on venous blood. Since 2006 these tests were replaced by anti-transglutaminase IgA antibodies (ATTG). Anti-endomysial antibodies (EMA) were performed if result of any between either AGA or ATTG tests was positive or borderline; if EMA was positive, then an endoscopy with histological examination was performed to confirm the final diagnosis. Results Attendance to paediatric examination was 96%, submission to blood test was 87%. 42 on 5092 (0,8%; 1:125) children resulted affected by celiac disease. Histology always confirmed diagnosis by serology except for two cases. AGA test (until 2005) yielded 28 on 4304 (0,7% 1:143); ATTG test (since 2006) revealed 14 positive cases on 788 (1,8%; 1:55) leading to a larger percentage of diagnosis. EMA antibodies always confirmed positivity of ATTG. Conclusions Prevalence of celiac disease in children of Republic of San Marino is comparable to other North-European Countries. Sensitivity of ATTG proved much higher than that of anti-gliadin antibodies. Concordance between ATTG and EMA was 100

  19. Medical Expenditures for Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder in a Privately Insured Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Tom T.; Grosse, Scott D.; Rice, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This study provides estimates of medical expenditures for a subset of children and adolescents who receive employer-based health insurance and have a medical diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data analyzed were from the 2003 MarketScan[R] research databases. Individuals with an ASD had average medical expenditures that exceeded those…

  20. Music Therapy with Children: A Review of Clinical Utility and Application to Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeaw, John David Andrew

    This paper reviews the effectiveness of music therapy in treating children with psychiatric and developmental problems. The clinical utility of music therapy is first evaluated by examining the foundational effects of music on affect and behavior. Next, the two broad approaches to music therapy, active and passive music therapy, are discussed.…

  1. Abusive Head Trauma in Young Children: Characteristics and Medical Charges in a Hospitalized Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ettaro, L.; Berger, R. P.; Songer, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the presenting characteristics, hospital course, and hospital charges associated with hospital admissions for head trauma in young children at a regional pediatric trauma center, and to examine whether these factors differ among abused and non-abused subjects. Method: Comparative case series study involving a retrospective…

  2. Children Interactions in Literacy Tutoring Situations: A Study with Urban Marginalized Populations in Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosemberg, Celia Renata; Alam, Florencia; Stein, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The study analyzed the conversational exchanges through which child tutors mediated literacy abilities and knowledge with young children in the framework of the project "From Child to Child: A Tutor-Child Literacy Program," that is being conducted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The analysis considered the conversational moves deployed by…

  3. Cross-Validation of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire for Children in Three Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahaye, Magali; Mikolajczak, Moira; Rieffe, Carolien; Villanueva, Lidon; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Luminet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to examine the cross-cultural equivalence of a newly developed questionnaire, the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30) that assesses emotional awareness of children through self-report. Participants were recruited in three countries: the Netherlands (N = 665), Spain (N = 464), and Belgium (N = 707),…

  4. The Comorbidity of ADHD in the General Population of Saudi Arabian School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alqahtani, Mohammed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate comorbidity of oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), conduct disorder (CD), anxiety, and depression and to investigate the impaired social and academic developments among children with ADHD in primary school settings in Saudi Arabia. Method: Data for the purpose of this study are obtained from parent and teachers of 652…

  5. A Study of 571 Children with Developmental Disorders in a Slum-Population of Bombay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; And Others

    This paper summarizes a study of 571 children with developmental disabilities between 6 weeks and 12 years of age living in the largest slum in Asia, the Dharavi neighborhood of Bombay, India. Each child was administered developmental and psychological tests, diagnosed, and treated by a special early intervention clinic. Most had not had their…

  6. Change in prevalence status for children with developmental delay in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Lin, Chin-Kai

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of children aged 0–6 years with developmental delay (DD) and to examine age-period trends in the prevalence of DD diagnosis in Taiwan. For the study population, we selected children aged <6 years at baseline (in 1997–2002, N=2,308,790) from the National Health Insurance Research Database (a longitudinal database with annual medical records of children in Taiwan) to estimate the prevalence of DD. All study subjects were followed up until they were 5 years old; the study period was from 1997 to 2008. The prevalence of DD by year gradually increased from 0.16% to 3.25% from 1997 to 2008 with an increasing ratio of prevalence of 20% over the 12-year study period. The prevalence of DD in boys was 2.13 times (2.09–2.18 from 1997 to 2008) that in girls. The prevalence of DD increased by year of study. The effect of sex on the prevalence of DD was significant. Understanding the trend of prevalence in the study period and the gap between the rate of early treatment and DD prevalence are critical concerns for future research. PMID:26203248

  7. Prevalence of aberrant dental morphological details in 6-10 year old school children in an Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Kirthiga, M.; Manju, M.; Praveen, R.; Umesh, W.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variations in the structure of teeth have always been a great curiosity to the dentist from the scientific and practical point of view. Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of a few aberrant morphological features namely, cusp of Carabelli in primary maxillary second molar and in permanent first molar, five cusp in primary maxillary second molar and permanent first molar, shoveling and double shoveling with respect to permanent maxillary central incisors, four cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar, six cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar and seven cusped primary mandibular second molar and permanent first molar in 6–10 year old children belonging to the East Bengaluru, a City in India. Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2111 children by two stage sampling method. Type III examination was performed. The findings were subjected to Chi-square test. Results: 83.8% of the studied population had one or more of the variations checked for, as mentioned above. The variation most commonly seen was double shoveling (66.6%) followed by shoveling (65.7%). No significant results were observed in any trait with respect to gender. Conclusion: This study is the first of its kind, providing a baseline data of the prevalence of morphological details in the pediatric Indian population. PMID:26604571

  8. Preventing mental health problems in children: the Families in Mind population-based cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Externalising and internalising problems affect one in seven school-aged children and are the single strongest predictor of mental health problems into early adolescence. As the burden of mental health problems persists globally, childhood prevention of mental health problems is paramount. Prevention can be offered to all children (universal) or to children at risk of developing mental health problems (targeted). The relative effectiveness and costs of a targeted only versus combined universal and targeted approach are unknown. This study aims to determine the effectiveness, costs and uptake of two approaches to early childhood prevention of mental health problems ie: a Combined universal-targeted approach, versus a Targeted only approach, in comparison to current primary care services (Usual care). Methods/design Three armed, population-level cluster randomised trial (2010–2014) within the universal, well child Maternal Child Health system, attended by more than 80% of families in Victoria, Australia at infant age eight months. Participants were families of eight month old children from nine participating local government areas. Randomised to one of three groups: Combined, Targeted or Usual care. The interventions comprises (a) the Combined universal and targeted program where all families are offered the universal Toddlers Without Tears group parenting program followed by the targeted Family Check-Up one-on-one program or (b) the Targeted Family Check-Up program. The Family Check-Up program is only offered to children at risk of behavioural problems. Participants will be analysed according to the trial arm to which they were randomised, using logistic and linear regression models to compare primary and secondary outcomes. An economic evaluation (cost consequences analysis) will compare incremental costs to all incremental outcomes from a societal perspective. Discussion This trial will inform public health policy by making recommendations about the

  9. Off-label medicine use in children and adolescents: results of a population-based study in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Population-based self-reported data on off-label medicine use independent from health care provisions are lacking. The purpose of this study is to investigate off-label medicine use in children and adolescents in Germany in a non-clinical setting and to identify prevalence, determinants and spectrum of off-label medicine use. Methods Data were obtained from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) conducted by the Robert Koch Institute (2003–2006). 17,450 randomly selected children aged 0–17 years took part in the drug interviews. Of those, 8,899 took at least one medicine during the 7 days preceding the interview. Off-label medicine use was defined as the discrepancy between actual use and the intended use described in the summary of product characteristics. Off-label medicine use was stratified into off-label indication, off-label age, off-label over-dosing, and off-label under-dosing. Results The prevalence rate of off-label medicine use among those who used medicines amount of is 40.2%. The prevalence rate is significantly higher in boys (41.4%), in children aged 3 to 6 years (48.7%), without migration background (40.9%), with high social status (42.5%), living in small (42.0%) and medium sized cities (41.6%), and with a poor parents rated health status (41.7%). 12,667 preparations (attributable in respect to off-label use) were taken by 8,899 children. 30% of the medicines have been used off-label. Off-label medicine use was highest in preparations of the ATC-class “C00 Cardiovascular System”. In all origins of medicine, all age groups and all ATC-classes under-dosing was the most frequent reason for off-label medicine use. Conclusions There is a considerable level of self-reported off-label medicines use in the general paediatric population. Further investigations are needed to examine in how far off-label medicine use is based on lack of knowledge or on empiricism in paediatric

  10. Adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors in a large contemporary population of pre-pubertal children

    PubMed Central

    Falaschetti, Emanuela; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Jones, Alexander; Charakida, Marietta; Finer, Nicholas; Whincup, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Davey Smith, George; Sattar, Naveed; Deanfield, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations of several markers of adiposity and a wide range of cardiovascular risk factors and biomarkers in pre-pubertal children. Methods and results Four measures of adiposity,body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined fat mass, and leptin concentration, were available in up to 7589 children aged 8.8–11.7 (9.9 mean) years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Thirteen per cent of boys and 18.8% of girls were overweight, and 5.3% of boys and 5% of girls were obese. Body mass index was highly correlated with waist circumference (r = 0.91), DXA fat mass (r = 0.87), and leptin concentration (r = 0.75), and all had similar associations with cardiovascular risk factors. A 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with 1.4mmHg (95% CI 1.25–1.44) higher systolic blood pressure (BP). In 5002 children, a 1 kg/m2 greater BMI was associated with a 0.05 mmol/L (95% CI 0.036–0.055) higher non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and 0.03 mmol/L (95% CI −0.034 to −0.025) lower HDL cholesterol. There were also graded associations with apolipoproteins A1 and B, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein. Comparing children who were obese with those who were normal weight, the odds ratio for hypertension was 10.7 (95% CI 7.2–15.9) for boys and 13.5 (95% CI 9.4–19.5) for girls. Conclusion In pre-pubertal UK children, overweight/obesity is common and has broadly similar associations with BP, HDL cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol to those observed in adults. Future research should evaluate whether effective interventions to maintain healthy weight in childhood could have important benefits for adult cardiovascular risk. PMID:20972265

  11. Behavioural and emotional problems in moderately preterm children with low socioeconomic status: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Potijk, Marieke R; de Winter, Andrea F; Bos, Arend F; Kerstjens, Jorien M; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2015-07-01

    Moderately preterm (MP) birth is associated with higher rates of behavioural and emotional problems. To determine the extent to which low socioeconomic status (SES) contributes to these higher rates, we assessed independent and joint effects of MP birth and low SES, overall and by gender. Dutch preventive child health care centres provided a population-based sample of 915 MP children (32-36 weeks gestation) and 543 term-born children, born in 2002/2003. In multivariable logistic regression analyses, we determined the risk of behavioural and emotional problems per standard deviation (SD) decrease in gestational age and SES, using standardized measures for both. We also assessed three SES categories, being low (1SD or more below mean of standardized SES), intermediate (mean ± 1SD), and high (greater than mean + 1SD). The Child Behavior Checklist for 1.5-5 years was used to assess behavioural (externalizing), emotional (internalizing), and total problems at age 4 years. MP children with low SES had significantly higher total problem scores than those with high SES (11.3 vs. 5.1%, respectively). Each SD decrease in SES was associated with a 42% higher odds of elevated total problem scores (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.14-1.77). No joint effects were found, meaning that lower gestational age independently added to the risk of behaviour problems (OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.56). Effects of MP birth and low SES were more pronounced in girls. In conclusion, MP birth and low SES multiply the risk of behavioural and emotional problems. The combination of risk factors identifies children who could benefit greatly from early intervention. PMID:25293643

  12. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children.

    PubMed

    Thiering, E; Brüske, I; Kratzsch, J; Hofbauer, L C; Berdel, D; von Berg, A; Lehmann, I; Hoffmann, B; Bauer, C P; Koletzko, S; Heinrich, J

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (-1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  13. Associations between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population based sample of German children

    PubMed Central

    Thiering, E.; Brüske, I.; Kratzsch, J.; Hofbauer, L. C.; Berdel, D.; von Berg, A.; Lehmann, I.; Hoffmann, B.; Bauer, C. P.; Koletzko, S.; Heinrich, J.

    2015-01-01

    Severe vitamin D deficiency is known to cause rickets, however epidemiological studies and RCTs did not reveal conclusive associations for other parameters of bone health. In our study, we aimed to investigate the association between serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D and bone turnover markers in a population-based sample of children. 25(OH)D, calcium (Ca), osteocalcin (OC), and β-Crosslaps (β-CTx) were measured in 2798 ten-year-old children from the German birth cohorts GINIplus and LISAplus. Linear regression was used to determine the association between bone turnover markers and 25(OH)D levels. 25(OH)D, OC, and β-CTx showed a clear seasonal variation. A 10 nmol/l increase in 25(OH)D was significantly associated with a 10.5 ng/l decrease (p < 0.001) in β-CTx after adjustment for design, sex, fasting status, time of blood drawn, BMI, growth rate, and detectable testosterone/estradiol. For OC alone no significant association with 25(OH)D was observed, whereas the β-CTx-to-OC ratio was inversely associated with 25(OH)D (−1.7% change, p < 0.001). When stratifying the analyses by serum calcium levels, associations were stronger in children with Ca levels below the median. This study in school-aged children showed a seasonal variation of 25(OH)D and the bone turnover markers OC and β-CTx. Furthermore a negative association between 25(OH)D and the bone resorption marker β-CTx was observed. PMID:26667774

  14. Musical hallucinations in normal children and adult non-psychiatric population

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A descriptive account of musical hallucinations of a series of 19 people is presented. Five people reported the onset of hallucination before adulthood. In this paper we demonstrate that musical hallucinations are not necessarily pathological and can occur as a normal experience in people (children and adults) who have no contact with mental health services and no concurrent mental disorder. This is also the first paper to recognise that children can experience musical hallucinations. Also, we show that musical hallucinations are more common than previously thought, but people do not report their occurrence. It seems plausible that in musical hallucinations there is an insult to the ear or brain that produces a change in quality of these images, converting them to a psychotic experience. Musical hallucinations should be regarded as a continuum with normal experiences and clinical syndromes. PMID:21686956

  15. The Children and Parents in Focus project: a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offered evidence-based parenting programme in the Swedish context. Methods/Design The trial has a cluster randomised controlled design comprising three arms: Universal arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2); Universal Plus arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2 as well as level 3, and level 4 group); and Services as Usual arm. The sampling frame is Uppsala municipality in Sweden. Child health centres consecutively recruit parents of children aged 3 to 5 years before their yearly check-ups (during the years 2013–2017). Outcomes will be measured annually. The primary outcome will be children’s behavioural and emotional problems as rated by three informants: fathers, mothers and preschool teachers. The other outcomes will be parents’ behaviour and parents’ general health. Health economic evaluations will analyse cost-effectiveness of the interventions versus care as usual by comparing the costs and consequences in terms of impact on children’s mental health, parent’s mental health and health-related quality of life. Discussion This study addresses the need for comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects, costs and benefits of early parenting interventions embedded within existing systems. In addition, the study will generate population-based data on the mental health and well-being of preschool aged children in Sweden. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN16513449. PMID:24131587

  16. Abusive head trauma among children in Alaska: a population-based assessment

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Jared; Baldwin-Johnson, Cathy; Volz, Margaret; Goldsmith, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Background Serious physical abuse resulting in a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been implicated as an underreported cause of infant mortality. Nearly 80% of all abusive head trauma (AHT) occurs among children <2 years of age, with infants experiencing an incidence nearly 8 times that of 2-year olds. Objective This study describes the validation of the CDC Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma (PAHT) definitions when applied to a multi-source database at the state level and provides a robust annual incidence estimate of AHT among children <2 years of age in Alaska. Design AHT cases among children residing in Alaska during 2005–2010 were identified by applying the PAHT coding schema to a multi-source database which included vital death records, the Violent Death Reporting System (AK-VDRS), the Maternal Infant Mortality Review – Child Death Review (MIMR-CDR), the Alaska Trauma Registry (ATR), the inpatient Hospital Discharge Database (HDD) and Medicaid claims. Using these data, we calculated statewide AHT annual incidence rates. Results The databases with the highest case capture rates were the ATR and Medicaid systems, both at 51%, followed by HDD at 38%. Combined, the ATR, HDD and Medicaid systems captured 91% of all AHT cases. The linkage and use of the PAHT definitions yielded an estimated sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 98%. During the study period, we detected an annual average incidence of 34.4 cases per 100,000 children aged <2 years (95% CI 25.1, 46.1) and a case fatality proportion of 22% (10/45). Among the AHT cases, 82% were infants. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in AHT were noted by age and race, but not by sex. Conclusions In Alaska, applying the CDC PAHT definition to the multi-source database enabled us to capture 49% more AHT cases than any of the individual database used in this analysis alone. PMID:23986886

  17. Housefly Population Density Correlates with Shigellosis among Children in Mirzapur, Bangladesh: A Time Series Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Farag, Tamer H.; Faruque, Abu S.; Wu, Yukun; Das, Sumon K.; Hossain, Anowar; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Ahmed, Dilruba; Nasrin, Dilruba; Kotloff, Karen L.; Panchilangam, Sandra; Nataro, James P.; Cohen, Dani; Blackwelder, William C.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Shigella infections are a public health problem in developing and transitional countries because of high transmissibility, severity of clinical disease, widespread antibiotic resistance and lack of a licensed vaccine. Whereas Shigellae are known to be transmitted primarily by direct fecal-oral contact and less commonly by contaminated food and water, the role of the housefly Musca domestica as a mechanical vector of transmission is less appreciated. We sought to assess the contribution of houseflies to Shigella-associated moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) among children less than five years old in Mirzapur, Bangladesh, a site where shigellosis is hyperendemic, and to model the potential impact of a housefly control intervention. Methods Stool samples from 843 children presenting to Kumudini Hospital during 2009–2010 with new episodes of MSD (diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, dysentery or hospitalization) were analyzed. Housefly density was measured twice weekly in six randomly selected sentinel households. Poisson time series regression was performed and autoregression-adjusted attributable fractions (AFs) were calculated using the Bruzzi method, with standard errors via jackknife procedure. Findings Dramatic springtime peaks in housefly density in 2009 and 2010 were followed one to two months later by peaks of Shigella-associated MSD among toddlers and pre-school children. Poisson time series regression showed that housefly density was associated with Shigella cases at three lags (six weeks) (Incidence Rate Ratio = 1.39 [95% CI: 1.23 to 1.58] for each log increase in fly count), an association that was not confounded by ambient air temperature. Autocorrelation-adjusted AF calculations showed that a housefly control intervention could have prevented approximately 37% of the Shigella cases over the study period. Interpretation Houseflies may play an important role in the seasonal transmission of Shigella in some developing country ecologies

  18. Making the Quiet Population of Internationally Adopted Children Heard through Well-Informed Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2013-01-01

    A challenge of today's teacher preparation programmes is to educate teachers about families formed through international adoption and of the challenges they face, in order to meet their educational needs. This population has a unique developmental history affected by pre- and post-adoption conditions which stand to impact on learning experiences…

  19. The Effect of Population Growth upon the Quantity of Education Children Receive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Julian L.; Pilarski, Adam M.

    1979-01-01

    There is indeed some negative effect of population growth on the amount of education in developing nations, but the effect is less severe than has been thought. This finding is in sharp contrast to previous conclusions drawn from similar cross-national data. Available from Review of Economics and Statistics, M-8 Littauer Center, Cambridge, MA…

  20. The Administrative Population Report on Children with Developmental Delays in Taiwan, 2003 through 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Yen, Chia-Feng; Wu, Jia-Ling; Kang, Shih-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper was a population study with developmental delays and it included an examination of the trends the overtime change trend and reported channels of this group of people in Taiwan. We analyzed data for the present study mainly from the Department of Statistics, Ministry of the Interiors, Taipei, Taiwan: "Number of early intervention for…

  1. Population Genetic Analyses of Helicobacter pylori Isolates from Gambian Adults and Children

    PubMed Central

    Secka, Ousman; Moodley, Yoshan; Antonio, Martin; Berg, Douglas E.; Tapgun, Mary; Walton, Robert; Worwui, Archibald; Thomas, Vivat; Corrah, Tumani; Thomas, Julian E.; Adegbola, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is one of the most genetically diverse of bacterial species. Much of its diversity stems from frequent mutation and recombination, preferential transmission within families and local communities, and selection during persistent gastric mucosal infection. MLST of seven housekeeping genes had identified multiple distinct H. pylori populations, including three from Africa: hpNEAfrica, hpAfrica1 and hpAfrica2, which consists of three subpopulations (hspWAfrica, hspCAfrica and hspSAfrica). Most detailed H. pylori population analyses have used strains from non-African countries, despite Africa's high importance in the emergence and evolution of humans and their pathogens. Our concatenated sequences from seven H. pylori housekeeping genes from 44 Gambian patients (MLST) identified 42 distinct sequence types (or haplotypes), and no clustering with age or disease. STRUCTURE analysis of the sequence data indicated that Gambian H. pylori strains belong to the hspWAfrica subpopulation of hpAfrica1, in accord with Gambia's West African location. Despite Gambia's history of invasion and colonisation by Europeans and North Africans during the last millennium, no traces of Ancestral Europe1 (AE1) population carried by those people were found. Instead, admixture of 17% from Ancestral Europe2 (AE2) was detected in Gambian strains; this population predominates in Nilo-Saharan speakers of North-East Africa, and might have been derived from admixture of hpNEAfrica strains these people carried when they migrated across the Sahara during the Holocene humid period 6,000–9,000 years ago. Alternatively, shared AE2 ancestry might have resulted from shared ancestral polymorphisms already present in the common ancestor of sister populations hpAfrica1 and hpNEAfrica. PMID:25310300

  2. Population Pharmacokinetics of Artemether, Lumefantrine, and Their Respective Metabolites in Papua New Guinean Children with Uncomplicated Malaria▿

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Sam; Page-Sharp, Madhu; Griffin, Susan; Kose, Kaye; Siba, Peter M.; Ilett, Kenneth F.; Mueller, Ivo; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2011-01-01

    There are sparse published data relating to the pharmacokinetic properties of artemether, lumefantrine, and their active metabolites in children, especially desbutyl-lumefantrine. We studied 13 Papua New Guinean children aged 5 to 10 years with uncomplicated malaria who received the six recommended doses of artemether (1.7 mg/kg of body weight) plus lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), given with fat over 3 days. Intensive blood sampling was carried out over 42 days. Plasma artemether, dihydroartemisinin, lumefantrine, and desbutyl-lumefantrine were assayed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or high-performance liquid chromatography. Multicompartmental pharmacokinetic models for a drug plus its metabolite were developed using a population approach that included plasma artemether and dihydroartemisinin concentrations below the limit of quantitation. Although artemether bioavailability was variable and its clearance increased by 67.8% with each dose, the median areas under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-∞s) for artemether and dihydroartemisinin (3,063 and 2,839 μg·h/liter, respectively) were similar to those reported previously in adults with malaria. For lumefantrine, the median AUC0–∞ (459,980 μg·h/liter) was also similar to that in adults with malaria. These data support the higher dose recommended for children weighing 15 to 35 kg (35% higher than that for a 50-kg adult) but question the recommendation for a lower dose in children weighing 12.5 to 15 kg. The median desbutyl-lumefantrine/lumefantrine ratio in the children in our study was 1.13%, within the range reported for adults and higher at later time points because of the longer desbutyl-lumefantrine terminal elimination half-life. A combined desbutyl-lumefantrine and lumefantrine AUC0–∞ weighted on in vitro antimalarial activity was inversely associated with recurrent parasitemia, suggesting that both the parent drug and the metabolite contribute to the treatment

  3. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3–6-Year-Old Children in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3–6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  4. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided. PMID:23975351

  5. Men's sexual interest in children: one-year incidence and correlates in a population-based sample of Finnish male twins.

    PubMed

    Santtila, Pekka; Antfolk, Jan; Räfså, Anna; Hartwig, Maria; Sariola, Heikki; Sandnabba, N Kenneth; Mokros, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In a study of 1,310 Finnish adult male twins we found that sexual interest in children aged 12 or younger was reported by 0.2% of the sample. Sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger was reported by 3.3%. Participants reporting sexual interest in children aged 15 or younger were younger, reported stronger sexual desire, and had experienced more childhood sexual and nonsexual abuse. The present study is the first to give a population-based estimate of the incidence of sexual interest in children among adult men. The 12-month incidence of sexual interest in children below the age of 16 years is roughly comparable to the one-year incidence of major depression or the lifetime prevalence of transvestitic fetishism. PMID:25747416

  6. Relationship between Body Mass Index and Tooth Decay in a Population of 3-6-Year-Old Children in Iran.

    PubMed

    Bafti, Leila Shafie; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Hoseinian, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between BMI and tooth decay in a population of Iranian children. In this cross-sectional descriptive/analytical study, 1482 children were selected from kindergartens and preschool centers in Kerman, Iran. The children underwent examination of deciduous teeth (using the dmft index) after determination of height and weight for calculation of BMI. The relationship between BMI (after adjustment for age) and dmft was determined using Poisson's regression model. The mean of dmft in children with normal BMI was 1.5-fold that in subjects with extra body weight. Age had a significant effect on dmft. In addition, dmft was higher in boys compared to girls. The results of the present study showed that caries rate in the deciduous teeth of 3-6-year-old children decreases with an increase in body weight. PMID:25788943

  7. Weight stigma and eating behaviours in elementary school children: A prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Jendrzyca, Anna; Warschburger, Petra

    2016-07-01

    The relevance of weight stigma as an important factor in disordered eating has been supported by research. However, because most of the studies were cross-sectional and focussed on older children, the causal relationships could not be fully determined in childhood. The current study explores the role of weight stigma in body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours. The sample consisted of 773 girls and 713 boys, aged 6-11 years, who completed surveys assessing weight stigma experiences, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours at two points of measurement, approximately one year apart. The children's external and disordered eating was rated via parental questionnaires. As expected, the pattern of the associations between weight status, weight stigma, body dissatisfaction and eating behaviours differed by gender. Experience of weight stigma in girls led to external and restrained eating one year later, whereas in boys no such association was observed. Body dissatisfaction mediated the association between weight stigma and restrained eating behaviours in girls, whereas in boys, body dissatisfaction directly influenced restrained eating behaviours. However, in both girls and boys weight status predicted body dissatisfaction and disordered eating, while weight stigma did not have a direct effect on disordered eating. Results suggest that interventions involving weight stigma should be a part of eating disorder prevention programmes, and gender-specific pathways should be considered. PMID:26851574

  8. Back pain prevalence and associated factors in children and adolescents: an epidemiological population study

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Matias; Candotti, Cláudia Tarragô; da Rosa, Bruna Nichele; Loss, Jefferson Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To identify the prevalence of back pain among Brazilian school children and the factors associated with this pain. METHODS All 1,720 schoolchildren from the fifth to the eight grade attending schools from the city of Teutonia, RS, Southern Brazil, were invited to participate in the study. From these, 1,597 children participated. We applied the Back Pain and Body Posture Evaluation Instrument. The dependent variable was back pain, while the independent one were demographic, socioeconomic, behavior and heredity data. The prevalence ratio was estimated by multivariate analysis using the Poisson regression model (α = 0.05). RESULTS The prevalence of back pain in the last three months was 55.7% (n = 802). The multivariate analysis showed that back pain is associated with the variables: sex, parents with back pain, weekly frequency of physical activity, daily time spent watching television, studying in bed, sitting posture to write and use the computer, and way of carrying the backpack. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of back pain in schoolchildren is high and it is associated with demographic, behavior and heredity aspects. PMID:27305406

  9. Preventing young children's injuries: analysis of data from a population-based surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toblin, Robin L; Brenner, Ruth A; Taneja, Gitanjali S; Rossi, Maryann W; Collins, Millicent; Mickalide, Angela D; Overpeck, Mary D; Clinton-Reid, Yvette; Dever, Jill A; Boyle, Kerrie; Trumble, Ann C; Scheidt, Peter C

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study is to determine prevention strategies for potentially serious injury events among children younger than 3 years of age based upon circumstances surrounding injury events. Surveillance was conducted on all injuries to District of Columbia (DC) residents less than 3 years old that resulted in an Emergency Department (ED) visit, hospitalization, or death for 1 year. Data were collected through abstraction of medical records and interviews with a subset of parents of injured children. Investigators coded injury-related events for the potential for death or disability. Potential prevention strategies were then determined for all injury events that had at least a moderate potential for death or disability and sufficient detail for coding (n = 425). Injury-related events included 10 deaths, 163 hospitalizations, and 2,868 ED visits (3,041 events in total). Of the hospitalizations, 88% were coded as moderate or high potential for disability or death, versus only 21% of the coded ED visits. For potentially serious events, environmental change strategies were identified for 47%, behavior change strategies for 77%, and policy change strategies for 24%. For 46% of the events more than one type of prevention strategy was identified. Only 8% had no identifiable prevention strategy. Prevention strategies varied by specific cause of injury. Potential prevention strategies were identifiable for nearly all potentially serious injury events, with multiple potential prevention strategies identified for a large fraction of the events. These findings support developing multifaceted prevention approaches informed by community-based injury surveillance. PMID:21904860

  10. Assessment of neuropsychological trajectories in longitudinal population-based studies of children

    PubMed Central

    White, R F; Campbell, R; Echeverria, D; Knox, S S; Janulewicz, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a strategy for the assessment of brain function in longitudinal cohort studies of children. The proposed strategy invokes both domain-specific and omnibus intelligence test approaches. In order to minimise testing burden and practice effects, the cohort is divided into four groups with one-quarter tested at 6-monthly intervals in the 0–2-year age range (at ages 6 months, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 years) and at annual intervals from ages 3–20 (one-quarter of the children at age 3, another at age 4, etc). This strategy allows investigation of cognitive development and of the relationship between environmental influences and development at each age. It also allows introduction of new domains of function when age-appropriate. As far as possible, tests are used that will provide a rich source of both longitudinal and cross-sectional data. The testing strategy allows the introduction of novel tests and new domains as well as piloting of tests when the test burden is relatively light. In addition to the recommended tests for each age and domain, alternative tests are described. Assessment methodology and knowledge about child cognitive development will change over the next 20 years, and strategies are suggested for altering the proposed test schedule as appropriate. PMID:19098136

  11. Burden of HIV Infection Among Children Aged 18 Months to 14 Years in Kenya: Results From a Nationally Representative Population-Based Cross-sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ng’eno, Bernadette; Mwangi, Ann; Ng’ang’a, Lucy; Kim, Andrea A.; Waruru, Anthony; Mukui, Irene; Ngugi, Evelyn W.; Rutherford, George W.

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds In Kenya, mathematical models estimate that there are approximately 220,000 children aged less than 15 years infected with HIV. We analyzed data from the second Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2012) to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among children aged 18 months to 14 years. Methods KAIS 2012 was a nationally representative 2-stage cluster sample household survey. We studied children aged 18 months to 14 years whose parents or guardians answered questions pertaining to their children by interview. Blood specimens were collected for HIV serology and viral load measurement. Results We identified 5162 children who were eligible for the study. Blood was obtained for 3681 (71.3%) children. Among child participants, 16.4% had been tested for HIV infection in the past, and among children with parents or guardians who self-reported HIV-positive status, 52.9% had been tested for HIV infection. Twenty-eight (0.9%) children tested HIV-positive in the survey. Of these, 11 had been previously diagnosed with HIV infection before the survey. All 11 children were in HIV care and receiving cotrimoxazole; 8 were on antiretorivral therapy (ART). Among those on ART, 4 were virologically suppressed. Conclusions HIV causes a substantial burden of disease in the Kenyan pediatric population. Although most children who had been diagnosed with HIV before the survey were engaged in care and treatment, they represented less than half of HIV-infected children identified in the survey. Future efforts should focus on identifying infected children and getting them into care and on suppressive ART as early as possible. PMID:24732823

  12. Prevalence of physical violence against children in Haiti: A national population-based cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Flynn-O'Brien, Katherine T; Rivara, Frederick P; Weiss, Noel S; Lea, Veronica A; Marcelin, Louis H; Vertefeuille, John; Mercy, James A

    2016-01-01

    Although physical violence against children is common worldwide, there are no national estimates in Haiti. To establish baseline national estimates, a three-stage clustered sampling design was utilized to administer a population-based household survey about victimization due to physical violence to 13-24 year old Haitians (n=2,916), including those residing in camps or settlements. Descriptive statistics and weighted analysis techniques were used to estimate national lifetime prevalence and characteristics of physical violence against children. About two-thirds of respondents reported having experienced physical violence during childhood (67.0%; 95% CI 63.4-70.4), the percentage being similar in males and females. More than one-third of 13-17 year old respondents were victimized in the 12 months prior to survey administration (37.8%; 95% CI 33.6-42.1). The majority of violence was committed by parents and teachers; and the perceived intent was often punishment or discipline. While virtually all (98.8%; 95% CI 98.0-99.3) victims of childhood physical violence were punched, kicked, whipped or beaten; 11.0% (95% CI 9.2-13.2) were subject to abuse by a knife or other weapon. Injuries sustained from violence varied by victim gender and perpetrator, with twice as many females (9.6%; 95% CI 7.1-12.7) than males (4.0%; 95% CI 2.6-6.1) sustaining permanent injury or disfigurement by a family member or caregiver (p-value<.001). Our findings suggest that physical violence against children in Haiti is common, and may lead to severe injury. Characterization of the frequency and nature of this violence provides baseline estimates to inform interventions. PMID:26612595

  13. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease: survey of a population from central Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Celiac Disease (CD) is an increasingly common autoimmune disorder. It requires a strict lifelong adherence to a gluten-free diet (GFD) which can influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). This study assesses HRQOL in children and adolescents with CD and explores how several demographic and clinical characteristics and GFD adherence affect their perceived health status. Methods We recruited 140 consecutive children and adolescents with CD confirmed by small bowel biopsy. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire plus some CD-specific questions exploring wellbeing and lifestyle. Patients, aged 10 to 18 years, were identified by pediatric gastroenterologists and guided in filling out the questionnaire by trained psychologists. Parametric or non-parametric tests were applied to analyze continuous variables and frequencies as appropriate. Results The SF-12 mean mental component summary score (MCS12) was lower than in the general Italian population (p < 0.001), whereas differences in terms of physical health were not significant (p = 0.220). More than one third of those interviewed reported feeling angry “always” or “most of the time” about having to follow the GFD, and nearly 20% reported feeling different from others and misunderstood because of CD “always” or “most of the time”. Conclusions Our findings highlight the need for health professionals to identify adolescents with major disease-related problems. The food industry should improve its range of gluten-free food products and public bodies and institutions should promote informative campaigns and help promote the overall quality of life of children and adolescents with CD. PMID:24304679

  14. Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children using a non-American population-based sample.

    PubMed

    Aune, Tore; Stiles, Tore C; Svarva, Kyrre

    2008-08-01

    Although previous studies have examined the factor structure of the SPAI-C, adequate factor analytic methodology has not been employed. This study explored the psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), using a non-American population-based sample of older children and young adolescents 11-14 years of age. Initially an exploratory factor analysis was conducted followed 1 year later by a confirmatory factor analysis. Five factors labeled Assertiveness, Public Performance, Physical/Cognitive Symptoms, Social Encounter, and Avoidance were retained and confirmed. The Public Performance and Assertiveness factors were the most stable and consistent factors or traits of social anxiety over a 1-year period. Results revealed adequate concurrent validity, internal consistency and moderate 12-month test-retest reliability of the SPAI-C total scale. The SPAI-C was found to assess levels of both social anxiety and social anxiety disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Findings suggest that the SPAI-C is applicable in clinical treatment studies designed to assess sensitivity to change in various aspects of social anxiety disorder. PMID:18182274

  15. Increased risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome: A population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lee Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Weng, Wen-Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    The association between epilepsy and Tourette syndrome has rarely been investigated. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed a dataset of 1,000,000 randomly sampled individuals from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to determine the risk of epilepsy in children with Tourette syndrome. The study cohort consisted of 1062 patients with Tourette syndrome aged ≤ 18 years, and the control group consisted of three times the number of age- and sex-matched patients without Tourette syndrome, who were insurants, from the same database during the same period. The Tourette syndrome group had an 18.38-fold increased risk of epilepsy than the control group [hazard ratio=18.38, 95% confidence interval (CI)=8.26-40.92; P<0.001]. Even after adjusting for the comorbidities, the risk of epilepsy in the Tourette syndrome group with comorbidities remained high (hazard ratio=16.27, 95% CI=6.26-18.46; P<0.001), indicating that the increased risk was not associated with comorbidities. This population-based retrospective cohort study provides the first and strong evidence that Tourette syndrome is associated with a higher risk of epilepsy. A close follow-up of children with Tourette syndrome for the development of epilepsy is warranted. PMID:26597416

  16. Bone mineral density and body composition in a myelomeningocele children population: effects of walking ability and sport activity.

    PubMed

    Ausili, E; Focarelli, B; Tabacco, F; Fortunelli, G; Caradonna, P; Massimi, L; Sigismondi, M; Salvaggio, E; Rendeli, C

    2008-01-01

    Myelomeningocele causes serious locomotor disability, osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition, bone mineral density, walking ability and sport activity in myelomeningocele children. 60 patients aged between 5 and 14 yrs with myelomeningocele (22 ambulatory and 38 non-ambulatory), were studied. Fat mass and fat-free-mass were calculated by anthropometry. The bone mineral density at lumbar and femoral neck were evaluated. Bone mineral density at the lumbar and femoral neck was lower than in the normal population. In the non-ambulaty group, bone mineral density was approximately 1 SD lower than in the ambulatory one (p < 0.01). Fat mass was greater than expected but without significantly differences between walking group (mean 26%) and wheel-chair users (25%). Patients practised sport activity had a better bone mineral density and body fat compared with other patients with the same disability. Patients with myelomeningocele have decreased bone mineral density and are at higher risk of pathologic bone fractures. All subjects showed an excess of fat as percentage of body weight and are shorter than normal children. The measurement of bone mineral density may help to identify those patients at greatest risk of suffering of multiple fractures. Walk ability and sport activity, associated with the development of muscle mass, are important factors in promoting bone and body growth, to reduce the risk of obesity and of pathological fractures. PMID:19146196

  17. Identification of lead sources in lead burdened children and other populations

    SciTech Connect

    Yaffe, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a strategy for the accurate identification of critical lead sources in California lead-burdened populations. The strategy involves the following sequence of steps as developed in an investigation of a population of developmentally disabled people in two California state hospitals: selection of cases based on confirmed elevated blood lead levels; determination of pica habits and environmental exposures through interviews with ward's staff and/or parents; measurement of lead levels in environmental samples reflecting exposures; interpreting these data in order to identify critical lead sources; reducing exposure to critical lead sources; follow-up of population to validate the effects of this strategy; if critical lead sources cannot be identified, use of lead stable isotope ratios of biological samples and suspected environmental sources should be performed. A group of 36 lead-burdened cases (30 to 66 ..mu..g Pb/dL blood) and 36 matched controls (PbB less than 20 ..mu..g/dL) were selected from among the developmentally disabled residents of two California state hospitals, who exhibited pica behavior. These subjects were studied in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Three major lead sources were found: paints of walls and furniture; surface soil; and inks of magazines and wrapping paper. Identification of critical lead sources was also investigated.

  18. Prevalence of caries among preschool-aged children in a central Anatolian population

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Damla; Dülgergil, Çoruh T.; Mutluay, Abidin T.; Yıldırım, Işıl; Hamidi, Mehmet M.; Çolak, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Early childhood caries (ECC) is a particularly destructive form of tooth decay that afflicts young children. The etiology and associated factors of ECC should be studied adequately to overcome this health hazard. The aim of this study was to determine caries prevalence and its consequences in toddlers in an Anatolian city, Kırıkkale. Materials and Methods: Examinations were performed in family medicine centers by three calibrated dentists during a period of 6 months. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. We recorded the clinical indexes of decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT and dmft; upper-case letters refer to permanent and lower-case letters to primary teeth), and decayed, missed, and filled surfaces (DMFS). Results: Totally 3171 toddlers were included (52% males and 48% females). The mean age was 25.8 ± 10.1 months. The prevalence of ECC in preschool children was 17.3%, while the mean df(t) was 0.63 ± 1.79. ECC increased significantly with age. Dental caries were mostly observed in primary maxillary central teeth. Occlusal and buccal surfaces were the most affected sites. The difference in distribution of caries between maxilla and mandibula was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: When compared to other data obtained from various epidemiologic studies, the toddlers living in Kırıkkale city center had a significant caries level. This observation had clearly suggested that early preventive measures should urgently be put into effect all over the city. PMID:24082726

  19. Risk factors for chronic undernutrition among children in India: Estimating relative importance, population attributable risk and fractions.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Daniel J; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Nearly 40% of the world's stunted children live in India and the prevalence of undernutrition has been persistently high in recent decades. Given numerous available interventions for reducing undernutrition in children, it is not clear of the relative importance of each within a multifactorial framework. We assess the simultaneous contribution of 15 known risk factors for child chronic undernutrition in India. Data are from the 3rd Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey undertaken in 2005-2006. The study population consisted of children aged 6-59 months [n = 26,842 (stunting/low height-for-age), n = 27,483 (underweight/low weight-for-age)]. Risk factors examined for their association with undernutrition were: vitamin A supplementation, vaccination, use of iodized salt, household air quality, improved sanitary facilities, safe disposal of stools, improved drinking water, prevalence of infectious disease, initiation of breastfeeding, dietary diversity, age at marriage, maternal BMI, height, education, and household wealth. Age/sex-adjusted and multivariable adjusted effect sizes (odds ratios) were calculated for risk factors along with Population Attributable Risks (PAR) and Fractions (PAF) using logistic regression. In the mutually adjusted models, the five most important predictors of childhood stunting/underweight were short maternal stature, mother having no education, households in lowest wealth quintile, poor dietary diversity, and maternal underweight. These five factors had a combined PAR of 67.2% (95% CI: 63.3-70.7) and 69.7% (95% CI: 66.3-72.8) for stunting and underweight, respectively. The remaining factors were associated with a combined PAR of 11.7% (95% CI: 6.0-17.4) and 15.1% (95% CI: 8.9-21.3) for stunting and underweight, respectively. Implementing strategies focused on broader progress on social circumstances and infrastructural domains as well as investments in nutrition specific

  20. Population pharmacokinetics modeling of oxcarbazepine to characterize drug interactions in Chinese children with epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Hua-nian; Niu, Chang-he; Gao, Ping; Chen, Yu-jun; Peng, Jing; Liu, Mao-chang; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop a population pharmacokinetics model of oxcarbazepine in Chinese pediatric patients with epilepsy, and to study the interactions between oxcarbazepine and other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Methods: A total of 688 patients with epilepsy aged 2 months to 18 years were divided into model (n=573) and valid (n=115) groups. Serum concentrations of the main active metabolite of oxcarbazepine, 10-hydroxycarbazepine (MHD), were determined 0.5–48 h after the last dosage. A population pharmacokinetics (PPK) model was constructed using NLME software. This model was internally evaluated using Bootstrapping and goodness-of-fit plots inspection. The data of the valid group were used to calculate the mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute prediction error (MAE), mean squared prediction error (MSE) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) to externally evaluate the model. Results: The population values of pharmacokinetic parameters estimated in the final model were as follows: Ka=0.83 h-1, Vd=0.67 L/kg, and CL=0.035 L·kg−1·h−1. The enzyme-inducing AEDs (carbamazepine, phenytoin, phenobarbital) and newer generation AEDs (levetiracetam, lamotrigine, topiramate) increased the weight-normalized CL value of MHD by 17.4% and 10.5%, respectively, whereas the enzyme-inhibiting AED valproic acid decreased it by 3%. No significant association was found between the CL value of MHD and the other covariates. For the final model, the evaluation results (95% CI) were MPE=0.01 (−0.07–0.10) mg/L, MAE=0.46 (0.40–0.51) mg/L, MSE=0.39 (0.27–0.51) (mg/L)2. Conclusion: A PPK model of OXC in Chinese pediatric patients with epilepsy is established. The enzyme-inducing AEDs and some newer generation AEDs (lamotrigine, topiramate) could slightly increase the metabolism of MHD. PMID:25220641

  1. Prevention of dislocation of the hip in children with cerebral palsy: 20-year results of a population-based prevention programme.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, G; Alriksson-Schmidt, A; Lauge-Pedersen, H; Rodby-Bousquet, E; Wagner, P; Westbom, L

    2014-11-01

    In 1994 a cerebral palsy (CP) register and healthcare programme was established in southern Sweden with the primary aim of preventing dislocation of the hip in these children. The results from the first ten years were published in 2005 and showed a decrease in the incidence of dislocation of the hip, from 8% in a historical control group of 103 children born between 1990 and 1991 to 0.5% in a group of 258 children born between 1992 and 1997. These two cohorts have now been re-evaluated and an additional group of 431 children born between 1998 and 2007 has been added. By 1 January 2014, nine children in the control group, two in the first study group and none in the second study group had developed a dislocated hip (p < 0.001). The two children in the first study group who developed a dislocated hip were too unwell to undergo preventive surgery. Every child with a dislocated hip reported severe pain, at least periodically, and four underwent salvage surgery. Of the 689 children in the study groups, 91 (13%) underwent preventive surgery. A population-based hip surveillance programme enables the early identification and preventive treatment, which can result in a significantly lower incidence of dislocation of the hip in children with CP. PMID:25371472

  2. Dosing regimens of oral ciprofloxacin for children with severe malnutrition: a population pharmacokinetic study with Monte Carlo simulation

    PubMed Central

    Thuo, Nahashon; Ungphakorn, Wanchana; Karisa, Japhet; Muchohi, Simon; Muturi, Alex; Kokwaro, Gilbert; Thomson, Alison H.; Maitland, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe malnutrition is frequently complicated by sepsis, leading to high case fatality. Oral ciprofloxacin is a potential alternative to the standard parenteral ampicillin/gentamicin combination, but its pharmacokinetics in malnourished children is unknown. Methods Ciprofloxacin (10 mg/kg, 12 hourly) was administered either 2 h before or up to 2 h after feeds to Kenyan children hospitalized with severe malnutrition. Four plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured over 24 h. Population analysis with NONMEM investigated factors affecting the oral clearance (CL) and the oral volume of distribution (V). Monte Carlo simulations investigated dosage regimens to achieve a target AUC0–24/MIC ratio of ≥125. Results Data comprised 202 ciprofloxacin concentration measurements from 52 children aged 8–102 months. Absorption was generally rapid but variable; Cmax ranged from 0.6 to 4.5 mg/L. Data were fitted by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and lag. The parameters were CL (L/h) = 42.7 (L/h/70 kg) × [weight (kg)/70]0.75 × [1 + 0.0368 (Na+ – 136)] × [1 – 0.283 (high risk)] and V (L) = 372 × (L/70 kg) × [1 + 0.0291 (Na+ – 136)]. Estimates of AUC0–24 ranged from 8 to 61 mg·h/L. The breakpoint for Gram-negative organisms was <0.06 mg/L with doses of 20 mg/kg/day and <0.125 mg/L with doses of 30 or 45 mg/kg/day. The cumulative fraction of response with 30 mg/kg/day was ≥80% for Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella species, but <60% for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions An oral ciprofloxacin dose of 10 mg/kg three times daily (30 mg/kg/day) may be a suitable alternative antibiotic for the management of sepsis in severely malnourished children. Absorption was unaffected by the simultaneous administration of feeds. PMID:21831986

  3. Cancer incidence patterns among children and adolescents in Taiwan from 1995 to 2009: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Giun-Yi; Horng, Jiun-Lin; Lee, Yu-Sheng; Yen, Hsiu-Ju; Chen, Chao-Chun; Lee, Chih-Ying

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Currently, little information is available on childhood cancer incidence rates in Eastern Asia. The objective of this study was to report the first population-based cancer surveillance of children and adolescents in Taiwan. METHODS Data from the Taiwan Cancer Registry were examined for cancer frequencies and incidence rates among individuals ages birth to 19 years from 1995 to 2009. Types of cancers were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. Rates were compared by sex and age. For further comparisons with other countries, rates were age standardized to the 2000 world standard population in 5-year age groups. Trends in incidence rates also were evaluated. RESULTS In total, 12,315 individuals were diagnosed with childhood cancers, for an age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of 132.1 per million person-years from 1995 to 2009. The male-to-female incidence rate ratio was 1.19. Overall, leukemias were the most common cancer (ASR, 39.1 per million person-years), followed by central nervous system neoplasms (15.8 per million person-years), and lymphomas (15.3 per million person-years). During the 15-year study period, the incidence rates increased by 1% annually. Compared with other countries, the rate of hepatic tumors was 2 times greater in Taiwan. The rate of germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan was similar to that in the United States and was 1.3 to 1.9 times greater compared with Canada, Brazil, Israel, and Japan. CONCLUSIONS Based on the current data, the observed increase in overall incidence rates was attributable only marginally to improvements in case ascertainment and diagnostic procedures. The high rates of malignant hepatic tumors and germ cell neoplasms in Taiwan suggest variations in the background risk factors. Cancer 2014;120:3545–3553. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. The authors examine cancer incidence patterns in children and adolescents

  4. Psychometric properties of the emotion awareness questionnaire for children in a French-speaking population.

    PubMed

    Lahaye, Magali; Luminet, Olivier; Van Broeck, Nady; Bodart, Eddy; Mikolajczak, Moira

    2010-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the French version of the Emotion Awareness Questionnaire (EAQ30; Rieffe et al., 2008). The EAQ30 was administered to 707 French-speaking children aged 8 to 16 years old. The original 6-factor structure was replicated in our data. The internal consistency coefficients of the EAQ30 subscales were satisfactory. We found small significant differences for gender and age. Regarding convergent validity, we found positive correlations between EAQ30 scores and emotional intelligence and negative correlations between EAQ30 scores and alexithymia. There was preliminary evidence of discriminant validity, with EAQ30 scores being weakly related to school performance, and concurrent validity, with EAQ30 scores being negatively related to somatic complaints, depression, and anxiety. Finally, except for 1 dimension, EAQ30 scores were not susceptible to social desirability. Although some weaknesses of the scale remain to be addressed, these findings support the use of the EAQ30 for research and clinical purposes. PMID:20552506

  5. Characteristics of Astigmatism in a Population of Tunisian School-Children

    PubMed Central

    Chebil, Ahmed; Jedidi, Lina; Chaker, Nibrass; Kort, Fedra; Limaiem, Rym; Mghaieth, Fatma; El Matri, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the characteristics of astigmatism in a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren in Tunisia. Materials and Methods: A random cluster design was used to recruit children from primary schools across urban and rural settings in Tunisia, from 2008 to 2010. A total of 6192 students aged 6–14-years old were enrolled. All students whose uncorrected visual acuity was worse than 20/20 underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. Astigmatism was defined as the cylinder power of 0.75 diopter (D) or greater. Results: The prevalence of astigmatism was 6.67%. Mean cylinder power was - 1.89 ± 0.79D. The prevalence of astigmatism increased statistically significantly with age (P = 0.032). The prevalence of astigmatism was not significantly related to gender (P = 0.051). Of those with cylinder, 63.6%, 17.8%, and 18.6% schoolchildren had with with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism, respectively. ATR astigmatism was significantly higher in males (P = 0.033). There was no significant association between the student's area of residence and astigmatism (P = 0.059). Conclusion: Comparisons with other studies show that the prevalence of astigmatism in Tunisia is higher than in some countries. The prevalence of astigmatism increased with age but not gender. The majority of schoolchildren had with-the-rule astigmatism. PMID:26180472

  6. Choices Not Circumstances: An Educational Needs Assessment for the Children of Arizona's Migratory Agricultural Workers. Volume II: Migrant Population and Programs - Characteristics and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huss, John D.; And Others

    Arizona's migrant farmworker population was examined to determine the recent changes in its demographic characteristics, and changes in worker characteristics that could be anticipated by 1980 and their implications for educative and supportive services to migrant children between 1977 and 1980. Information was also obtained on migrant student…

  7. The Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale: An Evaluation of Its Use on an Australian Population. Institute of Family Studies Working Paper No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amato, Paul R.

    The paper presents data about applying the Piers-Harris Children's Self Concept Scale (CSCS) to an Australian population. Data were obtained from 402 randomly selected male and female, primary and secondary school students, representing all school systems (195 from Grades 3 and 4, 207 from Grades 10 and 11). Anaylsis conducted on the two age…

  8. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon's Food Stamp Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods: We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon's food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a…

  9. Antibiotic Exposure and IBD Development Among Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaoutis, Theoklis E.; Haynes, Kevin; Feng, Rui; Coffin, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). METHODS: This retrospective cohort study employed data from 464 UK ambulatory practices participating in The Health Improvement Network. All children with ≥2 years of follow-up from 1994 to 2009 were followed between practice enrollment and IBD development, practice deregistration, 19 years of age, or death; those with previous IBD were excluded. All antibiotic prescriptions were captured. Antianaerobic antibiotic agents were defined as penicillin, amoxicillin, ampicillin, penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations, tetracyclines, clindamycin, metronidazole, cefoxitin, carbapenems, and oral vancomycin. RESULTS: A total of 1 072 426 subjects contributed 6.6 million person-years of follow-up; 748 developed IBD. IBD incidence rates among antianaerobic antibiotic unexposed and exposed subjects were 0.83 and 1.52/10 000 person-years, respectively, for an 84% relative risk increase. Exposure throughout childhood was associated with developing IBD, but this relationship decreased with increasing age at exposure. Exposure before 1 year of age had an adjusted hazard ratio of 5.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.66–18.28) but decreased to 2.62 (95% CI: 1.61–4.25) and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.35–1.84) by 5 and 15 years, respectively. Each antibiotic course increased the IBD hazard by 6% (4%–8%). A dose-response effect existed, with receipt of >2 antibiotic courses more highly associated with IBD development than receipt of 1 to 2 courses, with adjusted hazard ratios of 4.77 (95% CI: 2.13–10.68) versus 3.33 (95% CI: 1.69–6.58). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood antianaerobic antibiotic exposure is associated with IBD development. PMID:23008454

  10. A parent motivational interviewing program for dental care in children of a rural population

    PubMed Central

    González-Del-Castillo-McGrath, Mauricio; Madrigal-Orozco, Catalina; Anguiano-Flores, Laura; Amador-Licona, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based educational program in reducing the number and intensity of new caries and bacterial dental plaque levels at 6 months post randomization. Study Design: A randomized and single blind clinical trial in 100 schoolchildren between 6-10 years of age presenting the highest risk score of caries according to the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) criteria was performed. These patients were randomized to two groups: control (in which the mothers initially received an oral prevention informative session) and experimental (in which the mothers received the initial informative session, followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions during a period of 6 months). The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores and bacterial plaque were evaluated at baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Results: After 12 months, children in the experimental group had 2.12 ± 0.8 new caries versus 3.5 ± 0.9 in the control group (t=7.39; p<0.001). Caries in the experimental group was seen to be limited to the enamel, with a median intensity of 2 (range 0-3) versus 3 (0-6) in the control group (U=1594; p<0.0001). Bacterial plaque determined by the O’Leary index decreased in both groups; however, it decreased more in the experimental than in the control group (34.3 vs. 20.6; t=-3.12, p= 0.002) respectively. Conclusions: Motivational interviewing is better than traditional educational programs in preventing caries and decreasing bacterial plaque. Key words:Health educational, motivational interviewing, caries risk. PMID:25674320

  11. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  12. Parental experiences before and long-term after their children's hemispherotomy - A population-based qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ozanne, Anneli; Verdinelli, Cecilia; Olsson, Ingrid; H Graneheim, Ulla; Malmgren, Kristina

    2016-07-01

    Severe childhood epilepsy has an impact on the whole family. For selected children, hemispherotomy is the treatment of choice. The aim of this study was to explore parents' experiences before and after hemispherotomy as reported at a long-term follow-up and their view on received information and support. This was a population-based qualitative descriptive study, using qualitative content analysis of interviews. Seven to eighteen years after hemispherotomy, parents of twenty-one operated children were interviewed about the family life situation, expectations before surgery, and support and information before and after surgery. Before surgery, the theme 'Living in a chaotic bubble' illuminates how parents felt: the family lived in isolation, they felt both dissatisfaction and satisfaction about support and information, and they experienced that surgery was a question about life or death. After surgery, the theme 'Hovering between success and disaster' illuminates how parents hovered between happiness if the surgery was successful and sadness about e.g., complications and behavior problems. They experienced both excellent and poor support, in hospital and at rehabilitation. Regardless of all concerns, parents were satisfied that the child had received an operation. The hemispherotomies were successful and generated a better life situation. However, in order to cope, families need support and information throughout the whole process, from the onset of epilepsy and for a long time after surgery. If the child has behavior problems, an assessment should be made before surgery in order for the families to get adequate support. The specialist team needs to be involved as early as possible and follow the families for several years after surgery. Focus should be on the whole family, if needed including grandparents; family-centered care might be relevant for this patient group. PMID:27176878

  13. [Prevalence of no alcohol fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in a population of obese children in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Pontiles de Sánchez, Milagros; Morón de Salim, Alba; Rodríguez de Perdomo, Henny; Perdomo Oramas, Germán

    2014-06-01

    No Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an abnormal accumulation of fat in hepatocytes, without alcohol, where overweight and obesity are determinants. Ecosonografia evaluated the prevalence of fatty liver in obese pediatric patients and its relation to nutritional assessment. The sample consisted of 85 children (51 females, 34 males), age 3-17. The abdominal ecosonography, BMI, waist circumference were performed; Godard Test for physical activity, history of diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity and cardiovascular disease were questioned. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin resistance were determined. Data analyzed from descriptive and comparative tables. We obtained: mean age 9.8 ± 2.7 females and males 9.6 ± 2.7 years. The ecosonography indicated 50% and 50% fatty liver-pancreas fatty liver in children aged 3-6 years; 7-11 years 39.7% fatty liver-pancreas; 12-17yrs 31.6% fatty liver-pancreas (p > 0.05); BMI > 26 kg/m2 42.9% fatty liver-pancreas; 21 to 25 kg/m2 44.7% fatty liver; 15 to 20 kg/m2 60%fatty liver-pancreas (p> 0.05). 97.6% with high CC; 68.2% with inadequate physical activity; high frequency of history of chronic non-communicable diseases. We concluded that this population had predominantly fatty liver fatty replacement of the pancreas (HG-RGP) in the groups with higher BMI, CC and high male unrelated insulin resistance, altered lipid profile and diagnosis HG. We inferred that the anthropometric assessment of waist circumference and abdominal ecosonography indicate the presence of visceral obesity, a condition that predisposes to hepatic steatosis, pancreas and/or liver-pancreas. PMID:25799683

  14. Safety and Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Intravenous Acetaminophen in Neonates, Infants, Children, and Adolescents With Pain or Fever

    PubMed Central

    Zuppa, Athena F.; Hammer, Gregory B.; Barrett, Jeffrey S.; Kenney, Brian F.; Kassir, Nastya; Mouksassi, Samer; Royal, Mike A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The administration of acetaminophen via the oral and rectal routes may be contraindicated in specific clinical settings. Intravenous administration provides an alternative route for fever reduction and analgesia. This phase 1 study of intravenous acetaminophen (Ofirmev, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, CA) in inpatient pediatric patients with pain or fever requiring intravenous therapy was designed to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of repeated doses over 48 hours. METHODS Neonates (full-term to 28 days) received either 12.5 mg/kg every 6 hours or 15 mg/kg every 8 hours. Infants (29 days to <2 years), children (2 to <12 years) and adolescents (≥12 years) received either 12.5 mg/kg every 4 hours or 15 mg/kg every 6 hours. Both noncompartmental and population nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approaches were used. Urinary metabolite data were analyzed, and safety and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Pharmacokinetic parameters of acetaminophen were estimated using a two-compartment disposition model with weight allometrically expressed on clearances and central and peripheral volumes of distribution (Vds). Postnatal age, with a maturation function, was a significant covariate on clearance. Total systemic normalized clearance was 18.4 L/hr per 70 kg, with a plateau reached at approximately 2 years. Total central and peripheral Vds of acetaminophen were 16 and 59.5 L/70 kg, respectively. The drug was well tolerated based on the incidence of adverse events. The primary and minor pathways of elimination were acetaminophen glucuronidation, sulfation, and glutathione conjugate metabolites across all age groups. CONCLUSIONS Intravenous acetaminophen in infants, children, and adolescents was well tolerated and achieved plasma concentrations similar to those achieved with labeled 15 mg/kg body weight doses by oral or rectal administration. PMID:22768009

  15. Diagnosing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children involved with child protection services: are current diagnostic guidelines acceptable for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Klein, B; Damiani-Taraba, G; Koster, A; Campbell, J; Scholz, C

    2015-03-01

    Children involved with child protection services (CPS) are diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at higher rates than the general population. Children with maltreatment histories are much more likely to have other factors contributing to behavioural and attentional regulation difficulties that may overlap with or mimic ADHD-like symptoms, including language and learning problems, post-traumatic stress disorder, attachment difficulties, mood disorders and anxiety disorders. A higher number of children in the child welfare system are diagnosed with ADHD and provided with psychotropic medications under a group care setting compared with family-based, foster care and kinship care settings. However, children's behavioural trajectories change over time while in care. A reassessment in the approach to ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to confirmed (or suspected) maltreatment (e.g. neglect, abuse) is required. Diagnosis should be conducted within a multidisciplinary team and practice guidelines regarding ADHD diagnostic and management practices for children in CPS care are warranted both in the USA and in Canada. Increased education for caregivers, teachers and child welfare staff on the effects of maltreatment and often perplexing relationship with ADHD-like symptoms and co-morbid disorders is also necessary. Increased partnerships are needed to ensure the mental well-being of children with child protection involvement. PMID:24942100

  16. First trimester fetal growth restriction and cardiovascular risk factors in school age children: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Layla L; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Steegers, Eric A P; Gaillard, Romy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether first trimester fetal growth restriction correlates with cardiovascular outcomes in childhood. Design Population based prospective cohort study. Setting City of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Participants 1184 children with first trimester fetal crown to rump length measurements, whose mothers had a reliable first day of their last menstrual period and a regular menstrual cycle. Main outcomes measures Body mass index, total and abdominal fat distribution, blood pressure, and blood concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, and C peptide at the median age of 6.0 (90% range 5.7-6.8) years. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors was defined as having three or more of: high android fat mass; high systolic or diastolic blood pressure; low high density lipoprotein cholesterol or high triglycerides concentrations; and high insulin concentrations. Results One standard deviation score greater first trimester fetal crown to rump length was associated with a lower total fat mass (−0.30%, 95% confidence interval −0.57% to −0.03%), android fat mass (−0.07%, −0.12% to −0.02%), android/gynoid fat mass ratio (−0.53, −0.89 to −0.17), diastolic blood pressure (−0.43, −0.84 to −0.01, mm Hg), total cholesterol (−0.05, −0.10 to 0, mmol/L), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (−0.04, −0.09 to 0, mmol/L), and risk of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 0.81, 0.66 to 1.00) in childhood. Additional adjustment for gestational age and weight at birth changed these effect estimates only slightly. Childhood body mass index fully explained the associations of first trimester fetal crown to rump length with childhood total fat mass. First trimester fetal growth was not associated with other cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal growth analyses showed that compared with school age children without clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, those with clustering had a smaller first trimester fetal crown

  17. Short-term population-based and spatiotemporal nonlinear concentration-response associations between fine particulate matter and children's respiratory clinic visits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2014-05-01

    Advert health impacts associated with the PM2.5 exposure have been confirmed in mortality and cardiovascular diseases; however, findings of the influence of PM2.5 on respiratory diseases investigated among previous studies are still inconsistent. We investigated the short-term population-based associations between the respiratory clinic visits of children population and the PM2.5 exposure levels with considering both the spatiotemporal distributions of the ambient pollution and clinic visit data. We applied a spatiotemporal structured additive regression model to examine the concentration-response (C-R) association between daily children's respiratory clinic visits and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis was performed separately on the four selected respiratory disease categories of the population-based dataset, obtained from Taiwan National Health Insurance database, covering the 41 districts in Taipei area during the period of 2005 to 2007. This study reveals a strong nonlinear C-R pattern that the PM2.5 increment can significantly affect respiratory health at PM2.5 concentration ≤ 18.17µg/m3 for both preschool children and schoolchildren. The elevated risks are especially present in the category of acute respiratory infections. PM2.5 increase is mostly non-significant to the more severe respiratory diseases, e.g., COPD and pneumonia, over the ranges of 8.85-92.45µg/m3. The significantly higher relative rate of respiratory clinic visit most likely concentrated at populated areas. We highlight the nonlinearity of the respiratory health impacts of PM2.5 on children's populations from the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate this population-based association. The strong nonlinearity can possibly cause the inconsistency of PM2.5 health impact assessments with linear assumptions.

  18. Vaccination coverage against 2009 seasonal influenza in chronically ill children and adults: analysis of population registries in primary care in Madrid (Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rieiro, Cristina; Domínguez-Berjón, Ma Felicitas; Esteban-Vasallo, María D; Sánchez-Perruca, Luis; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro; Fornies, Domingo Iniesta; Ordoñez, Dolores Barranco; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2010-08-31

    Using electronic clinical records in primary care (ECRPC) of the entire population living in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, Spain (5,102,568 persons) as a data source, this study aimed to ascertain seasonal anti-influenza vaccination coverage in the chronically ill at-risk children (aged 6 months to 14 years) and adults (15-59 years). Of the total population aged 6 months to 59 years with a medical card in the Autonomous Community of Madrid, 10.3% (n=528,095 patients) had a chronic condition for which anti-influenza vaccination was indicated. In children with chronic conditions, coverage was 27.1% and it was particularly high among diabetics (41.1%) and particularly low in children with "other pulmonary conditions" (15.2%). In adults with chronic conditions, coverage was 22.1% and in patients with diagnosed heart failure coverage reached 39.1%; with the lowest coverage was observed in patients suffering neuromuscular diseases (12.8%). The factors associated with vaccination among children and adults suffering a chronic condition included: having been vaccinated during the previous campaign, national origin (lower among immigrants), and having more than one chronic condition. In conclusion, our study shows that vaccination coverage for 2009 seasonal influenza in children and adults with chronic conditions living in Madrid (Spain) was less than acceptable. PMID:20650340

  19. Do children who receive an ‘early dose’ of MMR vaccine during a measles outbreak return for their regularly scheduled dose? A retrospective population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyan; Simmonds, Kimberley A; Svenson, Jill; MacDonald, Shannon E

    2016-01-01

    Background Children under the age of 12 months may receive an early dose of measles–mumps–rubella (MMR) vaccine to provide short-term protection in the case of a disease outbreak. Following a measles outbreak in Alberta, Canada, there was concern that children who received an early dose may not be returning for their routinely scheduled dose at 12 months, leaving them vulnerable to disease in the long term. Methods This population-based study of children born between 2006 and 2014 used administrative health data to assess coverage and timeliness of the first routine dose of MMR vaccine administered at age 12–24 months for children who received an early dose of the vaccine due to a disease outbreak. We compared this group to children who received an early dose due to travel to a measles-endemic region and to children who did not receive an early dose. Results Only 5.5% of 366 351 children received an early dose. Coverage for the routine dose at age 24 months was 96.5% for children receiving an outbreak dose, 92.2% for those travelling to measles-endemic regions and 86.6% for those without an early dose (p<0.0001). The multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis, controlling for neighbourhood income, place of residence and interaction effects, determined that, as compared to the general cohort, the outbreak group was most likely to obtain the first routine dose (adjusted HR (aHR): 1.52, 95% CI 1.44 to 1.60), followed by the travel group (aHR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.34). Conclusions It is reassuring that the majority of children who received an early dose returned for their routine dose and did so in a timely manner. PMID:27580838

  20. Do Children in Rural Areas Still Have Different Access to Health Care? Results from a Statewide Survey of Oregon’s Food Stamp Population

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Stenger, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine if rural residence is independently associated with different access to health care services for children eligible for public health insurance. Methods We conducted a mail-return survey of 10,175 families randomly selected from Oregon’s food stamp population (46% rural and 54% urban). With a response rate of 31%, we used a raking ratio estimation process to weight results back to the overall food stamp population. We examined associations between rural residence and access to health care (adjusting for child’s age, child’s race/ethnicity, household income, parental employment, and parental and child’s insurance type). A second logistic regression model controlled for child’s special health care needs. Findings Compared with urban children (reference = 1.00), rural children were more likely to have unmet medical care needs (odds ratio [OR] 1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07–2.04), problems getting dental care (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.03–1.79), and at least one emergency department visit in the past year (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.10–1.81). After adjusting for special health care needs (more prevalent among rural children), there was no rural-urban difference in unmet medical needs, but physician visits were more likely among rural children. There were no statistically significant differences in unmet prescription needs, delayed urgent care, or having a usual source of care. Conclusions These findings suggest that access disparities between rural and urban low-income children persist, even after adjusting for health insurance. Coupled with continued expansions in children’s health insurance coverage, targeted policy interventions are needed to ensure the availability of health care services for children in rural areas, especially those with special needs. PMID:19166555

  1. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  2. Secondhand smoke and incidence of dental caries in deciduous teeth among children in Japan: population based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Shiro; Shinzawa, Maki; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Seto, Kahori; Tanaka, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Study question Does maternal smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to tobacco smoke at age 4 months increase the risk of caries in deciduous teeth? Methods Population based retrospective cohort study of 76 920 children born between 2004 and 2010 in Kobe City, Japan who received municipal health check-ups at birth, 4, 9, and 18 months, and 3 years and had information on household smoking status at age 4 months and records of dental examinations at age 18 months and 3 years. Smoking during pregnancy and exposure of infants to secondhand smoke at age 4 months was assessed by standardised parent reported questionnaires. The main outcome measure was the incidence of caries in deciduous teeth, defined as at least one decayed, missing, or filled tooth assessed by qualified dentists without radiographs. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios of exposure to secondhand smoke compared with having no smoker in the family after propensity score adjustment for clinical and lifestyle characteristics. Study answer and limitations Prevalence of household smoking among the 76 920 children was 55.3% (n=42 525), and 6.8% (n=5268) had evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke. A total of 12 729 incidents of dental caries were observed and most were decayed teeth (3 year follow-up rate 91.9%). The risk of caries at age 3 years was 14.0% (no smoker in family), 20.0% (smoking in household but without evidence of exposure to tobacco smoke), and 27.6% (exposure to tobacco smoke). The propensity score adjusted hazard ratios of the two exposure groups compared with having no smoker in the family were 1.46 (95% confidence interval 1.40 to 1.52) and 2.14 (1.99 to 2.29), respectively. The propensity score adjusted hazard ratio between maternal smoking during pregnancy and having no smoker in the family was 1.10 (0.97 to 1.25). What this study adds Exposure to tobacco smoke at 4 months of age was associated with an approximately twofold increased risk of caries

  3. A qualitative study exploring parental accounts of feeding pre-school children in two low-income populations in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Arabella K M; Draper, Alizon K; Ohly, Heather R; Rees, Gail A; Pettinger, Clare; McGlone, Pauline; Watt, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Good nutrition in the early years of life is essential, yet the diets of many pre-school children in the UK are known to be poor. Understanding the decisions parents make when feeding young children is very important in determining what type and nature of interventional support may be developed to promote good nutrition. The aim of this study was to explore using qualitative methods, parental perceptions of feeding their children in order to inform the development of a nutrition intervention. Focus groups (n = 33) and individual interviews (n = 6) were undertaken with parents, most of whom were attending children's centres in two deprived populations from one urban (Islington, north London) and one rural (Cornwall) location in England. Accounts of feeding pre-school children were primarily concerned with dealing with the practicalities of modern life, in particular the cost of food and the need to manage on a restricted household budget. Time pressures, a lack of perceived knowledge and confidence in preparing food and managing conflict over food choices between family members were also strong themes. Parents commonly reported differences between how they would like to feed their children and the reality of what they were able to do in their circumstances. These findings suggest that the poor eating habits of many pre-school children may be less a case of parental ignorance but rather the product of a range of coping strategies. Designing an intervention, which helps parents to build their confidence and self-efficacy, may enable them to make positive changes to their children's diets. PMID:23316717

  4. Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene, MBL2, Polymorphisms Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Meningococcal Disease in a Population of Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbo, Lene F.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Clausen, Louise N.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years) diagnosed during 1982–2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results. We included 1351 children: 406 with meningitis, 272 with bacteremia, and 673 age- and sex-matched controls. Of the children studied, 1292 (96%) were successfully genotyped and assigned MBL2 diplotypes. The median age in IMD cases was 19.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.8–32.2 months). Children with defective MBL2 diplotypes were not at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis than children with intermediate and normal diplotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.02). Similar results were found for children with bacteremia and defective diplotypes (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, .53–1.32) as well as for all cases (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, .56–1.01). There was no association between MBL2 diplotypes and mortality. Conclusions. Defective MBL2 diplotypes did not predict either an increased IMD susceptibility or mortality in a Danish population of children. PMID:26464842

  5. A limited population of unmarried adolescent fathers: a preliminary report of their views on fatherhood and the relationship with the mothers of their children.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, L E; Montgomery, T

    1983-01-01

    Although much has been documented regarding adolescent childbearing (Juhasz, 1974; Furstenburg, 1976; Card & Wise, 1978; Russ-eft, 1979; Chilman, 1980; Earl & Siegel, 1980), little is known about the attitudes of unmarried adolescent fathers toward fatherhood and their relationship with the mothers of their children. Most of what is known about this relationship has been learned from the young mothers (Sauber, 1966; Bernstein, 1971; Pope, 1971; bemis, 1976; Lorenzi, 1977; Clapp & Raab, 1978). With the exception of a few investigators (Pannor et al., 1968; Pannor, 1971, Hendricks, 1981), virtually no accounts can be found in the literature documenting unmarried adolescent fathers' perceptions of fatherhood and their relationship with the mothers of their children. This paper attempts to bridge this gap in the literature by reporting on how two select populations of black unmarried adolescent fathers view fatherhood and their relationship with the mothers of their children. PMID:6858745

  6. Integrating primary care and behavioral health with four special populations: Children with special needs, people with serious mental illness, refugees, and deaf people.

    PubMed

    Pollard, Robert Q; Betts, William R; Carroll, Jennifer K; Waxmonsky, Jeanette A; Barnett, Steven; deGruy, Frank V; Pickler, Laura L; Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    Special patient populations can present unique opportunities and challenges to integrating primary care and behavioral health services. This article focuses on four special populations: children with special needs, persons with severe and persistent mental illness, refugees, and deaf people who communicate via sign language. The current state of primary care and behavioral health collaboration regarding each of these four populations is examined via Doherty, McDaniel, and Baird's (1996) five-level collaboration model. The section on children with special needs offers contrasting case studies that highlight the consequences of effective versus ineffective service integration. The challenges and potential benefits of service integration for the severely mentally ill are examined via description of PRICARe (Promoting Resources for Integrated Care and Recovery), a model program in Colorado. The discussion regarding a refugee population focuses on service integration needs and emerging collaborative models as well as ways in which refugee mental health research can be improved. The section on deaf individuals examines how sign language users are typically marginalized in health care settings and offers suggestions for improving the health care experiences and outcomes of deaf persons. A well-integrated model program for deaf persons in Austria is described. All four of these special populations will benefit from further integration of primary care and mental health services. PMID:24820687

  7. Maternal urinary iodine concentration in pregnancy and children's cognition: results from a population-based birth cohort in an iodine-sufficient area

    PubMed Central

    Ghassabian, Akhgar; Steenweg-de Graaff, Jolien; Peeters, Robin P; Ross, H Alec; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C; White, Tonya; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reports from populations with an insufficient iodine intake suggest that children of mothers with mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy are at risk for cognitive impairments. However, it is unknown whether, even in iodine-sufficient areas, low levels of iodine intake occur that influence cognitive development in the offspring. This study investigated the association between maternal low urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in pregnancy and children's cognition in a population-based sample from a country with an optimal iodine status (the Netherlands). Setting and participants In 1525 mother–child pairs in a Dutch multiethnic birth cohort, we investigated the relation between maternal UIC<150 μg/g creatinine, assessed <18 weeks gestation and children's cognition. Outcomes measures Non-verbal IQ and language comprehension were assessed during a visit to the research centre using Dutch test batteries when the children were 6 years. Results In total, 188 (12.3%) pregnant women had UIC<150 μg/g creatinine, with a median UIC equal to 119.3 μg/g creatinine. The median UIC in the group with UIC>150 μg/g creatinine was 322.9 μg/g and in the whole sample 296.5 μg/g creatinine. There was a univariate association between maternal low UIC and children's suboptimum non-verbal IQ (unadjusted OR=1.44, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.02). However, after adjustment for confounders, maternal low UIC was not associated with children's non-verbal IQ (adjusted OR=1.33, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.93). There was no relation between maternal UIC in early pregnancy and children's language comprehension at 6 years. Conclusions The lack of a clear association between maternal low UIC and children's cognition probably reflects that low levels of iodine were not frequent and severe enough to affect neurodevelopment. This may result from the Dutch iodine fortification policy, which allows iodised salt to be added to almost all processed food and emphasises the monitoring of iodine

  8. Acculturation, dietary practices and risk for childhood obesity in an ethnically heterogeneous population of Latino school children in the San Francisco bay area.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Schwartz, Norah; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardi-Gascon, Montserrat; Heyman, Melvin B

    2012-08-01

    Previous studies have found increased acculturation to the US lifestyle increases risk for obesity in Latinos. However, methodologies differ, and results in children are inconsistent. Moreover, previous studies have not evaluated risk factors within the heterogeneous US population. We recruited 144 self-identified Latino school children and their mother or father in grades 4-6 in San Francisco parochial schools and South San Francisco public schools using an information letter distributed to all students. Children and parents had weights, heights, demographic information, dietary patterns and lifestyle variables collected in English or Spanish through an interview format. A high percentage of our children were overweight [≥85th percentile body mass index (BMI)] (62.5%) and obese (≥95th percentile BMI) (45.2%). Correspondingly parents also had a high percentage of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 & <30) (40.8%) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30) (45.3%). Mexico was the country of origin for 62.2% of parents, and 26.6% were from Central or South America. In multivariate logistic analysis, speaking Spanish at home was an independent risk factor for obesity [odds ratio (OR) 2.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28-6.86]. Eating breakfast daily (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.78) and consumption of tortas (a Mexican fast food sandwich) (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21-1.00) were associated with decreased risk. In stratified analysis, significant differences in risk factors existed between Mexican origin versus Central/South American Latino children. The processes of acculturation likely impact eating and lifestyle practices differentially among Latino groups. Interventions should focus on ensuring that all children eat a nutritious breakfast and take into consideration ethnicity when working with Latino populations. PMID:22101726

  9. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Raltegravir Pediatric Formulations in HIV-infected Children 4 weeks to 18 years of age†

    PubMed Central

    Rizk, Matthew L.; Du, Lihong; Bennetto-Hood, Chantelle; Wenning, Larissa; Teppler, Hedy; Homony, Brenda; Graham, Bobbie; Fry, Carrie; Nachman, Sharon; Wiznia, Andrew; Worrell, Carol; Smith, Betsy; Acosta, Edward P.

    2015-01-01

    P1066 is an open-label study of raltegravir in HIV+ youth, ages 4 weeks-18 years. Here we summarize P1066 pharmacokinetic (PK) data and a population PK model for the pediatric chewable tablet and oral granules. Raltegravir PK parameters were calculated using non-compartmental analysis. A two-compartment model was developed using data from P1066 and an adult study of the pediatric formulations. Inter-individual variability was described by an exponential error model, and residual variability was captured by an additive/proportional error model. Twelve-hour concentrations (C12hr) were calculated from the model-derived elimination rate constant and 8-hour observed concentration. Simulated steady-state concentrations were analyzed by non-compartmental analysis. Target area-under-the-curve (AUC0-12hr) and C12hr were achieved in each cohort. For the pediatric formulations, geometric mean AUC0-12hr values were 18.0–22.6 μM*hr across cohorts, and C12hr values were 71–130 nM, with lower coefficients of variation vs the film-coated tablet. A two-compartment model with first-order absorption adequately described raltegravir plasma PK in pediatric and adult patients. Weight was a covariate on clearance and central volume, and incorporated using allometric scaling. Raltegravir chewable tablets and oral granules exhibited PK parameters consistent with those from prior adult studies and older children in P1066, as well as lower variability than the film-coated tablet. PMID:25753401

  10. General intelligence is associated with subclinical inflammation in Nepalese children: A population-based plasma proteomics study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Eun; West, Keith P; Cole, Robert N; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee Shu-Fune; Yager, James D; Groopman, John; Christian, Parul

    2016-08-01

    Improving child cognition in impoverished countries is a public health priority. Yet, biological pathways and associated biomarkers of impaired cognition remain poorly understood and largely unknown, respectively. This study aimed to explore and quantify associations between functional plasma protein biomarkers and childhood intellectual test performance. We applied proteomics to quantify proteins in plasma samples of 249 rural Nepalese children, 6-8years of age who, 1year later at 7-9years of age, were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT). Among 751 plasma proteins quantified, 22 were associated with UNIT scores, passing a false discovery rate threshold of 5.0% (q<0.05). UNIT scores were higher by 2.3-9.2 points for every 50% increase in relative abundance of two insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), six subclasses of apolipoprotein (Apo) and transthyretin, and lower by 4.0-15.3 points for each 50% increase in relative abundance of 13 proteins predominantly involved in inflammation. Among them, IGFBP-acid labile subunit, orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), Apo C-I, and pyruvate kinase isoenzymes M1/M2 jointly explained 37% of the variance in UNIT scores. After additional adjustment for height-for-age Z-score and household socio-economic status as indicators of long-term nutritional and social stress, associations with 6 proteins involved in inflammation, including ORM1, α-1-antichymotrypsin, reticulocalbin 1, and 3 components of the complement cascade, remained significant (q<0.05). Using untargeted proteomics, stable, constitutive facets of subclinical inflammation were associated with lower developmental test performance in this rural South Asian child population. Plasma proteomics may offer opportunities to identify functional, antecedent biomarkers of child cognitive development. PMID:27039242

  11. Incidence, Characteristics and Risk Factors for Household and Neighborhood Injury among Young Children in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Population-Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Gyedu, A.; Nakua, E. K; Otupiri, E.; Mock, C.; Donkor, P.; Ebel, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are few population-based studies on household child injury in African countries. Objectives To determine the incidence, characteristics and risk factors of household and neighborhood injury among children in semi-urban communities in Kumasi, Ghana. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional population–weighted survey of 200 randomly selected caregivers of children under-18, representing 6801 households. Caregivers were interviewed about moderate to severe childhood injuries occurring within the past 6 months, for which the child staying home from school or activity, and/or required medical care. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with injury risk. Results Annual injury incidence was 593.5 injuries per 1000 children. Common causes of injury were falls (315.7 injuries per 1000 children), followed by cuts/lacerations and burns. Most injuries (93.8%) were of moderate severity. Children whose caregivers were hourly workers (AOR=1.97;95% CI:1.06,3.68) had increased odds of sustaining an injury compared to those of unemployed caregivers. Girls had decreased odds of injury (AOR=0.59;95% CI:0.39,0.91). Cooking outdoors (AOR=0.45;95% CI:0.27,0.76) and presence of cabinet/cupboards (AOR=0.41;95% CI:0.24,0.70) in the house were protective. Among children under 5 years of age, living in uncompleted accommodation was associated with higher odds of injury compared to living in a rented single room (AOR=3.67;95% CI 1.17,11.48). Conclusions The incidence of household and neighborhood child injury is high in semi-urban Kumasi. We identified several novel injury risk factors (hourly work, younger children) and protective factors (cooking outdoors, presence of cabinet/cupboards). These data may identify priorities for household injury prevention. PMID:24914101

  12. Birth data accessibility via primary care health records to classify health status in a multi-ethnic population of children: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Bonner, Rachel; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Stocks, Janet; Harding, Seeromanie; Wade, Angela; Griffiths, Chris; Sears, David; Fothergill, Helen; Slevin, Hannah; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-01

    Background: Access to reliable birth data (birthweight (BW) and gestational age (GA)) is essential for the identification of individuals who are at subsequent health risk. Aims: This study aimed to explore the feasibility of retrospectively collecting birth data for schoolchildren from parental questionnaires (PQ) and general practitioners (GPs) in primary care clinics, in inner city neighbourhoods with high density of ethnic minority and disadvantaged populations. Methods: Attempts were made to obtain birth data from parents and GPs for 2,171 London primary schoolchildren (34% White, 29% Black African origin, 25% South Asians, 12% Other) as part of a larger study of respiratory health. Results: Information on BW and/or GA were obtained from parents for 2,052 (95%) children. Almost all parents (2,045) gave consent to access their children’s health records held by GPs. On the basis of parental information, GPs of 1,785 children were successfully contacted, and GPs of 1,202 children responded. Birth data were retrieved for only 482 children (22% of 2,052). Missing birth data from GPs were associated with non-white ethnicity, non-UK born, English not the dominant language at home or socioeconomic disadvantage. Paired data were available in 376 children for BW and in 407 children for GA. No significant difference in BW or GA was observed between PQ and GP data, with <5% difference between sources regardless of normal or low birth weight, or term or preterm status. Conclusions: Parental recall of birth data for primary schoolchildren yields high quality and rapid return of data, and it should be considered as a viable alternative in which there is limited access to birth records. It provides the potential to include children with an increased risk of health problems within epidemiological studies. PMID:25612149

  13. Thoracic spine pain in the general population: Prevalence, incidence and associated factors in children, adolescents and adults. A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Andrew M; Smith, Anne J; Straker, Leon M; Bragge, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Thoracic spine pain (TSP) is experienced across the lifespan by healthy individuals and is a common presentation in primary healthcare clinical practice. However, the epidemiological characteristics of TSP are not well documented compared to neck and low back pain. A rigorous evaluation of the prevalence, incidence, correlates and risk factors needs to be undertaken in order for epidemiologic data to be meaningfully used to develop evidence-based prevention and treatment recommendations for TSP. Methods A systematic review method was followed to report the evidence describing prevalence, incidence, associated factors and risk factors for TSP among the general population. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched to identify studies that reported either prevalence, incidence, associated factors (cross-sectional study) or risk factors (prospective study) for TSP in healthy children, adolescents or adults. Studies were evaluated for level of evidence and method quality. Results Of the 1389 studies identified in the literature, 33 met the inclusion criteria for this systematic review. The mean (SD) quality score (out of 15) for the included studies was 10.5 (2.0). TSP prevalence data ranged from 4.0–72.0% (point), 0.5–51.4% (7-day), 1.4–34.8% (1-month), 4.8–7.0% (3-month), 3.5–34.8% (1-year) and 15.6–19.5% (lifetime). TSP prevalence varied according to the operational definition of TSP. Prevalence for any TSP ranged from 0.5–23.0%, 15.8–34.8%, 15.0–27.5% and 12.0–31.2% for 7-day, 1-month, 1-year and lifetime periods, respectively. TSP associated with backpack use varied from 6.0–72.0% and 22.9–51.4% for point and 7-day periods, respectively. TSP interfering with school or leisure ranged from 3.5–9.7% for 1-year prevalence. Generally, studies reported a higher prevalence for TSP in child and adolescent populations, and particularly for females. The 1 month, 6 month, 1 year and 25 year incidences were 0–0.9%, 10.3%, 3

  14. Prevalence of Autism in Children of Somali Origin Living in Stockholm: Brief Report of an At-Risk Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik-Olsson, Martina; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This work was a follow-up study (birth years 1999-2003) of the prevalence of autism in children of Somali background living in the county of Stockholm, Sweden. In a previous study (birth years 1988-98), the prevalence of autism associated with learning disability was found to be three to four times higher among Somali children compared with other…

  15. Caregiver Report of Executive Functioning in a Population-Based Sample of Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Fidler, Deborah J.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Daunhauer, Lisa; Robinson, Cordelia; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes everyday executive function (EF) profiles in young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers of children with Down syndrome (n = 26; chronological ages = 4-10 years; mental ages = 2-4 years) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P; G. A. Gioia, K. A. Espy, & P. K. Isquith, 2003), a…

  16. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  17. Population Pharmacokinetics of Oral Topotecan in Infants and Very Young Children with Brain Tumors Demonstrates a Role of ABCG2 rs4148157 on the Absorption Rate Constant.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Jessica K; Birg, Anna V; Lin, Tong; Daryani, Vinay M; Panetta, John C; Broniscer, Alberto; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar J; Stewart, Clinton F

    2016-07-01

    For infants and very young children with brain tumors, chemotherapy after surgical resection is the main treatment due to neurologic and neuroendocrine adverse effects from whole brain irradiation. Topotecan, an anticancer drug with antitumor activity against pediatric brain tumors, can be given intravenous or orally. However, high interpatient variability in oral drug bioavailability is common in children less than 3 years old. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the population pharmacokinetics of oral topotecan in infants and very young children, specifically evaluating the effects of age and ABCG2 and ABCB1 on the absorption rate constant (Ka), as well as other covariate effects on all pharmacokinetic parameters. A nonlinear mixed effects model was implemented in Monolix 4.3.2 (Lixoft, Orsay, France). A one-compartment model with first-order input and first-order elimination was found to adequately characterize topotecan lactone concentrations with population estimates as [mean (S.E.)]; Ka = 0.61 (0.11) h(-1), apparent volume of distribution (V/F) = 40.2 (7.0) l, and apparent clearance (CL/F) = 40.0 (2.9) l/h. After including the body surface area in the V/F and CL/F as a power model centered on the population median, the ABCG2 rs4148157 allele was found to play a significant role in the value of Ka Patients homozygous or heterozygous for G>A demonstrated a Ka value 2-fold higher than their GG counterparts, complemented with a 2-fold higher maximal concentration as well. These results demonstrate a possible role for the ABCG2 rs4148157 allele in the pharmacokinetics of oral topotecan in infants and very young children, and warrants further investigation. PMID:27052877

  18. Utilization Patterns of Conventional and Complementary/Alternative Treatments in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Developmental Disabilities in a Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Akins, CDR Roger Scott; Krakowiak, Paula; Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compared the utilization of conventional treatments to utilization of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Methods Participants were 578 children who were part of an ongoing population-based, case-control study of 2 to 5 year-olds with ASD, DD, and the general population. Parents completed an interview on past and current services. Results Four hundred fifty-three children with ASD and 125 DD children were included. ASD families received more hours of conventional services compared to DD (17.8 vs. 11; p<0.001). The use of psychotropic medications was low in both groups (~3%). CAM use overall was not significantly different in ASD (39%) versus DD (30%). Hispanic families in both groups used CAM less often than non-Hispanics. Variables such as level of function, immunization status, and presence of an identified neurogenetic disorder were not predictive of CAM use. A higher level of parental education was associated with increased CAM use in ASD and DD. Families who utilized >20 hours per week of conventional services were more likely to use CAM, including potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Under-immunized children were marginally more likely to use CAM, but not more likely to have received potentially unsafe or disproven CAM. Conclusion CAM use is common in families of young children with neurodevelopmental disorders and is predicted by higher parental education and non-Hispanic ethnicity but not developmental characteristics. Further research should address how healthcare providers can support families in making decisions about CAM use. PMID:24399100

  19. The consumption of flavored milk among a children population. The influence of beliefs and the association of brands with emotions.

    PubMed

    De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Schouteten, Joachim; Gellynck, Xavier

    2013-12-01

    Although milk and dairy products are seen as an important part of a child's diet, their consumption is declining. The aim of this study is to investigate the consumption of milk and flavored milk among a sample of 513 Belgian children aged between 8 and 13 years. In addition, the association between flavored milk brands and emotions is examined. Children prefer and consume more flavored than plain milk. They indicate that consumption is a self-made choice and that parents mainly ensure the availability of these products. Children prefer flavored milk to plain milk, although it is perceived to be less healthy. No correlation could be found between brand awareness and the consumption of flavored milk. Brands of flavored milk evoke divergent emotions and can be classified into different groups based upon their association with a type of emotion (i.e. positive/negative). This study demonstrates that taste is an important factor in flavored milk consumption by children and shows a strong relationship between brands and emotions. Consequently, the taste needs to be appealing for children, but it is equally important that children associate the brand with positive emotions, as this will lead to a higher preference. Milk producers who target children can use the insights gained from this study in the development of new products. PMID:24001396

  20. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  1. QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATES OF SOIL INGESTION IN NORMAL CHILDREN BETWEEN THE AGES OF 2 AND 7 YEARS: POPULATION-BASED ESTIMATES USING ALUMINUM, SILICON, AND TITANIUM AS SOIL TRACER ELEMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This investigation was undertaken to provide quantitative estimates of soil ingestion in young children on a population basis, and to identify demographic and behavioral characteristics that influence the amount of soil ingested. 04 children between the ages of 2 and 7 yr were se...

  2. Violence against children, later victimisation, and mental health: a cross-sectional study of the general Norwegian population

    PubMed Central

    Thoresen, Siri; Myhre, Mia; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Aakvaag, Helene Flood; Hjemdal, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence in childhood is associated with mental health problems and risk of revictimisation. Less is known about the relative importance of the various types of childhood and adult victimisation for adult mental health. Objective To estimate the associations between various types of childhood and adult violence exposure, and their combined associations to adult mental health. Method This study was a cross-sectional telephone survey of the Norwegian adult population; 2,435 women and 2,092 men aged 18–75 participated (19.3% of those we tried to call and 42.9% of those who answered the phone). The interview comprised a broad array of violence exposure in both childhood and adulthood. Anxiety/depression was measured by the Hopkins Symptom Check List (HSCL-10). Results Victimisation was commonly reported, for example, child sexual abuse (women: 10.2%, men: 3.5%), childhood–parental physical violence (women: 4.9%, men: 5.1%), and lifetime forcible rape (women: 9.4%, men: 1.1%). All categories of childhood violence were significantly associated with adult victimisation, with a 2.2–5.0 times higher occurrence in exposed children (p<0.05 for all associations). Anxiety/depression (HSCL-10) associated with adult abuse increased with the number of childhood violence categories experienced (p<0.001). All combinations of childhood violence were significantly associated with anxiety/depression (p<0.001 for all associations). Individuals reporting psychological violence/neglect had the highest levels of anxiety/depression. Conclusions Results should be interpreted in light of the low response rate. Childhood violence in all its forms was a risk factor for victimisation in adulthood. Adult anxiety/depression was associated with both the number of violence categories and the type of childhood violence experienced. A broad assessment of childhood and adult violence exposure is necessary both for research and prevention purposes. Psychological violence and neglect

  3. Natural history of beta-cell autoimmunity in young children with increased genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes recruited from the general population.

    PubMed

    Kimpimäki, T; Kulmala, P; Savola, K; Kupila, A; Korhonen, S; Simell, T; Ilonen, J; Simell, O; Knip, M

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and predictive value of diabetes-associated autoantibodies, such as islet cell antibodies (ICA) and autoantibodies to insulin (IAA), GAD65 (GADA), and the IA-2 molecule (IA-2A) in genetically susceptible children from the general population during the first 2 yr of life. Of 12,170 newborn infants, 1,005 with increased genetic risk of type 1 diabetes (high risk, human leukocyte antigen DQB1*02/*0302; moderate risk, DQB1*0302/x, where x = other than *02, *0301, or *0602) were monitored for ICA, IAA, GADA, and IA-2A at 3- to 6-month intervals from birth up to a minimum age of 2 yr. In addition, all 15 genetically susceptible children from the general population who had participated in regular immunological follow-up and developed clinical type 1 diabetes by the end of April 2000 were analyzed for the development of autoantibodies. Among 1,005 children, 63 (6.3%) tested positive for at least one autoantibody, 31 for ICA (3.1%), 48 for IAA (4.8%), 23 for GADA (2.3%), and 13 for IA-2A (1.3%) at least once by the age of 2 yr. Both ICA and IAA identified 95% [95% confidence interval (CI), 77.2-99.9%] of those who tested persistently positive for multiple (> or = 2) antibodies at the age of 2 yr, GADA identified 86% (CI, 65.1-97.1%), and IA-2A identified 55% (CI, 32.2-75.6%). Close to half of the antibody-positive children (29 of 63) reverted back to antibody negativity. Autoantibodies disappeared more often among those who tested positive for IAA than among those who tested positive for other autoantibodies (P < or = 0.021). Among the 15 children who developed type 1 diabetes, the disease sensitivity of ICA was 80% (CI, 51.9-95.7%), that of IAA was 93% (CI, 68.0-99.8%), that of GADA was 60% (CI, 32.3-83.7%), and that of IA-2A was 40% (CI, 16.3-67.7%). These results suggest that IAA are characterized by high sensitivity, early appearance, and high frequency of transient antibody positivity, whereas ICA detected with a

  4. Prognosis and Risk Factors for Congenital Airway Anomalies in Children with Congenital Heart Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu-Sheng; Jeng, Mei-Jy; Tsao, Pei-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background The mortality risk associated with congenital airway anomalies (CAA) in children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with CAA, and the associated mortality risk, among children with CHD. Methods This nationwide, population-based study evaluated 39,652 children with CHD aged 0–5 years between 2000 and 2011, using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). We performed descriptive, logistic regression, Kaplan–Meier, and Cox regression analyses of the data. Results Among the children with CHD, 1,591 (4.0%) had concomitant CAA. Children with CHD had an increased likelihood of CAA if they were boys (odds ratio [OR], 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–1.64), infants (OR, 5.42; 95%CI, 4.06–7.24), or had a congenital musculoskeletal anomaly (OR, 3.19; 95%CI, 2.67–3.81), and were typically identified 0–3 years after CHD diagnosis (OR, 1.33; 95%CI 1.17–1.51). The mortality risk was increased in children with CHD and CAA (crude hazard ratio [HR], 2.05; 95%CI, 1.77–2.37), even after adjusting for confounders (adjusted HR, 1.76; 95%CI, 1.51–2.04). Mortality risk also changed by age and sex (adjusted HR and 95%CI are quoted): neonates, infants, and toddlers and preschool children, 1.67 (1.40–2.00), 1.93 (1.47–2.55), and 4.77 (1.39–16.44), respectively; and boys and girls, 1.62 (1.32–1.98) and 2.01 (1.61–2.50), respectively. Conclusion The mortality risk is significantly increased among children with CHD and comorbid CAA. Clinicians should actively seek CAA during the follow-up of children with CHD. PMID:26334302

  5. Particle-Associated Ambient Benzo[a]pyrene and Levels of Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene in a Non-occupationally Exposed Population of Adults and Children in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yunjiang; Wang, Qiong; Li, Liangzhong; Liu, Zien; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Yanping; Lin, Haipeng; Xiang, Mingdeng; Li, Hui; Lin, Bigui

    2016-03-01

    Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) in ambient air from different areas in Lanzhou city in northwest of China, and its metabolite 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) in the urine of resident children and adults were determined by using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that the atmospheric environmental concentration of B[a]P varied significantly from one part of the city to another with levels of 150 ng/m(3) in the industrial area of Xigu and 73.8 ng/m(3) in the agricultural area of Yuzhong. The geometric mean urinary 1-OHP concentration was 0.42 µmol/mol-creatinine, with a range of means between 0.067 and 2.05 for the various population sub-groups. The non-occupationally exposed populations' age, gender and area of residence were the major factors that influenced urinary 1-OHP levels. The health risks of B[a]P for adults and children in Xigu and for children in Yuzhong exceeded the acceptable level (1 × 10(-4)) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:26841792

  6. Depression, Somatization, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Children Born of Occupation After World War II in Comparison With a General Population.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Marie; Kuwert, Philipp; Braehler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide

    2015-10-01

    At the end of World War II and during the first decade after the war, roughly 200,000 children were fathered in intimate contacts between German women and foreign soldiers. The experiences of these German occupation children (GOC) have been so far described in case reports and from historical perspective only. Research on psychosocial consequences of growing up as a GOC has been missing so far. This study examined traumatic experiences, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatization, and depression in GOC (N = 146) using self-report instruments: Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale and Patient Health Questionnaire. Findings have then been compared with a representative birth cohort-matched sample from the German general population (N = 977). German occupation children showed significantly higher prevalence rates of most traumatic experiences, higher point prevalence rates of full and partial posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and somatization than the control group. In summary, GOC often grew up under difficult conditions (e.g., poverty, single mothers, and stigmatization). Even decades later, they showed higher rates of different mental disorders and higher comorbidity. These findings underline the complex and long-term impact of their burdened social, financial, and familial conditions. The results underpin the importance of conceptualizing occupation children as a vulnerable group in postconflict settings. PMID:26348585

  7. Serum antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus F and N proteins in two populations at high risk of infection: children and elderly.

    PubMed

    Sastre, P; Cusi, M G; Manoha, C; Schildgen, O; Ruiz, T; Vela, C; Rueda, P

    2010-09-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) is the main viral cause of severe respiratory infections in children and a common cause of morbidity in the elderly. The nucleocapsid (N) and fusion (F) proteins of hRSV were expressed in insect cells and used as antigens in two independent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) to measure the serum antibody response in two populations at high risk of hRSV infection, children and the elderly. Fifty-seven serum specimens from children aged from 1 to 10 years old and 91 sera from adults over 60 years old were tested. The ELISA results were compared with those obtained by an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) based on hRSV-infected cells, which was considered as the reference technique. Sensitivity and specificity were 94% and 85% for the N-ELISA and 86% and 81% for the F-ELISA, respectively. When the immune responses of the two groups of individuals were compared, it appeared that almost 100% of the elderly had antibodies against the N or F protein whereas only 50% of the sera from children had antibodies against either of the two viral proteins. In conclusion, the F and N ELISAs can be used successfully for detecting a specific antibody response to hRSV. PMID:20488207

  8. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  9. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01-1.69) compared with those who slept for 8-9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  10. Relationships between Sleep Behaviors and Unintentional Injury in Southern Chinese School-Aged Children: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yafei; Ma, Di; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Fuyuan; Liu, Xiangxiang; Li, Liping

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationships between sleep behaviors and injury occurrence among Chinese school-aged children. Data were collected with self-administered questionnaires of a cross-sectional survey which covered the school-aged children from southeastern Chinese urban and rural areas in April 2010. Information was collected on unintentional injury in the past year, sleep duration, napping and daytime fatigue, sleeping pill use, and social-demographic variables. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, controlling for confounding factors, were conducted to assess sleep-related variables that were associated with injuries. Students who slept for less than 8 h had a 30% increased risk of injury (OR: 1.30; 95%CI: 1.01–1.69) compared with those who slept for 8–9 h. Lack of napping, snoring and use of sleeping pills were significantly associated with injury. Among different genders, the slight difference in sleep behaviors predicted the occurrence of injury. Rural children displayed more sleep behaviors associated with injury than urban children. The sleep behaviors of primary school students were more negatively correlated with injury occurrence than junior/senior high school children. Consideration should be given to the prevention of problematic sleep behaviors as a potential risk factor in order to decrease injury rates and promote the health of school-aged children. PMID:26501305

  11. Asthma, Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease amongst South Asian Immigrants to Canada and Their Children: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Eric I.; Manuel, Douglas G.; To, Teresa; Mack, David R.; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Gommerman, Jennifer L.; Croitoru, Kenneth; Mojaverian, Nassim; Wang, Xuesong; Quach, Pauline; Guttmann, Astrid

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is a high and rising rate of immune-mediated diseases in the Western world. Immigrants from South Asia have been reported to be at higher risk upon arrival to the West. We determined the risk of immune-mediated diseases in South Asian and other immigrants to Ontario, Canada, and their Ontario-born children. METHODS Population-based cohorts of patients with asthma, type 1 diabetes (T1DM), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) were derived from health administrative data. We determined the standardized incidence, and the adjusted risk of these diseases in immigrants from South Asia, immigrants from other regions, compared with non-immigrant residents of Ontario. The risk of these diseases in the Ontario-born children of immigrants were compared to the children of non-immigrants. RESULTS Compared to non-immigrants, adults from South Asia had higher risk of asthma (IRR 1.56, 95%CI 1.51-1.61) and T2DM (IRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.53-2.65). Adults from South Asia had lower incidence of IBD than non-immigrants (IRR 0.32, 95%CI 0.22-0.49), as did immigrants from other regions (IRR 0.29, 95%CI 0.20-0.42). Compared to non-immigrant children, the incidence of asthma (IRR 0.66, 95%CI 0.62-0.71) and IBD (IRR 0.47, 95%CI 0.33-0.67) was low amongst immigrant children from South Asia. However, the risk in Ontario-born children of South Asian immigrants relative to the children of non-immigrants was higher for asthma (IRR 1.75, 95%CI 1.69-1.81) and less attenuated for IBD (IRR 0.90, 95%CI 0.65-1.22). CONCLUSION Early-life environmental exposures may trigger a genetic predisposition to the development of asthma and IBD in South Asian immigrants and their Canada-born children. PMID:25849480

  12. Is Emmetropia the Natural Endpoint for Human Refractive Development? An Analysis of Population-based Data from the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC)

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Ian G.; Rose, Kathryn A.; Ellwein, Leon B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine the natural end-point for refractive development during childhood. Methods Cycloplegic (1% cyclopentolate) autorefraction was performed on 38,811 children aged 5 and 15 in population-based samples at eight sites in the Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC). Refractions (right eye) were categorized as myopic (≤ −0.5D), emmetropic (> −0.5D to ≤ +0.5D), mildly hyperopic (> +0.5D to ≤ +2.0D and hyperopic (> +2.0D). Results At 5 sites (Jhapa – rural Nepal, New Delhi -urban India, Mahabubnagar - rural India, Durban - semi-urban South Africa, and La Florida – urban Chile), there was <20% myopia by age 15. Mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category at all ages, except for Mahabubnagar where emmetropia became the marginally most prevalent category at ages 14 and 15. At the other sites (Gombak – semi-urban Malaysia, Shunyi – semi-rural China, and Guangzhou - urban China) there was substantial (>35%) myopia by age 15. At these sites, mild hyperopia was the most prevalent category during early childhood, and myopia became the predominant category later. In Gombak district and Guangzhou, emmetropia was a minor category at all ages, with myopia increasing as mild hyperopia decreased. In Shunyi district, emmetropia was the most prevalent category over the ages 11-14. Conclusion Emmetropia was not the predominant outcome for refractive development in children. Instead, populations were either predominantly mildly hyperopic, or substantial amounts of myopia appeared. This suggests that mild hyperopia is the natural state of refractive development in children, and that emmetropia during childhood carries the risk of subsequent progression to myopia. PMID:19958289

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children in Italy: Testing the Validity among a General and Clinical Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Gobbi, Erica; Elliot, Catherine; Varnier, Maurizio; Carraro, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess an Italian version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C-It). Three separate studies were conducted, whereby testing general psychometric properties, construct validity, concurrent validity and the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It among general and clinical pediatric population. Study 1 (n = 1170) examined the psychometric properties, internal consistency, factor structure (exploratory factor analysis, EFA) and construct validity with enjoyment perception during physical activity. Study 2 (n = 59) reported on reliability, construct validity with enjoyment and BMI, and on cross-sectional concurrent validity with objectively measured MVPA (tri-axial accelerometry) over the span of seven consecutive days. Study 3 (n = 58) examined the PAQ-C-It reliability, construct validity with BMI and VO2max as the objective measurement among a population of children with congenital heart defects (CHD). In study 2 and 3, the factor structure of the PAQ-C-It was then re-examined with an EFA. The PAQ-C-It showed acceptable to good reliability (alpha .70 to .83). Results on construct validity showed moderate but significant association with enjoyment perception (r = .30 and .36), with BMI (r = -.30 and -.79 for CHD simple form), and with the VO2max (r = .55 for CHD simple form). Significant concurrent validity with the objectively measured MVPA was reported (rho = .30, p < .05). Findings of the EFA suggested a two-factor structure for the PAQ-C-It, with items 2, 3, and 4 contributing little to the total score. This study supports the PAQ-C-It as an appropriate instrument to assess the MVPA levels of Italian children, including children with simple forms of CHD. Support is given to the possible instrument effectiveness on a large international perspective in order to level out data gathering across the globe. PMID:27228050

  14. [Population education].

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    Goal of population education is to raise knowledge and comprehension of causes and consequences, either personal or social, of excessive population growth. These days it is possible to plan the growth and evolution of the population to reach a level of balance and harmony between number of inhabitants of a country, and the country's natural resoruces. general objectives of population education are: 1) knowledge of basic demographic processes; 2) knowledge of effects of evolution and growth of population on social and economic life inside the family and inside society; 3) family size as related to nutrition, health, education, and job; and, 4) knowledge of population dynamics which the individual can influence through personal behavior, i.e. age at marriage, and spacing and number of children. PMID:12309627

  15. Unchanged incidence and increased survival in children with neuroblastoma in Denmark 1981–2000: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, H; Wacher, J; Larsson, H; Rosthoej, S; Rechnitzer, C; Pedersen, B L; Carlsen, N L T

    2009-01-01

    Treatment results for neuroblastoma in Denmark have been poorer than in other Nordic countries, so we investigated whether a change in incidence, stage distribution and survival had occurred between 1981 and 2000. Clinical data were retrieved from the medical charts of 160 children <15 years of age with extra-cranial neuroblastoma (n=139) or ganglioneuroblastoma (n=21) diagnosed in Denmark between 1981 and 2000. The minimal follow-up time was 52 months. Statistical analyses were performed in STATA. The incidence was 8.55 per million children below 15 years of age (world standard 9.6) and 42.6 per million children below 12 months of age, and it has remained unchanged since 1970. The median age at diagnosis was 27 months. In all, 32% of the children were aged below 12 months at diagnosis, 53% had metastatic disease and in 12% the diagnosis was made incidentally. Prognostic factors such as age, stage and site of primary tumour were the same as in other studies and did not change. During the study period, the mortality rate decreased steadily, and the 5-year survival rate increased from 38% in 1981–1985 to 59% in 1996–2000, corresponding to the level found in other Western countries. Increased survival was also seen in children with metastatic disease. Participation in international studies, better supportive care and possibly postoperative autologous stem cell transplantation may have contributed to the increased survival. PMID:19223904

  16. Usefulness of inflammatory biomarkers in discriminating between bacterial and aseptic meningitis in hospitalized children from a population with low vaccination coverage

    PubMed Central

    Wysocki, Jacek; Avonts, Dirk; Januszkiewicz-Lewandowska, Danuta; Michalak, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the most frequent pathogens responsible for meningitis beyond the neonatal period. Aseptic meningitis is a disabling condition, but bacterial meningitis if left untreated is 100% fatal. The aim of the study was to analyze the usefulness of biochemical and hematological parameters in distinguishing between bacterial and non-bacterial meningitis in children with meningitis from a population with low rates of vaccination against S. pneumoniae and N. meningitidis. Material and methods This study is a retrospective chart review of children hospitalized with meningitis. In patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis the following parameters were compared: C-reactive protein, D-dimers, fibrinogen, glucose level, and leukocyte level, and in cerebrospinal fluid, protein, glucose, and leukocyte concentrations were analyzed. Number of points in the Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) was calculated. The predictive value of each parameter to distinguish between bacterial and aseptic meningitis was evaluated. Results In total, 129 patients were included in the study: 65 diagnosed with bacterial meningitis and 64 with aseptic meningitis. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis were statistically significantly different based on each analyzed parameter (p < 0.000001). Among children with aseptic meningitis 42 (66%) scored 0 points in the BMS, while all the children with bacterial meningitis had at least one point. Conclusions In children with meningitis inflammatory biomarkers differ statistically significantly depending on the etiology – bacterial or aseptic. Serum concentration of C-reactive protein higher than 80 mg/dl is a useful marker of bacterial etiology of meningitis. A high Bacterial Meningitis Score is indicative for bacterial meningitis. PMID:27186188

  17. Examining the social determinants of children's developmental health: protocol for building a pan-Canadian population-based monitoring system for early childhood development

    PubMed Central

    Guhn, Martin; Janus, Magdalena; Enns, Jennifer; Brownell, Marni; Forer, Barry; Duku, Eric; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Raos, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early childhood is a key period to establish policies and practices that optimise children's health and development, but Canada lacks nationally representative data on social indicators of children's well-being. To address this gap, the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a teacher-administered questionnaire completed for kindergarten-age children, has been implemented across most Canadian provinces over the past 10 years. The purpose of this protocol is to describe the Canadian Neighbourhoods and Early Child Development (CanNECD) Study, the aims of which are to create a pan-Canadian EDI database to monitor trends over time in children's developmental health and to advance research examining the social determinants of health. Methods and analysis Canada-wide EDI records from 2004 to 2014 (representing over 700 000 children) will be linked to Canada Census and Income Taxfiler data. Variables of socioeconomic status derived from these databases will be used to predict neighbourhood-level EDI vulnerability rates by conducting a series of regression analyses and latent variable models at provincial/territorial and national levels. Where data are available, we will measure the neighbourhood-level change in developmental vulnerability rates over time and model the socioeconomic factors associated with those trends. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval for this study was granted by the Behavioural Research Ethics Board at the University of British Columbia. Study findings will be disseminated to key partners, including provincial and federal ministries, schools and school districts, collaborative community groups and the early childhood development research community. The database created as part of this longitudinal population-level monitoring system will allow researchers to associate practices, programmes and policies at school and community levels with trends in developmental health outcomes. The CanNECD Study will guide future early childhood

  18. [Female spouses of cancer patients with minor children--psychological distress in comparison with the general population and the cancer partner].

    PubMed

    Götze, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Romer, Georg; Bergelt, Corinna; von Klitzing, Kai; Herzog, Wolfgang; Flechtner, Hans-Henning; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Ernst, Jochen

    2012-05-01

    A cancer disease in the family is an emotional crisis with psychological distress for the partner. The study observed the psychological distress of female partners of cancer patients with underage children (HADS-D). The results were compared with the psychological distress of the cancer patient as well as a representative comparison group of women from the general population. Every second female partner showed clinically anxiety scores. On average, the female partners were significantly more anxious than male cancer patients and even more afraid than women from the general population. Regarding the degree of depression, between the partners there were no differences. With regard to mental distress, a medium correlation was found on the pair level. Based on the use of psycho-oncological support the high emotional distress on the female partners is discussed. PMID:22565334

  19. Children and Adolescents with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Population at Risk for More Than Just Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Michelle M

    2016-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of children and adolescents with chronic health conditions is a multifactorial concept that combines a child's perception and adaptation to physical, social, emotional, and school environments regardless of particular medical diagnosis. Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience non-kidney specific co-morbidities, including depression, body image alterations, and sleep disturbance, that impair their daily lives. This article reviews the pediatric nephrology literature to highlight the evidence identifying these riskr to HRQOL and suggesting ways in which nurses in both nephrology and primary care are poised to identify and modify these risk factors. PMID:27025152

  20. Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the data from Center for Disease Control's autism surveillance program found that the median age of identification of children with autism is 5.7 years. Being male, having an IQ of 70 or lower, and having developmental regression are the factors linked to a younger age of identification. There is a need for research, innovation, and…

  1. The Timing of Identification among Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Findings from a Population-Based Surveillance Study

    PubMed Central

    Shattuck, Paul T.; Durkin, Maureen; Maenner, Matthew; Newschaffer, Craig; Mandell, David S.; Wiggins, Lisa; Lee, Li-Ching; Rice, Catherine; Giarelli, Ellen; Kirby, Russell; Baio, Jon; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Cuniff, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Objective At what age are children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) identified by community providers? What factors influence the timing of when children are identified with ASDs? This study examined the timing of when children with ASDs are identified. Method Data came from 13 sites participating in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s 2002 multisite, ongoing autism surveillance program, the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network. Survival analysis was used to examine factors that influence the timing of community-based identification and diagnosis. Result Data from health and education records reveal that the median age of identification was 5.7 years (SE 0.08). Parametric survival models revealed that several factors were associated with a younger age of identification: being male, having IQ ≤ 70, and having experienced developmental regression. Significant differences in the age of identification among the 13 sites were also discovered. Conclusions The large gap between the age at which children can be identified and when they actually are identified suggests a critical need for further research, innovation, and improvement in this area of clinical practice. PMID:19318992

  2. Factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among preschool children: A population-based study in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Daniella Borges; Brizon, Valéria Silva Cândido; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Madureira, Davidson Fróis; Gomes, Viviane Elisângela; de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Borges

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with the prevalence of anterior open bite among five-year-old Brazilian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using data from the National Survey of Oral Health (SB Brazil 2010). The outcome variable was anterior open bite classified as present or absent. The independent variables were classified by individual, sociodemographic and clinical factors. Data were analyzed through bivariate and multivariate analysis using SPSS statistical software (version 18.0) with a 95% level of significance. RESULTS: The prevalence of anterior open bite was 12.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that preschool children living in Southern Brazil had an increased chance of 1.8 more times of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 1.16 - 3.02). Children identified with alterations in overjet had 14.6 times greater chances of having anterior open bite (CI 95%: 8.98 - 24.03). CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between anterior open bite and the region of Brazil where the children lived, the presence of altered overjet and the prevalence of posterior crossbite. PMID:25715723

  3. Dynamics of Mothers' Goals for Children in Ethnically Diverse Populations across the First Three Years of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Godfrey, Erin B.; Hunter, Cristina J.; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    Parents' socialization goals are important for cultural transmission across generations, but whether such goals vary by ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds and change over children's first years of life remains unexamined. In Study 1, African-American, Dominican immigrant, and Mexican immigrant mothers (N = 300) reported on the qualities deemed…

  4. Early Development of Emerging and English-Proficient Bilingual Children at School Entry in an Australian Population Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfeld, Sharon; O'Connor, Meredith; Mithen, Johanna; Sayers, Mary; Brinkman, Sally

    2014-01-01

    Children who enter school with limited proficiency in the language of instruction face a range of challenges in negotiating this new context, yet limited data have been available to describe the early developmental outcomes of this subpopulation in the Australian context. The Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) is a teacher-rated checklist…

  5. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = -0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = -0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools. PMID:27610383

  6. Identifying Children with Intellectual Disabilities in the Tribal Population of Barwani District in State of Madhya Pradesh, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhan, Ram; Mawson, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low-and middle-income countries (LAMI) lack an integrated and systematic approach to identify people with intellectual disabilities. Screening surveys are considered resource-intensive; therefore, alternative approaches are needed. This study attempted to identify children up to age 18 years with intellectual disabilities through a…

  7. In an EBD Population Do Looked after Children Have Specific Needs Relating to Resilience, Self-Perception and Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Emily; Whitehead, Juliet; Wigford, Angie

    2010-01-01

    Poor outcomes for Looked After Children (LAC) in relation to non-LAC have been well established by research. However, a small minority of LAC do achieve positive outcomes despite having experienced a number of risk factors. It is the process of resilience which is thought to enable individuals to experience positive outcomes. This study focused on…

  8. Extension of a Social Skills Intervention Program for School-Age Children to the Head Start Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefler, Elizabeth K.; Hartung, Cynthia M.; Scambler, Douglas J.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a manualized social skills intervention for children with peer relationship problems developed by Milich and colleagues (Milich et al., 1995, 2004). The program includes deficits-based components and problem-solving/anger-management components. This intervention is meant to be delivered in a group format over 8 sessions. It…

  9. Eating patterns of children in the Delta: Developing a child food frequency questionnaire for this rural impoverished population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The epidemic of obesity and health risks for children currently present challenges in estimating food intakes and developing appropriate interventions. Obtaining eating patterns is important. No child food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) are specific to the Delta. Food intake data collected previous...

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Prevalence, Comorbidity, and Associated Factors in a Population-Derived Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew; Charman, Tony; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Baird, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    A study on autism spectrum disorders is conducted because its early onset, lifelong persistence, and high levels of associated impairment is turning it into a major public health concern. Results show that psychiatric disorders are common in children with autism spectrum disorders but there were few associations between putative risk factors and…

  11. A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey of Trachoma among Migrant School Aged Children in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Wenwen; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; He, Xiangui; He, Jiangnan; Zhao, Rong

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of clinical trachoma in 154,265 children aged 6 to 16 years in 206 Shanghai migrant schools. Clean water availability in school, each child's facial cleanliness, eyelids, corneas, and the presenting distance visual acuities were examined. Trachoma was clinically diagnosed in accordance with the World Health Organization simplified classification. Eyes diagnosed with trachoma were swabbed to test for ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infections (OCTI) with a rapid latex immunochromatographic test. Among 153,977 students, no blindness was found related to trachoma. Trachoma was diagnosed in 8029 children (5.2%). In 87 schools clinical trachoma prevalence was higher than 5%. OCTI was confirmed in 2073 of 6823 trachoma diagnosed children (30.4%). Clinical trachoma prevalence was higher among females than males (p < 0.001), but gender comparison showed no statistical difference in the prevalence of OCTI (p = 0.077). Age and clinical trachoma (r = −0.014; p < 0.001) or OCTI (r = −0.026; p = 0.031) prevalence were negatively correlated. Clinical trachoma was different in different districts and counties (p < 0.001). Trachoma warrants close attention in Shanghai migrant children because the condition remains endemic in some schools. PMID:27610383

  12. First evaluation of a population-based screen to detect emotional-behavior disorders in orphaned children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Carla; Venta, Amanda; Marais, Lochner; Skinner, Donald; Lenka, Molefi; Serekoane, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Due to the HIV/AIDS pandemic which has left 12 million children orphaned in Sub-Saharan Africa, children are at increased risk for mental health problems. Currently, no validity data exist for any screening measure of emotional-behavior disorders in pre-adolescent children in Sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the construct validity of the caregiver-, teacher-, and self-report versions of the one-page Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in 466 orphans in South Africa between the ages of 7 and 11 (Mage = 9.23 years, SD = 1.33, 51.93% female) and to provide, for the first time, clinical cut-offs for this population. Findings demonstrated support for the caregiver SDQ, but not the teacher and selfreport versions. We provide clinical cut-offs, but caution their use before further research is conducted. There remains a critical need for further psychometric studies of the SDQ in the developing world. PMID:24623068

  13. Drowning and near-drowning involving children: a five-year total population study from the City and County of Honolulu.

    PubMed Central

    Pearn, J H; Wong, R Y; Brown, J; Ching, Y C; Bart, R; Hammar, S

    1979-01-01

    A study of all serious childhood immersion accidents (both drowned and near-drowned cases) is reported from Hawaii. This is a total population-based survey of 140 consecutive cases (0--15 years) occurring during the five-year period (1973--1977. Age-specific, sex-specific, and osmolality-specific (salt versus fresh water) data are presented both for survivors and fatalities. The overall annual drowning rate of 3.1 per 100,000 children at risk is low, for a water-oriented society. The survival rate following loss of consciousness in the water is 73 per cent. There is no evidence from this study that osmolality affected the probability of survival. The rank order of importance of drowning sites is swimming pools, surf, sheltered salt water bathing, domestic bath tubs, fresh water streams, salt water canals, and garden fish ponds. Specific accident rates, by sex, outcome, and site of immersion are also presented. No secular trend in the rate of drowning was observed in this study. Comparison with the only other available total population survey (Australia) of childhood immersions reveals common epidemiological and demographic patterns in modern urban societies and suggests that safety regulations play a role in reducing swimming accidents and fatalities in children. PMID:434274

  14. A Population Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model Predicts Favorable HDL Cholesterol Changes Over the First 5 Years in Children Treated With Current Efavirenz-Based Regimens.

    PubMed

    Homkham, Nontiya; Cressey, Tim R; Ingsrisawang, Lily; Bouazza, Naïm; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Hongsiriwon, Suchat; Srirojana, Sakulrat; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Bhakeecheep, Sorakij; Coeur, Sophie Le; Salvadori, Nicolas; Treluyer, Jean Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Urien, Saik

    2016-09-01

    Efavirenz use is associated with changes in cholesterol concentrations, but it is unclear whether this effect is related to drug concentrations. Using efavirenz and cholesterol plasma concentrations measured in 87 antiretroviral-naive children in Thailand, we assessed indirect response models to describe the evolution of high- and low-density lipoprotein (HDL, LDL) cholesterol concentrations in relation to efavirenz plasma concentrations over time where efavirenz was assumed to either stimulate cholesterol production or inhibit its elimination. Simulations of cholesterol evolution for children with different average efavirenz concentrations (Cav ) according to their assumed status of "fast" or "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz were performed. At treatment initiation, children's median (interquartile range, IQR) age was 8 years (5 to 10), body mass index z-score 0.01 (-1.05 to 1.44), HDL 31 mg/dL (24 to 44), and LDL 83 mg/dL (69 to 100). Median (IQR) efavirenz Cav was 1.7 mg/L (1.3 to 2.1) during the period of observation. The best model describing the evolution of HDL and LDL cholesterol concentrations over time assumed that efavirenz inhibited their elimination. HDL concentrations increase over 5 years, whereas LDL concentrations increased only during the first 4 months and then returned to baseline levels afterward. Simulations predicted that, after 3 years, HDL would increase to 63 mg/dL in "fast" metabolizers and 97 mg/dL in "slow" metabolizers of efavirenz. The population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) model shows that favorable HDL cholesterol changes can be expected in children with current efavirenz dosing guidelines over 5 years of treatment. PMID:26749102

  15. Increased risks of tic disorders in children with epilepsy: A nation-wide population-based case-control study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Weng, Wen-Chin; Huang, Hui-Ling; Wong, Lee Chin; Jong, Yuh-Jyh; Yin, Yun-Ju; Chen, Hong-An; Lee, Wang-Tso; Ho, Shinn-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Both epilepsy and tic disorders may share common mechanisms with the involvement of abnormal cortical-basal ganglion circuit connection and dopaminergic dysfunction. However, the association between epilepsy and tic disorders has never been studied. This study investigated the risks of developing tic disorders among children with epilepsy using databases of a universal health insurance system in Taiwan. The data analyzed in this study were retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The study cohort included children with epilepsy between 2001 and 2007 (n=2629) and a three-fold age- and gender-matched controls (n=7887). All subjects were followed up for 3 years from the date of cohort entry to identify their admissions due to tic disorders (ICD-9-CM codes 307.2, 307.20-307.23). Cox hazard regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of epilepsy on the occurrence of tics. The epilepsy cohort had a higher prevalence of tics (1.7% vs. 0.2%), and a 8.70-fold increased risk of developing a tic disorder compared with the controls (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 8.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.26-16.37, p<0.001). Male patients were observed to have a higher risk of developing a tic disorder (AHR 1.90, 95% CI=1.04-3.46, p<0.001) compared to female individuals. Patients with multiple antiepileptic drugs treatment also exhibited higher crude OR for developing tic disorders. This nationwide population-based cohort study, for the first time, demonstrated that there is a significantly increased risk for tic disorders among children with epilepsy. We also found males, attention deficit disorder and the use of multiple AEDs to be independent risk factors of tic disorders. Closely evaluating possible tic disorders would be crucial for improving the outcome and life quality in children with epilepsy. PMID:26585639

  16. Didanosine Population Pharmacokinetics in West African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children Administered Once-Daily Tablets in Relation to Efficacy after One Year of Treatment▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Hirt, Déborah; Bardin, Christophe; Diagbouga, Serge; Nacro, Boubacar; Hien, Hervé; Zoure, Emmanuelle; Rouet, François; Ouiminga, Adama; Urien, Saik; Foulongne, Vincent; Van De Perre, Philippe; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Msellati, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Our objective was to study didanosine pharmacokinetics in children after the administration of tablets, the only formulation available in Burkina Faso for which data are missing, and to establish relationships between doses, plasma drug concentrations, and treatment effects (efficacy/toxicity). Didanosine concentrations were measured for 40 children after 2 weeks and for 9 children after 2 to 5 months of treatment with a didanosine-lamivudine-efavirenz combination. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with NONMEM. The link between the maximal concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax), the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), and the decrease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 RNA levels after 12 months of treatment was evaluated. The threshold AUC that improved efficacy was determined by the use of a Wilcoxon test for HIV RNA, and an optimized dosing schedule was simulated. Didanosine pharmacokinetics was best described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination. The apparent clearance and volume of distribution were higher for tablets, probably due to a lower bioavailability with tablets than with pediatric powder. The decrease in the viral load after 12 months of treatment was significantly correlated with the didanosine AUC and Cmax (P ≤ 0.02) during the first weeks of treatment. An AUC of >0.60 mg/liter·h was significantly linked to a greater decrease in the viral load (a decrease of 3 log10 versus 2.4 log10 copies/ml; P = 0.03) than that with a lower AUC. A didanosine dose of 360 mg/m2 administered as tablets should be a more appropriate dose than 240 mg/m2 to improve efficacy for these children. However, data on adverse events with this dosage are missing. PMID:19581461

  17. Incidence of Hospitalization for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection amongst Children in Ontario, Canada: A Population-Based Study Using Validated Health Administrative Data

    PubMed Central

    Pisesky, Andrea; Benchimol, Eric I.; Wong, Coralie A.; Hui, Charles; Crowe, Megan; Belair, Marc-Andre; Pojsupap, Supichaya; Karnauchow, Tim; O'Hearn, Katie; Yasseen, Abdool S.; McNally, James D.

    2016-01-01

    increasing or decreasing linear trend in the incidence of hospitalized RSV, hospital length of stay and PICU admission rates. Among the Ontario RSV cohort, 16.3% had one or more major risk factors, with a decreasing trend observed over time. Conclusion Children hospitalized for RSV-related disease can be accurately identified within population-based health administrative data. RSV is a major public health concern and incidence has not changed over time, suggesting a lack of progress in prevention. PMID:26958849

  18. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in hair of school children.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Martí; Bocio, Ana; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-06-01

    Hair samples of 134 school children (12-14 yr old) living in three residential zones in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constanti, Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) concentrations. These concentrations were compared with those obtained in a baseline survey performed in the same area during the period of construction of the HWI. Current mean concentrations ranged from values under the respective limit of detection (As, Be, Cd, Tl, and V) to 0.70 and 0.86 microg/g for Hg and Pb, respectively. In comparison to the baseline survey, the levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sn showed a significant reduction, whereas Hg concentrations were similar. No significant differences were observed according to the sex of the children. However, some differences were noted, especially for Pb and Cr, with respect to the specific zone of residence. In general terms, the current metal levels in hair of school children are similar or even lower than those recently reported for a number of industrial and residential areas of various regions and countries. PMID:15930590

  19. School performance in cholesteatoma-operated children in Denmark: a nationwide population-based register-study.

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, B D; Hansen, T G; Pedersen, J K; Faber, C E; Christensen, K

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion Cholesteatoma in childhood had no long-term effect on school performance for the majority who completed lower secondary school. Aim To investigate whether individuals operated on for cholesteatoma in childhood have impaired school performance in adolescence. Methods All children born in Denmark between 1986-1991 with cholesteatoma surgery performed before the age of 15 years were included (cholestetaoma group). A control group consisting of a 5% random sample of all children born in Denmark during the same period was used for comparison. Final marks (average, mathematics, Danish, and English) achieved upon completion of lower secondary school (9th grade; age 15 or 16 years) were compared between groups. Results A total of 549 individuals met the inclusion criteria for the cholesteatoma group and 15 106 for the control group. High parental education and female sex were strongly associated with high 9th grade marks. The cholesteatoma group did equally as well as the control group in all outcome-measures except from in English (1st foreign language), where children with ≥2 cholesteatoma surgeries scored 0.26 marks lower (95% confidence interval = 0.03-0.48). In the cholesteatoma group, though, the odds ratio for not attaining a 9th grade exam was 1.33 (95% confidence interval = 1.03-1.72%) when compared with the control group. PMID:26924562

  20. Motor function and perception in children with neuropsychiatric and conduct problems: results from a population based twin study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with early symptomatic psychiatric disorders such as Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have been found to have high rates of motor and/or perception difficulties. However, there have been few large-scale studies reporting on the association between Conduct Disorder (CD) and motor/perception functions. The aim of the present study was to investigate how motor function and perception relate to measures of ADHD, ASD, and CD. Methods Parents of 16,994 Swedish twins (ages nine and twelve years) were interviewed using the Autism-Tics, ADHD and other Comorbidities inventory (A-TAC), which has been validated as a screening instrument for early onset child psychiatric disorders and symptoms. Associations between categorical variables of scoring above previously validated cut-off values for diagnosing ADHD, ASD, and CD on the one hand and motor and/or perception problems on the other hand were analysed using cross-tabulations, and the Fisher exact test. Associations between the continuous scores for ADHD, ASD, CD, and the subdomains Concentration/Attention, Impulsiveness/Activity, Flexibility, Social Interaction and Language, and the categorical factors age and gender, on the one hand, and the dependent dichotomic variables Motor control and Perception problems, on the other hand, were analysed using binary logistic regression in general estimated equation models. Results Male gender was associated with increased risk of Motor control and/or Perception problems. Children scoring above the cut-off for ADHD, ASD, and/or CD, but not those who were ‘CD positive’ but ‘ADHD/ASD negative’, had more Motor control and/or Perception problems, compared with children who were screen-negative for all three diagnoses. In the multivariable model, CD and Impulsiveness/Activity had no positive associations with Motor control and/or Perception problems. Conclusions CD symptoms or problems with Impulsiveness

  1. Impact of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Used in Children on Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children and Adults in the United States: Analysis of Multisite, Population-based Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Matthew R.; Link-Gelles, Ruth; Schaffner, William; Lynfield, Ruth; Lexau, Catherine; Bennett, Nancy M.; Petit, Susan; Zansky, Shelley M.; Harrison, Lee H.; Reingold, Arthur; Miller, Lisa; Scherzinger, Karen; Thomas, Ann; Farley, Monica M.; Zell, Elizabeth R.; Taylor, Thomas H.; Pondo, Tracy; Rodgers, Loren; McGee, Lesley; Beall, Bernard; Jorgensen, James H.; Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background In 2000, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in the U.S. and resulted in dramatic reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) and modest increases in non-PCV7-type IPD. In 2010, a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) replaced PCV7 in the U.S. immunization schedule. We evaluated the effect of PCV13 use in children on IPD in children and adults in the U.S. Methods We used laboratory- and population-based data on incidence of IPD from CDC’s Emerging Infections Program / Active Bacterial Core surveillance in a time-series model to estimate the impact of vaccination. Cases of IPD during July 2004–June 2013 were classified as being caused by the PCV13 serotypes against which PCV7 has no effect (PCV13/nonPCV7). Findings Compared with incidence expected among children <5 years old if PCV7 alone had been continued, incidence of IPD overall and IPD caused by PCV13/nonPCV7 serotypes declined by 64% (95% interval estimate [IE] 59–68 %) and 93% (95%IE 91–94), respectively, by July 2012–June 2013. Among adults, incidence of IPD overall and PCV13/nonPCV7-type IPD also declined by 12–32% and 58–72%, respectively, depending on age. In all age groups, reductions were driven principally by changes in incidence of serotypes 19A and 7F. We estimate that over 30,000 cases of IPD and 3,000 deaths were averted in the first 3 years following PCV13 introduction. Interpretation PCV13 has reduced IPD among all ages when used routinely in children in the U.S. Serotypes 19A and 7F, which emerged after PCV7 introduction, have been effectively controlled. PMID:25656600

  2. Abraham's children in the genome era: major Jewish diaspora populations comprise distinct genetic clusters with shared Middle Eastern Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-06-11

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads. PMID:20560205

  3. Abraham's Children in the Genome Era: Major Jewish Diaspora Populations Comprise Distinct Genetic Clusters with Shared Middle Eastern Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Atzmon, Gil; Hao, Li; Pe'er, Itsik; Velez, Christopher; Pearlman, Alexander; Palamara, Pier Francesco; Morrow, Bernice; Friedman, Eitan; Oddoux, Carole; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry

    2010-01-01

    For more than a century, Jews and non-Jews alike have tried to define the relatedness of contemporary Jewish people. Previous genetic studies of blood group and serum markers suggested that Jewish groups had Middle Eastern origin with greater genetic similarity between paired Jewish populations. However, these and successor studies of monoallelic Y chromosomal and mitochondrial genetic markers did not resolve the issues of within and between-group Jewish genetic identity. Here, genome-wide analysis of seven Jewish groups (Iranian, Iraqi, Syrian, Italian, Turkish, Greek, and Ashkenazi) and comparison with non-Jewish groups demonstrated distinctive Jewish population clusters, each with shared Middle Eastern ancestry, proximity to contemporary Middle Eastern populations, and variable degrees of European and North African admixture. Two major groups were identified by principal component, phylogenetic, and identity by descent (IBD) analysis: Middle Eastern Jews and European/Syrian Jews. The IBD segment sharing and the proximity of European Jews to each other and to southern European populations suggested similar origins for European Jewry and refuted large-scale genetic contributions of Central and Eastern European and Slavic populations to the formation of Ashkenazi Jewry. Rapid decay of IBD in Ashkenazi Jewish genomes was consistent with a severe bottleneck followed by large expansion, such as occurred with the so-called demographic miracle of population expansion from 50,000 people at the beginning of the 15th century to 5,000,000 people at the beginning of the 19th century. Thus, this study demonstrates that European/Syrian and Middle Eastern Jews represent a series of geographical isolates or clusters woven together by shared IBD genetic threads. PMID:20560205

  4. Assessment of Dental Maturity of Children Aged 7-15 Years Using Demirjian Method in a Selected Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Abesi, F; Haghanifar, S; Sajadi, P; Valizadeh, A; Khafri, S

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problems: Dental age can be estimated on the basis of the tooth mineralization level during the developmental process of the teeth. Among various radiological methods reported for the dental age determination in children, Demirjian method is widely used. Purpose: To evaluate the applicability of Demirjian method in age estimation of the children aged 7-15 years in Babol, a northern city of Iran. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was performed on the panoramic radiographs of 168 individuals with 7-15 years old. Maturation of the seven permanent teeth on the left side of the mandible was determined according to the crown and root development stages; described by Demirjian method. The mean of the dental age (DA) according to the Demirjian was compared to the mean of chronological age (CA). Data were collected and analyzed using SPSS, V18. P-values<0.05 were considered significance. Results: The mean and the SD of CA was 11.06±2.29 (boys: 11.08±2.31, girls: 11.03±2.28). The mean and the SD of DA was 11.44±2.85 (boys: 11.81±2.93, girls: 11.08±2.73) and the mean and the SD of DA minus CA for all of the children were 0.38±1.24 (boys: 0.72±1.2, girls: 0.05±1.21). Also, t-Test analysis showed the differences of the mean value of the estimated - chronological age difference was statistically significant between the boys and the girls group (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Considering the determined differences between estimated dental age and chronological age in this study; Demirjian method can be applicable for estimation of dental age in girls and boys before their puberty in northern of Iran. PMID:24724140

  5. Development and Validation of a Fine-Motor Assessment Tool for Use with Young Children in a Chinese Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Andrew M. H.; Lai, Cynthia Y. Y.; Chiu, Amy S. M.; Yip, Calvin C. K.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Most of the fine-motor assessment tools used in Hong Kong have been designed in Western countries, so there is a need to develop a standardized assessment which is relevant to the culture and daily living tasks of the local (that is, Chinese) population. This study aimed to (1) develop a fine-motor assessment tool (the Hong Kong…

  6. Physical Violence and Psychological Aggression towards Children: Five-Year Trends in Practices and Attitudes from Two Population Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Marie-Eve; Chamberland, Claire

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To present prevalence rates of child psychological aggression and physical violence from a population survey conducted in 2004 and to compare the rates with the rates obtained in the 1999 edition of the survey. Methods: The survey used a randomly generated telephone number methodology. Interviews were conducted using a computer-assisted…

  7. Prevalence of Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tics in the Population-Based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharf, Jeremiah M.; Miller, Laura L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that Tourette syndrome (TS) and chronic tic disorder (CT) are more common than previously recognized. However, few population-based studies have examined the prevalence of co-occurring neuropsychiatric conditions such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and…

  8. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  9. Population Impact and Effectiveness of Monovalent Rotavirus Vaccination in Urban Malawian Children 3 Years After Vaccine Introduction: Ecological and Case-Control Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Bar-Zeev, Naor; Jere, Khuzwayo C.; Bennett, Aisleen; Pollock, Louisa; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Nakagomi, Osamu; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Costello, Anthony; Mwansambo, Charles; Parashar, Umesh D.; Heyderman, Robert S.; French, Neil; Cunliffe, Nigel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Rotavirus vaccines have been introduced in many low-income African countries including Malawi in 2012. Despite early evidence of vaccine impact, determining persistence of protection beyond infancy, the utility of the vaccine against specific rotavirus genotypes, and effectiveness in vulnerable subgroups is important. Methods. We compared rotavirus prevalence in diarrheal stool and hospitalization incidence before and following rotavirus vaccine introduction in Malawi. Using case-control analysis, we derived vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the second year of life and for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed and stunted children. Results. Rotavirus prevalence declined concurrent with increasing vaccine coverage, and in 2015 was 24% compared with prevaccine mean baseline in 1997–2011 of 32%. Since vaccine introduction, population rotavirus hospitalization incidence declined in infants by 54.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 32.8–68.8), but did not fall in older children. Comparing 241 rotavirus cases with 692 test-negative controls, VE was 70.6% (95% CI, 33.6%–87.0%) and 31.7% (95% CI, −140.6% to 80.6%) in the first and second year of life, respectively, whereas mean age of rotavirus cases increased from 9.3 to 11.8 months. Despite higher VE against G1P[8] than against other genotypes, no resurgence of nonvaccine genotypes has occurred. VE did not differ significantly by nutritional status (78.1% [95% CI, 5.6%–94.9%] in 257 well-nourished and 27.8% [95% CI, −99.5% to 73.9%] in 205 stunted children; P = .12), or by HIV exposure (60.5% [95% CI, 13.3%–82.0%] in 745 HIV-unexposed and 42.2% [95% CI, −106.9% to 83.8%] in 174 exposed children; P = .91). Conclusions. Rotavirus vaccination in Malawi has resulted in reductions in disease burden in infants <12 months, but not in older children. Despite differences in genotype-specific VE, no genotype has emerged to suggest vaccine escape. VE was not demonstrably affected by HIV exposure

  10. Genetic testing of children for adult-onset conditions: opinions of the British adult population and implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Shkedi-Rafid, Shiri; Fenwick, Angela; Dheensa, Sandi; Lucassen, Anneke M

    2015-10-01

    This study set out to explore the attitudes of a representative sample of the British public towards genetic testing in children to predict disease in the future. We sought opinions about genetic testing for adult-onset conditions for which no prevention/treatment is available during childhood, and about genetic 'carrier' status to assess future reproductive risks. The study also examined participants' level of agreement with the reasons professional organisations give in favour of deferring such testing. Participants (n=2998) completed a specially designed questionnaire, distributed by email. Nearly half of the sample (47%) agreed that parents should be able to test their child for adult-onset conditions, even if there is no treatment or prevention at time of testing. This runs contrary to professional guidance about genetic testing in children. Testing for carrier status was supported by a larger proportion (60%). A child's future ability to decide for her/himself if and when to be tested was the least supported argument in favour of deferring testing. PMID:25370041

  11. Prevalence of DSM IV anxiety and affective disorders in a pediatric population of asthmatic children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vila, G; Nollet-Clemençon, C; de Blic, J; Mouren-Simeoni, M C; Scheinmann, P

    2000-06-01

    A series of 82 children and adolescents with moderate and severe persistent asthma was studied. Their psychopathological problems were compared to those of 82 healthy subjects, matched for age, sex and socio-economic status. The patients completed the Child Depression Inventory, an inventory of fears and anxiety (ECAP) and the Coopersmith Self Esteem Inventory. Parents of asthmatic children filled in the Child Behavior Check List to assess their social competence. The patients were examined with the revised Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. There were more anxiety symptoms in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Asthmatics were not significantly more depressed than controls and their self-esteem was as good. We found 29 anxiety disorders, four affective disorders and four disruptive behavior disorders. Generalized anxiety disorder was the main diagnosis (n=24). The asthmatic subgroup presenting anxiety and affective disorders had poorer self esteem, fewer activities and worse social competence than other asthmatics and controls. Adolescents did not seem to have more emotional disturbances than younger patients. Girls did not have more DSM IV anxiety or affective disorders than boys. PMID:10802131

  12. Risk factors associated with RSV hospitalisation in the first 2 years of life, among different subgroups of children in NSW: a whole-of-population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Mallitt, Kylie-Ann; Oei, Ju-Lee; Hilder, Lisa; Bajuk, Barbara; Lui, Kei; Rawlinson, William; Snelling, Tom; Jaffe, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on risk factors for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-associated hospitalisation in Australian children may be informative for preventive measures. Methods A whole-of-population-based study was conducted to identify comparable risk factors for RSV hospitalisation in different subgroups of children aged <2 years in New South Wales. The cohort was divided into Indigenous children and high-risk and standard risk non-Indigenous children. Data on risk factors were obtained from the Perinatal Data Collection. RSV hospitalisations were ascertained from the Admitted Patient Data Collection. Adjusted HRs were calculated for each subgroup. Population-attributable risk associated with risk factors was estimated. Results Four factors were associated with increased risk of RSV hospitalisation: maternal smoking during pregnancy, male sex, multiparity and birth during the first half of the RSV season. Increase in relative socioeconomic advantage was associated with decreased risk of hospitalisation. Among high and standard risk non-Indigenous children, the hazard was approximately double for children born to multiparous women compared to those born to primiparous women and among Indigenous children the hazard was approximately double among those born during the first half of the RSV season. Maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 26–45% increased risk across subgroups and accounted for 17% (95% CI 9.3% to 24%) of RSV hospitalisations in Indigenous children, 5% (95% CI 2.5% to 8%) in high-risk and 6% (95% 5% to 7%) in standard risk non-Indigenous children. Discussion Promoting avoidance of smoking during pregnancy may help in lowering the disease burden, with Indigenous children likely to benefit most. PMID:27357197

  13. Association between Mouth Breathing and Atopic Dermatitis in Japanese Children 2–6 years Old: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Harutaka; Tada, Saaya; Nakanishi, Yoshinori; Kawaminami, Shingo; Shin, Teruki; Tabata, Ryo; Yuasa, Shino; Shimizu, Nobuhiko; Kohno, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiya, Atsushi; Tani, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    As mouth breathing is associated with asthma and otitis media, it may be associated with other diseases. Therefore, this population-based cross-sectional study evaluated the association of mouth breathing with the prevalences of various diseases in children. Preschool children older than 2 years were included. A questionnaire was given to parents/guardians at 13 nurseries in Tokushima City. There were 468 valid responses (45.2%). We defined a subject as a mouth breather in daytime (MBD) if they had 2 or more positive items among the 3 following items: “breathes with mouth ordinarily,” “mouth is open ordinarily,” and “mouth is open when chewing.” We defined subjects as mouth breathers during sleep (MBS) if they had 2 or more positive items among the following 3 items: “snoring,” “mouth is open during sleeping,” and “mouth is dry when your child gets up.” The prevalences of MBD and MBS were 35.5% and 45.9%, respectively. There were significant associations between MBD and atopic dermatitis (odds ratio [OR]: 2.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4–4.2), MBS and atopic dermatitis (OR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.3–4.2), and MBD and asthma (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.2–4.0). After adjusting for history of asthma and allergic rhinitis; family history of atopic dermatitis, asthma, and allergic rhinitis; and nasal congestion; both MBD (OR: 2.6, 95% CI: 1.3–5.4) and MBS (OR: 4.1, 95% CI: 1.8–9.2) were significantly associated with atopic dermatitis. In preschool children older than 2 years, both MBD and MBS may be associated with the onset or development of atopic dermatitis. PMID:25915864

  14. SRXRF determination of the multielement composition of the hair and blood of the children of Tundra Nenetz population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chankina, O. V.; Kovalskaya, G. A.; Koutzenogii, K. P.; Osipova, L. P.; Savchenko, T. I.

    2001-09-01

    SRXRF has been used to determine the multielement composition of the hair and blood of Tundra Nenetz children. The method allows one to simultaneously determine 21 elements in the blood and 22 elements in the hair. Individual differences have been revealed in the element composition of the hair and blood. Sexual and age changes have been revealed in the content of some elements in the hair. A technique has been developed to prepare blood and hair samples for measuring the element composition by the SRXRF method. The blood samples were prepared by spreading 20 μl over the 1 cm 2 Whatman filter. The hair samples were obtained by pressing in the form of tablets of 1 cm in diameter and a mass of 10-40 mg.

  15. Population policy.

    PubMed

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  16. Drowning Mortality and Morbidity Rates in Children and Adolescents 0-19yrs: A Population-Based Study in Queensland, Australia

    PubMed Central

    Wallis, Belinda A.; Watt, Kerrianne; Franklin, Richard C.; Nixon, James W.; Kimble, Roy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To redress the lack of Queensland population incidence mortality and morbidity data associated with drowning in those aged 0-19yrs, and to understand survival and patient care. Design, Setting and Participants Retrospective population-based study used data linkage to capture both fatal and non-fatal drowning cases (N = 1299) among children aged 0-19years in Queensland, from 2002-2008 inclusive. Patient data were accessed from pre-hospital, emergency department, hospital admission and death data, and linked manually to collate data across the continuum of care. Main Outcome Measures Incidence rates were calculated separately by age group and gender for events resulting in death, hospital admission, and non-admission. Trends over time were analysed. Results Drowning death to survival ratio was 1:10, and two out of three of those who survived were admitted to hospital. Incidence rates for fatal and non-fatal drowning increased over time, primarily due to an increase in non-fatal drowning. There were non-significant reductions in fatal and admission rates. Rates for non-fatal drowning that did not result in hospitalisation more than doubled over the seven years. Children aged 5-9yrs and 10-14yrs incurred the lowest incidence rates 6.38 and 4.62 (expressed as per 100,000), and the highest rates were among children aged 0-4yrs (all drowning events 43.90; fatal 4.04; non-fatal 39.85–comprising admission 26.69 and non-admission 13.16). Males were over-represented in all age groups except 10-14yrs. Total male drowning events increased 44% over the seven years (P<0.001). Conclusion This state-wide data collection has revealed previously unknown incidence and survival ratios. Increased trends in drowning survival rates may be viewed as both positive and challenging for drowning prevention and the health system. Males are over-represented, and although infants and toddlers did not have increased fatality rates, they had the greatest drowning burden demonstrating

  17. Populations, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conard, David; Lawson, Chester A.

    This Teacher's Guide is designed for use with the Science Curriculum Improvement Study's (SCIS) unit Population. Populations is the third of a six-unit sequence of SCIS's Life Science Program for grades K-6. The Populations guide consists of activity outlines along with suggestions for guiding children's observation and manipulations of living…

  18. Prevalence and incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in a population of children with haemophilia. The Hemophilia Growth and Development Study.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M D; Maeder, M A; Usner, D; Mitchell, W G; Fenstermacher, M J; Wilson, D A; Gomperts, E D

    1999-09-01

    The prevalence of intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) in our population of haemophiliacs was 12%. The incidence of ICH was approximately 2% per year. At entry, 7% (21/309) had clinical histories of ICH without MRI evidence of old haemorrhage, indicating that either the haemorrhages had completely resolved, that routine MRI sequences are not particularly sensitive for the detection of old blood products, or a combination of both of these factors. One half (4/8) of the ICHs documented by entry MRI were clinically silent, and three of the 11 incident cases documented by MRI were clinically silent. HIV infection did not increase the risk of ICH. PMID:10583511

  19. Population Analysis of Weight-, Age-, and Sex-Related Differences in the Pharmacokinetics of Lopinavir in Children from Birth to 18 Years▿

    PubMed Central

    Jullien, Vincent; Urien, Saïk; Hirt, Déborah; Delaugerre, Constance; Rey, Elisabeth; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Vaz, Paula; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Macassa, Eugenia; Firtion, Ghislaine; Pons, Gérard; Blanche, Stéphane; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc

    2006-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir were investigated by the use of a population approach performed with the nonlinear mixed effect modeling program NONMEM and 157 children ranging in age from 3 days to 18 years. The pharmacokinetics of lopinavir were well described by a one-compartment model in which the absorption and the elimination rate constants were equal. Typical population estimates of the apparent volume of distribution (V/F) and plasma clearance (CL/F) were 24.6 liters and 2.58 liters/h, respectively. The lopinavir V/F and CL/F were both related to body weight (BW), with an important increase in weight-normalized CL/F for the lowest BW. Combined treatment with lopinavir and nevirapine was found to increase the CL/F. The lopinavir CL/F was also age and sex related, as a 39% increase was observed after the age of 12 years for boys compared to the CL/F for girls. The consequences of these pharmacokinetic discrepancies and the necessity to modify the currently recommended dosage regimen should be further investigated. PMID:16940058

  20. Australian Cerebral Palsy Child Study: protocol of a prospective population based study of motor and brain development of preschool aged children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    . Discussion This protocol describes a large population-based study of early motor development and brain structure in a representative sample of preschool aged children with CP, using direct clinical assessment. The results of this study will be published in peer reviewed journals and presented at relevant international conferences. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ACTRN1261200169820) PMID:23758951

  1. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  2. Epigenetic Profiles in Children with a Neural Tube Defect; A Case-Control Study in Two Populations

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Lisette; Bouwland-Both, Marieke I.; van Mill, Nina H.; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Eilers, Paul H. C.; Zhu, Huiping; Suarez, Lucina; Uitterlinden, André G.; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Folate deficiency is implicated in the causation of neural tube defects (NTDs). The preventive effect of periconceptional folic acid supplement use is partially explained by the treatment of a deranged folate-dependent one carbon metabolism, which provides methyl groups for DNA-methylation as an epigenetic mechanism. Here, we hypothesize that variations in DNA-methylation of genes implicated in the development of NTDs and embryonic growth are part of the underlying mechanism. In 48 children with a neural tube defect and 62 controls from a Dutch case-control study and 34 children with a neural tube defect and 78 controls from a Texan case-control study, we measured the DNA-methylation levels of imprinted candidate genes (IGF2-DMR, H19, KCNQ1OT1) and non-imprinted genes (the LEKR/CCNL gene region associated with birth weight, and MTHFR and VANGL1 associated with NTD). We used the MassARRAY EpiTYPER assay from Sequenom for the assessment of DNA-methylation. Linear mixed model analysis was used to estimate associations between DNA-methylation levels of the genes and a neural tube defect. In the Dutch study group, but not in the Texan study group we found a significant association between the risk of having an NTD and DNA methylation levels of MTHFR (absolute decrease in methylation of −0.33% in cases, P-value = 0.001), and LEKR/CCNL (absolute increase in methylation: 1.36% in cases, P-value = 0.048), and a borderline significant association for VANGL (absolute increase in methylation: 0.17% in cases, P-value = 0.063). Only the association between MTHFR and NTD-risk remained significant after multiple testing correction. The associations in the Dutch study were not replicated in the Texan study. We conclude that the associations between NTDs and the methylation of the MTHFR gene, and maybe VANGL and LEKKR/CNNL, are in line with previous studies showing polymorphisms in the same genes in association with NTDs and embryonic development, respectively. PMID

  3. Indicators of Children's Well-Being: Conference Papers. Cross-Cutting Issues; Population, Family, and Neighborhood; Social Development and Problem Behaviors. Volume III. Special Report Series. Special Report Number 60c.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Inst. for Research on Poverty.

    Papers in this volume explore indicators of children's well-being in the following areas: cross-cutting issues; population, family, and neighborhood; and social development and problem behaviors. The first section includes: (1) "Potential and Problems in Developing Indicators on Child Well-Being from Administrative Data" (Robert M. Goerge); (2)…

  4. A population-based nested case control study on recurrent pneumonias in children with severe generalized cerebral palsy: ethical considerations of the design and representativeness of the study sample

    PubMed Central

    Veugelers, Rebekka; Calis, Elsbeth AC; Penning, Corine; Verhagen, Arianne; Bernsen, Roos; Bouquet, Jan; Benninga, Marc A; Merkus, Peter JFM; Arets, Hubertus GM; Tibboel, Dick; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2005-01-01

    Background In children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, pneumonias are a major health issue. Malnutrition, dysphagia, gastro-oesophageal reflux, impaired respiratory function and constipation are hypothesized risk factors. Still, no data are available on the relative contribution of these possible risk factors in the described population. This paper describes the initiation of a study in 194 children with severe generalized cerebral palsy, on the prevalence and on the impact of these hypothesized risk factors of recurrent pneumonias. Methods/Design A nested case-control design with 18 months follow-up was chosen. Dysphagia, respiratory function and constipation will be assessed at baseline, malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at the end of the follow-up. The study population consists of a representative population sample of children with severe generalized cerebral palsy. Inclusion was done through care-centres in a predefined geographical area and not through hospitals. All measurements will be done on-site which sets high demands on all measurements. If these demands were not met in "gold standard" methods, other methods were chosen. Although the inclusion period was prolonged, the desired sample size of 300 children was not met. With a consent rate of 33%, nearly 10% of all eligible children in the Netherlands are included (n = 194). The study population is subtly different from the non-participants with regard to severity of dysphagia and prevalence rates of pneumonias and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Discussion Ethical issues complicated the study design. Assessment of malnutrition and gastro-oesophageal reflux at baseline was considered unethical, since these conditions can be easily treated. Therefore, we postponed these diagnostics until the end of the follow-up. In order to include a representative sample, all eligible children in a predefined geographical area had to be contacted. To increase the consent rate, on-site measurements are of first

  5. Nutritional Status of under 5 Children belonging to Tribal Population Living in Riverine (Char) Areas of Dibrugarh District, Assam

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Safikul; Mahanta, Tulika Goswami; Sarma, Ratna; Hiranya, Saikia

    2014-01-01

    Context: Assam's main lifeline, the Brahmaputra river, braided nature created numerous sand bars and islands known as chars/sapories. They are home to more than 3 million people. Over 90% of the cultivated land on the river islands is flood-prone; the flood leaves the islands completely separated from mainland, preventing access to health infrastructure and services. Aims: To assess the nutritional status of under 5 children residing in the char areas of Dibrugarh district and to identify the factors influencing their nutritional status. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study conducted in the riverine areas of Dibrugarh district of Assam. Materials and Methods: Nutritional status was assessed using anthropometry. Undernutrition was classified using World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Z- score system. Data collection was done by house to house visit of all chars using proportionate allocation. Statistical Analysis Used: Rates, ratios, proportions, and chi-square test. Results: Overall prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 29%, 30.4%, and 21.6%, respectively. Prevalence of underweight and stunting was less than the prevalence of underweight (36.4%) and stunting (46.5%) in Assam, but the prevalence of wasting was more than that of Assam (13.7%) as observed in National Family Health Survey-3. Significant association was observed between the prevalence of undernutrition and socioeconomic status, literacy status of parents, infant, and young child feeding practices and size of the family (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Special focus is needed for nutritional improvement of under 5 living in char areas to prevent preventable morbidities and to achieve optimum development. PMID:25136158

  6. Associations between objectively assessed and questionnaire-based sedentary behaviour with BMI-defined obesity among general population children and adolescents living in England

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ngaire A; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Sedentary behaviour (SB) is an emerging candidate risk factor for obesity in young people. Evidence to date is conflicting and it is unclear how different SB types are associated with obesity independently of physical activity. The objective of this study was to examine associations between a range of objectively measured and questionnaire-based SB indicators with obesity and body mass index (BMI) to assess whether these associations were independent of physical activity. Participants 4469 (705 with accelerometer data) children aged 5–15 years from the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes The outcome was adiposity, classified using age-specific and sex-specific BMI SD scores (continuous) and obesity cut-offs (binary). Questionnaire-based measures comprised TV time, non-TV sitting time (such as homework, drawing, time at a computer or playing video games), total sitting time (TV time+non-TV sitting time) and average daily MVPA time. Objective SB and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time were measured using an Actigraph GT1M accelerometer, with cut-offs of 100 and 200 counts per minute for SB, and 2802 counts per minute for MVPA. Multiple logistic and multiple linear regression models examined associations between each indicator of sedentary time with obesity and BMI SD scores. Results TV time (but not non-TV sitting or objectively-measured SB) was consistently associated with higher levels of obesity and BMI SD score, even after adjusting for MVPA and other potential confounders. Weaker associations were observed for total sitting time. Conclusions TV viewing (but not other forms of objectively-measured or questionnaire-based sedentary time) was associated with obesity in children and adolescents. Although a causal relationship cannot be established, TV time may be a reasonable target for obesity prevention in young populations. PMID:26088807

  7. Maternal use of fertility drugs and risk of cancer in children--a nationwide population-based cohort study in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hargreave, Marie; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Thor Schütt Svane; Colov, Emilie Palmgren; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Pinborg, Anja; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger

    2015-04-15

    Large population-based studies are needed to examine the effect of maternal use of fertility drugs on the risk of cancer in children, while taking into account the effect of the underlying infertility. A cohort of 123,322 children born in Denmark between 1964 and 2006 to 68,255 women who had been evaluated for infertility was established. We used a case-cohort design and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for cancer in childhood (0-19 years) and in young adulthood (20-29 years) associated with maternal use of six groups of fertility drugs (clomiphene, gonadotropins [i.e., human menopausal gonadotropins and follicle-stimulating hormone], gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs, human chorionic gonadotropins, progesterone and other fertility drugs). We found no statistically significant association between maternal use of fertility drugs and risk for overall cancer in childhood or young adulthood. However, with regard to specific cancers in childhood, our results showed that maternal use of progesterone before childbirth markedly increased the risks of their offspring for acute lymphocytic leukemia (any use: HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.69-14.54; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 9.96; 95% CI, 2.63-37.77) and for sympathetic nervous system tumors (any use: HR, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.23-27.24; ≥ three cycles of use: HR, 8.51; 95% CI, 1.72-42.19). These findings show that maternal use of progesterone may increase the risk for specific cancers in the offspring. Additional large epidemiological studies are urgently needed to confirm our finding. PMID:25257918

  8. [Prevalence and seasonal variation of Pediculosis capitis in children and the young population of the health region, Buenos Aires, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Castro, D del C; Abrahamovich, A H; Cicchino, A C; Rigoni, A M; Raffaeli, C; de Barrio, A

    1994-08-01

    The prevalence of the parasitic disease Pediculosis capitis was studied over a period of one year from 1-8-1992 to 31-7-1993, in Sanitary Region XI of the Buenos Aires province, Argentina which is composed of 15 districts located on the ENE, and in other areas under the influence of the Hospital Interzonal de Agudos, Especialidad Pediatría "Sup. Sor María Ludovica" de Plata, center of this Sanitary Region. A total number of 552 individuals of from medium to medium low social level of the child population of from 0 to 16 years of age were sampled at random over 52 consecutive weeks. All individuals who actually had the parasite at the time of examination were considered as positive for this disease. The results are expressed in terms of prevalence and its monthly and seasonal variations analyzed. Prevalence showed high values during all months, the lowest being in February (12%) and the highest in August (56.8%), the annual mean being of 38.04% (+/- 4.05%). Seasonally, its lowest value occurred in the summer (16.8%), the values for the remaining seasons being very similar to one another, but always higher than 38%. PMID:7660026

  9. Population-based analysis of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use among children in four European countries in the SOS project: what size of data platforms and which study designs do we need to assess safety issues?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on utilization patterns and safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in children are scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utilization of NSAIDs among children in four European countries as part of the Safety Of non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SOS) project. Methods We used longitudinal patient data from seven databases (GePaRD, IPCI, OSSIFF, Pedianet, PHARMO, SISR, and THIN) to calculate prevalence rates of NSAID use among children (0–18 years of age) from Germany, Italy, Netherlands, and United Kingdom. All databases contained a representative population sample and recorded demographics, diagnoses, and drug prescriptions. Prevalence rates of NSAID use were stratified by age, sex, and calendar time. The person-time of NSAID exposure was calculated by using the duration of the prescription supply. We calculated incidence rates for serious adverse events of interest. For these adverse events of interest, sample size calculations were conducted (alpha = 0.05; 1-beta = 0.8) to determine the amount of NSAID exposure time that would be required for safety studies in children. Results The source population comprised 7.7 million children with a total of 29.6 million person-years of observation. Of those, 1.3 million children were exposed to at least one of 45 NSAIDs during observation time. Overall prevalence rates of NSAID use in children differed across countries, ranging from 4.4 (Italy) to 197 (Germany) per 1000 person-years in 2007. For Germany, United Kingdom, and Italian pediatricians, we observed high rates of NSAID use among children aged one to four years. For all four countries, NSAID use increased with older age categories for children older than 11. In this analysis, only for ibuprofen (the most frequently used NSAID), enough exposure was available to detect a weak association (relative risk of 2) between exposure and asthma exacerbation (the most common serious adverse event of interest

  10. Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Children and Its Associated Socio-Familial Factors in Urban Population of Semnan, Iran (2012)

    PubMed Central

    Seyf Hashemi, Maryam; Yarian, Elham; Bahadoran, Parviz; Jandaghi, Jafar; Mirmohammad Khani, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which every individual realizes own potential, can cope with the normal pressures of life, is able to work effectively, and can make a contribution to community”. Objectives: Mental Health Problems (MHP) is a great concern for all societies in terms of its burden and impact. This survey screened MHP and its impact in an Iranian urban population aged 6 - 12 years old, and explored its associated socio-familial factors. Patients and Methods: The survey was conducted in the elementary schools of Semnan, using random cluster sampling. Collection and analysis of data was performed using the parent version of the “Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)” and survey commands of Stata-nine, taking into account cluster effect and population weights. Associations were assessed by fitting simple and multiple logistic regression models. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: With regard to the SDQ total score, 19.3% (95% CI: 8.6, 30.1) scored above the normal threshold (9.6% abnormal, 9.7% borderline). The frequency of problems ranged between 16.1% (peer problems) and 8.4% (emotional symptoms), and in all subscales boys were affected more than girls. The impact score was abnormal in 68.4% of all children, and was greater in girls than in boys. “A previously diagnosed mental health disorder” (OR = 11.11, 95% CI: 5.55, 25.00), “male gender” (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.87 and “less time spent with the child by father” (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.20, 2.17) were significantly associated with an abnormal SDQ. Conclusions: The high rate of MHP in 6 - 12 year-old children and the lack of any significant correlation with their age, underpins the importance of early screening for MHP in schools, with particular focus on high risk groups. PMID:26195992

  11. Ethnic characterization of a population of children exposed to high doses of arsenic via drinking water and a possible correlation with metabolic processes

    PubMed Central

    Bobillo, Cecilia; Navoni, Julio A; Olmos, Valentina; Merini, Luciano J; Villaamil Lepori, Edda; Corach, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Because the ratio between the two major arsenic metabolites is related to the adverse health effects of arsenic, numerous studies have been performed to establish a relationship between the ability to metabolically detoxify arsenic and other variables, including exposure level, gender, age and ethnicity. Because ethnicity may play a key role and provide relevant information for heterogeneous populations, we characterized a group of 70 children from rural schools in the Argentinean provinces of Chaco and Santiago del Estero who were exposed to high levels of arsenic. We used genetic markers for maternal, paternal and bi-parental ancestry to achieve this goal. Our results demonstrate that the Amerindian maternal linages are present in 100% of the samples, whereas the Amerindian component transmitted through the paternal line is less than 10%. Informative markers for autosomal ancestry show a predominantly European ancestry, in which 37% of the samples contained between 90 and 99% European ancestry. The native American component ranged from 50 to 80% in 15.7% of the samples, and in all but four samples, the African component was less than 10%. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the ethnicity and the ratio of the excreted arsenic metabolites monomethyl arsenic and dimethyl arsenic are not associated, dismissing a relationship between ethnic origin and differential metabolism. PMID:24596592

  12. Parenting and the Behavior Problems of Young Children with an Intellectual Disability: Concurrent and Longitudinal Relationships in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totsika, Vasiliki; Hastings, Richard Patrick; Vagenas, Dimitrios; Emerson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We examined parenting behaviors, and their association with concurrent and later child behavior problems. Children with an intellectual disability (ID) were identified from a UK birth cohort (N = 516 at age 5). Compared to parents of children without an ID, parents of children with an ID used discipline less frequently, but reported a more…

  13. Population-Based Cohort Study of Anti-Infective Medication Use before and after the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli Farsani, Soulmaz; Souverein, Patrick C.; van der Vorst, Marja M. J.; Knibbe, Catherijne A. J.; de Boer, Anthonius

    2014-01-01

    A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO database to investigate prevalence and patterns of anti-infective medication use in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) before and after the onset of this disease. All patients <19 years with at least 2 insulin prescriptions (1999 to 2009) were identified (T1D cohort) and compared with an age- and sex-matched (ratio: 1 up to 4) diabetes-free reference group. The prevalence and average number of anti-infective use was studied from (up to) 8 years before until a maximum of 4 years after the onset of T1D. A total of 925 patients with T1D and 3,591 children and adolescents in the reference cohort (51% boys, mean age of 10.1 [standard deviation, 4.5] years) were included. The overall prevalence of anti-infective use (62.6 compared to 52.6%, P < 0.001) and average number of prescriptions (2.71 compared to 1.42 per child, P < 0.001) in the T1D cohort were significantly higher than those in the reference cohort after the onset of diabetes. This pattern was consistent across sex and age categories and already observed in the year before the onset of type 1 diabetes. Patients in the T1D cohort received more antibacterials (49.8 compared to 40%, P < 0.001), antimycotics (4.0 compared to 1.3%, P < 0.001), antivirals (2.5 compared to 0.4%, P < 0.001), and second-line antibiotics, such as aminoglycosides, quinolones, and third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems. Our findings that elevated anti-infective use in the T1D cohort exists in the period before the onset of type 1 diabetes and the consumption of more second-line anti-infective compounds in this time period warrant further research. PMID:24890584

  14. Play Therapy with Special Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper notes that therapists often feel unqualified to deal with special populations of children because of a lack of understanding of the universalness of play therapy. Suggestions are offered for beginning play therapists who may work with a number of special populations of children. It is recommended that the social learning approach to…

  15. What factors contribute to positive early childhood health and development in Australian Aboriginal children? Protocol for a population-based cohort study using linked administrative data (The Seeding Success Study)

    PubMed Central

    Falster, Kathleen; Jorm, Louisa; Eades, Sandra; Lynch, John; Banks, Emily; Brownell, Marni; Craven, Rhonda; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Randall, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Australian Aboriginal children are more likely than non-Aboriginal children to have developmental vulnerability at school entry that tracks through to poorer literacy and numeracy outcomes and multiple social and health disadvantages in later life. Empirical evidence identifying the key drivers of positive early childhood development in Aboriginal children, and supportive features of local communities and early childhood service provision, are lacking. Methods and analysis The study population will be identified via linkage of Australian Early Development Census data to perinatal and birth registration data sets. It will include an almost complete population of children who started their first year of full-time school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2009 and 2012. Early childhood health and development trajectories for these children will be constructed via linkage to a range of administrative data sets relating to birth outcomes, congenital conditions, hospital admissions, emergency department presentations, receipt of ambulatory mental healthcare services, use of general practitioner services, contact with child protection and out-of-home care services, receipt of income assistance and fact of death. Using multilevel modelling techniques, we will quantify the contributions of individual-level and area-level factors to variation in early childhood development outcomes in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children. Additionally, we will evaluate the impact of two government programmes that aim to address early childhood disadvantage, the NSW Aboriginal Maternal and Infant Health Service and the Brighter Futures Program. These evaluations will use propensity score matching methods and multilevel modelling. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained for this study. Dissemination mechanisms include engagement of stakeholders (including representatives from Aboriginal community controlled organisations, policy agencies, service

  16. Nutritional status of children under 5 years of age in the Brazilian Western Amazon before and after the Interoceanic highway paving: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of undernutrition, overweight and associated factors, before and after the implementation of the Interoceanic Highway. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study on children under 5 years of age was conducted in the municipality of Assis Brasil, AC, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010. Prevalence of undernutrition was observed by using height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) and adopting a cut-off point equal to or lower than a -2 Z-score. Overweight prevalence was defined by a cut-off point equal to or greater than a +2 Z-score of the WHZ index. Z-scores were calculated relative to WHO 2006 reference data. Semi-structured questionnaires were applied to the children’s guardians, investigating family socio-economic and demographic characteristics, morbidities, access to services and child care. Associated factors were identified by hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The prevalence of low HAZ (undernutrition) was 7.0% in 2003 and 12.2% in 2010. The prevalence of high WHZ (overweight) was 1.0% and 6.6% for 2003 and 2010, respectively. It was not possible to adjust the multiple model for the year 2003. The factors associated with low HAZ in 2010 were: wealth index, the situation of living with biological parents, maternal height and presence of open sewage, whereas the factors associated with a high WHZ in the same year were: child’s age, mother’s time of residence in the location, mother’s body mass index. Conclusions Overweight increase within this undernutrition scenario reveals that the process of nutritional transition began in this Amazonian city only in the last decade, and therefore, it is delayed when compared to overweight in other parts of Brazil. Such nutritional transition in Assis Brasil may have been facilitated by the construction of the Interoceanic Highway. PMID:24283293

  17. Someone to live for: effects of partner and dependent children on preventable death in a population wide sample from Northern Ireland

    PubMed Central

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    How to allocate resources between somatic maintenance and reproduction in a manner that maximizes inclusive fitness is a fundamental challenge for all organisms. Life history theory predicts that effort put into somatic maintenance (health) should vary with sex, mating and parenting status because men and women have different costs of reproduction, and because life transitions such as family formation alter the fitness payoffs from investing in current versus future reproduction. However, few tests of how such life history parameters influence behaviours closely linked to survival exist. Here we examine whether specific forms of preventable death (accidents/suicides, alcohol-related causes, and other preventable diseases) are predicted by marital status and dependent offspring in a modern developed context; that of Northern Ireland. We predict that men, non-partnered individuals and individuals who do not have dependent offspring will be at higher risk of preventable death. Running survival analyses on the entire adult population (aged 16–59, n = 927,134) controlling for socioeconomic position (SEP) and other potential confounds, we find that being single (compared to cohabiting/married) increases risk of accidental/suicide death for men (but not for women), whereas having dependent children is associated with lower risk of preventable mortality for women but less so for men. We also find that the protective effect of partners is larger for men with low SEP than for high SEP men. Findings support life history predictions and suggest that individuals respond to variation in fitness costs linked to their mating and parenting status. PMID:25593513

  18. Antibiotic exposure in the first year of life and later treated asthma, a population based birth cohort study of 143,000 children.

    PubMed

    Pitter, Gisella; Ludvigsson, Jonas Filip; Romor, Pierantonio; Zanier, Loris; Zanotti, Renzo; Simonato, Lorenzo; Canova, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies reported an association between antibiotic consumption in the first year of life and later asthma, but results are conflicting and affected by potential biases. We examined this controversial issue in a population-based birth cohort. Using administrative data, we identified 143,163 children born in 1995-2011 in Friuli-Venezia Giulia (Italy) (median follow-up 5.25 years, 927,350 person-years). Antibiotic prescriptions in the first year of life and subsequent treated asthma (defined as ≥2 anti-asthmatic drug prescriptions within a 12-month period) were retrieved from drug prescription records. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression models, adjusted for perinatal variables and for hospitalizations for infections in the first year of life. We identified 34,957 new-onset asthma cases. Antibiotic consumption in the first year of life increased the risk of new-onset asthma [IRR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.48-1.54] with a dose-response relationship (p-trend <0.001). The risk was highest for asthma identified at 13-35 months of life (IRR 2.07, 95% CI 2.00-2.14), but remained statistically significant for asthma identified at 36-71 months (IRR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.21) and at ≥72 months (IRR 1.15, 95% CI 1.08-1.22). Antibiotics increased the risk of current asthma at ≥6 years (IRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.30-1.41) and at ≥13 years of age (IRR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.33). Antibiotic exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of asthma up to adolescence. The association detected at older ages is not explained by reverse causation; however, confounding by respiratory infections not leading to hospital admission cannot be excluded. PMID:25957084

  19. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  20. Special Insert of Classroom Materials from the Population Reference Bureau.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Provides charts, statistics, and commentary. Explores topics suggested by the United Nations Year of the Child: (1) "Children of the World: Rights and Realities," (2) "Children and Population Change," (3) Educating the World's Children," (4) "Family Life of American Children," (5) "Children Bearing Children: Teenage Pregnancy in the U.S.," and (6)…

  1. The Relative Roles Played by Structural and Pragmatic Language Skills in Relation to Behaviour in a Population of Primary School Children from Socially Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, J.; Rush, R.; McBean, K.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable evidence supports the association between language learning difficulties and behaviour in young children and this is likely to be particularly true of children raised in social disadvantage. Less is known about the way that different aspects of language, specifically pragmatics, interact with behaviour. This study examines the extent…

  2. Children Who Lost a Parent as a Result of the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001: Registry Construction and Population Description

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Conroy, David L.; Hochauser, Carl J.; Laraque, Danielle; Banks, Josette; Schmeidler, James; Dela Cruz, Maan; Nelsen, William C.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2007-01-01

    Children who experience traumatic bereavement in the context of catastrophic disasters are at increased risk for developing post-disaster problems. Despite massive loss of life on September 11th, 2001, no public data were collected on those children who lost a parent in the multiple terrorist attacks. Such a registry would be an important public…

  3. Children at Risk and Community Response. Notes, Comments... No. 187 = L'action des populations locales face au probleme de l'enfance en danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico

    Begun in 1978 by a small group of Colombians who were affiliated with a private organization and who were interested in children's upbringing, education, and development, the Promesa Project began by organizing discussion groups among about 20 mothers and their children between 3 and 7 years of age in four remote villages on the shores of the…

  4. Comparison of Fertility Trends Estimated Alternatively from Birth Histories and Own Children. Papers of the East-West Population Institute, No. 94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retherford, Robert D.; Alam, Iqbal

    Fertility trends estimated alternately from birth histories and own children method are compared for eight developing countries in which the World Fertility Survey was conducted. Principle hypotheses are that fertility trends estimated by the two approaches suffer from similar errors in the reporting of women's and children's ages, and that these…

  5. Assessment of Visuo-Attentional Abilities in Young Children with or without Visual Disorder: Toward a Systematic Screening in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavezian, Celine; Vilayphonh, Marc; de Agostini, Maria; Vasseur, Vivien; Watier, Laurence; Kazandjian, Seta; Laloum, Laurent; Chokron, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    In young children, visual attention, analysis or memory is only rarely evaluated. Moreover, tools to test for such higher-order visual capacities in children are limited. In an attempt to develop and refine such tools, we selected nine tests to assess visuo-attentional abilities before formal reading education (grade 1). The battery consisted of…

  6. What about These Children? Assessing Poverty among the "Hidden Population" of Multiracial Children in Single-Mother Families. University of Kentucky Center for Poverty Research Discussion Paper Series, DP2010-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Jenifer; Damaske, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Capturing the conditions of children of color living in single-parent families has become more complex due to the growing presence of interracial households. This analysis assesses the size and poverty status of single-female headed families housing multiracial children. Using data from the 2000 Census, we find that 9 percent of female-headed…

  7. Children of Immigrants: Imperatives for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Children of immigrants are the fastest-growing segment of the nation's children population. According to the U.S. Census (2007), approximately 16.4 million children, more than 1 in 5, are children of immigrants, most of whom are school-age population (aged 3-17 years). This large demographic shift is fundamentally changing the nation's schools and…

  8. Examining Race/Ethnicity and Fears of Children and Adolescents in the United States: Differences between White, African American, and Hispanic Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Joy J.; Lomax, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    The American Fear Survey Schedule for Children (FSSC-AM; J. J. Burnham, 1995, 2005) has been used to measure fears of children and adolescents. The FSSC-AM is based on the 2nd revision of a psychometrically sound and well-known fear scale (i.e., FSSC-II; E. Gullone & N. J. King, 1992). In this study, age and gender differences, fear intensity…

  9. Administration for Children and Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... Office ACF Help Center (help-center) Administration for Native Americans (ANA) Administration on Children, Youth and Families (ACYF) ... Global Populations Hispanic Outreach Homelessness Human Trafficking LGBT Native Americans/Tribes Unaccompanied Children Grants & Funding Expand How to ...

  10. Determinants of undernutrition among children aged 6 to 59 months in rural Zambézia Province, Mozambique: Results of two population-based serial cross-sectional surveys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Elizabeth S.; Blevins, Meridith; González-Calvo, Lazaro; Ndatimana, Elisée; Green, Ann F.; Lopez, Melanie; Olupona, Omo; Vermund, Sten H.; Moon, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    Background While many countries are transitioning from epidemics of undernutrition to overnutrition, Mozambique’s very high 44% prevalence of stunting in children under age 5 years is cause for serious concern. Methods We conducted two population-based cross-sectional surveys of ~4000 female heads of households each in Zambézia Province, Mozambique from August–September 2010 (Baseline) and April–May 2014 (Endline) as part of the USAID funded Strengthening Communities through Integrated Programs (SCIP) grant. Anthropometric measurements were collected on 560 children aged 6–59 months at Baseline and 912 children at Endline and classified as: “stunted,” a height-for-age z-score less than -2; “wasted,” weight-for-height z-score less than -2; and “underweight,” weight-for-age z-score less than -2. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression using Stata 13.1 were used to examine factors associated with undernutrition. Results Of children under age five years, 43% were undernourished in 2010 and 55% in 2014. The most common form of undernutrition was stunting (39% in 2010, 51% in 2014), followed by underweight (13% in both 2010 and 2014), and wasting (7% in 2010, 5% in 2014). Child’s age was found to have a non-linear association with stunting. Vitamin A supplementation was associated with a 31% (p=0.04) decreased odds of stunting. Children who were exclusively breastfed for at least six months had an 80% (p=0.02) lower odds of wasting in 2014 and 57% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight in 2014. Introducing other foods after age six months was associated with a five-fold increased odds of wasting in 2014 (p=0.02); household food insecurity was associated with wasting (OR=2.08; p=0.03) and underweight in 2010 (OR=2.31; p=0.05). Children whose mother washed her hands with a cleaning agent had a 40% (p=0.05) decreased odds of being underweight. Surprisingly, per point increase in household dietary diversity score, children had 12% greater

  11. Global, regional, and national trends in haemoglobin concentration and prevalence of total and severe anaemia in children and pregnant and non-pregnant women for 1995–2011: a systematic analysis of population-representative data

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen A; Finucane, Mariel M; De-Regil, Luz Maria; Paciorek, Christopher J; Flaxman, Seth R; Branca, Francesco; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Ezzati, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Low haemoglobin concentrations and anaemia are important risk factors for the health and development of women and children. We estimated trends in the distributions of haemoglobin concentration and in the prevalence of anaemia and severe anaemia in young children and pregnant and non-pregnant women between 1995 and 2011. Methods We obtained data about haemoglobin and anaemia for children aged 6–59 months and women of childbearing age (15–49 years) from 257 population-representative data sources from 107 countries worldwide. We used health, nutrition, and household surveys; summary statistics from WHO's Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System; and summary statistics reported by other national and international agencies. We used a Bayesian hierarchical mixture model to estimate haemoglobin distributions and systematically addressed missing data, non-linear time trends, and representativeness of data sources. We quantified the uncertainty of our estimates. Findings Global mean haemoglobin improved slightly between 1995 and 2011, from 125 g/L (95% credibility interval 123–126) to 126 g/L (124–128) in non-pregnant women, from 112 g/L (111–113) to 114 g/L (112–116) in pregnant women, and from 109 g/L (107–111) to 111 g/L (110–113) in children. Anaemia prevalence decreased from 33% (29–37) to 29% (24–35) in non-pregnant women, from 43% (39–47) to 38% (34–43) in pregnant women, and from 47% (43–51) to 43% (38–47) in children. These prevalences translated to 496 million (409–595 million) non-pregnant women, 32 million (28–36 million) pregnant women, and 273 million (242–304 million) children with anaemia in 2011. In 2011, concentrations of mean haemoglobin were lowest and anaemia prevalence was highest in south Asia and central and west Africa. Interpretation Children's and women's haemoglobin statuses improved in some regions where concentrations had been low in the 1990s, leading to a modest global increase in

  12. Gender ratio in a clinical population sample, age of diagnosis and duration of assessment in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Marion; McKenzie, Karen; Johnson, Tess; Catchpole, Ciara; O'Hare, Anne; McClure, Iain; Forsyth, Kirsty; McCartney, Deborah; Murray, Aja

    2016-07-01

    This article reports on gender ratio, age of diagnosis and the duration of assessment procedures in autism spectrum disorder diagnosis in a national study which included all types of clinical services for children and adults. Findings are reported from a retrospective case note analysis undertaken with a representative sample of 150 Scottish children and adults recently diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. The study reports key findings that the gender ratio in this consecutively referred cohort is lower than anticipated in some age groups and reduces with increasing age. The gender ratio in children, together with the significant difference in the mean age of referral and diagnosis for girls compared to boys, adds evidence of delayed recognition of autism spectrum disorder in younger girls. There was no significant difference in duration of assessment for males and females suggesting that delays in diagnosis of females occur prior to referral for assessment. Implications for practice and research are considered. PMID:26825959

  13. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are associated with psychiatric comorbidities, behavioral and clinical problems: a population-based study of Brazilian school children.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Pedro G; do Rosario, Maria C; Cesar, Raony C; Manfro, Gisele G; Moriyama, Tais S; Bloch, Michael H; Shavitt, Roseli G; Hoexter, Marcelo Q; Coughlin, Catherine G; Leckman, James F; Miguel, Euripedes C

    2016-02-01

    Pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is underdiagnosed, and many affected children are untreated. The present study seeks to evaluate the presence and the clinical impact of OCD and obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a large sample of school-age children. In Phase I, we performed an initial screening using the Family History Screen (FHS). In Phase II, we identified an "at-risk" sample, as well as a randomly selected group of children. A total of 2,512 children (6-12 years old) were assessed using the FHS, the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA), the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Data analyses included descriptive and multivariate analytical techniques. 2,512 children (mean age: 8.86 ± 1.84 years; 55.0% male) were categorized into one of the three diagnostic groups: OCD (n = 77), OCS (n = 488), and unaffected controls (n = 1,947). There were no significant socio-demographic differences (age, gender, socioeconomic status) across groups. The OCS group resembled the OCD on overall impairment, including school problems and delinquent behaviors. However, the OCD group did have significantly higher rates of several comorbid psychiatric disorders, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, and major depressive disorder, than OCS or unaffected controls. Moreover, the OCD group also scored higher than the SDQ, as well as on each of CBCL items rated by the parent. Our findings suggest that there is a psychopathological continuum between OCS and OCD in school-aged children. The presence of OCS is associated with functional impairment, which needs further investigation in longitudinal studies. PMID:26015374

  14. Rising Mean Iq: Cognitive Demand of Mathematics Education for Young Children, Population Exposure to Formal Schooling, and the Neurobiology of the Prefrontal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, C.; Gamson, D.; Thorne, S.; Baker, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes one potential explanation for 100 years of rising population mean IQ in the United States associated with historical changes in access to schooling and educational practice. A neurodevelopmental-schooling hypothesis is forwarded based on evidence of growth in the population's access to schooling early in the last century and…

  15. "Smarten Up the Parents": Whose Agendas Are We Serving? Governing Parents and Children through the Smart Population Foundation Initiative in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millei, Zsuzsa; Lee, Libby

    2007-01-01

    This article critiques the Smart Population Foundation Initiative (SPFI), which was established to "bring parenting information and the science of child development to Australian parents and carers" (Smart Population Foundation, 2006) and to satisfy the need for a credible and easily accessible source of information for parents. The article draws…

  16. THE AVAILABILITY AND USE OF OUT-OF-HOSPITAL PHYSIOLOGIC INFORMATION TO IDENTIFY HIGH-RISK INJURED CHILDREN IN A MULTISITE, POPULATION-BASED COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Newgard, Craig D.; Rudser, Kyle; Atkins, Dianne L.; Berg, Robert; Osmond, Martin H.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Davis, Daniel P.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Warden, Craig; Rea, Thomas D.; Emerson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Objective The validity of using adult physiologic criteria to triage injured children in the out-of-hospital setting remains unproven. Among children meeting adult field physiologic criteria, we assessed the availability of physiologic information, the incidence of death or prolonged hospitalization, and whether age-specific criteria would improve the specificity of the physiologic triage step. Methods We analyzed a prospective, out-of-hospital cohort of injured children aged ≤14 years collected from December 2005 through February 2007 by 237 emergency medical services (EMS) agencies transporting to 207 acute care hospitals (trauma and nontrauma centers) in 11 sites across the United States and Canada. Inclusion criteria were standard adult physiologic values: systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≤90 mmHg, respiratory rate <10 or >29 breaths/min, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score ≤12, and field intubation attempt. Seven physiologic variables (including age-specific values) and three demographic and mechanism variables were included in the analysis. “High-risk” children included those who died (field or in-hospital) or were hospitalized >2 days. The decision tree was derived and validated using binary recursive partitioning. Results Nine hundred fifty-five children were included in the analysis, of whom 62 (6.5%) died and 117 (12.3%) were hospitalized >2 days. Missing values were common, ranging from 6% (respiratory rate) to 53% (pulse oximetry), and were associated with younger age and high-risk outcome. The final decision rule included four variables (assisted ventilation, GCS score <11, pulse oximetry <95%, and SBP >96 mmHg), which demonstrated improved specificity (71.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 66.7–76.6%]) at the expense of missing high-risk children (sensitivity 76.5% [95% CI 66.4–86.6%]). Conclusions The incidence of high-risk injured children meeting adult physiologic criteria is relatively low and the findings from this sample do not support using

  17. The Clinical Presentation of Mitochondrial Diseases in Children with Progressive Intellectual and Neurological Deterioration: A National, Prospective, Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verity, Christopher M.; Winstone, Anne Marie; Stellitano, Lesley; Krishnakumar, Deepa; Will, Robert; McFarland, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Our aim was to study the clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, and epidemiology of mitochondrial disorders in children from the UK who have progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration (PIND). Method: Since April 1997, we have identified patients aged 16 years or younger with suspected PIND through the monthly notification card…

  18. A National Study of Autistic Symptoms in the General Population of School-Age Children and Those Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sam; Naglieri, Jack A.; Rzepa, Sara; Williams, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the interrelationships among symptoms related to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using a large representative sample and clinical groups of children aged 6 to 11 and youth aged 12 to 18 years rated by parents (N = 1,881) or teachers (N = 2,171). The samples included individuals from the United States and Canada from the standardization…

  19. Maternal Smoking in Pregnancy and Externalizing Behavior in 18-Month-Old Children: Results from a Population-Based Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Borge, Anne I. H.; Vollrath, Margarete E.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the data on 22,545 smoking mothers and their 18-month-old children finds that maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk for externalizing behavior problem at the age of 18-months. The child's gender is found to have no moderating effects on the findings.

  20. The screening of visual impairment among preschool children in an urban population in Malaysia; the Kuching pediatric eye study: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To screen for visual impairment in Malaysian preschool children. Methods Visual screening was conducted in 400 preschool children aged 4 to 6 years. The screening involved two basic procedures; the distant visual acuity test using the Sheridan Gardiner chart and the depth perception test using the Langs stereoacuity test. Criteria for referral were a visual acuity of 6/12 or less in the better eye or a fail in the depth perception test. Results The prevalence of visual impairment was 5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.3, 7.6). Of the 400 preschool children screened, 20 of them failed the distant visual acuity test or the stereopsis test. Refractive errors were the most common cause of visual impairment (95%, 95% CI = 76.2, 98.8); myopic astigmatism was the commonest type of refractive error (63.2%, 95% CI = 40.8, 80.9). Conclusion The study is a small but important step in the effort to understand the problem of visual impairment among our preschool children. Our study showed that it is feasible to measure distant visual acuity and stereopsis in this age group. PMID:23601160

  1. ADHD and Other Associated Developmental Problems in Children with Mild Mental Retardation. The Use of the "Five-To-Fifteen" Questionnaire in a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Ida; Gillberg, Christopher; Fernell, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to examine the rates and types of parent reported neuropsychiatric problems in children and adolescents with mild mental retardation (MMR) (mild intellectual disability/UK) using the Five-To-Fifteen questionnaire (FTF). The target group comprised all pupils with clinically diagnosed MMR, aged between 7 and 15 years, attending the…

  2. Perinatal, Maternal, and Fetal Characteristics of Children Diagnosed with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder: Results from a Population-Based Study Utilizing the Swedish Medical Birth Register

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafsson, Peik; Kallen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pre- and perinatal factors on the risk of developing attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Method: We investigated the medical history of 237 children (206 male; 31 female) from Malmo, Sweden born between 1986 and 1996 and in whom a diagnosis of ADHD (Diagnostic and Statistical…

  3. Family Policies and Academic Achievement by Young Children in Single-Parent Families: An International Comparison. Population Research Institute Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Suet-ling; Dronkers, Jaap; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    This study investigates the differences in the degree of low academic achievement of third and fourth graders living with single-parent families from 11 industrialized countries. The United States ranks first among the countries compared in terms of the achievement gap for children in single- and two-parent families. After controlling for…

  4. Kinematic Measurements of the Vocal-Fold Displacement Waveform in Typical Children and Adult Populations: Quantification of High-Speed Endoscopic Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patel, Rita; Donohue, Kevin D.; Unnikrishnan, Harikrishnan; Kryscio, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article presents a quantitative method for assessing instantaneous and average lateral vocal-fold motion from high-speed digital imaging, with a focus on developmental changes in vocal-fold kinematics during childhood. Method: Vocal-fold vibrations were analyzed for 28 children (aged 5-11 years) and 28 adults (aged 21-45 years)…

  5. Schooling and Demand for Children: Historical Perspectives. World Bank Staff Working Papers, No. 697 and Population and Development Series, No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jee Peng; Haines, Michael

    The schooling of children, thought to be an important factor in explaining changes in fertility over time, is examined. Theory predicts that it exerts a negative effect on parental fertility. The mechanisms by which this relationship occurs at the micro-level are elaborated by Becker in this quantity-quality trade-off model, and by Cadwell in his…

  6. Assessing the Strengths of Young Children at Risk: Examining Use of the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale with a Head Start Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Annette K.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Trout, Alexandra L.; Synhorst, Lori; Epstein, Michael H.; Allen, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been an increased need for the development and use of psychometrically acceptable measures to assess the behavioral and emotional strengths of young children served in statewide preschool and Head Start programs. One measure developed to address this need is the Preschool Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale…

  7. Younger Children Experience Lower Levels of Language Competence and Academic Progress in the First Year of School: Evidence from a Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Gooch, Debbie; Baird, Gillian; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Pickles, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: The youngest children in an academic year are reported to be educationally disadvantaged and overrepresented in referrals to clinical services. In this study we investigate for the first time whether these disadvantages are indicative of a mismatch between language competence at school entry and the academic demands of the classroom.…

  8. The association between physical activity and overweight and obesity in a population of children at high and low altitudes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Humeda S.; Khalid, Mohammed E. M.; Osman, Osama M.; Ballal, Mansour A.; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the relationship between overweight and obesity and physical activity in Saudi children born and permanently domiciled at high and low altitudes in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 145 healthy Saudi children aged 10–15 years who were born and lived permanently at high altitude (3000–3100 m) and 154 healthy Saudi children of comparable age who were born and lived permanently at a relatively low altitude (500 m) was conducted. For each subject selected, body weight and body height were measured using an Avery beam weighing scale and a stadiometer, respectively. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the equation BMI = (weight [kg]/height [m2]). Physical activity scores were determined using International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form-A. Resting radial pulse rate (beat/minutes) was determined clinically. Results: Physical activity was significantly and inversely associated with overweight and obesity in boys at both high (χ2 = 15.8, P< 0.001) and low (χ2 = 14.7, P< 0.001) altitudes, but there was no clear trend for girls at either altitude. The lack of association between physical activity and overweight and obesity in girls was attributed to the low and homogeneous level of physical activity. Conclusion: Physical activity should be encouraged as a strategy for weight reduction in the overweight and the obese and the prevention of overweight and obesity in Saudi children at high and low altitudes. PMID:27186153

  9. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    Glioblastoma multiforme - children; Ependymoma - children; Glioma - children; Astrocytoma - children; Medulloblastoma - children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children)

  10. Chromosome 21 disomy in the spermatozoa of the fathers of children with trisomy 21, in a population with a high prevalence of Down syndrome: increased incidence in cases of paternal origin.

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, J; Gabau, E; Gómez, D; Baena, N; Guitart, M; Egozcue, J; Vidal, F

    1998-01-01

    Between April 1991 and December 1994, epidemiological studies detected a population with a high prevalence of Down syndrome in El Vallès, Spain. Parallel double studies were carried out to determine the parental and the meiotic origins of the trisomy 21, by use of DNA polymorphisms, and to establish the incidence of disomy 21 in the spermatozoa of the fathers of affected children, by use of multicolor FISH. Results show that the overall incidence of chromosome 21 disomy in the fathers of affected children was not significantly different from that in the control population (0.31% vs. 0.37%). However, analysis of individual data demonstrates that two cases (DP-4 and DP-5) with significant increases of disomy 21 (0. 75% and 0.78% vs. 0.37%) correspond to the fathers of the two individuals with Down syndrome of paternal origin. DP-5 also had a significant increase of sex-chromosome disomies (0.69% vs. 0.37%) and of diploid spermatozoa (1.13% vs. 0.24%). PMID:9758616

  11. Home safety - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children understand the difference between real guns and weapons they see on TV, movies, or video games. ... Poison Prevention Executive Committee; American Academy of Pediatrics. Firearm-related injuries affecting the pediatric population. Pediatrics . 2012; ...

  12. High seroprevalence of antibodies against Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) among HIV-1-infected children and adolescents in a non-endemic population.

    PubMed

    Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Königs, Christoph; Notheis, Gundula; Buchholz, Bernd; Krüger, Renate; Weizsäcker, Katharina; Eberle, Josef; Hanhoff, Nikola; Gärtner, Barbara; Heider, Harald; Krüger, Detlev H; Hofmann, Jörg

    2016-10-01

    Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), which primarily affects human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with advanced immunodeficiency. Currently, only limited prevalence data for HHV-8 infection in HIV-infected children living in non-endemic areas are available. This multicenter cross-sectional study was conducted in four university hospitals in Germany specializing in pediatric HIV care. Stored serum specimens obtained from 207 vertically HIV-1-infected children and adolescents were tested for antibodies against lytic and latent HHV-8 antigens. Logistic regression was used to assess independent risk factors associated with HHV-8 seropositivity. The overall HHV-8 seroprevalence was 24.6 % (n = 51/207) without significant differences related to sex, age, or ethnicity. In univariate analysis, HHV-8 seropositivity was significantly associated with a child having being born outside Germany, maternal origin from sub-Saharan Africa, a history of breastfeeding, CDC immunologic category 3, and deferred initiation of antiretroviral therapy (>24 months of age). In multivariate analysis, a child's birth outside Germany was the only significant risk factor for HHV-8 seropositivity (odds ratio 3.98; 95 % confidence interval 1.27-12.42). HHV-8-associated malignancies were uncommon; only one patient had a history of KS. Serum specimen of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents living in Germany showed a high HHV-8 seroprevalence. These findings suggest that primary HHV-8 infection-a risk factor for KS and other HHV-8-associated malignancies-occurs early in life. Thus, management of perinatally HIV-infected children should include testing for HHV-8 coinfection and should consider future risks of HHV-8-associated malignancies. PMID:27240652

  13. The Clinical and Pathological Presentation of Thyroid Nodules in Children and the Comparison with Adult Population: Experience of a Single Institution

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Tamas; Lukacs Toth, Gyula; Budai, Laszlo; Gal, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    The clinical and pathological presentation of thyroid nodules among younger and adult patients was compared in an iodine-deficient (ID) region. Data of 3,010 consecutive patients younger than 20 years and 3,010 patients older than 20 years were compared. The proportion of nodular goiters (22.8% versus 39.3%), the ratio of surgically treated nodules (33.2% versus 15.2%), and the proportion of malignant nodules (4.3% versus 2.1%) among diseased patients differed significantly between the two groups (younger versus adult). Nine papillary and 1 medullary carcinoma were found among children, while 15 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 insular, 1 anaplastic, and 1 medullary carcinomas occurred among adults. The ratio of follicular adenoma to hyperplastic nodules (3 : 1 to 1 : 1.67), the proportion of follicular variant (77.8% versus 26.7%), T4 tumors (77.8% versus 33.3%), and tumors with lymph node metastasis (88.9% versus 66.7%) were significantly higher among younger papillary carcinoma patients. No malignancies occurred among spongiform and central type cysts. Similarly to iodine-sufficient regions, more nodules are malignant and carcinomas have a clinically more aggressive presentation in children in comparison with adult patients in ID. Taking the significantly greater proportion of adenomas and the lack of follicular carcinoma into account, a conservative approach has to be considered in follicular tumors among children. PMID:27087807

  14. Association between ambient noise exposure and school performance of children living in an urban area: a cross-sectional population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Sophie; Levain, Jean-Pierre; Houot, Hélène; Petit, Rémy; Berthillier, Marc; Defrance, Jérôme; Lardies, Joseph; Masselot, Cyril; Mauny, Frédéric

    2014-04-01

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of the external noise on children's school performance have concerned pupils in schools exposed to high levels due to aircraft or freeway traffic noise. However, little is known about the consequences of the chronic ambient noise exposure at a level commonly encountered in residential urban areas. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the school performance of 8- to 9-year-old-children living in an urban environment and their chronic ambient noise exposure at home and at school. The children's school performances on the national standardized assessment test in French and mathematics were compared with the environmental noise levels. Children's exposure to ambient noise was calculated in front of their bedrooms (Lden) and schools (LAeq,day) using noise prediction modeling. Questionnaires were distributed to the families to collect potential confounding factors. Among the 746 respondent children, 586 were included in multilevel analyses. On average, the LAeq,day at school was 51.5 dB (SD= 4.5 dB; range = 38-58 dB) and the outdoor Lden at home was 56.4 dB (SD= 4.4 dB; range = 44-69 dB). LAeq,day at school was associated with impaired mathematics score (p = 0.02) or impaired French score (p = 0.01). For a + 10 dB gap, the French and mathematics scores were on average lower by about 5.5 points. Lden at home was significantly associated with impaired French performance when considered alone (p < 10(-3)) and was borderline significant when the combined home-school exposure was considered (p = 0.06). The magnitude of the observed effect on school performance may appear modest, but should be considered in light of the number of people who are potentially chronically exposed to similar environmental noise levels. PMID:24190106

  15. Effects of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one: a population-based study in the province of Reggio Emilia (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary aim of this study was to assess the effect of immigrant status on Emergency Room (ER) utilisation by children under age one, considering all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The second aim was to investigate the role played by mother’s educational level in the relationship between citizenship and ER utilisation. Methods The cohort study included all healthy singleton live births in the years 2008–2009 and residing in the province of Reggio Emilia, followed for the first year of life in order to study their ER visits. The outcomes were the ER utilisation rate for all, non-urgent, very urgent, and followed by hospitalisation visits. The main explanatory variable was mother’s citizenship. Other covariates were mother’s educational level, maternal age, parity, and child gender. Multivariate analyses (negative binomial regression and zero inflated when appropriate) were performed. Adjusted utilisation Rate Ratios (RR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Trend for age in months by citizenship is depicted. Results There were 3,191 children (36.4%) with at least one ER visit in the first year of life. Adjusted RR show a significantly greater risk of ER visit for immigrants than for Italians: (RR 1.51; 95% CI 1.39-1.63). Immigrants also had a higher risk of non-urgent visits (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.48-2.00) and for visits followed by hospitalizations (RR 1.58; 95% CI 1.33-1.89). For very urgent visits, the immigrants had a slightly higher risk compared to Italians (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.98-1.59). The risk of ER visits is higher in the first two months of life (RR1stvs 3rd-12th 2.08; 95% CI 1.93-2.24 and RR 2ndvs 3rd-12th 1.45; 95% CI 1.33-1.58, respectively). Considering all visits, the ER utilisation rate was inversely related with maternal education only for Italians (low educational level 44.0 and high educational level 73.9 for 100 children; p value for trend test < 0.001). Conclusions

  16. America's Children: Mixed Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    1990-01-01

    Data in this population bulletin indicate that in comparison with children of previous generations, today's youngsters are apt to have fewer siblings, and more likely to come from a broken home, have a working mother, and pass time as a latchkey kid. More children are in child care than in the past, and there has been a significant move toward…

  17. Teaching Our Homeless Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, George H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the major concerns associated with the instructional process of our homeless children. The reader is provided with a brief overview of the prevalence of this population. According to the National Center on Family Homelessness the number of school children who are homeless is growing rapidly with 1.4 to 1.5 million…

  18. Children and Home Fires

    MedlinePlus

    CHILDREN AND HOME FIRES Fast Facts Children under the age of five are twice as likely to die in a home fire than the rest of the population, and child-playing fires are the leading cause of fire deaths among ...

  19. Foster Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Lederman, Cindy S.

    2007-01-01

    Children and youth in foster care are a vulnerable population. They are at risk for abuse, neglect, and permanent separation from birth parents and have a greater incidence of emotional and behavioral difficulties. This is not surprising because these children are abused, neglected, or abandoned by the very people who are supposed to love and care…

  20. Playing with Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casner, Mary W.; Marks, Susan F.

    The paper looks at the development of a play group for autistic children with descriptions of the autistic population, the daily program, the program's philosophy, the play group model, and actual lessons. Children, who ranged in age from 5 to 9 years, often chose activities which were self-stimulating and/or repetitive. The daily program included…

  1. World of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHale, Magda Cordell; And Others

    1979-01-01

    This bulletin takes a broad view of children in history, their current problems and needs throughout the world, and directions to be taken for fulfilling those needs. The world population of children under age 15 is projected to increase by 500 million to 1.9 billion in the year 2000. Despite the bonds created by global communications, large…

  2. Profiles of Children: 1970 White House Conference on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    This book of charts of comparative statistics was compiled to help the 1970 White House Conference on Children evaluate past efforts to improve the well-being of America's children. First, it presents data about aspects of the world into which American children are born, such as population, urbanization, income levels, incidence of disease,…

  3. Scaling of Attitudes Toward Population Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, George A.

    1975-01-01

    This study related population problem attitudes and socioeconomic variables. Six items concerned with number of children, birth control, family, science, economic depression, and overpopulation were selected for a Guttman scalogram. Education, occupation, and number of children were correlated with population problems scale scores; marital status,…

  4. Children in the States, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) population and family characteristics (including number of children under age 18 and age 5, percentage of population under age…

  5. Social Communication Competence and Functional Adaptation in a General Population of Children: Preliminary Evidence for Sex-by-Verbal IQ Differential Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuse, David H.; Mandy, William D.; Steer, Colin; Miller, Laura L.; Lawrence, Kate; Amond, Alan; Golding, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Results from a Social and Communication Disorders Checklist finds that the scores were continuously distributed in the general population and that boys had mean scores 30 percent higher than girls. Above-average verbal IQ appears to protect female subjects from social communication impairments but not in male subjects. Participants to the study…

  6. Kindergarten School Readiness and Fourth-Grade Literacy and Numeracy Outcomes of Children with Special Needs: A Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Irwin, Lori G.; Hertzman, Clyde

    2009-01-01

    In British Columbia, Canada, two population-based databases have been linked at the level of the individual child: the "Early Development Instrument", a Kindergarten school readiness measure; and the "Foundation Skills Assessment", a Grade Four academic assessment. Utilising these linked data, we explored the early school readiness, literacy, and…

  7. Comprehensive Challenges for the Well Being of Young Children: A Population-Based Study of Publicly Monitored Risks in a Large Urban Center

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Heather L.; Fantuzzo, John W.; LeBoeuf, Whitney

    2011-01-01

    This population-based study investigated the unique and cumulative relations between risks that are monitored by public surveillance systems and academic and behavioral outcomes for an entire cohort of third graders in a large, urban public school system. Using integrated, administrative records from child welfare, public health, housing, and…

  8. Advanced Vertebral Fracture among Newly Diagnosed Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Results of the Canadian STeroid-associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population (STOPP) Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Halton, J.; Gaboury, I.; Grant, R.; Alos, N.; Cummings, E. A.; Matzinger, M.; Shenouda, N.; Lentle, B.; Abish, S.; Atkinson, S.; Cairney, E.; Dix, D.; Israels, S.; Stephure, D.; Wilson, B.; Hay, J.; Moher, D.; Rauch, F.; Siminoski, K.; Ward, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vertebral compression is a serious complication of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The prevalence and pattern of vertebral fractures, as well as their relationship to bone mineral density (BMD) and other clinical indices, have not been systematically studied. We evaluated spine health in 186 newly diagnosed children (median age 5.3 years, 108 boys) with ALL (precursor B cell: N=167; T-cell: N=19), who were enrolled in a national bone health research program. Patients were assessed within 30 days of diagnosis by lateral thoraco-lumbar spine radiograph, bone age (also used for metacarpal morphometry) and BMD. Vertebral morphometry was carried out by the Genant semi-quantitative method. Twenty-nine patients (16%) had a total of 75 grade 1 or higher prevalent vertebral compression fractures (53 thoracic, 71%; 22 lumbar). Grade 1 fractures as the worst grade were present in 14 children (48%), 9 patients (31%) had grade 2 fractures, and 6 children (21%) had grade 3 fractures. The distribution of spine fracture was bi-modal, with most occurring in the mid-thoracic and thoraco-lumbar regions. Children with grade 1 or higher vertebral compression had reduced lumbar spine (LS) areal BMD Z-scores compared to those without (mean±SD, −2.1±1.5 vs. −1.1±1.2; P < 0.001). LS BMD Z-score, second metacarpal percent cortical area Z-score, and back pain were associated with increased odds for fracture. For every 1 SD reduction in LS BMD Z-score, the odds for fracture increased by 80% (95% CI 10% to 193%); the presence of back pain had an odds ratio of 4.7 (95% CI, 1.5 to 14.5). These results show that vertebral compression is an under-recognized complication of newly diagnosed ALL. Whether the fractures will resolve through bone growth during or after leukemia chemotherapy remains to be determined. PMID:19210218

  9. Congenital Anomalies in Children of Mothers Taking Antiepileptic Drugs with and without Periconceptional High Dose Folic Acid Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Lu; Fleming, Kate M.; Doyle, Pat; Smeeth, Liam; Hubbard, Richard B.; Fiaschi, Linda; Tata, Laila J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) use has been found to be associated with increased major congenital anomaly (CA) risks. However whether such AED-associated risks were different according to periconceptional high dose (5mg daily) folic acid supplementation is still unclear. Methods We included 258,591 singleton live-born children of mothers aged 15-44 years in 1990-2013 from The Health Improvement Network, a large UK primary care database. We identified all major CAs according to the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies classification. Absolute risks and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) were calculated comparing children of mothers prescribed AEDs to those without such prescriptions, stratified by folic acid prescriptions around the time of conception (one month before conception to two months post-conception). Results CA risk was 476/10,000 in children of mothers with first trimester AEDs compared with 269/10,000 in those without AEDs equating to an aOR of 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.56. The highest system-specific risks were for heart anomalies (198/10,000 and 79/10,000 respectively, aOR 2.49,1.47-4.21). Sodium valproate and lamotrigine were both associated with increased risks of any CA (aOR 2.63,1.46-4.74 and aOR 2.01,1.12-3.59 respectively) and system-specific risks. Stratification by folic acid supplementation did not show marked reductions in AED-associated risks (e.g. for CAs overall aOR 1.75, 1.01-3.03 in the high dose folic acid group and 1.94, 95%CI 1.21-3.13 in the low dose or no folic acid group); however, the majority of mothers taking AEDs only initiated high dose folic acid from the second month of pregnancy. Conclusions Children of mothers with AEDs in the first trimester of pregnancy have a 2-fold increased risk of major CA compared to those unexposed. We found no evidence that prescribed high dose folic acid supplementation reduced such AED-associated risks. Although statistical power was limited, prescribing of folic

  10. Assessment of cardiometabolic risk in children in population studies: underpinning developmental origins of health and disease mother-offspring cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, R-C; Prescott, Susan L; Godfrey, Keith M; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy and birth cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate the developmental origins of health and disease, particularly in relation to understanding the aetiology of obesity and related cardiometabolic disorders. Birth and pregnancy cohorts have been utilised extensively to investigate this area of research. The aim of the present review was twofold: first to outline the necessity of measuring cardiometabolic risk in children; and second to outline how it can be assessed. The major outcomes thought to have an important developmental component are CVD, insulin resistance and related metabolic outcomes. Conditions such as the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and CHD all tend to have peak prevalence in middle-aged and older individuals but assessments of cardiometabolic risk in childhood and adolescence are important to define early causal factors and characterise preventive measures. Typically, researchers investigating prospective cohort studies have relied on the thesis that cardiovascular risk factors, such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension and obesity, track from childhood into adult life. The present review summarises some of the evidence that these factors, when measured in childhood, may be of value in assessing the risk of adult cardiometabolic disease, and as such proceeds to describe some of the methods for assessing cardiometabolic risk in children. PMID:26090093

  11. Dependent Children and Suicide of Married Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozak, Conrad M.; Gibbs, James O.

    1979-01-01

    Single suicides and married suicides with dependent children were compared to similar groups in the general population. Married people with dependent children experienced the lowest average suicide rate, but had a larger mean number of children than the population as a whole. (Author)

  12. Predictors of Complications of Tonsillectomy With or Without Adenoidectomy in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2001-2010: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Allareddy, Veerajalandhar; Martinez-Schlurmann, Natalia; Rampa, Sankeerth; Nalliah, Romesh P; Lidsky, Karen B; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Rotta, Alexandre T

    2016-06-01

    Outcomes of tonsillectomy (with or without adenoidectomy [w/woA]) in hospitalized children are unclear. We sought, to describe the characteristics of hospitalized children who underwent tonsillectomy (w/woA), to estimate the prevalence of complications and to evaluate the relative impact of different comorbid conditions (CMC) on the risk of occurrence of common complications following these procedures. All patients aged ≤21years who underwent a tonsillectomy (w/woA) were selected from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS 2001-2010). The associations between several patient/hospital-level factors and occurrence of complications were generated using multivariable logistic regression models. Over a decade, a total of 141 599 hospitalized patients underwent tonsillectomy (w116 319; woA 25 280). A total of 58.1% were males. Majority of the procedures were performed in teaching hospitals (TH, 73.7%), in large (bed-size) hospitals (LH, 57.8%), and in those who were electively admitted (EA, 67.3%). Frequently present CMC in patients included obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, 26.4%), chronic pulmonary disease (CPD, 14.6%), neurological disorders (ND, 6.7%), and obesity (4.8%). Majority of patients were discharged routinely (98%). Overall complication rate was 6.4% with common complications being postoperative pneumonia (2.3%), bacterial infections (1.4%), respiratory complications (1.3%), and hemorrhage (1.2%). All-cause mortality included a total of 60 patients. Patients in TH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72, 95%CI = 0.62-0.85), LH (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.69-0.93), and those who had the procedures during EA (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.56-0.74) had significantly lower odds of complications compared with their counterparts. CMC such as anemia, CPD, coagulopathy, HT, ND, and fluid/electrolyte disorders were independent predictors of significantly higher complication risk (P < .05). In conclusion, hospitalized children who underwent tonsillectomy (w/woA) in large or teaching hospitals, or

  13. National surveillance for type 1, type 2 diabetes and prediabetes among children and adolescents: a population-based study (SAUDI-DM)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of data on the national prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among youth. The Saudi Abnormal Glucose Metabolism and Diabetes Impact Study (SAUDI-DM) was used to assess the prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as impaired fasting glucose (IFG) among children and adolescents. Methods Sociodemographic, anthropometric and clinical data were collected through a nationwide household randomly selected 23 523 children and adolescents aged ≤18 years. Known participants with diabetes were classified according to their diabetes type, while participants without diabetes were subjected to fasting plasma glucose assessment and patients with diabetes were identified using the American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. All the studied participants were tested for lipid parameters. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to assess different risk factors. Results The overall prevalence of diabetes was 10.84%, of which 0.45% were known type 1 and type 2 patients with diabetes and 10.39% were either newly identified cases of diabetes (4.27%) or IFG (6.12%) with more than 90% of the participants with diabetes being unaware of their disease. The prevalence of known type 1 and type 2 diabetes as well as the newly identified cases was higher than what has been reported internationally. Age, male gender, obesity, urban residency, high family income and presence of dyslipidaemia were found to be significant risk factors for diabetes and IFG. Conclusions Diabetes and IFG are highly prevalent in this society with the majority of the patients being unaware of their disease, which warrants urgent adoption of early detection, treatment and prevention programmes. PMID:26085648

  14. Attachment in Chronically Underweight Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valenzuela, Marta

    1990-01-01

    Assessed mother-infant attachment in a low-income population in Chile. Underweight children and children with adequate weight were classified as secure or anxious by means of the Ainsworth Strange Situation. Underweight children showed more anxious attachment, and anxious children showed the most serious weight deficits. (BC)

  15. Quality of Life and Associated Socio-Clinical Factors after Encephalitis in Children and Adults in England: A Population-Based, Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramanuj, Parashar Pravin; Granerød, Julia; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Conti, Stefano; Brown, David W. G.; Crowcroft, Natasha S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We sought to measure HRQoL in all-cause encephalitis survivors and assess the impact of various socio-clinical factors on outcome. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design, using the short-form 36 (SF-36) to measure the HRQoL in patients 15 years and older, and the short-form 10 (SF-10) for patients less than 15 years old. We posted questionnaires to individuals six months after discharge from hospital. All scores were normalised to the age- and sex-matched general population. We used multivariate statistical analysis to assess the relative association of clinical and socio-demographic variables on HRQoL in adults. Results Of 109 individuals followed-up, we received 61 SF-36 and twenty SF-10 questionnaires (response rate 74%). Patients scored consistently worse than the general population in all domains of the SF-36 and SF-10, although there was variation in individual scores. Infectious encephalitis was associated with the worst HRQoL in those aged 15 years and over, scoring on average 5.64 points less than immune-mediated encephalitis (95% CI −8.77– −2.89). In those aged less than 15 years the worst quality of life followed encephalitis of unknown cause. Immuno compromise, unemployment, and the 35–44 age group all had an independent negative association with HRQoL. A poor Glasgow Outcome Score was most strongly associated with a poor HRQoL. Less than half of those who had made a ‘good’ recovery on the score reported a HRQoL equivalent to the general population. Conclusions Encephalitis has adverse effects on the majority of survivors’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of these adverse consequences could be minimised by prompt identification and treatment, and with better rehabilitation and support for survivors. PMID:25072738

  16. Follow-up of an Asymptomatic Chagas Disease Population of Children after Treatment with Nifurtimox (Lampit) in a Sylvatic Endemic Transmission Area of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Fiorella; Cucunubá, Zulma; Guhl, Felipe; González, Nadia Lorena; Freilij, Hector; Nicholls, Rubén Santiago; Ramírez, Juan David; Montilla, Marleny; Flórez, Astrid Carolina; Rosas, Fernando; Saavedra, Victor; Silva, Nubia

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is an anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi. Two drugs are currently used for the etiological treatment of the disease: Nifurtimox (Lampit) and Benznidazole. This study presents a quasi-experimental trial (non-control group) of sixty-two patients who were treated for Chagas disease with Nifurtimox (Lampit), and were then followed for 30 months post-treatment. The safety of Nifurtimox (Lampit) for Chagas disease in this group of children primarily between 4 and 19 years old was also evaluated. Materials and methods The 62 patients included in the study were selected when resulted seropositive for two out of three fundamentally different serological tests. All children were treated during two months according to protocols established by WHO. Monitoring was performed every twenty days to evaluate treatment safety. In 43 patients, two different serological tests: ELISA and IFAT; and two parasitological tests: blood culture, and real time PCR, (qPCR) were performed to assess therapeutic response, defined as post-treatment serological negativization. Principal findings All patients completed the treatment successfully, and six patients abandoned the post-treatment follow-up. Adverse effects occurred in 74% of patients, but only 4.8% of cases required temporary suspension to achieve 100% adherence to the 60-day treatment, and all symptoms reverted after treatment completion. Both parasite load (measured through qPCR) and antibodies (ELISA absorbance) evidenced a significant median reduction 6 months after treatment from 6.2 to 0.2 parasite equivalents/mL, and from 0.6 to 0.2 absorbance units respectively (p<0.001). Serological negativization by ELISA was evident since 6 months post-treatment, whereas by IFAT only after 18 months. Serological negativization by the two tests (ELISA and IFAT) was 41.9% (95%CI: 26.5–57.3) after 30 months post-treatment. qPCR was positive in 88.3% of patients pre-treatment and only in 12.1% of patients after

  17. Third World Children: Promise and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1988-01-01

    Discusses issues which concern children born to families in developing countries. Focuses on: (1) population impact on children; (2) family planning; (3) infant feeding; (4) oral rehydration therapy and immunizations; and (5) education. (RJC)

  18. Children Helping Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougher, Jean

    2006-01-01

    In a summer program for school-agers 6 to 12 years old, the children devise a meaningful, real-life experience to alleviate the midsummer doldrums and hope to "make the world a better place." They collect, repair, and paint old children's bicycles to present, along with new helmets, to children at a nearby homeless shelter. In this article, the…

  19. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations. PMID:24043557

  20. Multivariate genetic analyses of cognition and academic achievement from two population samples of 174,000 and 166,000 school children.

    PubMed

    Calvin, Catherine M; Deary, Ian J; Webbink, Dinand; Smith, Pauline; Fernandes, Cres; Lee, Sang Hong; Luciano, Michelle; Visscher, Peter M

    2012-09-01

    The genetic influence on the association between contemporaneously measured intelligence and academic achievement in childhood was examined in nationally representative cohorts from England and The Netherlands using a whole population indirect twin design, including singleton data. We identified 1,056 same-sex (SS) and 495 opposite-sex (OS) twin pairs among 174,098 British 11 year-olds with test scores from 2004, and, 785 SS and 327 OS twin pairs among 120,995 Dutch schoolchildren, aged 8, 10 or 12 years, with assessments from 1994 to 2002. The estimate of intelligence heritability was large in both cohorts, consistent with previous studies (h (2) = 0.70 ± 0.14, England; h (2) = 0.43 ± 0.28-0.67 ± 0.31, The Netherlands), as was the heritability of academic achievement variables (h (2) = 0.51 ± 0.16-0.81 ± 0.16, England; h (2) = 0.36 ± 0.27-0.74 ± 0.27, The Netherlands). Additive genetic covariance explained the large majority of the phenotypic correlations between intelligence and academic achievement scores in England, when standardised to a bivariate heritability (Biv h (2) = 0.76 ± 0.15-0.88 ± 0.16), and less consistent but often large proportions of the phenotypic correlations in The Netherlands (Biv h (2) = 0.33 ± 0.52-1.00 ± 0.43). In the British cohort both nonverbal and verbal reasoning showed very high additive genetic covariance with achievement scores (Biv h (2) = 0.94-0.98; Biv h (2) = 0.77-1.00 respectively). In The Netherlands, covariance estimates were consistent across age groups. The heritability of intelligence-academic achievement associations in two population cohorts of elementary schoolchildren, using a twin pair extraction method, is at the high end of estimates reported by studies of largely preselected twin samples. PMID:22700061

  1. Understanding Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothner, Ira

    Activities and concerns of Ford Foundation supported population research and training centers are described in this report. The centers are concerned with population growth, consequences of growth for human welfare, forces that determine family planning, interrelations among population variables, economics of contraceptive distribution, and…

  2. Counting Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Scientists use sampling to get an estimate of things they cannot easily count. A population is made up of all the organisms of one species living together in one place at the same time. All of the people living together in one town are considered a population. All of the grasshoppers living in a field are a population. Scientists keep track of the…

  3. An item response theory analysis of the DSM-IV borderline personality disorder criteria in a population-based sample of 11- to 12-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Michonski, Jared D; Sharp, Carla; Steinberg, Lynne; Zanarini, Mary C

    2013-01-01

    Although a growing body of empirical literature provides some support for the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in youth, little is known about the internal structure of BPD and the performance of the individual diagnostic criteria, especially in younger samples. We used item response theory (IRT) methods to investigate the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) BPD criteria in a large, population-based sample (n = 6,339) of young adolescents from the United Kingdom (ages 11 to 12). BPD was assessed using the Childhood Interview for DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder (CI-BPD; Zanarini, Horwood, Waylen, & Wolke, 2004). A single underlying dimension adequately accounted for covariation among the BPD criteria. Each criterion was found to be discriminating to a degree comparable to what has been reported in adult studies. BPD criteria were most informative within a range of severity of BPD pathology between +1 and +3 standard units. Five criteria were found to exhibit differential item functioning (DIF) between boys and girls. However, DIF balanced out for the total interview score. Despite the controversy associated with applying the borderline construct to youth, the current findings provide psychometric evidence in favor of doing so. PMID:22642465

  4. Children in Central America: Victims of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronstrom, Anitha

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the armed conflicts in Central America and their influence on civilian populations. Discusses the psychosocial consequences and therapeutic considerations of warfare, displacement and refuge for children. (RJC)

  5. Global population growth.

    PubMed

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors

  6. Low socioeconomic status is associated with adverse events in children and teens on insulin pumps under a universal access program: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Rayzel; Stukel, Therese A; Miller, Fiona A; Newman, Alice; Daneman, Denis; Wasserman, Jonathan D; Guttmann, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe adverse events in pediatric insulin pump users since universal funding in Ontario and to explore the role of socioeconomic status and 24-hour support. Research design and methods Population-based cohort study of youth (<19 years) with type 1 diabetes (n=3193) under a universal access program in Ontario, Canada, from 2006 to 2013. We linked 2012 survey data from 33 pediatric diabetes centers to health administrative databases. The relationship between patient and center-level characteristics and time to first diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) admission or death was tested using a Cox proportional hazards model and the rate of diabetes-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations with a Poisson model, both using generalized estimating equations. Results The rate of DKA was 5.28/100 person-years and mortality 0.033/100 person-years. Compared with the least deprived quintile, the risk of DKA or death for those in the most deprived quintile was significantly higher (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.38) as was the rate of diabetes-related acute care use (RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.00). 24-hour support was not associated with these outcomes. Higher glycated hemoglobin, prior DKA, older age, and higher nursing patient load were associated with a higher risk of DKA or death. Conclusions The safety profile of pump therapy in the context of universal funding is similar to other jurisdictions and unrelated to 24-hour support. Several factors including higher deprivation were associated with an increased risk of adverse events and could be used to inform the design of interventions aimed at preventing poor outcomes in high-risk individuals. PMID:27547416

  7. Why Do Women Have More Children Than They Want? Understanding Differences in Women’s Ideal and Actual Family Size in a Natural Fertility Population

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Lisa; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We develop and test a conceptual model of factors influencing women’s ideal family size (IFS) in a natural fertility population, the Tsimane of Bolivia. The model posits affects of socioecology, reproductive history, maternal condition, and men’s IFS. We test three hypotheses for why women may exceed their IFS despite experiencing socioeconomic development: (H1) limited autonomy; (H2) improved maternal condition; and (H3) low returns on investments in embodied capital. Methods Women’s reproductive histories and prospective fertility data were collected from 2002 to 2008 (n = 305 women). Semistructured interviews were conducted with Tsimane women to study the perceived value of parental investment (n = 76). Multiple regression, t-tests, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) are used to test model predictions. Results Women’s IFS is predicted by their socioecology, reproductive history, maternal condition, and husband’s IFS. Hypotheses 2 and 3 are supported. Couples residing near town have smaller IFS (women = 3.75 ± 1.64; men = 3.87 ± 2.64) and less variance in IFS. However, the degree fertility exceeds IFS is inversely correlated with distance to town (Partial r = −0.189, df = 156, P = 0.018). Women living near town have greater maternal condition but 64% value traditional skills over formal schooling and 88% believe living in town is unfeasible. Conclusions While reduced IFS is evident with socioeconomic development, fertility decline may not immediately follow. When perceived benefits of investment in novel forms of embodied capital are low, and somatic wealth and large kin networks persist as important components of fitness, fertility may remain high and increase if maternal condition improves. PMID:22987773

  8. [Population and food scarcity].

    PubMed

    Castro, E S

    1995-07-01

    Rapid population growth and increasing industrialization threaten to exhaust the world's natural resources, while the air, water, and soil are contaminated by wastes. Efforts to modify processes endangering man's survival are merely local palliatives. World population increased by 2 billion in the past 10 years. El Salvador's population is growing at 2% annually and now exceeds 5 million. These facts are well known, but the average person does not feel personally affected by them, trusting in scientific and technological progress to solve problems. The reality is that 2/3 of the world's people are vulnerable to hunger. Technological advances in agriculture have been outpaced by rapid population growth. Droughts and other climatic disturbances lead to hunger, and lost harvests constitute calamities. El Salvador's ecological situation is critical, with widespread degradation of agricultural lands. Thousands of hectares are lost each year. The high cost of basic foods is due to the collapse of agricultural production, itself a result of poor planning. El Salvador has become an importer of many essential foodstuffs. Experts have predicted that rapid population growth will soon mean that the country is no longer able to produce all the food it needs. Campaigns for responsible parenthood are needed to slow population growth. Couples should decide how many children to have based on their ability to support and educate them. The government should adopt a realistic position and encourage responsible parenthood, with free medical advice and family planning services for those desiring to avoid pregnancy. PMID:12179419

  9. Sleep disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Hoban, Timothy F

    2010-01-01

    Although sleep disorders such as insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea are common in both children and adults, the clinical features and treatments for these conditions differ considerably between these two populations. Whereas an adult with obstructive sleep apnea typically presents with a history of obesity, snoring, and prominent daytime somnolence, a child with the condition is more likely to present with normal body weight, tonsillar hypertrophy, and inattentiveness during school classes. The adult with suspected sleep apnea almost always undergoes a baseline polysomnogram and proceeds to treatment only if this test confirms the diagnosis, while many children with suspected sleep apnea are treated empirically with adenotonsillectomy without ever receiving a sleep study to verify the diagnosis. This article reviews sleep disorders in children, with a particular focus on age-related changes in sleep, conditions that primarily affect children, and disorders for which clinical manifestations and treatment differ substantially from the adult population. PMID:20146688

  10. Critical Issues for Low Incidence Populations. Proceedings of the CEC Symposium on the Education of Children with Low Incidence Handicapping Conditions (Atlanta, Georgia, September 18-20, 1986). An ERIC Exceptional Child Education Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Frances P., Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1986 symposium on the education of children with low incidence handicapping conditions focus on medically fragile children, advocacy, and technology. R. Dwain Blackston enumerates conditions affecting medically fragile children, family needs and stresses, and guidelines for effective family-staff relationships. Responses by…

  11. The population threat.

    PubMed

    Teitelbaum, M S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary is provided on the challenges faced by the new Clinton administration in formulating US key foreign policy initiatives. There is an urgent need to provide balanced and effective foreign aid for reducing high fertility rates in the developing world. There is also a need to effectively monitor the large migrations of populations. Over the past 10 years, the US has not been actively practicing world leadership on population issues. 3 changes in 1993 give impetus to redirect foreign policy: 1) the waning influence of fringe groups who controlled population issues; 2) the campaign promises to restore UN population stabilization programs; and 3) the evidence from the Persian Gulf and Yugoslavia that demographic issues require planning and assessment. Global population growth has been concentrated in the past 40 years, in part due to mortality declines and sustained high fertility. Of significance is the rapidness and momentum of growth. A high percentage are and will be children. Urban population is also growing rapidly in high fertility countries. Countries with high fertility and significant rural-to-urban migration also have large international migrations. The evolution of policy since the 1950s, which for the most part ignored population issues, is discussed. The American debates have been charged with emotionalism: about human sexuality, legitimacy of voluntary fertility control, the role and status of women and men, abortion, intergenerational transfer of obligations, ethnic solidarity and the sovereignty of national borders, and the proper roles of the state versus the marketplace. There have been over 200 years of ideological argument over population issues. The Malthusian argument was that large population size did not increase prosperity, and growth should be limited. The Marxist-Leninist position was that contraception was Malthusian, abortion was a woman's right, and population growth was neutral. By late 1970 the Chinese Maoists adopted the moral

  12. Hunger and Population. Facts for Action #7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, James

    The relationship between world hunger and world population is explored in this document for high school global education classes. Reasons for the high birth rates in developing nations are suggested, e.g., a poor family has many children because children are an inexpensive work force, provide extra income, and care for parents in old age. The…

  13. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  14. MAINE POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    MEPOP250 depicts Maine's 1950-1990 population data by town or Census in unorganized territories. Populations were compiled from US Census Bureau data where available or from Maine Municipal Information (mainly for older records). Unorganized towns with very low or zero pop...

  15. Children in the States, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrejack, Kate, Comp.; Judge, Amy, Comp.; Simons, Janet, Comp.

    This data book provides statistics on a range of indicators that measure critical aspects of children's lives in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Statistics are provided in the following categories: (1) national rankings in population and family characteristics; (2) health and disabilities (including children lacking health…

  16. The Bottom Line Is... Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

    Noting that the last decade has seen population shifts, economic and governmental changes, and different family and work patterns that have influenced the lives of children and their families of southeastern Pennsylvania, this report presents information on the current situation for children and families in the five counties of southeastern…

  17. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  18. Managing asthma in Black children.

    PubMed

    Rance, Karen; Oʼlaughlen, Mary; Platts-Mills, Thomas

    2012-06-10

    Black children bear a disproportionate burden of asthma when compared to other segments of the population. This study assessed the role of symptom scores, spirometry testing, and serum-specific immunoglobulin E in the primary care management of asthma in Black children. PMID:22635264

  19. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    PubMed

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    rapid growth were criticized as Malthusianism. The 1st true birth control campaigns occurred around 1956, but the idea of Malthusianism was incompatible with the enthusiasm of the 1st part of the Great Leap Forward. A 2nd campaign at the end of the Great Leap Forward ended with the coming of the Cultural Revolution in 1966. The 3rd campaign, from about 1971-79, called for later marriage, wider spacing of births, and fewer children. Efforts were made to reconcile the antinatalist stance with Marxist theory particularly in the earlier years of population control efforts, but they have been largely abandoned. In recent years China's demographers have become more active in international demographic circles and have furnished a wider array of population data. PMID:12312984

  20. Population crises and population cycles.

    PubMed

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  1. Food for tomorrow's population.

    PubMed

    Hugo, G

    1983-06-01

    This discussion outlines and clarifies the dimensions of the world's current food-population balance and examines likely future changes in this balance over the next 20 years. The 1st section summarizes the contemporary world demographic situation in the early 1980s, focusing on regional differences in patterns of population growth and the significant food shortages in the developing countries. A subsequent section considers the outlook for population growth up to the year 2000 with particular reference to the most recent UN population projects. The discussion of food production and supply includes some specific comments on the situation in Indonesia. The world's population in 1983 has been estimated at 4677 million. It will reach 5 billion in the next 5 years. The countries which can least afford it are growing the fastest. These countries will account for 79% of the world's population in 2000 and 83% by 2020. Fertility in the less developed countries (LDCs) is twice that of more developed countries, with women in the former group having an average of around 4.5 children and in the latter, 1.9. The substantial declines in fertility in many countries are not fully reflected in declines in population growth and natural increase rates. This is because of major improvements which have occurred in mortality. During recent decades there has been a marked increase in world food production. In the developed countries increases in food production have continued at more than twice those for population, but this was not the case in the less developed countries where the margin narrowed during the 1950s and 1960s until in the early 1970s population was increasing at a slightly faster rate overall than was food production. Food crisis situations continue to occur with disturbing frequency in several regions. Seasonal, regional, and national variations in food shortages are not the only dimensions to food-population imbalances. Within nations there is inequality in access to

  2. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    PubMed

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-01

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population. PMID:27214410

  3. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  4. Young Children and Families Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Allison B.; Squires, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of homelessness among young children and families in the United States is described, as is the developmental impact on young children and cost to society. Although services are mandated for this population under the McKinney­-Vento Act, Education of Homeless Children and Youth Program, and the Individuals With…

  5. Gifted Children with AD/HD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovecky, Deirdre V.

    This brief paper on gifted children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) focuses on the special educational needs of this population. Emphasis is on four major conclusions: (1) gifted children with AD/HD differ from average children with AD/HD in cognitive, social, and emotional variables (e.g., the gifted child is likely to show…

  6. Home Schooling Children with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffey, Jane G.

    2002-01-01

    A survey of 121 families who were home schooling children with special needs found family profiles were similar to the general home schooling population and, unlike the general home schooling population, children often spent as much time in a school setting as in a home school environment. Four case studies identified themes as needs-based…

  7. Singapore: population.

    PubMed

    1980-08-01

    The population of Singapore reached 2,381,993 as of May, 1980. Singapore's population growth reached replacement level in 1975 thanks to the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board, which has maintained the demographic goal of a 2-child family, ultimately to reach zero population growth. Women have more opportunity to join the labor force. 21.2% of the working force in 1957 were women, compared to 48.1% in 1978. The government will impose restrictions on foreigners buying property in Singapore to protect local buyers from artificially inflated prices. Rentals of private and luxury apartments increased by 30% from 1979-80. The gross national product went up 8.5% to S$5,600 per year. The population estimates by ethnic groups in thousands are as follows: 180.4 Malay males, 174.7 females; 905.2 Chinese males, 893.9 females; 93.4 Indian males, 67.6 females; and 24.3 male others, 23.2 females. The majority of the population is aged 15-24. PMID:12233387

  8. Children of the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Leonard

    It is estimated that by the year 2010, 50 percent of the population of southeast Asia will be under 15 years of age. Based on a research project completed in 1993, this book provides a regional overview of the quality of life for these children, and is targeted not only at those with an academic and professional interest in child care and social…

  9. [A population-genetics approach to the problem of nonspecific biological resistance of the human body. III. The ABO and rhesus blood group systems of healthy and sick children and their mothers].

    PubMed

    Kurbatova, O L; Botvin'ev, O K; Altukhov, Iu P

    1984-04-01

    ABO and Rhesus blood types have been specified in 2047 diseased newborns, diseased infants and children who died before the age of one, as well as in their mothers. 527 healthy children and their mothers were investigated as a control group. A significant difference in the ABO phenotype frequencies has been revealed between: i) healthy and dead children, ii) mothers of diseased newborns and mothers of healthy children, iii) dead children and their mothers. The significant increase in the incidence of maternal Rhesus-negative phenotype, as compared with the control group, was shown in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children. In the same groups, mothers differ significantly from their children with respect to the frequency of Rhesus phenotypes. The incidence of Rhesus-incompatible mother-child pairs in the groups of diseased newborns, diseased infants and dead children was shown to be two times higher than the respective frequency in the control group and the expected frequency. A certain increase in the frequency of ABO-incompatible pairs was revealed in the groups of diseased newborns and dead children, but the difference, as compared to the control group, did not prove to be statistically significant. A hypothesis was advanced to the effect that the mother-child incompatibility for Rhesus and ABO antigens may result not only in fetal wastage and haemolytic disease of newborns, but also in the decrease of child's resistance to diseases of different origin. PMID:6427064

  10. [Population trends and poverty].

    PubMed

    Olmedo, C

    1998-04-01

    Implications of population growth in Ecuador for the quality of life of the poor population are analyzed. It is argued that if the gross national product (GNP) were to grow at a sustained annual rate of 5% or more, demographic trends would not present a significant obstacle to reducing poverty. National economic projections are for growth of only 2.5-3.5% annually. The continuing rapid growth of the poor population despite general slowing of demographic growth, the young age structure, the need for increased formal education to enable the poor to overcome their poverty, and the effect of unemployment on the dependency ratio will tend to hamper improvements in average productivity and per capita GNP. The need for spending on education, health, basic services, and housing will divert funds away from productive investment, generating a direct negative impact on economic growth. Over half of Ecuadorian children suffer from some degree of malnutrition, indicating that food production is inadequate to meet demand. The export-oriented agricultural policy and poor weather have led to a chronic shortage of basic foods. Progressive increase and diversification of agricultural production, along with maintenance of low prices and substantial increases in income levels and agricultural productivity, will be required if the entire population is to be fed adequately. Intense efforts will be needed from all sectors to bring demographic growth into balance with economic and development needs. PMID:12178231

  11. Kid's PACK: Population Awareness Campaign Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This fun and educational kit is designed specifically for elementary students. The "Kid's PACK" (Population Awareness Campaign Kit) entertains and informs children on the environment and human population growth through stories, games, and concrete ideas for making a difference. In three booklets, the "Kid's PACK" offers elementary students…

  12. Medicaid Information by Population

    MedlinePlus

    ... 31 million children, including half of all low-income children in the U.S. The federal government sets ... 31 million children, including half of all low-income children. Extensive outreach is being done to enroll ...

  13. Population and development.

    PubMed

    Pavlik, Z

    1995-01-01

    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century. PMID:12292830

  14. Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  15. Shellfish allergy in children.

    PubMed

    Kandyil, Roshni M; Davis, Carla M

    2009-08-01

    Food allergies affect approximately 3.5-4.0% of the world's population and can range from a mere inconvenience to a life-threatening condition. Over 90% of food allergies in childhood are caused by eight foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, fish, and shellfish. Shellfish allergy is known to be common and persistent in adults, and is an important cause of food induced anaphylaxis around the world for both children and adults. Most shellfish-allergic children have sensitivity to dust mite and cockroach allergens. Diagnostic cut-off levels for skin prick testing in children with shrimp allergy exist but there are no diagnostic serum-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) values. All patients with symptoms of IgE-mediated reactions to shellfish should receive epinephrine autoinjectors, even if the initial symptoms are mild. In this study, we review three cases of clinical presentations of shellfish allergy in children. PMID:19674349

  16. [Yunnan population].

    PubMed

    1981-03-23

    In 1980, the population growth rate in Yunnan was reduced to 10.25/1000. Compared with 1979, the number of births was reduced by 152,000 persons. The population growth rate was reduced by 4.35/1000. Localities in which the population growth rate was below 10/1000 in 1980 include Kunming, Baoshan, Yuxi, Chuxiong, Dongchuan, Lijiang, Dali, and Honghe prefectures, autonomous prefectures and municipalities. This growth rate was also achieved in 69 counties, districts and towns as well as 665 communes. Some 66,500 couples throughout the province received 1-child certificates. In 1980, under the leadership of the party and government, the trade unions, CYL, women's federations, and public health departments paid attention to grasping planned parenthood work. PMID:12264026

  17. Diversity of Participation in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imms, Christine; Reilly, Sheena; Carlin, John; Dodd, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the participation of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in activities outside school and to compare their participation with a large representative sample of children. A population-based survey was conducted of children with CP born in Victoria, Australia in 1994 and 1995. Of 219 living children identified,…

  18. Prevalence of Obesity, Binge Eating, and Night Eating in a Cross-Sectional Field Survey of 6-Year-Old Children and Their Parents in a German Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamerz, Andreas; Kuepper-Nybelen, Jutta; Bruning, Nicole; Wehle, Christine; Trost-Brinkhues, Gabriele; Brenner, Hermann; Hebebrand, Johannes; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2005-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of obesity, obesity-related binge eating, non-obesity-related binge eating, and night eating in five- to six-year-old children and to examine the impact of parental eating disturbances. Methods: When 2020 children attended their obligatory health exam prior to school entry in the city of Aachen, Germany, 1979…

  19. Prevalence of Methylphenidate Prescription among School-Aged Children in a Swiss Population: Increase in the Number of Prescriptions in the Swiss Canton of Vaud, from 2002 to 2005, and Changes in Patient Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumy, Cedric; Huissoud, Therese; Dubois-Arber, Francoise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Methylphenidate is prescribed for children and adolescents to treat ADHD. As in many Western countries, the increase in methylphenidate consumption is a public concern in Switzerland. The article discusses the authors' assessment of prescription prevalence in 2002 and 2005 for school-aged children in the canton of Vaud. Method: Pharmacy…

  20. Venous interventions in children.

    PubMed

    Kukreja, Kamlesh; Vaidya, Sandeep

    2011-03-01

    Advanced medical treatment options have improved pediatric survival but often require invasive vascular procedures or venous access. These procedures increase the risk for thromboembolism in children, and there has been a corresponding increase in the reported incidence of deep venous thrombosis and postthrombotic syndrome in the pediatric population. Percutaneous venous interventions using catheter-directed therapy (CDT), like mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis, have been used much less frequently in children, even though they have shown good results in adults. A multidisciplinary team including pediatric hematology, interventional radiology, and intensive care unit is suggested for management of venous thrombosis in children. Indications and contraindications for CDT in children are similar to adults. Mechanical thrombectomy and infusion thrombolysis are some of the more commonly performed treatments. CDT in children requires adapting to patient size and locally available equipment. Ultrasound guidance for access, "cork" technique, appropriate dosing of tissue plasminogen activator for infusion/pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and simultaneous administration of heparin, plasminogen (fresh frozen plasma), and deficient coagulation factors are some of the important variations of CDT technique in children. Postprocedure monitoring is very important for successful thrombolysis. Retrievable inferior vena cava filters are increasingly being used in children as well, for prophylaxis against pulmonary embolism (PE) if there is a significant risk of PE with/without contraindications to anticoagulation. PMID:21335289

  1. Population success.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  2. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 3 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Our very youngest children--infants and toddlers under age 3 years--appear to be particularly…

  3. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 6 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Young children under age 6 years appear to be particularly vulnerable, with 48 percent living in…

  4. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 12 through 17 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Among our oldest children--adolescents age 12 through 17 years--41 percent live in low-income…

  5. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children 6 through 11 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Similarly, among children in middle childhood (age 6 through 11 years), 45 percent live in…

  6. Recent Studies on Feeding Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  7. Having quality population.

    PubMed

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  8. A Perspective on Delivering Educational Services to Special Populations--Black and Other Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavis, Kanawha Z.

    For educational delivery systems to meet the needs of special rural populations of minority children, teaching and learning strategies must take into account the three factors of human identity, culture, and ruralness itself. Children who are members of special populations often have an even greater need than most children for recognition,…

  9. Places for Children - Children's Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…

  10. Gastrointestinal Motility Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ambartsumyan, Lusine

    2014-01-01

    The most common and challenging gastrointestinal motility disorders in children include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), esophageal achalasia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, and constipation. GERD is the most common gastrointestinal motility disorder affecting children and is diagnosed clinically and treated primarily with acid secretion blockade. Esophageal achalasia, a less common disorder in the pediatric patient population, is characterized by dysphagia and treated with pneumatic balloon dilation and/or esophagomyotomy. Gastroparesis and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction are poorly characterized in children and are associated with significant morbidity. Constipation is among the most common complaints in children and is associated with significant morbidity as well as poor quality of life. Data on epidemiology and outcomes, clinical trials, and evaluation of new diagnostic techniques are needed to better diagnose and treat gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. We present a review of the conditions and challenges related to these common gastrointestinal motility disorders in children. PMID:24799835

  11. Population and policy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  12. Raising Our Children's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doucette-Dudman, Deborah; LaCure, Jeffrey R.

    There are 3.2 million children in the United States living with their grandparents or other kin, a 40 percent increase since 1980. This exploding sociological trend with far-reaching implications for our future spans every segment of our society--rich and poor, black and white, Asian and Hispanic, urban and suburban. Based on interviews with…

  13. Uninsured but Eligible Children

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.; Krois, Lisa; Edlund, Christine; Smith, Jeanene; Carlson, Nichole E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite expansions in public health insurance programs, millions of US children lack coverage. Nearly two-thirds of Oregon’s uninsured children seem to be eligible for public insurance. Objectives We sought to identify uninsured but eligible children and to examine how parental coverage affects children’s insurance status. Methods We collected primary data from families enrolled in Oregon’s food stamp program, which has similar eligibility requirements to public health insurance in Oregon. In this cross-sectional, multivariable analysis, results from 2861 surveys were weighted back to a population of 84,087 with nonresponse adjustment. Key predictor variables were parental insurance status and type of insurance; the outcome variable was children’s insurance status. Results Nearly 11% of children, presumed eligible for public insurance, were uninsured. Uninsurance among children was associated with being Hispanic, having an employed parent, and higher household earnings (133–185% of the federal poverty level). Children with an uninsured parent were more likely to be uninsured, compared with those who had insured parents (adjusted odds ratio 14.21, 95% confidence interval 9.23–20.34). More surprisingly, there was a higher rate of uninsured children among privately-insured parents, compared with parents covered by public insurance (adjusted odds ratio 4.39, 95% confidence interval 2.00–9.66). Conclusions Low-income Oregon parents at the higher end of the public insurance income threshold and those with private insurance were having the most difficulty keeping their children insured. These findings suggest that when parents succeed in pulling themselves out of poverty and gaining employment with private health insurance coverage, children may be getting left behind. PMID:18162849

  14. Allergy and acute leukaemia in children with Down syndrome: a population study. Report from the Mexican inter-institutional group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukaemia

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Enríquez, J C; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, A; Buchán-Durán, E P; Bernáldez-Ríos, R; Medina-Sansón, A; Jiménez-Hernández, E; Amador-Sanchez, R; Peñaloza-Gonzalez, J G; Paredes-Aguilera, R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, F J; Bolea-Murga, V; de Diego Flores-Chapa, J; Flores-Lujano, J; Bekker-Mendez, V C; Rivera-Luna, R; del Carmen Rodriguez-Zepeda, M; Rangel-López, A; Dorantes-Acosta, E M; Núñez-Villegas, N; Velazquez-Aviña, M M; Torres-Nava, J R; Reyes-Zepeda, N C; Cárdenas-Cardos, R; Flores-Villegas, L V; Martinez-Avalos, A; Salamanca-Gómez, F; Gorodezky, C; Arellano-Galindo, J; Mejía-Aranguré, J M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Allergies have been described as protective factors against the development of childhood acute leukaemia (AL). Our objective was to investigate the associations between allergy history and the development of AL and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in children with Down syndrome (DS). Methods: A case–control study was performed in Mexico City. The cases (n=97) were diagnosed at nine public hospitals, and the controls (n=222) were recruited at institutions for children with DS. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Results: Asthma was positively associated with AL development (OR=4.18; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–11.87), whereas skin allergies were negatively associated (OR=0.42; 95% CI: 0.20–0.91). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that allergies and AL in children with DS share biological and immune mechanisms. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting associations between allergies and AL in children with DS. PMID:23695017

  15. [Does Poland need a population policy?].

    PubMed

    Holzer, J Z

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to present some important issues relative to population policy, and to prove the need for such a policy in Poland. A population policy is defined as a combination of direct and indirect actions by the state to influence the growth of the population, as well as its distribution and structure. As in most European countries, an average Polish household has 2 children, a smallpercentage of families have 3 children, and many households have no children, or only 1 child. Therefore, a probirth policy is recommended to maintain the birth rate at 2.10-2.20. However, within such a policy, a family should be free to make its own plans for reproduction. Contraceptives must be available and abortion should be permitted. Given the unsaturated market and permanent shortage of essential goods, a Polish population policy can only be considered from the perspective of a general socioeconomic policy. To pursue the goals of an efficient population policy, an acceptable standard of living should be achieved. Strategically, population policy in Poland should be aimed at creating an optimal structure that would correspond to the stable and, at some point, stationary population model. An evolutionary transition to a stable (or stationary) model should take place over 2 or 3 generations. Such structural changes should go hand-in-hand with permanent improvements in the health, welfare, and cultural life of the population. PMID:12314830

  16. Children of Working Mothers, March 1973. Special Labor Force Report No. 165.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Elizabeth; Whitmore, Robert

    A special labor force report, the pamphlet provides statistics related to the children of working mothers: type of family, number of children under 18, race, number of children in broken families, work experience of family head, and family income. Although the number of children in the population has declined, the number of children with working…

  17. Five proposals re China's population growth control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Wu, C; Lin, F

    1983-01-01

    China's population was 540 million in 1949. By the end of 1978 the population will reach 960 million, representing a 2% average annual growth rate. High population growth 1) is costly, 2) makes finding employment difficult, since there is little still land still to be reclaimed and agricultural productivity cannot be upgraded if backward farming techniques are used simply to employ more people, and 3) reduces the quality of material and cutural life. Nearly half of consumer funds accumulated in 1949-1977 was spent to provide basic needs for China's 600 million people. Housing has especially suffered: average per capita living space is only 2 square meters in some cities. With over 100 million primary school children and tens of millions in secondary schools, education funds must be allocated to the lower grades, to higher education's detriment. Each generation's age structure determines the next generation's reproduction scale and speed. This historical principle leads to the following: 1) population growth will continue to be vigorous given growth at a 2% rate, or if a percentage of rural (30%) and urban (10%) couples continue to have more than 2 children, or if every couple only has 2 children; 2) population stagnation requires continuous, persistent efforts, abolishing 2 or more children and encouraging one child per couple. Stagnation can be reached by 2008, with 1,200 million people. Political and ideological education combined with effective economic measures must solve the population problem. 5 strong measures must be taken: 1) economic policies and incentives should assist couples with one or no child, 2) every means should be used to communicate the population problem to the people, 3) population control should be part of the national economy program, 4) 3 births should be prohibited and one child per couple advocated, and 5) a permanent "population committee" should be established to insure ongoing population programs, policies, study, and evaluation

  18. Population geography.

    PubMed

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  19. The population slide.

    PubMed

    Mukerjee, M

    1998-12-01

    The level of total fertility in Bangladesh has fallen from 7 in 1975 to 3 today, the sharpest fertility transition in South Asia. Fertility decline in Bangladesh and Nepal follows such transition occurring first in Sri Lanka, then in India. While in Western countries, levels of fertility began to fall once an advanced stage of development had been reached, these new declines in South Asia are not directly correlated with indicators of development such as increased literacy or the alleviation of poverty. Bangladesh has experienced major fertility decline despite being one of the world's 20 poorest countries. Fertility decline in Bangladesh may be attributed to a combination of an effective government family planning program, a general desire among Bangladesh's population to bear fewer children, reductions in mortality, the availability of microcredit, changes in women's status, and the provision of health and family planning information over the radio 6 hours per day. PMID:9867622

  20. Population education in the schools.

    PubMed

    Sherris, J D; Quillin, W F

    1982-01-01

    Formal population education is designed to teach children in school about basic population issues and, in many cases, to encourage them eventually to have smaller families. Some programs include specific units on human reproduction and family planning, while others do not. National population education programs began during the 1970s in about a dozen countries, mainly in Asia. These include Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Thailand, Egypt, Tunisia, and El Salvador. A strong case can be made for including an important contemporary issue like population in the school curriculum. Nevertheless, educational innovation is a difficult and long-term process. As a rule, it takes 5 to 10 years before new material can be fully incorporated in a school curriculum. Curriculum changes must be carefully planned, thousands of teachers trained, and appropriate materials prepared for classroom use. Moreover, differences of opinion over the need, acceptability, goals, content, methods, and other aspects of population education have held back programs in some countries. Where population education programs have been implemented, student knowledge of population issues increases, but it is not yet clear whether in-school education has a measurable impact on fertility-related attitudes or behavior. PMID:7043518

  1. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  2. Children's Health

    MedlinePlus

    Your child's health includes physical, mental and social well-being. Most parents know the basics of keeping children healthy, like offering ... for children to get regular checkups with their health care provider. These visits are a chance to ...

  3. Consulting to children in crisis.

    PubMed

    Looney, J; Rahe, R; Harding, R; Ward, H; Liu, W

    1979-01-01

    Although community consultation is common for psychiatrists, such activity is usually carried out on an elective rather than emergency basis. In a world troubled by community disaster situations--children are often at risk. Psychiatrists, through the use of skillful crisis consultation, can be of great help to these young people. This report describes the effort of a mental health consultation team to meet the needs of a large population of children under acute stress. PMID:467132

  4. Population Structure in Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae

    PubMed Central

    LaCross, Nathan C.; Marrs, Carl F.; Gilsdorf, Janet R.

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) frequently colonize the human pharynx asymptomatically, and are an important cause of otitis media in children. Past studies have identified typeable H. influenzae as being clonal, but the population structure of NTHi has not been extensively characterized. The research presented here investigated the diversity and population structure in a well-characterized collection of NTHi isolated from the middle ears of children with otitis media or the pharynges of healthy children in three disparate geographic regions. Multilocus sequence typing identified 109 unique sequence types among 170 commensal and otitis media-associated NTHi isolates from Finland, Israel, and the US. The largest clonal complex contained only five sequence types, indicating a high level of genetic diversity. The eBURST v3, ClonalFrame 1.1, and structure 2.3.3 programs were used to further characterize diversity and population structure from the sequence typing data. Little clustering was apparent by either disease state (otitis media or commensalism) or geography in the ClonalFrame phylogeny. Population structure was clearly evident, with support for eight populations when all 170 isolates were analyzed. Interestingly, one population contained only commensal isolates, while two others consisted solely of otitis media isolates, suggesting associations between population structure and disease. PMID:23266487

  5. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... They may occur often around age 3, as children begin toilet training. Boys who are not circumcised ...

  6. Syncope in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kanjwal, Khalil; Calkins, Hugh

    2015-08-01

    Most strategies for managing syncope in children reflect data from studies involving the adult population. In the future, there will be a great need for studies in children and adolescents suffering from recurrent syncope. To date, there has been no Food and Drug Administration-approved therapy for neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), the most common cause of syncope in both adults and children. None of the clinical trials of pharmacotherapy in NCS has shown benefit over placebo. NCS should be considered a chronic condition, and the aim of the therapy should be to decrease recurrence of syncope rather than to completely eliminate it. PMID:26115826

  7. We must tackle population problems.

    PubMed

    Hironaka, W

    1992-03-01

    Thank you Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to speak out not only as a Japanese parliamentarian, but also as a member of GLOBE International, Global Legislators Organization for a Balanced Environment, consisting of legislators from the US Congress, EC Parliament, USSR Assembly and Japanese Diet who have joined together to compare, improve and coordinate our respective legislative activities in an effort to effectively address the complex issues surrounding environment and development. Mr. Chairman, world population--which reached 5.4 billion in mid-1991--is growing exponentially. According to 1 UNFPA report 3 people are born every second, a total of 250,000 people every day or 95-100 million people every year. At this rate, world population will reach 6.4 billion by year 2001, and if this rate continues to go unchecked, world population will reach 14-15 billion by the end of the 21st century. GLOBE is highly aware of the relationship between rapidly growing human populations, environmental degradation and sustainable development. We urge UNCED negotiators to address population growth rates and the integrally linked concerns of resource consumption levels, particularly in the industrialized world, in their search for solutions to the conflict between environment and development. Negotiators should also seriously consider ways in which to broaden educational and economic opportunities for women to ease population growth rates, and to alleviate poverty and stresses on the environment that result from population pressures. Social and economic factors must be integrated into population planning. It is saddening to note that almost 40,000 children die every day due to malnutrition, lack of fresh water and access to resources. Over 100 million children do not receive a primary education. Mr. Chairman, worldwide demand for a range of family planning services is increasing faster than supply. Recent studies indicate that if quality family planning information, training and

  8. Population growth can be checked.

    PubMed

    Shukla, J P

    Since independence, India's population size has doubled. The rate of growth was 2.5% during 1971-81, an increase from the rate of 2.15% observed during the 1951-61 period. The increase indicated that efforts to decrease population growth have not succeeded. The implications with respect to food, housing, clothing, education, and health facilities, which are fundamental to improving the physical quality of life, are severe. This demographic trend is a serious impediment to progress. The population growth is due to a constant birthrate and a sharp decline in mortality. Reducing the birthrate is necessary to reduce the rate of growth. An attitudinal change adopting the norm of family limitation should be encouraged through propaganda, socioeconomic programs, and religious and cultural organizations. Other measures to bring about a decline in the birthrate include: increasing the marriage age, and expanding educational and employment opportunities for women and girls. These measures will require substantial effort and time. Incentives may show more immediate effects. Monetary incentives are not desired because of the possibility of misuse. However the government could assume responsibility for the education and guarantee employment of children of couples who have only one child, and provide free education to children of couples with only 2 children. These incentives are not likely to be misused, can be available to all segments of the population, and involve no immediate large financial burden on the government. In addition, scholarships to the Harijan students should be limited to 2 per family. If these measures are accepted, they could quickly reduce the birth rate. PMID:12311944

  9. Consultation for Parents of Young Gifted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Joan S.

    1989-01-01

    The article describes private evaluation and consultation services provided to parents of young gifted children, and discusses the benefits of private consultation and the potential role of school personnel in meeting the needs of this population. (Author/JDD)

  10. People, Things, and Places for Young Children. Selecting Toys for Handicapped Children [and] Playgrounds for Exceptional Children: Considering the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemnitzer, Ronald B.; Williams, Ronald R.

    The two papers focus on methods of selecting toys for handicapped children and options in playground equipment for this population. The qualities of a good toy, such as stimulation and safety, are examined. The author discusses various considerations in selecting toys for different handicaps; for example, toys for visually impaired children should…

  11. Tibet's population: past and present.

    PubMed

    Tu, D

    1997-08-01

    This article describes trends in population growth in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1260-1287), the Qing Dynasty (1734-36), and during decennial periods after 1952, until 1994. Tibet was conquered by the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. During 1260-87, 3 enumerations revealed a total population of about 559,962 Tibetans, of whom 70,000 were lamas. Enumeration during 1734-36, revealed a total population of 941,151 Tibetans and 138,617 households. Tibet's population increased to about 1 million in 1951, an addition of 60,000 persons over 210 years. During 1952-59, the rate of population growth was fairly low at 0.94%. The total increase was 78,000 persons, or 11,000/year. Population increased from 1.15 million to about 1.23 million during 1952-59. The Dalai Lama went into exile with about 74,000 Tibetans in March 1959. Population during 1960-69 increased from 1.23 million to 1.48 million. The annual growth rate was 1.89%. Population increased by 252,500 persons, or 25.300/year. Reforms were carried out during this period. The region shifted from feudalism to socialism. Tibetans obtained free medical care and access to land. The birth rate was 25/1000, and the death rate was 10/1000. During 1970-79, both economic and population growth increased. Population increased from 1.48 million to 1.83 million, or a rate of annual growth of 2.14%. Population during this period increased by 348,500 persons, or 34,900/year. This was the fastest period of population growth. During 1980-89, the total fertility rate was maintained at around 4 children/woman, and family planning was implemented in urban areas. The annual rate of growth was 1.85%. Population increased by 367,000 persons, or 36,700/year. During 1990-94, the annual growth rate was 1.76 with a total increase of 159,000 persons, or 39,800/year. PMID:12321528

  12. Left-handed Children in Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Linda

    1998-01-01

    Used teacher questionnaires to examine incidence of left-handedness in nearly 2,800 Singaporean children, racial differences in this left-handed population, and educational provisions in preschool and primary school. Findings indicated that 7.5% of preschoolers and 6.3% of primary children were left-handed, with a higher proportion being Chinese…

  13. Identifying Specific Comprehension Deficits in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Diane Baty

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that educators may be missing an under-identified population of approximately 10 percent of typically developing children, who have fluent, age-appropriate decoding and word recognition skills, yet have specific difficulties with other higher-level text processing factors. These children are said to have specific comprehension…

  14. Language Learning Impairment in Sequential Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    We review and synthesize empirical evidence at the intersection of two populations: children with language learning impairment (LLI) and children from immigrant families who learn a single language from birth and a second language beginning in early childhood. LLI is a high incidence disorder that, in recent years, has been referred to by…

  15. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jiali; Bennett, Neil

    The highlights of this statistical update include a new profile of the extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; the use of an alternative measure of young child poverty that provides new insights into the impact of programs and policies on the economic well-being of young children; and a brief examination of why the…

  16. Children Adrift: Educating China's Millions of Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Haili

    1999-01-01

    The population of migrants moving within China's borders has reached some 80 million, including 2-3 million school-aged children. As migrant workers flock to cities, their children strain urban school systems or receive no education. But independent schools for migrants are illegal and substandard. In some rural provinces, vocational training may…

  17. HEALTH OF CHILDREN OF SCHOOL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LESSER, ARTHUR

    A HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE STUDY OF SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAMS, THIS REPORT PRESENTS STATISTICS ON (1) THE NATION'S CHILD POPULATION, (2) CHILDREN IN LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, (3) ILLNESSES OF CHILDHOOD, (4) SCHOOL HEALTH SERVICES, AND (5) TRENDS IN THE PROVISION OF HEALTH CARE FOR CHILDREN. THE REPORT EMPHASIZES THE GAPS IN CHILD HEALTH SUPERVISION…

  18. Research You Can Use: Marketing to Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, Virginia A.

    1994-01-01

    Examines marketing literature for profit-oriented organizations and discusses how those principles can be applied to public library services for children. Topics addressed include children as a source of revenue; market research; product development; promotion; retailing; and implications for public libraries, including population trends and…

  19. The Relationship between Kindergarten Classroom Environment and Children's Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydogan, Canan; Farran, Dale C.; Sagsöz, Gülseren

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the way in which instructional and emotional aspects of teacher support combined to predict children's engagement in learning-related activities in kindergarten classrooms that served a socio-economically diverse population of children. Observations were conducted on teachers and children in 45…

  20. Emotional and Behavioural Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maskey, Morag; Warnell, Frances; Parr, Jeremy R.; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The type, frequency and inter-relationships of emotional and behavioural problems in 863 children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) were investigated using the population-based Database of children with ASD living in the North East of England (Daslne). A high rate of problems was reported, with 53% of children having 4 or more types of problems…

  1. Assessment of Fear in Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Laura B.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.

    2012-01-01

    Although intense fears have been reported in up to 64% of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD), little is known about the phenomenology of fear in this population. This study assessed the relationship between fear and core symptoms of autism in children with an ASD. In Phase I of this study, parents of 41 children with an ASD completed…

  2. Strengthening Grief Support for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormanti, Mary; Ballan, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Although a sizable literature investigates and describes children's grief, the majority of information focuses on typically developing children. Far less has been published about the loss and grief of children with developmental disabilities (DD), even though this population experiences significant and multiple losses, increasing their…

  3. Qualitative Research Interviews of Children with Communication Disorders: Methodological Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, D.; Scelles, R.

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the qualitative research interview, an essential tool frequently used in the human and social sciences, conducted with children having communication disorders. Two distinct populations are addressed--children with intellectual disability and deaf children without related disabilities--with the aim of identifying the main…

  4. Impairment in Movement Skills of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Dido; Charman, Tony; Pickles, Andrew; Chandler, Susie; Loucas, Tom; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Aim: We undertook this study to explore the degree of impairment in movement skills in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and a wide IQ range. Method: Movement skills were measured using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) in a large, well defined, population-derived group of children (n=101: 89 males,12 females; mean…

  5. Children of Immigrants: Immigration Trends. Fact Sheet No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortuny, Karina; Chaudry, Ajay

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet is the first in a series of publications on children of immigrants. The series updates the Urban Institute's May 2006 fact sheet that described the characteristics of children of immigrants in the early 2000s. The current series profiles the population of children of immigrants in the United States using data from the 2007 American…

  6. Joint Attention Revisited: Examining Heterogeneity among Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurwitz, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Joint attention has long been considered absent or deviant in children with autism. Although this deficit is seen, there is variability in joint attention within the population and some children with autism employ it. Little is known about the profile of joint attention skills of these children or how joint attention use affects concurrent…

  7. Connecticut's Children: A Cause for Hope. 1997 Data Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Michelle Doucette

    This KIDS COUNT data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of Connecticut's children. After listing the regional population, racial/ethnic background, poverty status, and family setting of Connecticut's children, the statistical report examines 13 indicators of well-being: (1) percentage of children receiving welfare benefits; (2) low…

  8. Executive Dysfunction in School-Age Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambek, Rikke; Tannock, Rosemary; Dalsgaard, Soeren; Trillingsgaard, Anegen; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined executive function deficits (EFD) in school-age children (7 to 14 years) with ADHD. Method: A clinical sample of children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 49) was compared to a population sample (n = 196) on eight executive function (EF) measures. Then, the prevalence of EFD in clinical and non-clinical children was examined…

  9. Children in Classes for the Severely Emotionally Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Archie A.

    1984-01-01

    The report describes the clinical findings of a collaborative program to provide appropriate neuropsychiatric skills for 60 children ages 8 to 14 (grade 3 to 8) and their teachers. The children represented the entire population of two self-contained units (eight classes) for the treatment of children designated as severely emotionally handicapped…

  10. Children's Benefits Access Project: A White Paper on Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voices for Children in Nebraska, Omaha.

    Over a period of 4 months in early 1994, Voices for Children investigated low-income children's access to 15 benefits for which they might be eligible. Of those benefits, six were further analyzed to determine how many eligible low-income children were actually receiving them. Counties were grouped by population size to determine if differences…

  11. Functional Performance in Young Australian Children with Achondroplasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope Jane; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth M.; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne Marie

    2011-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine population-specific developmental milestones for independence in self-care, mobility, and social cognitive skills in children with achondroplasia, the most common skeletal dysplasia. Methods: Population-based recruitment from October 2008 to October 2010 identified 44 Australian children with…

  12. Philippine president announces population policy.

    PubMed

    1970-02-01

    President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines has announced a national policy for family planning, following his recent reelection for a second term of office. Under the policy adopted by the President, the Philippine Government is committed to undertake and encourage programs to provide information and advice for couples wishing to space or limit their child-bearing activities. The Presidential Commission on Population, in a report based on recommendations drawn up after more than 20 meetings by the 22 members, and states that the unfettered population growth will gravely hamper efforts to improve living standards for Filipinos and will block the attainment of national development goals. However, the Commission emphasized that the program will be educational and persuasive, not coercive. Family planning services have been growing rapidly in the Philippines over the past few years as a result of the initiative of several pioneer organizations assisted by the IPPF. President Marcos' government signed the United Nations Declaration on Population in 1967 and in January 1969 he established The Commission on Population. The Philippine press has consistently backed the campaign for widespread availability of family planning services. The Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization, under it's Director, Dr. Francisco Dy, which has its headquarters in Manila, has its headquarters in Manila, has fostered a regional interest through its technical discussions and the training of field personnel. Depthnews recently reported that the latest Philippine demographic survey asserts that Filipina women are bearing children so fast that the country will hold on to the undisputed title of possessing the highest birth rate in Asia. The growth rate is 3.5%, and the average completed size of a Filipino family is 6.8 children. This swift rate of growth will boost the 1969 population of 37.1 million to 38.4 at the end of this decade. It is noted that unless curbed, it will

  13. Marital Status and Child Outcomes in a Rural School Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Jeanne E.; And Others

    Previous studies indicate significant behavior and social/emotional differences between divorced and intact family children in favor of the latter group. Sex and age of the children appear to yield different responses to the stress of divorce. This study expands previous studies by: (1) focusing on a rural population; (2) examining the effect of…

  14. Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference. The Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Fourth Asian and Pacific Population Conference was held at Denpasar, Indonesia, August 19-27, 1992. The theme of the Conference was Population and Sustainable Development: Goals and Strategies into the Twenty-first Century. Prior to the Conference three preparatory seminars were held: on population, environment and sustainable development (Thailand, 1991); on migration and urbanization (Seoul, 1992); and on planning and implementation of family planning/family health and welfare programs (Beijing, 1992). The Conference, jointly sponsored by the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), adopted the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development, which spells out regional goals and recommendations for population and sustainable development into the 21st century. The preamble recognizes that population plays a decisive role in all human endeavors, especially in safeguarding the environment and the pursuit of sustainable development. Population problems must be addressed on local, national, regional, and global levels. It is urged that all members make a commitment to incorporate population and environmental concerns into efforts to achieve sustainable development. The population goals should include attainment of replacement level fertility of about 2.2 children per woman by the year 2010. In the Asian countries the present average is 3.1 children per woman. The rate of infant mortality should also be reduced to 40 per 1000 live births during this period. A number of recommendations are also made concerning population, environment, and development; urbanization, internal and international migration; family planning and maternal and child health; population and human resources development; women and population; population and poverty alleviation; mortality and morbidity; aging; population data, research and information dissemination; and resource mobilization. PMID:12287994

  15. CURRENT POPULATION SURVEY MARRIAGE AND FERTILITY SUPPLEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    These supplements to the June round of the Current Population Survey (conducted at five-year intervals starting in 1971) were designed to examine transitions in the American family and to measure the demographic implications of these transitions for children. The supplements ask ...

  16. Evaluating the School Performance of Elementary and Middle School Children of Incarcerated Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Melissa F.

    2009-01-01

    Children of incarcerated parents are at significantly increased risk of negative long-term outcomes. With about 1% of the adult population incarcerated, the United States has millions of children at risk for these negative outcomes. Research on this population is increasing; however, it is still unclear whether children of incarcerated parents are…

  17. Patterns of Complementary and Alternative Medical Therapy Use in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Helen H. L.; Smith, Ronald G.

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapy use in children with chronic illnesses is higher than in children in the general population. In this study, we investigated patterns of CAM therapy use in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, n = 50) as compared to a control population of children…

  18. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  19. Effective population size of korean populations.

    PubMed

    Park, Leeyoung

    2014-12-01

    Recently, new methods have been developed for estimating the current and recent changes in effective population sizes. Based on the methods, the effective population sizes of Korean populations were estimated using data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. The overall changes in the population sizes of the total populations were similar to CHB (Han Chinese in Beijing, China) and JPT (Japanese in Tokyo, Japan) of the HapMap project. There were no differences in past changes in population sizes with a comparison between an urban area and a rural area. Age-dependent current and recent effective population sizes represent the modern history of Korean populations, including the effects of World War II, the Korean War, and urbanization. The oldest age group showed that the population growth of Koreans had already been substantial at least since the end of the 19th century. PMID:25705160

  20. Snowflake Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child & Youth Services, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Taking account of the needs and views of children is problematic, particularly in Ireland where children have been "owned" by their parents and social policy has been directed at the family rather than the individual child. The 1980s and 1990s may be said to be the decades where abuse, in its many forms, reared its head and Irish society was…

  1. Children & Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, David

    The major aims of this book are to provide an account of racial attitude development in young children and to describe the effects of racism on the development of black children, specifically in the United Kingdom. The book draws freely on American and British research in an effort to illuminate the British experience. The first two chapters…

  2. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  3. SGA Children in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Patrizia; Cioffi, Luigi; Limauro, Raffaele; Farris, Evelina; Bianco, Vincenzo; Sassi, Roberto; De Giovanni, Maria; Gallo, Valeria; D’Onofrio, Antonietta; Di Maio, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidences suggest a strong association between low birth weight and some diseases in adult life ( hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases).Aim of this study was to evaluate the obesity/overweight prevalence in a population of children born small for gestation age, SGA children 400, 208 males and 192 females compared to a population of children born appropriate for gestational age 6818 AGA children, 3502 males and 3316 females, during childhood. Our intention was also to build the natural history of weight gain during prepubertal age in children born SGA and AGA. Design and Methods: Observational prospective longitudinal study. We followed our patients from January2001 up to December 2010; weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were evaluated in all the SGA and AGA children. BMI z-score range for defining overweight and obesity was, respectively, 1.13 to 1.7 and >1.7 according to CDC growth charts. Results: In transversal evaluation, we prove that 10-year-old SGA females are twice obese and more overweight compared to equal age AGA females. In longitudinal evaluation, we highlight different observations: SGA children obese at 2 years are still obese at 10 years; the number of obese SGA children increases gradually until the age of 10; AGA children, appear to be less obese than SGA children at 10 years. Conclusion: SGA males and females are more obese at 5 and 10 years compared to the AGA population. Primary care pediatricians, through early detection of the children at risk, can carry out an effective obesity prevention project in SGA children. PMID:27583297

  4. Bereaved children.

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the unique aspects of childhood grief. To provide a framework for family physicians to use in assisting children to grieve. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search from 1966 to 1999 using the key words children, childhood, grief, mourning, and bereavement revealed mainly expert opinion articles, some non-randomized observational studies, and retrospective case-control studies. MAIN MESSAGE: Although children are influenced by similar factors and need to work through the same tasks of grief as adults, their unique psychological defences and evolving cognitive and emotional development make their grieving different from adults'. Understanding these unique childhood features will allow family physicians to more effectively help children through the tasks of acknowledging a death, working through the pain of that death, and accommodating it. CONCLUSIONS: With a framework for grief counseling that incorporates unique features of children's mourning, family physicians will be in a better position to assist their young bereaved patients. PMID:10626057

  5. Myeloproliferative Neoplasms in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Inga

    2015-01-01

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by aberrant proliferation of one or more myeloid lineages often with increased immature cells in the peripheral blood. The three classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs are: 1) polycythemia vera (PV), 2) essential thrombocythemia (ET), and 3) primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which are typically disorders of older adults and are exceedingly rare in children. The diagnostic criteria for MPNs remain largely defined by clinical, laboratory and histopathology assessments in adults, but they have been applied to the pediatric population. The discovery of the JAK2 V617F mutation, and more recently, MPL and CALR mutations, are major landmarks in the understanding of MPNs. Nevertheless, they rarely occur in children, posing a significant diagnostic challenge given the lack of an objective, clonal marker. Therefore, in pediatric patients, the diagnosis must rely heavily on clinical and laboratory factors, and exclusion of secondary disorders to make an accurate diagnosis of MPN. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, diagnostic work up, differential diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of the classical BCR-ABL-negative MPNs (PV, ET and PMF) in children and highlights key differences to the adult diseases. Particular attention will be given to pediatric PMF, as it is the only disorder of this group that is observed in infants and young children, and in many ways appears to be a unique entity compared to adult PMF. PMID:26609329

  6. Gender cognition in transgender children.

    PubMed

    Olson, Kristina R; Key, Aidan C; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-04-01

    A visible and growing cohort of transgender children in North America live according to their expressed gender rather than their natal sex, yet scientific research has largely ignored this population. In the current study, we adopted methodological advances from social-cognition research to investigate whether 5- to 12-year-old prepubescent transgender children (N = 32), who were presenting themselves according to their gender identity in everyday life, showed patterns of gender cognition more consistent with their expressed gender or their natal sex, or instead appeared to be confused about their gender identity. Using implicit and explicit measures, we found that transgender children showed a clear pattern: They viewed themselves in terms of their expressed gender and showed preferences for their expressed gender, with response patterns mirroring those of two cisgender (nontransgender) control groups. These results provide evidence that, early in development, transgender youth are statistically indistinguishable from cisgender children of the same gender identity. PMID:25749700

  7. Treating Mental Health Disorders for Children in Child Welfare Care: Evaluating the Outcome Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Shannon L.; Leschied, Alan; den Dunnen, Wendy; Zalmanowitz, Sharla; Baiden, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children involved in the child welfare system (CWS) have a greater need for mental health treatment relative to children in the general population. However, the research on mental health treatment for children in the CWS is sparse with only one known previous review of mental health services with children in the CWS. Objective: This…

  8. Correlates of Physician Visits Among Children and Adolescents in West Texas: Effects Of Hyperglycemia Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Ahmed A.; Venati, Girikumar; Borders, Tyrone F.; Rohrer, James E.

    2004-01-01

    Health care services use by children varies tremendously. Because of the increasing prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents, one of the major concerns is access to physician care among children with diabetes and diabetes symptoms. This population-based cross-sectional study examines correlates of physician visit among children and…

  9. Effective population size and population subdivision in demographically structured populations.

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Valérie; Charlesworth, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A fast-timescale approximation is applied to the coalescent process in a single population, which is demographically structured by sex and/or age. This provides a general expression for the probability that a pair of alleles sampled from the population coalesce in the previous time interval. The effective population size is defined as the reciprocal of twice the product of generation time and the coalescence probability. Biologically explicit formulas for effective population size with discrete generations and separate sexes are derived for a variety of different modes of inheritance. The method is also applied to a nuclear gene in a population of partially self-fertilizing hermaphrodites. The effects of population subdivision on a demographically structured population are analyzed, using a matrix of net rates of movement of genes between different local populations. This involves weighting the migration probabilities of individuals of a given age/sex class by the contribution of this class to the leading left eigenvector of the matrix describing the movements of genes between age/sex classes. The effects of sex-specific migration and nonrandom distributions of offspring number on levels of genetic variability and among-population differentiation are described for different modes of inheritance in an island model. Data on DNA sequence variability in human and plant populations are discussed in the light of the results. PMID:12242257

  10. Basic Facts about Low-Income Children: Children under 18 Years, 2013. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Yang; Ekono, Mercedes; Skinner, Curtis

    2015-01-01

    Children under 18 years represent 23 percent of the population, but they comprise 33 percent of all people in poverty. Among all children, 44 percent live in low-income families and approximately one in every five (22 percent) live in poor families. Being a child in a low-income or poor family does not happen by chance. Parental education and…

  11. Does Facial Expressivity Count? How Typically Developing Children Respond Initially to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stagg, Steven D.; Slavny, Rachel; Hand, Charlotte; Cardoso, Alice; Smith, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Research investigating expressivity in children with autism spectrum disorder has reported flat affect or bizarre facial expressivity within this population; however, the impact expressivity may have on first impression formation has received little research input. We examined how videos of children with autism spectrum disorder were rated for…

  12. Prevalence of Gene Rearrangements in Mexican Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Population Study—Report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the Identification of the Causes of Childhood Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010–2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  13. Prevalence of gene rearrangements in Mexican children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population study-report from the Mexican Interinstitutional Group for the identification of the causes of childhood leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bekker-Méndez, Vilma Carolina; Miranda-Peralta, Enrique; Núñez-Enríquez, Juan Carlos; Olarte-Carrillo, Irma; Guerra-Castillo, Francisco Xavier; Pompa-Mera, Ericka Nelly; Ocaña-Mondragón, Alicia; Rangel-López, Angélica; Bernáldez-Ríos, Roberto; Medina-Sanson, Aurora; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Amador-Sánchez, Raquel; Peñaloza-González, José Gabriel; de Diego Flores-Chapa, José; Fajardo-Gutiérrez, Arturo; Flores-Lujano, Janet; Rodríguez-Zepeda, María Del Carmen; Dorantes-Acosta, Elisa María; Bolea-Murga, Victoria; Núñez-Villegas, Nancy; Velázquez-Aviña, Martha Margarita; Torres-Nava, José Refugio; Reyes-Zepeda, Nancy Carolina; González-Bonilla, Cesar; Mejía-Aranguré, Juan Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Mexico has one of the highest incidences of childhood leukemia worldwide and significantly higher mortality rates for this disease compared with other countries. One possible cause is the high prevalence of gene rearrangements associated with the etiology or with a poor prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The aims of this multicenter study were to determine the prevalence of the four most common gene rearrangements [ETV6-RUNX1, TCF3-PBX1, BCR-ABL1, and MLL rearrangements] and to explore their relationship with mortality rates during the first year of treatment in ALL children from Mexico City. Patients were recruited from eight public hospitals during 2010-2012. A total of 282 bone marrow samples were obtained at each child's diagnosis for screening by conventional and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the gene rearrangements. Gene rearrangements were detected in 50 (17.7%) patients. ETV6-RUNX1 was detected in 21 (7.4%) patients, TCF3-PBX1 in 20 (7.1%) patients, BCR-ABL1 in 5 (1.8%) patients, and MLL rearrangements in 4 (1.4%) patients. The earliest deaths occurred at months 1, 2, and 3 after diagnosis in patients with MLL, ETV6-RUNX1, and BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangements, respectively. Gene rearrangements could be related to the aggressiveness of leukemia observed in Mexican children. PMID:25692130

  14. [Policies of economic development and population].

    PubMed

    Aleman, J L

    1974-01-01

    This literature review attempts to evaluate critically the theoretical and empirical evidence regarding the relationship between development policies and population and to assess the logical coherence of the principal types of population policy as they relate to economic development. The 1st part, on the relationship between economic development and population growth, consists of 5 sections which discuss: 1) the theories of classical economists including Quesnay, Malthus, Pareto, Marshall, and Pigou; 2) attempts to correlate population growth and economic development in developed countries by Kuznets and in developing countries by Adelman, Weintraub, Heer, Kirk, and others; 3) macroeconomic arguments used to defend aggressive policies of population control, including the scarcity of natural resources, the difficulty of increasing the rates of savings and investment with growing populations, and the disadvantages of rural-urban migration; 4) economic analyses of the desire to limit births which view children as either producer or consumer goods; and 5) the influence of economic development on social structure as it relates to the demand for children. In the 2nd part, 3 principal "ideal types" of population and economic development policy are identified: policies oriented toward growth of the modern sector of the economy, policies oriented toward population control, and policies oriented toward income distribution and education. The assumptions, mode of action, probabilities of success and limitations of each strategy are assessed. It is concluded that neither development of the modern sector alone nor attempts to promote birth control alone are sufficient to curb population growth appreciably. A concentrated policy to develop the most backward sectors of the economy might be the most likely to lead to a significant slowing of population growth but such a policy is unlikely to be tolerated by the wealthier classes in the absence of extreme coercion. A combination of

  15. [On some theoretic issues about planned control of population].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Q

    1981-01-01

    There are basic differences between Marxian and Malthusian population thought: 1) For Marx, population is a social phenomenon--human reproduction belongs to social production and population laws are social laws influenced by the means of production. Marx recognized that human reproduction had both a natural and a social relationship, but Malthus population theory only acknowledges the natural relationship of human reproduction. Malthus believed that if population grows without interference, it will double every 25 years, or geometrically. It is evident Malthus substituted biological possibilities for the objective inevitability of population evolution, and natural population laws for social population laws. 2) Marx believed that social production is the unification of material production and human reproduction. Material production is controlled and necessitates control of human reproduction. For Malthus, the growth of the means of subsistence never catches up with the growth of the population, but Marx said that even though land is limited, the development of production forces is limitless. Marxist theory postulates that man is basically a producer, but that population must be planned because not everyone is a producer (e.g., children and the unskilled). 3) Malthus believed that in capitalistic countries unemployment, famine, and poverty stem from too many births by the laboring class, i.e., population determines the economy. The only solution to population problems is to have fewer children. For Marx, economics determines population problems. PMID:12159326

  16. The Black Population in the United States: March 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Claudette E.

    1992-01-01

    This report presents a statistical portrait of the demographic, social, and economic characteristics of blacks, based primarily on the March 1991 Supplement to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Topics covered include population growth, marital status, family type and distribution, living arrangements of children, fertility, education,…

  17. Process and Progress in the Development of Population Education Overseas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viederman, Stephen

    The goals of population education are to help children understand, and act in accordance with, the impact of population characteristics on an international, national, and individual plane. It has been only within the last ten years that countries have paid systematic attention to the development of educational programs. The specific form of these…

  18. Population-Wide Parenting Intervention Training: Initial Feasibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Cheri J.; Prinz, Ronald J.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2008-01-01

    A population-level approach to deliver parenting and family support is a necessary but neglected approach needed to reduce the high prevalence of emotional/behavioral problems in children, decrease inadequate and potentially abusive parenting practices, and to provide improved parenting support to all parents within a specified population. We…

  19. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    MedlinePlus

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  20. Children's Bureau

    MedlinePlus

    ... Initiatives & Issues For the Press Focus Areas Adoption Child Abuse & Neglect Child Welfare Services Foster Care Guardianship Tribes ... to submit your nomination > 20th National Conference on Child Abuse and Neglect Sponsored by the Children's Bureau's Office ...