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Sample records for children undergoing cardiopulmonary

  1. Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Children Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Scott A.; Zaccagni, Hayden; Bichell, David P.; Christian, Karla G.; Mettler, Bret A.; Donahue, Brian S.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2014-01-01

    Objective Hemolysis, occurring during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), is associated with lipid peroxidation and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). Acetaminophen (ApAP) inhibits lipid peroxidation catalyzed by hemeproteins and in an animal model attenuated rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI. This pilot study tests the hypothesis that ApAP attenuates lipid peroxidation in children undergoing CPB. Design Single center prospective randomized double blinded study. Setting University-affiliated pediatric hospital. Patients Thirty children undergoing elective surgical correction of a congenital heart defect. Interventions Patients were randomized to ApAP (OFIRMEV® (acetaminophen) injection, Cadence Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA) or placebo every 6 hours for 4 doses starting before the onset of CPB. Measurement and Main Results Markers of hemolysis, lipid peroxidation (isofurans and F2-isoprostanes) and AKI were measured throughout the perioperative period. CPB was associated with a significant increase in free hemoglobin (from a pre-bypass level of 9.8±6.2 mg/dl to a peak of 201.5±42.6 mg/dl post-bypass). Plasma and urine isofuran and F2-isoprostane concentrations increased significantly during surgery. The magnitude of increase in plasma isofurans was greater than the magnitude in increase in plasma F2-isoprostanes. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofurans compared to placebo (P=0.02 for effect of study drug). There was no significant effect of ApAP on plasma F2-isoprostanes or urinary makers of lipid peroxidation. ApAP did not affect postoperative creatinine, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin or prevalence of AKI. Conclusion CPB in children is associated with hemolysis and lipid peroxidation. ApAP attenuated the increase in plasma isofuran concentrations. Future studies are needed to establish whether other therapies that attenuate or prevent the effects of free hemoglobin result in more effective inhibition of lipid peroxidation in patients

  2. Normothermic Versus Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Children Undergoing Open Heart Surgery (Thermic-2): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Baos, Sarah; Sheehan, Karen; Culliford, Lucy; Pike, Katie; Ellis, Lucy; Parry, Andrew J; Stoica, Serban; Ghorbel, Mohamed T; Caputo, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During open heart surgery, patients are connected to a heart-lung bypass machine that pumps blood around the body (“perfusion”) while the heart is stopped. Typically the blood is cooled during this procedure (“hypothermia”) and warmed to normal body temperature once the operation has been completed. The main rationale for “whole body cooling” is to protect organs such as the brain, kidneys, lungs, and heart from injury during bypass by reducing the body’s metabolic rate and decreasing oxygen consumption. However, hypothermic perfusion also has disadvantages that can contribute toward an extended postoperative hospital stay. Research in adults and small randomized controlled trials in children suggest some benefits to keeping the blood at normal body temperature throughout surgery (“normothermia”). However, the two techniques have not been extensively compared in children. Objective The Thermic-2 study will test the hypothesis that the whole body inflammatory response to the nonphysiological bypass and its detrimental effects on different organ functions may be attenuated by maintaining the body at 35°C-37°C (normothermic) rather than 28°C (hypothermic) during pediatric complex open heart surgery. Methods This is a single-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness and acceptability of normothermic versus hypothermic bypass in 141 children with congenital heart disease undergoing open heart surgery. Children having scheduled surgery to repair a heart defect not requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest represent the target study population. The co-primary clinical outcomes are duration of inotropic support, intubation time, and postoperative hospital stay. Secondary outcomes are in-hospital mortality and morbidity, blood loss and transfusion requirements, pre- and post-operative echocardiographic findings, routine blood gas and blood test results, renal function, cerebral function, regional oxygen saturation of

  3. Hypothermia During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Increases Need for Inotropic Support but Does Not Impact Inflammation in Children Undergoing Surgical Ventricular Septal Defect Closure.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Katharina Rose Luise; Fedarava, Katsiaryna; Justus, Georgia; Redlin, Mathias; Böttcher, Wolfgang; Delmo Walter, Eva Maria; Hetzer, Roland; Berger, Felix; Miera, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Minimizing the systemic inflammatory response caused by cardiopulmonary bypass is a major concern. It has been suggested that the perfusion temperature affects the inflammatory response. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the effects of moderate hypothermia (32°C) and normothermia (36°C) during cardiopulmonary bypass on markers of the inflammatory response and clinical outcomes (time on ventilator) after surgical closure of ventricular septal defects. During surgical closure of ventricular septal defects under cardiopulmonary bypass, 20 children (median age 4.9 months, range 2.3-38 months; median weight 7.2 kg, range 5.2-11.7 kg) were randomized to a perfusion temperature of either 32°C (Group 1, n = 10) or 36°C (Group 2, n = 10). The clinical data and blood samples were collected before cardiopulmonary bypass, directly after aortic cross-clamp release, and 4 and 24 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Time on ventilation as primary outcome did not differ between the two groups. Other clinical outcome parameters like fluid balance or length of stay in the intensive care were also similar in the two groups. Compared with Group 2, Group 1 needed significantly higher and longer inotropic support (P < 0.001). In Group 1, two infants had junctional ectopic tachycardia, and another had a pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Perfusion temperature did not influence cytokine release, organ injury, or coagulation. Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature does not influence time on ventilation or inflammatory marker release. However, in the present study, with a small patient cohort, patients operated under hypothermic bypass needed higher and longer inotropic support. The use of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children should be approached with care. PMID:26581834

  4. Drug therapy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children.

    PubMed

    Zaritsky, A

    1989-03-01

    In contrast to adults, cardiopulmonary arrest in infants and children is rarely an acute, primary cardiac event. Instead, it is often the terminal event in a progressive deterioration of respiratory or circulatory function. Successful resuscitation from cardiac arrest therefore is unusual in the paediatric patient and most survivors have persistent neurological impairment. Rapid vascular access and recall of drug dosages are major obstacles in treating paediatric emergencies. This paper reviews vascular access and alternative drug delivery methods. The endotracheal and intraosseous routes provide alternative sites for drug delivery, but the optimal doses and methods of drug administration via these routes are unknown. Indeed, although great progress in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) research has been made over the past 10 years, there are only limited data on paediatric arrest mechanisms and drug treatment. In this paper, recommended dosages and mechanisms of action of drugs useful during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are reviewed, highlighting recent data which suggest that changes in current drug recommendations may be needed. To avoid delays in management, precalculated tables of drugs should be readily available in emergency departments and other care areas where paediatric cases are likely to be seen. Adrenaline (epinephrine) remains the drug of choice in a cardiac arrest, but the most effective dose may be higher than currently used. Treatment of acidosis during the arrest concentrates on restoration of ventilation and blood flow and not on bicarbonate administration. In the post-arrest setting increasing data suggest bicarbonate may not be beneficial and may actually be detrimental. Calcium and atropine also have relatively minor roles in resuscitation pharmacology. Calcium is only indicated to treat hypocalcaemia, counteract the effects of hyperkalaemia or hypermagnesaemia, or reverse calcium channel blocker toxicity. Finally, the role of isoprenaline

  5. Factors affecting postoperative blood loss in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Faraoni, David; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that the influence of cyanotic disease on postoperative blood loss is closely related to age in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Here, we demonstrate that the presence of a cyanotic disease is associated with increased postoperative blood loss in children aged 1 to 6 months. Children with cyanotic disease and aged<1 month who received fresh frozen plasma during cardiopulmonary bypass had less postoperative blood loss and higher maximal clot firmness on FIBTEM than cyanotic children from all other groups. Additional studies are needed to define optimal pathophysiology-based management in children undergoing cardiac surgery. PMID:24512988

  6. Cardiopulmonary Fitness and Endurance in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Sheng K.; Lin, Hsiao-Hui; Li, Yao-Chuen; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Cairney, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cardiopulmonary fitness and endurance in 9-11-year-old children with DCD against a group of typically developing children in Taiwan. The Movement ABC test was used to evaluate the motor abilities of children. Forty-one participants (20 children with DCD and 21 children without DCD) were recruited for this…

  7. Results of Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hong Ju; Song, Seunghwan; Park, Han Ki; Park, Young Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background Survival of children experiencing cardiac arrest refractory to conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is very poor. We sought to examine current era outcomes of extracorporeal CPR (ECPR) support for refractory arrest. Methods Patients who were <18 years and underwent ECPR between November 2013 and January 2016 were including in this study. We retrospectively investigated patient medical records. Results Twelve children, median age 6.6 months (range, 1 day to 11.7 years), required ECPR. patients’ diseases spanned several categories: congenital heart disease (n=5), myocarditis (n=2), respiratory failure (n=2), septic shock (n=1), trauma (n=1), and post-cardiotomy arrest (n=1). Cannulation sites included the neck (n=8), chest (n=3), and neck to chest conversion (n=1). Median duration of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was five days (range, 0 to 14 days). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was successfully discontinued in 10 (83.3%) patients. Nine patients (75%) survived more than seven days after support discontinuation and four patients (33.3%) survived and were discharged. Causes of death included ischemic brain injury (n=4), sepsis (n=3), and gastrointestinal bleeding (n=1). Conclusion ECPR plays a valuable role in children experiencing refractory cardiac arrest. The weaning rate is acceptable; however, survival is related to other organ dysfunction and the severity of ischemic brain injury. ECPR prior to the emergence of end-organ injury and prevention of neurologic injury might enhance survival. PMID:27298791

  8. Perioperative Intravenous Acetaminophen Attenuates Lipid Peroxidation in Adults Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Billings IV, Frederic T.; Petracek, Michael R.; Roberts II, L. Jackson; Pretorius, Mias

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery. Methods and Results In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9±0.6 μg/mL (78.9±3.9 μM) and 8.7±0.3 μg/mL (57.6±2.0 μM), respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05), and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03). Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation. Conclusions Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected

  9. The Sunflower Cardiopulmonary Research Project of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Leon

    A three year project designed to determine the value of a health program incorporating a cardiopulmonary fitness program is described. The instructional programs were in heart health, pulmonary health, nutrition, and physical fitness. A noncompetitive exercise and fitness period was employed in addition to the normal physical education time.…

  10. Neurodevelopmental outcome after cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    PubMed Central

    Naguib, Aymen N.; Winch, Peter D.; Tobias, Joseph D.; Yeates, Keith O.; Miao, Yongjie; Galantowicz, Mark; Hoffman, Timothy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Modulating the stress response and perioperative factors can have a paramount impact on the neurodevelopmental outcome of infants who undergo cardiac surgery utilizing cardiopulmonary bypass. Materials and Methods: In this single center prospective follow-up study, we evaluated the impact of three different anesthetic techniques on the neurodevelopmental outcomes of 19 children who previously underwent congenital cardiac surgery within their 1st year of life. Cases were done from May 2011 to December 2013. Children were assessed using the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (5th edition). Multiple regression analysis was used to test different parental and perioperative factors that could significantly predict the different neurodevelopmental outcomes in the entire cohort of patients. Results: When comparing the three groups regarding the major cognitive scores, a high-dose fentanyl (HDF) patients scored significantly higher than the low-dose fentanyl (LDF) + dexmedetomidine (DEX) (LDF + DEX) group in the quantitative reasoning scores (106 ± 22 vs. 82 ± 15 P = 0.046). The bispectral index (BIS) value at the end of surgery for the -LDF group was significantly higher than that in LDF + DEX group (P = 0.011). For the entire cohort, a strong correlation was seen between the standard verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) score and the baseline adrenocorticotropic hormone level, the interleukin-6 level at the end of surgery and the BIS value at the end of the procedure with an R2 value of 0.67 and P < 0.04. There was an inverse correlation between the cardiac Intensive Care Unit length of stay and the full-scale IQ score (R = 0.4675 and P 0.027). Conclusions: Patients in the HDF group demonstrated overall higher neurodevelopmental scores, although it did not reach statistical significance except in fluid reasoning scores. Our results may point to a possible correlation between blunting the stress response and improvement of the neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID

  11. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiana Araújo G.; Balbino, Flávia Simphronio; Balieiro, Maria Magda F. G.; Mandetta, Myriam Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify literature evidences related to actions to promote family's presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures in children hospitalized in pediatric and neonatal critical care units. Data sources : Integrative literature review in PubMed, SciELO and Lilacs databases, from 2002 to 2012, with the following inclusion criteria: research article in Medicine, or Nursing, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, using the keywords "family", "invasive procedures", "cardiopulmonary resuscitation", "health staff", and "Pediatrics". Articles that did not refer to the presence of the family in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and invasive procedures were excluded. Therefore, 15 articles were analyzed. Data synthesis : Most articles were published in the United States (80%), in Medicine and Nursing (46%), and were surveys (72%) with healthcare team members (67%) as participants. From the critical analysis, four themes related to the actions to promote family's presence in invasive procedures and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were obtained: a) to develop a sensitizing program for healthcare team; b) to educate the healthcare team to include the family in these circumstances; c) to develop a written institutional policy; d) to ensure the attendance of family's needs. Conclusions: Researches on these issues must be encouraged in order to help healthcare team to modify their practice, implementing the principles of the Patient and Family Centered Care model, especially during critical episodes. PMID:24676198

  12. Vitamin D Status in Neonates Undergoing Cardiac Operations: Relationship to Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Association with Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Eric M.; Taylor, Sarah N.; Zyblewski, Sinai C.; Wolf, Bethany; Bradley, Scott M.; Hollis, Bruce W.; McGowan, Francis X.; Atz, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency in neonates with congenital heart disease and whether differences exist by race. In addition, we determined the effect of cardiopulmonary bypass on vitamin D levels, and explored associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and postoperative outcomes. Study design A secondary analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial in 70 neonates undergoing cardiac surgery was performed. 25(OH)D levels were collected in the operating room prior to skin incision (baseline), at the cessation of cardiopulmonary bypass and 24 hours post-operatively. Associations between these levels and clinical outcomes were explored. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as a 25(OH)D level <20 ng/ml. Results Vitamin D deficiency was present in 84% (59/70); concentrations in African-Americans (n=20) were significantly lower than Caucasian/other (n=50) (10.2 ±4.2ng/ml vs. 16.0 ±5.6ng/ml, p<0.0001). The 24 hour postoperative 25(OH)D level were not different from baseline and correlated with a reduced postoperative inotropic requirement (r=−0.316, p=0.008). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in neonates with congenital cardiac defects and lower postoperative 25(OH)D levels are associated with the need for increased inotropic support in neonates undergoing cardiac operations. These findings provide support that vitamin D deficiency may play a role in myocardial injury and postoperative recovery and warrants further investigation. PMID:23149171

  13. Impact of Intraoperative Events on Cerebral Tissue Oximetry in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Ševerdija, Ervin E; Vranken, Nousjka P A; Teerenstra, Steven; Ganushchak, Yuri M; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies showed that decreased cerebral saturation during cardiac surgery is related to adverse postoperative outcome. Therefore, we investigated the influence of intraoperative events on cerebral tissue saturation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A total of 52 adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery using pulsatile CPB were included in this prospective explorative study. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) was measured in both the left and right cerebral hemisphere. Intraoperative events, involving interventions performed by anesthesiologist, surgeon, and clinical perfusionist, were documented. Simultaneously, in-line hemodynamic parameters (partial oxygen pressure, partial carbon dioxide pressure, hematocrit, arterial blood pressure, and CPB flow rates) were recorded. Cerebral tissue saturation was affected by anesthetic induction (p < .001), placement of the sternal retractor (p < .001), and initiation (p < .001) as well as termination of CPB (p < .001). Placement (p < .001) and removal of the aortic cross-clamp (p = .026 for left hemisphere, p = .048 for right hemisphere) led to changes in cerebral tissue saturation. In addition, when placing the aortic crossclamp, hematocrit (p < .001) as well as arterial (p = .007) and venous (p < .001) partial oxygen pressures changed. Cerebral tissue oximetry effectively identifies changes related to surgical events or vulnerable periods during cardiac surgery. Future studies are needed to identify methods of mitigating periods of reduced cerebral saturation. PMID:26390677

  14. Theophylline Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing in Children Following Congenital Heart Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Frymoyer, Adam; Su, Felice; Grimm, Paul C; Sutherland, Scott M; Axelrod, David M

    2016-09-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) frequently develop acute kidney injury due to renal ischemia. Theophylline, which improves renal perfusion via adenosine receptor inhibition, is a potential targeted therapy. However, children undergoing cardiac surgery and CPB commonly have alterations in drug pharmacokinetics. To help understand optimal aminophylline (salt formulation of theophylline) dosing strategies in this population, a population-based pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling (NONMEM) from 71 children (median age 5 months; 90% range 1 week to 10 years) who underwent cardiac surgery requiring CPB and received aminophylline as part of a previous randomized controlled trial. A 1-compartment model with linear elimination adequately described the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Weight scaled via allometry was a significant predictor of clearance and volume. In addition, allometric scaled clearance increased with age implemented as a power maturation function. Compared to prior reports in noncardiac children, theophylline clearance was markedly reduced across age. In the final population pharmacokinetic model, optimized empiric dosing regimens were developed via Monte Carlo simulations. Doses 50% to 75% lower than those recommended in noncardiac children were needed to achieve target serum concentrations of 5 to 10 mg/L. PMID:26712558

  15. Hemolysis in Cardiac Surgery Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Review in Search of a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Vercaemst, Leen

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hemolysis is a fact in all extracorporeal circuits, as shown in various studies by the increasing levels of plasma-free hemoglobin (PfHb) and decreasing levels of haptoglobin during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Beside complete red blood cell (RBC) destruction or hemolysis, RBCs can also be damaged on a sublethal level, resulting in altered rheological properties. Increased levels of free RBC constituents together with an exhaust of their scavengers result in a variety of serious clinical sequela, such as increased systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance, altered coagulation profile, platelet dysfunction, renal tubular damage, and increased mortality. Sublethal RBC damage is characterized by decreased microperfusion and hypoxic RBCs, leading to end organ dysfunction caused by cellular ischemia. Isolated extracorporeal circuit components can be considered non-hemolytic if used according to recommendations, but extracorporeal circuit composition and management during CPB can still be optimized, avoiding cell damaging mechanical forces. Although most RBC destruction in standard CPB remains within the capacity of the endogenous clearing mechanisms, in some cases, levels of PfHb do substantially rise, and precautionary measures need to be taken. Higher degree of hemolysis can be expected in young children, after extensive surgery, and in prolonged support as in patients supported by ventricular assist devices (VADs) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). These patients are especially susceptible to the toxic influences of unscavenged RBC constituents and the loss of rheologic properties of the RBCs. Considering the high percentage of neurologic and renal sequela in post-cardiotomy patients, all imbalances possibly contributing to these morbidities should be focused on and prevented, if not treated. Considering the severity of the consequences of RBC damage, the high incidence of this complication, and especially the lack of interventional

  16. Cerebral blood flow response to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F.H.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Quill, T.J.; Baldwin, B.; White, W.D.; Reves, J.G.; Greeley, W.J. )

    1991-04-01

    We examined the relationship of changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide on cerebral blood flow responsiveness in 20 pediatric patients undergoing hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Cerebral blood flow was measured during steady-state hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with the use of xenon 133 clearance methodology at two different arterial carbon dioxide tensions. During these measurements there was no significant change in mean arterial pressure, nasopharyngeal temperature, pump flow rate, or hematocrit value. Cerebral blood flow was found to be significantly greater at higher arterial carbon dioxide tensions (p less than 0.01), so that for every millimeter of mercury rise in arterial carbon dioxide tension there was a 1.2 ml.100 gm-1.min-1 increase in cerebral blood flow. Two factors, deep hypothermia (18 degrees to 22 degrees C) and reduced age (less than 1 year), diminished the effect carbon dioxide had on cerebral blood flow responsiveness but did not eliminate it. We conclude that cerebral blood flow remains responsive to changes in arterial carbon dioxide tension during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children; that is, increasing arterial carbon dioxide tension will independently increase cerebral blood flow.

  17. PRIS may be diagnosed before ICU period for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Türker

    2016-05-01

    There are many published articles on the clinical manifestations of propofol-related infusion syndrome (PRIS), but they are not the same in each case.(1)Moreover, PRIS is only encountered infrequently and, therefore, it may create a diagnostic challenge. Nearly all of the published articles on PRIS are related to the use of long-term (>48 hour) propofol infusion with a dose range of at least 4-5 mg/kg/h.(2-11)In this case, not only a short duration, but also a low-dose propofol administration seems to induce PRIS. A 73-year-old male patient under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) suffered from some clinical symptoms of PRIS, such as hyperlactatemia and persistent low metabolic acidosis which promptly resolved on the discontinuation of propofol. Therefore, we suggest that any propofol administration (bolus or infusion) may result in such clinical symptoms, which may be the earliest indicators of PRIS. When those symptoms are observed on propofol administration during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the perfusionist must alert both the anaesthesiologist and the surgeon to stop the propofol in order to prevent the patient from further adverse effects of PRIS. PMID:26354738

  18. Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Faritous, Zahra S.; Aghdaie, Nahid; Yazdanian, Forouzan; Azarfarin, Rasoul; Dabbagh, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prolonged mechanical ventilation is an important recognized complication occurring during cardiovascular surgery procedures. This study was done to assess the perioperative risk factors related to postoperative pulmonary complications and tracheostomy in women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: It was a retrospective study on 5,497 patients, including 31 patients with prolonged ventilatory support and 5,466 patients without it; from the latter group, 350 patients with normal condition (extubated in 6-8 hours without any complication) were selected randomly. Possible perioperative risk factors were compared between the two groups using a binary logistic regression model. Results: Among the 5,497 women undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), 31 women needed prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV), and 15 underwent tracheostomy. After logistic regression, 7 factors were determined as being independent perioperative risk factors for PMV. Discussion: Age ≥70 years old, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤30%, preexisting respiratory or renal disease, emergency or re-do operation and use of preoperative inotropic agents are the main risk factors determined in this study on women undergoing CABG. PMID:21804797

  19. Ulinastatin Protects against Acute Kidney Injury in Infant Piglets Model Undergoing Surgery on Hypothermic Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocou; Xue, Qinghua; Yan, Fuxia; Liu, Jinping; Li, Shoujun; Hu, Shengshou

    2015-01-01

    Objective Infants are more vulnerable to kidney injuries induced by inflammatory response syndrome and ischemia-reperfusion injury following cardiopulmonary bypass especially with prolonged hypothermic low-flow (HLF). This study aims to evaluate the protective role of ulinastatin, an anti-inflammatory agent, against acute kidney injuries in infant piglets model undergoing surgery on HLF cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Eighteen general-type infant piglets were randomly separated into the ulinastatin group (Group U, n = 6), the control group (Group C, n = 6), and the sham operation group (Group S, n = 6), and anaesthetized. The groups U and C received following experimental procedure: median thoracotomy, routine CPB and HLF, and finally weaned from CPB. The group S only underwent sham median thoracotomy. Ulinastatin at a dose of 5,000 units/kg body weight and a certain volume of saline were administrated to animals of the groups U and C at the beginning of CPB and at aortic declamping, respectively. Venous blood samples were collected at 3 different time points: after anesthesia induction in all experimental groups, 5 minutes, and 120 minutes after CPB in the Groups U and C. Markers for inflammation and acute kidney injury were tested in the collected plasma. N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) from urine, markers of oxidative stress injury and TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues were also detected. Results The expressions of plasma inflammatory markers and acute kidney injury markers increased both in Group U and Group C at 5 min and 120 min after CPB. Also, numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney rose in both groups. At the time point of 120-min after CPB, compared with the Group C, some plasma inflammatory and acute kidney injury markers as well as TUNEL-positive cells and oxidative stress markers in kidney were significantly reduced in the Group U. Histologic analyses showed that HLF promoted acute tubular necrosis and dilatation

  20. The Hemobag: the modern ultrafiltration system for patients undergoing cardiopulmonary by pass

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The return of extracorporeal circuit blood at the termination of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is an important feature of blood conservation during cardiac surgery procedures globally. We report our initial clinical evaluation of the Hemobag system a blood-salvaging device designed for whole blood recovery of residual post-CPB volume. Methods Residual whole blood is hemoconcetrated through the multipass “recovery loop” circuit separate from the CPB and collected in the Hemobag System. This allows the surgeons to continue with surgery, decannulate, and administer protamine simultaneously while the Hemobag is in use and the CPB circuit remains safely primed. We have compared 25 patients receiving the Hemobag to a control group of 25 patients treated with the cell washer that represented our previous standard of care method of circuit blood-salvaging technique. Results The Hemobag system provided significantly higher hemoglobin, hematocrit, fibrinogen, albumin, and total protein levels in the final product reducing the amount of wasted autologous blood cells. There were no device-related complications. There were no significant differences in terms of blood utilization, chest tube drainage and clinical outcomes over the entire postoperative period among groups. Conclusions These results suggest that the Hemobag system is a safe and efficient method to multipass hemoconcentrate the residual diluted blood of the CPB circuit. The Hemobag has demonstrated its ability to maximize the composition of the residual CPB volume to achieve the best possible post-CPB hemoglobin, plasma protein and coagulation factors profile for the patient respect to CW. PMID:22697396

  1. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Bypass Adaptations for Long-Term Survival of Baboons Undergoing Pulmonary Artery Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Carrie; Grist, Gary; Bert, Arthur; Brasky, Kathleen; Neighbors, Stacy; McFall, Christopher; Hilbert, Stephen L.; Drake, William B.; Cromwell, Michael; Mueller, Barbara; Lofland, Gary K.; Hopkins, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) protocols of the baboon (Papio cynocephalus anubis) are limited to obtaining experimental data without concern for long-term survival. In the evaluation of pulmonary artery tissue engineered heart valves (TEHVs), pediatric CPB methods are adapted to accommodate the animals’ unique physiology enabling survival up to 6 months until elective sacrifice. Aortic access was by a 14F arterial cannula and atrial access by a single 24F venous cannula. The CPB circuit includes a 3.3 L/min flow rated oxygenator, ¼″ × ⅜″ arterial-venous loop, ⅜″ raceway, and bubble trap. The prime contains 700 mL Plasma-Lyte, 700 units heparin, 5 mL of 50% dextrose, and 20 mg amiodarone. Heparinization (200 u/kg) targets an activated clotting time of 350 seconds. Normothermic CPB was initiated at a 2.5 L/m2/min cardiac index with a mean arterial pressure of 55–80 mmHg. Weaning was monitored with transesophageal echocardiogram. Post-CPB circuit blood was re-infused. Chest tubes were removed with cessation of bleeding. Extubation was performed upon spontaneous breathing. The animals were conscious and upright 3 hours post-CPB. Bioprosthetic valves or TEHVs were implanted as pulmonary replacements in 20 baboons: weight = 27.5 ± 5.6 kg, height = 73 ± 7 cm, body surface area = 0.77 m2 ± 0.08, mean blood flow = 1.973 ± .254 L/min, core temperature = 37.1 ± .1°C, and CPB time = 60 ± 40 minutes. No acidosis accompanied CPB. Sixteen animals survived, four expired. Three died of right ventricular failure and one of an anaphylactoid reaction. Surviving animals had normally functioning replacement valves and ventricles. Baboon CPB requires modifications to include high systemic blood pressure for adequate perfusion into small coronary arteries, careful CPB weaning to prevent ventricular distention, and drug and fluid interventions to abate variable venous return related to a muscularized spleno-splanchnic venous capacity. PMID:21114226

  2. Effect of ischemic postconditioning on myocardial protection in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Nasser; Sheikhalizadeh, Mohammad Ali; Badalzadeh, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reperfusion injury is a well-known phenomenon following restoration of the coronary circulation after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) that impairs myocardial function. In order to control the severity of this injury, we aimed to investigate the effect of a new conditioning strategy namely ischemic postconditioning (IPOC) along with controlled aortic root reperfusion (CARR) on myocardial protection in CABG surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: In a doubled blind clinical trial study, 51 patients undergoing first-time elective CABG were randomly divided in three groups: CARR, IPOC, and combination of IPOC and CARR. At the end of procedure and just before aortic cross-clamp removal, reperfusion was started as following: In CARR-receiving groups, the reperfusion was started with low perfusion pressures for 10 minutes, and in IPOC-receiving groups, three cycles of 1 minute episodes of ischemia separated by 1 minute episodes of reperfusion was applied as postconditioning protocol. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) (by echocardiography), inotrope requirement index, and myocardial arrhythmias were measured up to 72 hours after operation. Results: Echocardiography revealed that the recovery of EF after operation in IPOC group was significantly higher than those of two other groups (P < 0.05). Inotropic support requirement was significantly lower in IPOC groups. In addition, the incidence of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias after opening of aortic clamp and in intensive care unit (ICU) as well as recovery time of cardiac rhythm upon reperfusion were lowered by administration of IPOC, as compared with CARR group. Conclusion: The study suggests that IPOC may provide clinical benefits against reperfusion injury in patients undergoing CABG surgery and maintain the post ischemic left ventricular performance. PMID:27489599

  3. Right heart function and prediction of respiratory morbidity in patients undergoing pneumonectomy with moderately severe cardiopulmonary dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J W; Bastanfar, M; Gabriel, F; Mascha, E

    1994-07-01

    Detailed hemodynamic monitoring was performed in 20 patients undergoing pneumonectomy with moderately severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Flow-directed pulmonary artery catheters capable of determining thermal dilution right ventricular ejection fraction and other indexes of right ventricular performance were placed in each patient. The mean actual and percent values for forced expiratory volume in 1 second in this group were 1.8 +/- 0.5 L and 66% +/- 18%, respectively. Pulmonary hypertension was present in 76.5% of patients at the baseline nonintubated state. At pulmonary artery clamping, 53.8% of this subgroup had no change or a mean drop of 8 mm Hg in pressure. The remaining had a mean rise of 12 mm Hg. Mean systolic pulmonary artery pressures in this subset (41 mm Hg) did not change from the nonintubated state to pulmonary artery clamping. Patients with normal pulmonary artery pressures before intubation had an average rise of only 4 mm Hg at pulmonary artery clamping. In the immediate postoperative period, only 10.0% of the entire group had normal pulmonary artery pressures. Right ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary vascular resistance were normal in 58.8% and 94.1%, respectively, at the baseline nonintubated state. Abnormal right ventricular ejection fraction values (< 45%) were present in 70.0% of patients at pulmonary artery clamping; 25.0% fell below 35%. Pulmonary vascular resistance increased above 200 dyne.sec.cm-5 in 30.0% at pulmonary artery clamping. No correlation was found between right ventricular ejection fraction and pulmonary vascular resistance or pulmonary artery pressure during operation. No pulmonary function test or hemodynamic variable measured in this study accurately predicted the days of hospital stay or early postoperative cardiopulmonary morbidity. At the baseline nonintubated state, no parameter consistently predicted late New York Heart Association class III/IV. At the time of pulmonary artery clamping, a right

  4. Platelet inhibition with prasugrel in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing therapeutic hypothermia after cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Flierl, Ulrike; Röntgen, Philipp; Zauner, Florian; Tongers, Jörn; Berliner, Dominik; Bauersachs, Johann; Schäfer, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the leading cause for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Therapeutic hypothermia improves neurological outcome in combination with early revascularisation, but seems to affect clopidogrel responsiveness. The more potent thienopyridine prasugrel has not yet been sufficiently evaluated during therapeutic hypothermia. We investigated 23 consecutive AMI patients (61 ± 11 years) following out-of-hospital resuscitation undergoing revascularisation and therapeutic hypothermia. Prasugrel efficacy was assessed by the platelet-reactivity-index (PRI) before and 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours (h) following a loading dose of 60 mg via a gastric tube. Mean PRI (± SD) was 70 ± 12 % prior to loading and 60 ± 16 % (2 h, ns), 52 ± 21 % (4 h, p< 0.01), 42 ± 26 % (6 h, p< 0.01), 37 ± 21 % (12 h, p< 0.01), 27 ± 23 % (24 h, p< 0.01), 18 ± 14 % (48 h, p< 0.01), and 13 ± 10 % (72 h, p< 0.01) after loading. Sufficient platelet inhibition occurred later compared to stable AMI patients (6 h vs 2 h); however, high on-treatment platelet reactivity significantly decreased over time and was non-existent after 72 h (PRI> 50 %: 2 h: 72 %, 4 h: 52 %, 6 h: 43 %, 12 h: 29 %, 24 h: 17 %, 48 h: 5 %, 72 h: 0 %). There was no relation between 30-day mortality rate (26 %) and PRI values. Prasugrel significantly reduced platelet reactivity even during vasopressor use, analgosedation and therapeutic hypothermia. Despite a significant delay compared to stable AMI patients, sufficient platelet inhibition was reached in 83 % of patients within 24 h. Therefore, prasugrel administration via gastric tube might be a useful therapeutic strategy in these patients at high risk, providing potent and effective P2Y12 inhibition. PMID:26790884

  5. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has no significant impact on survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV inferior vena cava thrombectomy; a multi-institutional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dall'Era, Marc A.; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Carballido, Joaquín A.; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Chromecki, Thomas; Ciancio, Gaetano; Daneshmand, Siamak; Gontero, Paolo; Gonzalez, Javier; Haferkamp, Axel; Hohenfellner, Markus; Huang, William C.; Espinós, Estefania Linares; Mandel, Philipp; Martinez-Salamanca, Juan I.; Master, Viraj A.; McKiernan, James M.; Montorsi, Francesco; Novara, Giacomo; Pahernik, Sascha; Palou, Juan; Pruthi, Raj S.; Rodriguez-Faba, Oscar; Russo, Paul; Scherr, Douglas S.; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Spahn, Martin; Terrone, Carlo; Vergho, Daniel; Wallen, Eric M.; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Zigeuner, Richard; Libertino, John A.; Evans, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) usage in level III-IV tumor thrombectomy on surgical and oncologic outcomes is unknown. We sought to determine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on overall and cancer specific survival, as well as surgical complication rates, and immediate outcomes in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III-IV tumor thrombectomy with or without CPB. Patients and Methods We retrospectively analyzed 362 patients with RCC and with level III or IV tumor thrombus from 1992 to 2012 in 22 US and European centers. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare overall and cancer-specific survival between patients with and without CPB. Perioperative mortality and complications rates were assessed using logistic regression analyses. Results The median overall survival was 24.6 months in non-CPB patients and 26.6 months in CPB patients. Overall survival and cancer-specific survival (CSS) did not differ significantly in both groups, neither in univariate analysis nor when adjusting for known risk factors. In multivariate analysis, no significant differences were seen in hospital LOS, Clavien 1-4 complication rate, intraoperative or 30 day mortality, and CSS between both groups. Limitations include the retrospective nature of the study. Conclusions In our multi-institutional analysis, the use of cardiopulmonary bypass did not significantly impact cancer specific survival or overall survival in patients undergoing nephrectomy and level III or IV tumor thrombectomy. Neither approach was independently associated with increased mortality in the multivariate analysis. Higher surgical complications were not independently associated with the use of CPB. PMID:25797392

  6. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan; Zeng, Jincheng

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  7. Interleukin-27 as a Novel Biomarker for Early Cardiopulmonary Failure in Enterovirus 71-Infected Children with Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Mingyuan; Du, Wenjing; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Haiyang; Cao, Longbin; Yang, Weiqing; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Zhiyong; Wei, Pei; Wu, Weiquan; Huang, Zhulin; Fang, Ying; Lin, Qiling; Qin, Xingwen; Zhang, Zhizhong; Zhou, Keyuan

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major pathogen for severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which leads to severe neurological complications and has high morbidity and mortality. Reliable biomarker for the prediction of deterioration in EV71-infected children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement may reduce the cardiopulmonary failure and mortality. Here, we found that serum IL-27 levels were significantly higher in stage III EV71-infected HFMD patients with early cardiopulmonary failure and strong correlation with CRP levels. IL27p28 polymorphisms (rs153109, rs17855750, and rs181206) did not influence IL-27 production, and these three SNPs were not associated with EV71 infection risk and clinical stage. IL-27 can be used as an prediction indicator for early cardiopulmonary failure in EV71-infected children with CNS involvement. PMID:27403033

  8. Information Acquisition in Children Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, Barbara G.; And Others

    In order to evaluate how individual characteristics of hospitalized children influence their acquisition of information presented in a film depicting preparation for surgery, 42 children between the ages of 4 to 17 were assigned to experimental and control groups that were matched for age, sex, race, type of surgery and previous hospital…

  9. [Controlled study of the effect of sports training on cardiopulmonary functions in asthmatic children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rothe, T; Köhl, C; Mansfeld, H J

    1990-09-01

    The influence of physical training on the cardiopulmonary system and on lung function of asthmatic children was determined in a controlled study. The children were all indoor patients of the Hochgebirgsklinik Davos, Switzerland. 36 children at the age of 10 to 16 years entered the study. They were placed into either a "free running group", a "swimming group" or a "control group." The children of the training groups underwent a training of at least 10 units of 30 minutes each in 3 weeks. The control group did not participate in any regular physical training. Heart rate was measured before and after a bicycle ergometer exercise of 5 minutes at 2.5 watts/kg body weight. This was repeated at the end of the study. In the "free running group" a significant decrease of the heart rate at rest (p less than 0.05) and at the end of bicycle ergometer exercise (p less than 0.01) could be seen. In the "swimming group" the decrease of the latter was significant (p less than 0.05). In both groups an increase in work tolerance could be demonstrated, but not in the "control group." In all three groups an improvement of lung function (IVC, FEV1) was found, but it was not significant in any of the groups. The small improvement might be due to a reduction in allergen exposure and better medical treatment. The study confirms the possibility of physical training of children with asthma even if exercise-induced asthmatic signs and symptoms are present. PMID:2263585

  10. Reduction in Postoperative High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels in Children Undergoing the Fontan Operation

    PubMed Central

    Argraves, W. Scott; Graham, Eric M.; Slate, Elizabeth H.; Atz, Andrew M.; Bradley, Scott M.; McQuinn, Tim C.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Wing, Shane B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the emerging relevance of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in the inflammatory cascade and vascular barrier integrity, HDL levels in children undergoing cardiac surgery are unexplored. As a measure of HDL levels, the HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in single-ventricle patients was quantified before and after the Fontan operation, and it was determined whether relationships existed between the duration and the type of postoperative pleural effusions. The study prospectively enrolled 12 children undergoing the Fontan operation. Plasma HDL-C levels were measured before and after cardiopulmonary bypass. The outcome variables of interest were the duration and type of chest tube drainage (chylous vs. nonchylous). The Kendall rank correlation coefficient and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used. There were 11 complete observations. The median preoperative HDL-C level for all the subjects was 30 mg/dl (range, 24–53 mg/dl), and the median postcardiopulmonary bypass level was 21 mg/dl (range, 14–46 mg/dl) (p = 0.004). There was a tendency toward a moderate inverse correlation (–0.42) between the postcardiopulmonary bypass HDL-C level and the duration of chest tube drainage, but the result was not statistically significant (p = 0.07). In the chylous effusion group, the median postcardiopulmonary bypass HDL-C tended to be lower (16 vs. 23 mg/dl; p = 0.09). After the Fontan operation, the plasma HDL-C levels in children are significantly reduced. It is reasonable to conclude that the reduction in HDL-C reflects reduced plasma levels of HDL particles, which may have pertinent implications in postoperative pleural effusions given the antiinflammatory and endothelial barrier functions of HDL. PMID:22411716

  11. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Undergoing Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Vazirian, Shams; Seyedzadeh, Abolhasan; Rafeie, Mohammad; Salehi, Bahman; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common childhood psychiatric disorder. This disorder is more prevalent in some chronic disease. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate ADHD in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to compare the results with those of healthy children. Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted for six months (December 22, 2013 to June 21, 2014) on five to 16-year-old children, visiting the Pediatric Dialysis Unit of Amirkabir Hospital, Arak, Iran, and Taleghani Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran. A total of 100 children with ESRD who had undergone CAPD for at least six months and 100 healthy children were included in this study as case and control groups, respectively. ADHD was diagnosed by Conner's Parent Rating Scale-48 (CPRS-48) and DSM-IV-TR criteria, and was confirmed through consultation by psychologist. Data were analyzed by Binomial test in SPSS 18. Results: The ADHD inattentive type was observed in 16 cases (16%) with CAPD and five controls (5%) (P = 0.01). Moreover, ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was observed in 27 cases (27%) with CAPD and seven controls (9%) (P = 0.002). Despite these significant differences, no children were diagnosed with ADHD combined type among all subjects. Conclusions: Inattentive type and hyperactive-impulsive type of ADHD are more prevalent in children with ESRD undergoing CAPD. Therefore screening methods for ADHD is necessary in these patients. PMID:25830120

  12. Does Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Cause Rib Fractures in Children? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Sabine; Mann, Mala; John, Nia; Ellaway, Bev; Sibert, Jo R.; Kemp, Alison M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: There is a diagnostic dilemma when a child presents with rib fractures after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) where child abuse is suspected as the cause of collapse. We have performed a systematic review to establish the evidence base for the following questions: (i) Does cardiopulmonary resuscitation cause rib fractures in…

  13. Gender-related plasma levels of progesterone, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 during and after cardiopulmonary bypass in infants and children

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Andreas; Mück, Kristina; Grill, Hans-Jörg; Schirmer, Uwe; Hannekum, Andreas; Lang, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Background It is known that proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are released during and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in infants and children. Sex steroids are known to have immunomodulatory functions, and release of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 is stimulated by progesterone in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 (proinflammatory cytokine) and IL-10, and to relate them to sex and postoperative morbidity. Method Eighteen infants and children (eight female) undergoing CPB were prospectively studied. Plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 and IL-10 were determined before and 10 min after the start of CPB, and immediately after CPB; and 6 h, 24 h, 3 days and 7 days postoperatively. Organ dysfunction was identified on the basis of arbitrarily defined criteria. Results After CPB, all patients showed significant increases in plasma levels of progesterone, IL-8 and IL-10. Plasma levels of IL-10 were significantly higher in female patients, except for during the immediate postoperative period. According to the criteria used, six out of 10 male patients, but none of the female patients developed multiple organ dysfunction (MOD). Conclusion The present study shows that CPB induces a significant and marked increase in plasma levels of progesterone in infants and children. Studies of administration of progesterone-blocking substances to male and female animals may help to elucidate the roles of sex and progesterone in the setting of CBP. PMID:11737923

  14. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents' Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Engvall, Gunn; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80-90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child's and the parent's view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents' experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents' suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2-16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people's lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child's suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  15. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  16. Massage for Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Qualitative Report

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Sara L.; Lown, E. Anne; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Dunn, Elizabeth A.; Abrams, Donald I.; Horn, Biljana N.; Degelman, Marcia; Cowan, Morton J.; Mehling, Wolf E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. No in-depth qualitative research exists about the effects of therapeutic massage with children hospitalized to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The objective of this study is to describe parent caregivers' experience of the effects of massage/acupressure for their children undergoing HCT. Methods. We conducted a qualitative analysis of open-ended interviews with 15 parents of children in the intervention arm of a massage/acupressure trial. Children received both practitioner and parent-provided massage/acupressure. Results. Parents reported that their child experienced relief from pain and nausea, relaxation, and greater ease falling asleep. They also reported increased caregiver competence and closeness with their child as a result of learning and performing massage/acupressure. Parents supported a semistandardized massage protocol. Conclusion. Massage/acupressure may support symptom relief and promote relaxation and sleep among pediatric HCT patients if administered with attention to individual patients' needs and hospital routines and may relieve stress among parents, improve caregiver competence, and enhance the sense of connection between parent and child. PMID:22474526

  17. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Down-Regulates NOD Signaling and Inflammatory Response in Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qinghua; Liao, Jianyi; Huang, Jie; Li, Yi Ping; Huang, Shungen; Zhou, Huiting; Xie, Yi; Pan, Jian; Li, Yanhong; Wang, Jiang Huai; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to examine the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on expression and function of NOD1 and NOD2 in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), in an attempt to clarify whether NOD1 and NOD2 signaling is involved in the modulation of host innate immunity against postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. Peripheral blood samples were collected from pediatric CHD patients at five different time points: before CPB, immediately after CPB, and 1, 3, and 7 days after CPB. Real-time PCR, Western blot, and ELISA were performed to measure the expression of NOD1 and NOD2, their downstream signaling pathways, and inflammatory cytokines at various time points. Proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and TNF-α levels in response to stimulation with either the NOD1 agonist Tri-DAP or the NOD2 agonist MDP were significantly reduced after CPB compared with those before CPB, which is consistent with a suppressed inflammatory response postoperatively. The expression of phosphorylated RIP2 and activation of the downstream signaling pathways NF-κB p65 and MAPK p38 upon Tri-DAP or MDP stimulation in PBMCs were substantially inhibited after CPB. The mRNA level of NOD1 and protein levels of NOD1 and NOD2 were also markedly decreased after CPB. Our results demonstrated that NOD-mediated signaling pathways were substantially inhibited after CPB, which correlates with the suppressed inflammatory response and may account, at least in part, for the increased risk of postoperative infection in pediatric CHD patients. PMID:27622570

  18. Effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on cerebral blood flow in neonates, infants, and children

    SciTech Connect

    Greeley, W.J.; Ungerleider, R.M.; Kern, F.H.; Brusino, F.G.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1989-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) management in neonates, infants, and children requires extensive alterations in temperature, pump flow rate, and perfusion pressure, with occasional periods of circulatory arrest. The effect of these alterations on cerebral blood flow (CBF) are unknown. This study was designed to determine the relation of temperature and mean arterial pressure to CBF during hypothermic CPB (18-32{degrees}C), with and without periods of total circulatory arrest. CBF was measured before, during, and after hypothermic CPB with xenon-clearance techniques in 67 pediatric patients, aged 1 day-16 years. Patients were grouped based on different CPB techniques: group A, repair during moderate-hypothermic bypass at 25-32{degrees}C; group B, repair during deep-hypothermic bypass at 18-22{degrees}C; and group C, repair with total circulatory arrest at 18{degrees}C. There was a significant correlation of CBF with temperature during CPB. CBF significantly decreased under hypothermic conditions in all groups compared with prebypass levels under normothermia. In groups A and B, CBF returned to baseline levels in the rewarming phase of CPB and exceeded baseline levels after bypass. In group C, no significant increase in CBF was observed during rewarming after total circulatory arrest (32 {plus minus} 12 minutes) or after weaning from CPB. During moderate-hypothermic CPB (25-32{degrees}C), there was no association between CBF and mean arterial pressure. However, during deep-hypothermic CPB (18-22{degrees}C), there was a association between CBF and mean arterial pressure.

  19. Monitoring temperature in children undergoing anaesthesia: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Drake-Brockman, T F E; Hegarty, M; Chambers, N A; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-05-01

    Children undergoing anaesthesia are prone to hypothermia. Perioperative monitoring of patient temperature is, therefore, standard practice. Postoperative temperature is regarded as a key anaesthetic performance indicator in Australian hospitals. Many different methods and sites of temperature measurement are used perioperatively. It is unclear to what degree these methods might be interchangeable. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between temperatures measured at different sites in anaesthetised children. Two hundred children, 0 to 17 years, undergoing general anaesthesia for elective non-cardiac surgery, were prospectively recruited. Temperature measurements were taken in the operating theatre concurrently at the nasopharynx, tympanic membranes, temporal artery, axilla and skin (chest). Patient age and weight were documented. Temperatures varied according to site of measurement. The mean difference from nasopharyngeal temperature to temperatures at left and right tympanic, temporal, axillary and cutaneous sites were +0.24°C, +0.24°C, +0.35°C, -0.38°C and -1.70°C, respectively. Levels of agreement to nasopharyngeal temperature were similar at tympanic, temporal and axillary sites. Tympanic and temporal temperatures were superior to axillary temperatures for detection of mild hypothermia (<36°C). Skin temperature showed a large variation from nasopharyngeal measurements. Our findings indicate that measured temperatures vary between sites. Understanding these variations is important for interpreting temperature readings. PMID:24794470

  20. All about ketamine premedication for children undergoing ophtalmic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Altiparmak, Başak; Akça, Başak; Yilbaş, Aysun Ankay; Çelebi, Nalan

    2015-01-01

    Ketamine is a non-barbiturate cyclohexamine derivative which produces a state of sedation, immobility, analgesia, amnesia, and dissociation from the environment. One of the most important advantages of ketamine premedication is production of balanced sedation with less respiratory depression and less changes in blood pressure or heart rate. As its effects on intracranial pressure, the possible effect of ketamine on intraocular pressure has been controversial overtime. In this study, we aimed to demostrate all the advantages and possible side effects of ketamine premedication in 100 children with retinablastoma undergoing ophthalmic surgery. All the children were premedicated with ketamine 5 mg kg-1 15 minutes before the examination orally and peroperative complications, reaction to intravenous catheter insertion, need for additive dose and intraocular pressures of children were recorded. We showed that ketamine administration orally is a safe and effective way of premedication for oncologic patients undergoing examination under general anaesthesia. The incidence of agitation, anxiety at parental separation and reaction to insertion of intravenous catheter was very low while adverse side effects were seen rarely. Intraocular pressure which is very important for most of the ophthalmic surgery patients remained in normal ranges. PMID:26885101

  1. Anxiety and personality characteristics in children undergoing dental interventions.

    PubMed

    Pop-Jordanova, Nada; Sarakinova, Olivera; Markovska-Simoska, Silvana; Loleska, Sofija

    2013-01-01

    Anxiety about and fear of dental treatment have been recognized as sources of problems in the management of child dental patients. It has been suggested that some individuals who are fearful of or anxious about dental treatment have a constitutional vulnerability to anxiety disorders as is evidenced by the presence of multiple fears, generalized anxiety or panic disorders. Concerning the child population, maternal anxiety is considered to be a major factor affecting the behaviour of young children expecting dental intervention. The aim of the study was to the measure general anxiety of children undergoing dental intervention and to compare it with some personality characteristics, such as psychopathology, extroversion and neuroticism. The evaluated sample comprises 50 children (31 girls and 19 boys), randomly selected at the University Dental Hospital, Skopje. The mean age for girls was 11.4 (± 2.4) years, and for boys 10.7 (± 2.6) years. Two psychometric instruments were used: the General Anxiety Scale for Children (GASC) and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). The study confirms the presence of a high anxiety level (evaluated with GASC) among all children undergoing dental intervention. It also confirmed differences in anxiety scores between girls and boys, girls having higher scores for anxiety. Personality characteristics (evaluated with EPQ) showed low psychopathological traits, moderate extroversion and neuroticism, but accentuated insincerity (evaluated with L scale). L scales are lower with increasing age, but P scores rise with age, which could be related to puberty. No correlation was found between personality traits (obtained scores for EPQ) and anxiety except for neuroticism, which is positively correlated with the level of anxiety. In the management of dental anxiety some response measures (psychological support, biofeedback, and relaxation techniques) are recommended. PMID:24566020

  2. Noninvasive, near infrared spectroscopic-measured muscle pH and PO2 indicate tissue perfusion for cardiac surgical patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, Babs R.; Idwasi, Patrick O.; Balaguer, Jorge; Levin, Steven; Simsir, Sinan A.; Vander Salm, Thomas J.; Collette, Helen; Heard, Stephen O.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether near infrared spectroscopic measurement of tissue pH and Po2 has sufficient accuracy to assess variation in tissue perfusion resulting from changes in blood pressure and metabolic demand during cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN: Prospective clinical study. SETTING: Academic medical center. SUBJECTS: Eighteen elective cardiac surgical patients. INTERVENTION: Cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A near infrared spectroscopic fiber optic probe was placed over the hypothenar eminence. Reference Po2 and pH sensors were inserted in the abductor digiti minimi (V). Data were collected every 30 secs during surgery and for 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass. Calibration equations developed from one third of the data were used with the remaining data to investigate sensitivity of the near infrared spectroscopic measurement to physiologic changes resulting from cardiopulmonary bypass. Near infrared spectroscopic and reference pH and Po2 measurements were compared for each subject using standard error of prediction. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 at baseline were compared with values during cardiopulmonary bypass just before rewarming commenced (hypotensive, hypothermic), after rewarming (hypotensive, normothermic) just before discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass, and at 6 hrs following cardiopulmonary bypass (normotensive, normothermic) using mixed-model analysis of variance. Near infrared spectroscopic pH and Po2 were well correlated with the invasive measurement of pH (R2 =.84) and Po2 (R 2 =.66) with an average standard error of prediction of 0.022 +/- 0.008 pH units and 6 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively. The average difference between the invasive and near infrared spectroscopic measurement was near zero for both the pH and Po2 measurements. Near infrared spectroscopic Po2 significantly decreased 50% on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass and remained depressed throughout the bypass and

  3. Analgesia and sedation for children undergoing burn wound care.

    PubMed

    Bayat, Ahmad; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Bhananker, Sanjay M

    2010-11-01

    Standard care of burn wounds consists of cleaning and debridement (removing devitalized tissue), followed by daily dressing changes. Children with burns undergo multiple, painful and anxiety-provoking procedures during wound care and rehabilitation. The goal of procedural sedation is safe and efficacious management of pain and emotional distress, requiring a careful and systematic approach. Achieving the best results needs understanding of the mechanisms of pain and the physiologic changes in burn patients, frequent evaluation and assessment of pain and anxiety, and administration of suitable pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies. Pharmacological therapies provide the backbone of analgesia and sedation for procedural pain management. Opioids provide excellent pain control, but they must be administered judiciously due to their side effects. Sedative drugs, such as benzodiazepines and propofol, provide excellent sedation, but they must not be used as a substitute for analgesic drugs. Ketamine is increasingly used for analgesia and sedation in children as a single agent or an adjuvant. Nonpharmacological therapies such as virtual reality, relaxation, cartoon viewing, music, massage and hypnosis are necessary components of procedural sedation and analgesia for children. These can be combined with pharmacological techniques and are used to limit the use of drugs (and hence side effects), as well as to improve patient participation and satisfaction. In this article, we review the pathophysiologic changes associated with major thermal injury in children, the options available for sedation and analgesia for wound care procedures in these children and our institutional guidelines for procedural sedation. PMID:20977331

  4. Induced apnea enhances image quality and visualization of cardiopulmonary anatomic during contrastenhanced cardiac computerized tomographic angiography in children

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthy, Murali; Sunilkumar, Gubbihalli; Pargaonkar, Sumant; Hosur, Rajathadri; Harivelam, Chidananda; Kavaraganahalli, Deepak; Srinivasan, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine the effect of induced apnea on quality of cardiopulmonary structures during computerized tomographic (CT) angiography images in children with congenital heart diseases. Methods: Pediatric patients with congenital heart defects undergoing cardiac CT angiography at our facility in the past 3 years participated in this study. The earlier patients underwent cardiac CT angiography without induced apnea and while, later, apnea was induced in patients, which was followed by electrocardiogram gated cardiac CT angiography. General anesthesia was induced using sleep dose of intravenous propofol. After the initial check CT, on request by the radiologist, apnea was induced by the anesthesiologist by administering 1 mg/kg of intravenous suxamethonium. Soon after apnea ensued, the contrast was injected, and CT angiogram carried out. CT images in the “apnea group” were compared with those in “nonapnea group.” After the completion of the procedure, the patients were mask ventilated with 100% oxygen till the spontaneous ventilation was restored. Results: We studied 46 patients, of whom 36 with apnea and yet another 10 without. The quality of the image, visualization of structures such as cardiac wall, outflow tracts, lung field, aortopulmonary shunts, and coronary arteries were analyzed and subjected to statistical analysis (Mann–Whitney U, Fischer's exact test and Pearson's Chi-square test). In the induced apnea group, overall image quality was considered excellent in 89% (n = 33) of the studies, while in the “no apnea group,” only 30% of studies were excellent. Absent or minimal motion artifacts were seen in a majority of the studies in apnea group (94%). In the nonapnea group, the respiratory and body motion artifacts were severe in 50%, moderate in 30%, and minimal in 20%, but they were significantly lesser in the apnea group. All the studied parameters were statistically significant in the apnea group in

  5. Complex Chronic Conditions Among Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chan, Titus; Di Gennaro, Jane; Wechsler, Stephanie Burns; Bratton, Susan L

    2016-08-01

    Children with complex chronic conditions (CCCs) require a disproportionate amount of inpatient resources and are at increased risk of mortality during hospital admissions. This study examines the impact of non-cardiac, comorbid complex chronic conditions on outcomes in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. All admissions associated with a congenital cardiac surgical procedure in the Kids' Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2012 were examined. Children were classified by the number as well as type (genetic vs. non-genetic) of CCC. Baseline demographics as well as proportion of total inpatient days and total hospitalization charges was assessed. Multivariate regression models examining occurrence of a complication, mortality, prolonged length of stay and high hospitalization charges were constructed. In multivariate models, an increasing number of CCC was associated with increased risk of mortality and complications (mortality: 1 CCC: odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95 % CI = 1.03-1.33); ≥2 CCC: OR = 1.54, 95 % CI = 1.26-1.87). Additionally, the presence of a genetic CCC was protective against mortality (OR = 0.71, 95 % CI = 0.56-0.89) while non-genetic CCCs were associated with mortality (OR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.41-1.88) and high resource utilization. Over time, the proportion of genetic CCC remained stable while non-genetic CCC increased in prevalence. Complex chronic conditions have a varying association with mortality, morbidity and resource utilization in children undergoing congenital heart surgery. While genetic CCCs were not associated with poor outcomes, non-genetic CCCs were risk factors for morbidity and mortality. These findings suggest that pre-surgical counseling and surgical planning should account for the type of non-cardiac comorbid conditions. PMID:27033243

  6. Accurate measurement of oxygen consumption in children undergoing cardiac catheterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO(2) ) is an important part of hemodynamics using the direct Fick principle in children undergoing cardiac catheterization. Accurate measurement of VO(2) is vital. Obviously, any error in the measurement of VO(2) will translate directly into an equivalent percentage under- or overestimation of blood flows and vascular resistances. It remains common practice to estimate VO(2) values from published predictive equations. Among these, the LaFarge equation is the most commonly used equation and gives the closest estimation with the least bias and limits of agreement. However, considerable errors are introduced by the LaFarge equation, particularly in children younger than 3 years of age. Respiratory mass spectrometry remains the "state-of-the-art" method, allowing highly sensitive, rapid and simultaneous measurement of multiple gas fractions. The AMIS 2000 quadrupole respiratory mass spectrometer system has been adapted to measure VO(2) in children under mechanical ventilation with pediatric ventilators during cardiac catheterization. The small sampling rate, fast response time and long tubes make the equipment a unique and powerful tool for bedside continuous measurement of VO(2) in cardiac catheterization for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:22488802

  7. Psychologists in preoperative programmes for children undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Costa, Sebastiano; Gugliandolo, Maria Cristina; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to verify whether psychologists and game activities could reduce preoperative anxiety and promote compliance in paediatric patients. More specifically, we sought to evaluate whether it would be better to propose contextualized games or just distracting activities. A total of 104 children undergoing surgery were assigned to the following 4 conditions of treatment: (1) contextual games and psychological accompaniment, (2) only contextual games, (3) distracting activities, and (4) only psychological accompaniment. Observed children's anxiety was assessed using modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale and compliant behaviours with modified form of Induction Compliance Checklist. Children in the first condition (complete intervention - contextual games and psychological accompaniment) were less anxious and more cooperative in the preoperative period and during the induction of anaesthesia than in the other three conditions. In particular, contextual activities (second condition) were found to be more efficient than psychological accompaniment (fourth condition), whereas the worst condition was proposing only distracting activities (third condition). In order to help young hospitalized patients in paediatric surgery structures, it is necessary to propose games that can prepare them for what will happen as well as the support of a psychologist. PMID:25469004

  8. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  9. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  10. Disaccharidase activity in children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daileda, Taylor; Baek, Peter; Sutter, Morgan E; Thakkar, Kalpesh

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the utility of intestinal disaccharide analysis during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) in children, we performed a systematic review of studies examining disaccharide activity. METHODS: All full-length articles published in English during 1966-2014 were included if: (1) participants had small intestinal biopsy evaluation of disaccharide activity; (2) levels of lactase, sucrase, maltase or palatinase were reported; and (3) age of participants was under 18 years. RESULTS: Thirty articles examining 34753 disaccharide assays fulfilled the specific search, inclusion, and exclusion criteria. All of the studies were observational in design and 57% (17) were prospective. Sixteen studies were conducted in the United States and 9 European studies were identified. The biggest study enrolled about 30, 314 procedures and 13 studies investigated fewer than 50 procedures. Eleven studies examined Caucasian subjects, 3 studies examined Asian subjects, and 6 examined African subjects. Only one Hispanic subject was included. In studies reporting disaccharide deficiency, the overall proportion of lactase deficiency was 39.2%, sucrase deficiency was 9.0%, maltase deficiency was 12.6% and palatinase deficiency was 9.1%. The prevalence of duodenal inflammatory changes ranged from 6% to 24% for non-specific histological lesions (e.g., duodenitis). Sixteen studies examined the association of histologic findings with disaccharide activities, and 12 studies reported an inverse association between degree of histologic inflammation and disaccharide levels. CONCLUSION: We reviewed 30 studies including 34753 biopsy specimens with disaccharide analysis from children undergoing EGD. Our findings advocate a large study is to further illuminate the importance of EGD with disaccharide analysis in children. PMID:27158545

  11. Reduced fitness and abnormal cardiopulmonary responses to maximal exercise testing in children and young adults with sickle cell anemia

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Robert I; Reddy, Madhuri; Pelligra, Stephanie A; Savant, Adrienne P; Fernhall, Bo; Rodeghier, Mark; Thompson, Alexis A

    2015-01-01

    Physiologic contributors to reduced exercise capacity in individuals with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are not well understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the cardiopulmonary response to maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and determine factors associated with reduced exercise capacity among children and young adults with SCA. A cross-sectional cohort of 60 children and young adults (mean 15.1 ± 3.4 years) with hemoglobin SS or S/β0 thalassemia and 30 matched controls (mean 14.6 ± 3.5 years) without SCA or sickle cell trait underwent maximal CPET by a graded, symptom-limited cycle ergometry protocol with breath-by-breath, gas exchange analysis. Compared to controls without SCA, subjects with SCA demonstrated significantly lower peak VO2 (26.9 ± 6.9 vs. 37.0 ± 9.2 mL/kg/min, P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated slower oxygen uptake (ΔVO2/ΔWR, 9 ± 2 vs. 12 ± 2 mL/min/watt, P < 0.001) and lower oxygen pulse (ΔVO2/ΔHR, 12 ± 4 vs. 20 ± 7 mL/beat, P < 0.001) as well as reduced oxygen uptake efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVO2, 42 ± 8 vs. 32 ± 5, P < 0.001) and ventilation efficiency (ΔVE/ΔVCO2, 30.3 ± 3.7 vs. 27.3 ± 2.5, P < 0.001) during CPET. Peak VO2 remained significantly lower in subjects with SCA after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and hemoglobin, which were independent predictors of peak VO2 for subjects with SCA. In the largest study to date using maximal CPET in SCA, we demonstrate that children and young adults with SCA have reduced exercise capacity attributable to factors independent of anemia. Complex derangements in gas exchange and oxygen uptake during maximal exercise are common in this population. PMID:25847915

  12. Circulating S100B and Adiponectin in Children Who Underwent Open Heart Surgery and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Varrica, Alessandro; Satriano, Angela; Frigiola, Alessandro; Giamberti, Alessandro; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi; Conforti, Erika; Gavilanes, Antonio D. W.; Zimmermann, Luc J.; Vles, Hans J. S.; Li Volti, Giovanni; Gazzolo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Background. S100B protein, previously proposed as a consolidated marker of brain damage in congenital heart disease (CHD) newborns who underwent cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), has been progressively abandoned due to S100B CNS extra-source such as adipose tissue. The present study investigated CHD newborns, if adipose tissue contributes significantly to S100B serum levels. Methods. We conducted a prospective study in 26 CHD infants, without preexisting neurological disorders, who underwent cardiac surgery and CPB in whom blood samples for S100B and adiponectin (ADN) measurement were drawn at five perioperative time-points. Results. S100B showed a significant increase from hospital admission up to 24 h after procedure reaching its maximum peak (P < 0.01) during CPB and at the end of the surgical procedure. Moreover, ADN showed a flat pattern and no significant differences (P > 0.05) have been found all along perioperative monitoring. ADN/S100B ratio pattern was identical to S100B alone with the higher peak at the end of CPB and remained higher up to 24 h from surgery. Conclusions. The present study provides evidence that, in CHD infants, S100B protein is not affected by an extra-source adipose tissue release as suggested by no changes in circulating ADN concentrations. PMID:26417594

  13. Tolerability of 2.5% Lidocaine/Prilocaine Hydrogel in Children Undergoing Cryotherapy for Molluscum Contagiosum.

    PubMed

    Gobbato, André A M; Babadópulos, Tainah; Gobbato, Cintia A R S; Moreno, Ronilson A; Gagliano-Jucá, Thiago; De Nucci, Gilberto

    2016-05-01

    The tolerability of a 2.5% lidocaine/prilocaine hydrogel (Nanorap, Biolab Indústria Farmacêutica Ltd., Sao Paulo, Brazil) was evaluated in 20 children ages 2 to 11 years undergoing cryotherapy for molluscum contagiosum (MC). The product was well tolerated, with only two children presenting with eczema at the application site. These adverse reactions were considered unlikely to be related to the test product, because a patch test was negative in one of the individuals and the other event occurred in only one of the two treated areas. Nanorap is an efficacious and well-tolerated option for topical anesthesia in children undergoing cryotherapy for MC. PMID:27041686

  14. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (RIPC) Modifies the Plasma Proteome in Children Undergoing Repair of Tetralogy of Fallot: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hepponstall, Michele; Ignjatovic, Vera; Binos, Steve; Attard, Chantal; Karlaftis, Vasiliki; d’Udekem, Yves; Monagle, Paul; Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) has been applied in paediatric cardiac surgery. We have demonstrated that RIPC induces a proteomic response in plasma of healthy volunteers. We tested the hypothesis that RIPC modifies the proteomic response in children undergoing Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. Methods and Results Children (n=40) were randomized to RIPC and control groups. Blood was sampled at baseline, after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 6, 12 and 24h post-CPB. Plasma was analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) in an untargeted approach. Peptides demonstrating differential expression (p<0.01) were subjected to tandem LC-MS/MS and protein identification. Corresponding proteins were identified using the NCBI protein database. There was no difference in age (7.3±3.5vs6.8±3.6 months)(p=0.89), weight (7.7±1.8vs7.5±1.9 kg)(p=0.71), CPB time (104±7vs94±7 min)(p=0.98) or aortic cross-clamp time (83±22vs75±20 min)(p=0.36). No peptides were differentially expressed at baseline or immediately after CPB. There were 48 peptides with higher expression in the RIPC group 6h post-CPB. This was no longer evident at 12 or 24h, with one peptide down-regulated in the RIPC group. The proteins identified were: inter-alpha globulin inhibitor (42.0±11.8 vs 820.8±181.1, p=0.006), fibrinogen preproprotein (59.3±11.2 vs 1192.6±278.3, p=0.007), complement-C3 precursor (391.2±160.9 vs 5385.1±689.4, p=0.0005), complement C4B (151.5±17.8 vs 4587.8±799.2, p=0.003), apolipoprotein B100 (53.4±8.3 vs 1364.5±278.2, p=0.005) and urinary proteinase inhibitor (358.6±74.9 vs 5758.1±1343.1, p=0.009). These proteins are involved in metabolism, haemostasis, immunity and inflammation. Conclusions We provided the first comprehensive analysis of RIPC-induced proteomic changes in children undergoing surgery. The proteomic changes peak 6h post-CPB and return to baseline within 24h of surgery. Trial Registration ACTR.org.au ACTRN12610000496011 PMID

  15. [Nursing care for children undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy].

    PubMed

    Huang, Mei-Jung; Lin, Chieh-Chung; Cheng, Shue-Lin

    2004-06-01

    Ever since percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) was used for the first time in 1980 by Gauderer, Ponsky, Izant et al., It has been widely used in patients incapable of oral feeding. It is a safe and effective technique for long-term nutritional support in children, and easy to perform, as only local anesthesia or heavy sedation is required PEG can prevent children from suffering from nasopharyngeal and esophageal erosions due to repeated insertion of nasogastric tubes and the complication of aspiration pneumonia. It is therefore an alternative for children who need long-term feeding. In this article we review the literature on PEG and give a full description of its indications, complications, as well as advice on when to change gastrostomy tubes, and on nursing care, in the hope that this will be useful reference material for medical staff. PMID:15211780

  16. Active and passive distraction in children undergoing wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Stefan; Enskär, Karin; Hallqvist, Carina; Kokinsky, Eva

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test how distraction influences pain, distress and anxiety in children during wound care. Sixty participants aged 5-12 years were randomized to three groups: serious gaming, the use of lollipops and a control group. Self-reported pain, distress, anxiety and observed pain behaviour were recorded in conjunction with wound care. Serious gaming, an active distraction, reduced the observed pain behaviour and self-reported distress compared with the other groups. A sense of control and engagement in the distraction, together, may be the explanation for the different pain behaviours when children use serious gaming. PMID:22819747

  17. Distress Behavior in Children With Leukemia Undergoing Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.

    Improving prognosis for many forms of childhood cancer has resulted in increased attention on the quality-of-life experience. Conditioned anxiety and pain associated with recurrent diagnostic and treatment procedures have been identified as major sources of distress in children with malignant disease. To evaluate the efficacy of various…

  18. [Self-hypnosis, a resource for children undergoing painful treatment].

    PubMed

    Restif, Anne-Sophie

    2010-01-01

    Learning self-hypnosis enables children to partially or totally manage the sensory and emotional components of pain, especially that linked to the use of a central line in paediatric onco-haematology. Specially trained paediatric nurses can teach this special technique. PMID:20518243

  19. Effects of Hypothermic Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Internal Jugular Bulb Venous Oxygen Saturation, Cerebral Oxygen Saturation, and Bispectral Index in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhiyong; Xu, Lili; Zhu, Zhirui; Seal, Robert; McQuillan, Patrick M

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2), internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2), mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), and bispectral index (BIS) used to monitor cerebral oxygen balance in pediatric patients.Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists Class II-III patients aged 1 to 4 years old with congenital heart disease scheduled for elective cardiac surgery were included in this study. Temperature, BIS, rSO2, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and hematocrit were recorded. Internal jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation and SvO2 were obtained from blood gas analysis at the time points: after induction of anesthesia (T0), beginning of CPB (T1), ascending aortic occlusion (T2), 20 minutes after initiating CPB (T3), coronary reperfusion (T4), separation from CPB (T5), and at the end of operation (T6). The effect of hypothermia or changes in CPP on rSO2, SjvO2, SvO2, and BIS were analyzed.Compared with postinduction baseline values, rSO2 significantly decreased at all-time points: onset of extracorporeal circulation, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after CPB initiation, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with measurements made following induction of anesthesia, SjvO2 significantly increased with initiation of CPB, ascending aortic occlusion, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, coronary reperfusion, and separation from CPB (P < 0.05). Compared with induction of anesthesia, BIS significantly decreased with the onset of CPB, aortic cross clamping, 20 minutes after initiating CPB, and coronary reperfusion (P < 0.05). Bispectral index increased following separation from CPB. There was no significant change in SvO2 during cardiopulmonary bypass (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis demonstrated that rSO2 was positively related to CPP (r = 0.687, P = 0

  20. Seriously clowning: Medical clowning interaction with children undergoing invasive examinations in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Ofir, Shoshi; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Franco, Nessia L; On, Avi

    2016-04-01

    This qualitative study examined the subjective experience of children undergoing an invasive examination in the hospital when accompanied by a medical clown. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine such children and nine of their accompanying parents. The children were patients in two outpatient departments (Pediatric Gastroenterology and a Center for the Sexually Abused) in a hospital in Israel. Interviews were coded thematically using an Atlas.ti software program. Analysis of the interviews indicated that the intervention of the clown positively changed the children's perceptions of the hospital, of experiencing the examination, and of their life narrative. Medical clowns thus appear to be a central, meaningful, and therapeutic source for children undergoing invasive examinations in hospital, as well as for their parents. Therefore, it may be advisable to incorporate medical clowns as an integral part of medical teams performing invasive procedures and to include the clowns in all stages of the hospital visit. PMID:27123686

  1. Schoolchildren as lifesavers in Europe - training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation for children.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andreas; Van Aken, Hugo; Lukas, Roman P; Weber, Thomas; Breckwoldt, Jan

    2013-09-01

    Sudden cardiac arrest is a major contributor to avoidable deaths in Europe. Immediate initiation of basic life support (BLS) by lay bystanders is among the most successful strategies in its treatment. Despite the fact that more than half of all cardiac arrests are witnessed in a number of European countries, layperson resuscitation is initiated in only one-fifth of all cases. One strategy to promote bystander BLS is to establish cardiac resuscitation training in schools. BLS instructions for schoolchildren - including the use of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) - have been shown to be feasible independently of the children's age or physical ability. Nonetheless, it appears reasonable to implement age-adjusted curricula. The earlier in the course of life-long learning BLS instruction begins, the more sustainable training may be. PMID:24054517

  2. CPAP of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass followed by an alveolar recruitment manoeuvre does not improve post-bypass oxygenation compared to a recruitment manoeuvre alone in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, J T; Na, H S; Kim, H S; Kim, C S; Kim, S D

    2010-03-01

    This randomised controlled study assessed whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 10 cmH2O during cardiopulmonary bypass improves post-bypass oxygenation in children compared with no CPAP during bypass. We studied children with a ventricular septal defect. CPAP of 10 cmH2O was applied during bypass in the CPAP group (n=24), whereas the lungs were left deflated in the control group (n=20). In both groups, an alveolar recruitment maneuver was performed by applying positive pressure of 30 to 40 cmH2O for five seconds before weaning from bypass. Postoperative ventilation had the peak inflation pressure set to produce an expired tidal volume of 8 ml/kg with positive end expiratory pressure of 5 cmH2O. Arterial blood gas and haemodynamic measurements were performed at skin incision, five minutes after weaning from bypass, five minutes after chest closure and four hours after arrival in the intensive care unit. In four children CPAP was discontinued because it adversely affected the operating field. There was no difference in demographic characteristics, haemodynamic data, bypass time and operation time. No difference was observed between the groups with respect to pH, PaO2, P(A-a) DO2, PaCO2, and ETCO2 at each time. Variability in the data was greater than expected, leading to a decrease in the expected power of the study. CPAP at 10 cmH2O during bypass was not found to improve the post-bypass oxygenation as compared with leaving the lung deflated during bypass in children undergoing ventricular septal defect repair who had an alveolar recruitment maneuver at the end of bypass. PMID:20369762

  3. Comparison of low molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch and human albumin as priming solutions in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Miao, Na; Yang, Jing; Du, Zhongtao; Liu, Wei; Ni, Hong; Xing, Jialin; Yang, Xiaofang; Xu, Bo; Hou, Xiaotong

    2014-09-01

    Human albumin is the conventional cardiopulmonary bypass circuit primer. However, it has high manufacturing costs. Crystalloid and colloid solutions have been developed as alternatives, including a new generation of non-ionic hydroxyethyl starch (HES). The efficacy of hydroxyethyl starch with a 130 molecular weight and substitution degree of 0.4 (hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4) was compared with human albumin for use in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery in American Society of Anesthesiologists' grade I-II pediatric congenital heart disease patients. Efficacy was evaluated by comparing perioperative hemodynamic parameters, including plasma colloid osmotic pressure, renal function, blood loss, allogeneic blood volumes and plasma volume substitution. The hydroxyethyl starch group exhibited significantly higher preoperative colloid osmotic pressure (p<0.01) and significantly lower operative renal function and postoperative allogeneic blood volumes than the human albumin group. No significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, glucose, hematocrit or lactic acid levels (p>0.05). Our results indicate that hydroxyethyl starch may be a viable alternative to human albumin in pediatric patients undergoing relatively simple cardiopulmonary bypass surgeries. PMID:24658707

  4. Gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy in the years 2000

    PubMed Central

    Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the

  5. Hospital Costs and Inpatient Mortality among Children Undergoing Surgery for Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Romley, John A; Chen, Alex Y; Goldman, Dana P; Williams, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between hospital costs and risk-adjusted inpatient mortality among children undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) in U.S. acute-care hospitals. Data Sources/Study Settings Retrospective cohort study of 35,446 children in 2003, 2006, and 2009 Kids' Inpatient Database (KID). Study Design Cross-sectional logistic regression of risk-adjusted inpatient mortality and hospital costs, adjusting for a variety of patient-, hospital-, and community-level confounders. Data Collection/Extraction Methods We identified relevant discharges in the KID using the AHRQ Pediatric Quality Indicator for pediatric heart surgery mortality, and linked these records to hospital characteristics from American Hospital Association Surveys and community characteristics from the Census. Principal Findings Children undergoing CHD surgery in higher cost hospitals had lower risk-adjusted inpatient mortality (p = .002). An increase from the 25th percentile of treatment costs to the 75th percentile was associated with a 13.6 percent reduction in risk-adjusted mortality. Conclusions Greater hospital costs are associated with lower risk-adjusted inpatient mortality for children undergoing CHD surgery. The specific mechanisms by which greater costs improve mortality merit further exploration. PMID:24138064

  6. Acute Effect of Intravenous Administration of Magnesium Sulfate on Serum Levels of Interleukin-6 and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Bypass Graft With Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Aryana, Parastou; Rajaei, Samira; Bagheri, Abdolhamid; Karimi, Forouzan; Dabbagh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular problems are among the most common health issues. A considerable number of cardiac patients undergo cardiac surgery, and coronary artery disease patients constitute about two-thirds of all these surgeries. The application of cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) usually results in some untoward effects. Objectives: Studies have suggested magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as an anti-inflammatory agent in a coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). This study aimed to assess the effect of an IV MgSO4 infusion during elective CABG (with CBP) on the blood levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Materials and Methods: During a 12 month period, after review board approval and based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, 90 patients were selected and entered randomly into one of the two study groups (MgSO4 or placebo). Anesthesia, surgery and CBP were performed in exactly the same way, except for the use of MgSO4 or a placebo. Both preoperative and postoperative plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were checked and compared between the two groups using an ELISA. Results: There was no difference found between the two groups with regard to; gender, basic variables, Ejection Fraction (EF), CBP time and aortic cross-clamp time. The preoperative levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were not different; however, their postoperative levels were significantly higher in the placebo group (P value = 0.01 for IL-6 and 0.005 for TNF-α). Conclusions: This study showed that MgSO4 infusion could suppress part of the inflammatory response after CABG with CBP. This was demonstrated by decreased levels of interleukin-6 and TNF-α in postoperative serum levels in elective CABG with CBP. PMID:25237633

  7. Preoperative levosimendan decreases mortality and the development of low cardiac output in high-risk patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ricardo; Degrange, Marcela; Del Mazo, Carlos; Tanus, Eduardo; Porcile, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The calcium sensitizer levosimendan has been used in cardiac surgery for the treatment of postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) and difficult weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of preoperative treatment with levosimendan on 30-day mortality, the risk of developing LCOS and the requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: Patient with severe left ventricular dysfunction and an ejection fraction <25% undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB were admitted 24 h before surgery and were randomly assigned to receive levosimendan (loading dose 10 μg/kg followed by a 23 h continuous infusion of 0.1μg/kg/min) or a placebo. RESULTS: From December 1, 2002 to June 1, 2008, a total of 252 patients were enrolled (127 in the levosimendan group and 125 in the control group). Individuals treated with levosimendan exhibited a lower incidence of complicated weaning from CPB (2.4% versus 9.6%; P<0.05), decreased mortality (3.9% versus 12.8%; P<0.05) and a lower incidence of LCOS (7.1% versus 20.8%; P<0.05) compared with the control group. The levosimendan group also had a lower requirement for inotropes (7.9% versus 58.4%; P<0.05), vasopressors (14.2% versus 45.6%; P<0.05) and intra-aortic balloon pumps (6.3% versus 30.4%; P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Patients with severe left ventricle dysfunction (ejection fraction <25%) undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with CPB who were pretreated with levosimendan exhibited lower mortality, a decreased risk for developing LCOS and a reduced requirement for inotropes, vasopressors and intra-aortic balloon pumps. Studies with a larger number of patients are required to confirm whether these findings represent a new strategy to reduce the operative risk in this high-risk patient population. PMID:23620700

  8. The safety and feasibility of probiotics in children and adolescents undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ladas, E J; Bhatia, M; Chen, L; Sandler, E; Petrovic, A; Berman, D M; Hamblin, F; Gates, M; Hawks, R; Sung, L; Nieder, M

    2016-02-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has become a standard treatment for many adult and pediatric conditions. Emerging evidence suggests that perturbations in the microbiota diversity increase recipients' susceptibilities to gut-mediated conditions such as diarrhea, infection and acute GvHD. Probiotics preserve the microbiota and may minimize the risk of developing a gut-mediated condition; however, their safety has not been evaluated in the setting of HCT. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of the probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum (LBP), in children and adolescents undergoing allogeneic HCT. Participants received once-daily supplementation with LBP beginning on day -8 or -7 and continued until day +14. Outcomes were compliance with daily administration and incidence of LBP bacteremia. Administration of LBP was feasible with 97% (30/31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 83-100%) of children receiving at least 50% of the probiotic dose (median 97%; range 50-100%). We did not observe any case of LBP bacteremia (0% (0/30) with 95% CI 0-12%). There were not any unexpected adverse events related to LBP. Our study provides preliminary evidence that administration of LBP is safe and feasible in children and adolescents undergoing HCT. Future steps include the conduct of an approved randomized, controlled trial through Children's Oncology Group. PMID:26569091

  9. Prevention of sevoflurane related emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy: A comparison of dexmedetomidine and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Monaz Abdulrahman; Abdellatif, Ashraf Abualhasan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Emergence agitation (EA) in children is increased after sevoflurane anesthesia. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have been used for prophylactic treatment with controversial results. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of a single dose of propofol or dexmedetomidine prior to termination of sevoflurane-based anesthesia on the incidence and severity of EA in children. Methods: One hundred and twenty children, American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II, 2-6 years old undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane based anesthesia were enrolled in the study. Children were randomly allocated to one of the three equal groups: (Group C) received 10 ml saline 0.9%, (Group P) received propofol 1 mg/kg or (group D) received dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg-1. The study drugs were administered 5 min before the end of surgery. In post anesthesia care unit (PACU), the incidence of EA was assessed with Aonos four point scale and the severity of EA was assessed with pediatric anesthesia emergence delirium scale upon admission (T0), after 5 min (T5), 15 min (T15) and 30 min (T30). Extubation time, emergence time, duration of PACU stay and pain were assessed. Results: The incidence and severity of EA were lower in group P and group D compared to group C at T0, T5 and T15. The incidence and severity of EA in group P were significantly higher than group D at the same times. The incidence and severity of EA decreased significantly over time in all groups. The modified Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale was significantly lower in group D compared to group C and group P. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine 0.3 ug/kg1 was more effective than propofol 1 mg/kg in decreasing the incidence and severity of EA, when administered 5 min before the end of surgery in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:24015133

  10. Comparison of two technics of cardiopulmonary bypass (conventional and mini CPB) in the trans-and postoperative periods of cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sergio Nunes; Zumba, Izabelle Balta; Batista, Micheline Sulzbacher; Pieve, Daniela Da; dos Santos, Elisandra; Stuermer, Ralf; de Oliveira, Gerson Pereira; Senger, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of two different perfusion techniques: conventional cardiopulmonary bypass and miniature cardiopulmonary bypass in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the University Hospital of Santa Maria - RS. Methods We perform a retrospective, cross-sectional study, based on data collected from the patients operated between 2010 and 2013. We analyzed the records of 242 patients divided into two groups: Group I: 149 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and Group II - 93 patients undergoing the miniature cardiopulmonary bypass. Results The clinical profile of patients in the preoperative period was similar in the cardiopulmonary bypass and miniature cardiopulmonary bypass groups without significant differences, except in age, which was greater in the miniature cardiopulmonary bypass group. The perioperative data were significant of blood collected for autotransfusion, which were higher in the group with miniature cardiopulmonary bypass than the cardiopulmonary bypass and in transfusion of packed red blood cells, which was higher in cardiopulmonary bypass than in miniature cardiopulmonary bypass. In the immediate, first and second postoperative period the values of hematocrit and hemoglobin were higher and significant in miniature cardiopulmonary bypass than in the cardiopulmonary bypass, although the bleeding in the first and second postoperative days was higher and significant in miniature cardiopulmonary bypass than in the cardiopulmonary bypass. Conclusion The present results suggest that the miniature cardiopulmonary bypass was beneficial in reducing the red blood cell transfusion during surgery and showed slight but significant increase in hematocrit and hemoglobin in the postoperative period. PMID:27163417

  11. Ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes in children undergoing corrective open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    Schibler, Andreas; Pham, Trang M T; Moray, Amol A; Stocker, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) can determine ventilation and perfusion relationship. Most of the data obtained so far originates from experimental settings and in healthy subjects. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that EIT measures the perioperative changes in pulmonary blood flow after repair of a ventricular septum defect in children with haemodynamic relevant septal defects undergoing open heart surgery. In a 19 bed intensive care unit in a tertiary children's hospital ventilation and cardiac related impedance changes were measured using EIT before and after surgery in 18 spontaneously breathing patients. The EIT signals were either filtered for ventilation (ΔZV) or for cardiac (ΔZQ) related impedance changes. Impedance signals were then normalized (normΔZV, normΔZQ) for calculation of the global and regional impedance related ventilation perfusion relationship (normΔZV/normΔZQ). We observed a trend towards increased normΔZV in all lung regions, a significantly decreased normΔZQ in the global and anterior, but not the posterior lung region. The normΔZV/normΔZQ was significantly increased in the global and anterior lung region. Our study qualitatively validates our previously published modified EIT filtration technique in the clinical setting of young children with significant left-to-right shunt undergoing corrective open heart surgery, where perioperative assessment of the ventilation perfusion relation is of high clinical relevance. PMID:24021191

  12. One third of middle ear effusions from children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement had multiple bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Because previous studies have indicated that otitis media may be a polymicrobial disease, we prospectively analyzed middle ear effusions of children undergoing tympanostomy tube placement with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for four otopathogens. Methods Middle ear effusions from 207 children undergoing routine tympanostomy tube placement were collected and were classified by the surgeon as acute otitis media (AOM) for purulent effusions and as otitis media with effusion (OME) for non-purulent effusions. DNA was isolated from these samples and analyzed with multiplex polymerase chain reaction for Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis. Results 119 (57%) of 207 patients were PCR positive for at least one of these four organisms. 36 (30%) of the positive samples indicated the presence of more than one bacterial species. Patient samples were further separated into 2 groups based on clinical presentation at the time of surgery. Samples were categorized as acute otitis media (AOM) if pus was observed behind the tympanic membrane. If no pus was present, samples were categorized as otitis media with effusion (OME). Bacteria were identified in most of the children with AOM (87%) and half the children with OME (51%, p < 0.001). A single bacterial organism was detected in middle ear effusions from children with AOM more often than those with OME (74% versus 33%, p < 0.001). Haemophilus influenzae was the predominant single organism and caused 58% of all AOM in this study. Alloiococcus otitidis and Moraxella catarrhalis were more frequently identified in middle ear effusions than Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Alloiococcus otitidis, and Moraxella catarrhalis were identified in the middle ear effusions of some patients with otitis media. Overall, we found AOM is predominantly a single organism infection and most commonly from Haemophilus

  13. Absence of human herpesvirus 6B detection in association with illness in children undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Johanna; Borges, Nirica; Gowans, Laura K; Kohn, Debra; Worley, Sarah; Li, Liang; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Lach, Donna; Danziger-Isakov, Lara; Yee-Guardino, Stephanie; Trunick, Charles; Pellett, Philip E

    2016-08-01

    The lymphotropic herpesviruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B) can reactivate and cause disease in organ transplant recipients; the contributions of HHV-6A and HHV-7 to disease are less certain. Less is known about their pathogenic roles in children undergoing treatment for malignancies. Children with newly diagnosed cancer were followed for 24 months. Clinical information and blood samples were collected during routine visits and during acute visits for fever or possible viral infections. Lymphotropic herpesvirus DNA in blood was measured by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although HHV-6B DNA was detected at least once in about half of the patients; the other viruses were seldom detected. There was no association between HHV-6B detection and individual acute clinical events, however, HHV-6B detection was more common in children who experienced more frequent acute clinical events. In children being treated for various malignancies, HHV-6B detection was common, but was not associated with individual events of acute illness. Thus, if HHV-6B is not assessed longitudinally, clinical events may be misattributed to the virus. The elevated frequency of detection of HHV-6B in sicker children is consistent with prior reports of its detection during apparently unrelated acute clinical events. J. Med. Virol. 88:1427-1437, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26815906

  14. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery.…

  15. Thromboelastometric Monitoring of the Hemostatic Effect of Platelet Concentrates Transfusion in Thrombocytopenic Children Undergoing Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Cristina; Cadamuro, Janne; Jones, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic platelet concentrates transfusion represents a therapeutic choice in patients with chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia. This prospective, non-interventional study evaluated the effects of platelet concentrates transfusion on thromboelastometric parameters of platelet function in 36 transfusion occasions for 11 thrombocytopenic children undergoing chemotherapy. Pre- and posttransfusion (1-2 hours) blood samples were analyzed using standard coagulation tests and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) measurements (EXTEM and FIBTEM tests). Platelet component of the clot was calculated based on the EXTEM and FIBTEM maximum clot elasticity (MCE) results. After transfusion, mean platelet count increased from 16.5 × 109/L to 43.0 × 109/L (P < .001) and platelet component increased from 34.1 to 73.0 (P < .001). Statistically significant increases for posttransfusion EXTEM parameters A10, A20, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) were observed compared to pretransfusion values (P < .001). The EXTEM α-angle values increased posttransfusion (P < .05). The FIBTEM measurements were comparable pre- and posttransfusion. The study showed that platelet concentrates transfusion in thrombocytopenic children undergoing chemotherapy improves platelet-related coagulation pattern. PMID:25525046

  16. Perioperative effects of oral ketorolac and acetaminophen in children undergoing bilateral myringotomy.

    PubMed

    Watcha, M F; Ramirez-Ruiz, M; White, P F; Jones, M B; Lagueruela, R G; Terkonda, R P

    1992-09-01

    Prophylactic administration of analgesics before surgery can decrease the intraoperative anaesthetic requirement and decrease pain during the early postoperative period. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 90 healthy ASA physical status I or II children undergoing bilateral myringotomy, we compared the postoperative analgesic effects of oral acetaminophen and ketorolac, when administered 30 min before induction of anaesthesia. Patients were randomized to receive saline (0.1 ml.kg-1), acetaminophen (10 mg.kg-1) or ketorolac (1 mg.kg-1) diluted in cherry syrup to a total volume of 5 ml. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained with halothane and nitrous oxide via a face mask. Postoperative pain was assessed by a blinded observer using an objective pain scale. The three study groups were similar with respect to demographic data, duration of anaesthesia and surgery, induction behaviour, oxygen saturation, incidence of postoperative emesis and, recovery times. The ketorolac group had lower postoperative pain scores and required less frequent analgesic therapy in the early postoperative period compared with the acetaminophen and placebo groups. In contrast, there were no differences in pain scores or analgesic requirements between the acetaminophen and the placebo groups. We conclude that the preoperative administration of oral ketorolac, but not acetaminophen, provided better postoperative pain control than placebo in children undergoing bilateral myringotomy. PMID:1394752

  17. Evaluation of a virtual tour for children undergoing same-day surgery and their parents.

    PubMed

    Tourigny, Jocelyne; Clendinneng, Debbie; Chartrand, Julie; Gaboury, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated a virtual tour entitled, "Surgery Virtual Tour," offered on a Web site of a university-affiliated pediatric center. A pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design was used to assess the level of health care knowledge, emotional state, degree of utilization, and perceived usefulness of the Virtual Tour. The convenience sample consisted of 138 children having same-day surgery and their parents. The "Surgery Virtual Tour" was used by 55% of 138 families. Children who viewed the Web site had statistically significant higher knowledge scores than those who did not. Although there was no statistically significant difference in emotional distress for children in either group before the surgery (Time 1) to the day of the surgery (Time 2), parents' level of emotional distress increased significantly from Time 1 to Time 2 when they took the Virtual Tour. The results of this study will help clinicians and managers build virtual tours for children undergoing same-day surgery and their parents. PMID:21916345

  18. Feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Bogg, Tina Fung Ting; Broderick, Carolyn; Shaw, Peter; Cohn, Richard; Naumann, Fiona Leigh

    2015-12-01

    With improving survival rates following HSCT in children, QOL and management of short- and long-term effects need to be considered. Exercise may help mitigate fatigue and declines in fitness and strength. The aims of this study were to assess the feasibility of an inpatient exercise intervention for children undergoing HSCT and observe the changes in physical and psychological health. Fourteen patients were recruited, mean age 10 yr. A 6MWT, isometric upper and lower body strength, balance, fatigue, and QOL were assessed prior to Tx and six wk post-Tx. A supervised exercise program was offered five days per week during the inpatient period and feasibility assessed through uptake rate. The study had 100% program completion and 60% uptake rate of exercise sessions. The mean (± s.d.) weekly activity was 117.5 (± 79.3) minutes. Younger children performed significantly more minutes of exercise than adolescents. At reassessment, strength and fatigue were stabilized while aerobic fitness and balance decreased. QOL revealed a non-statistical trend towards improvement. No exercise-related adverse events were reported. A supervised inpatient exercise program is safe and feasible, with potential physiological and psychosocial benefits. PMID:26518227

  19. Effect of Chewing Gum on Oral Mucositis in Children Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Eghbali, A; Taherkhanchi, B; Bagheri, B; Sadeghi Sedeh, B

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral mucositis is an adverse effect of chemotherapy. Type of chemotherapy regimen is the most important factor causing mucositis. Oral mucositis is usually associated with transient decrease in saliva production. The goal was to study effects of gum consumption on oral mucositis in children undergoing chemotherapy. Materials and Method This randomized controlled trial was done in Amir Kabir Hospital, Arak, Iran. 130 children 5 to 15 years of age were studied. Control group was composed of 65 children who received mucotoxic drugs. Test group was made up of 65 patients received similar drugs in addition to sugar free gums. Patients consumed 6 pieces of gums per day for 15 days. A standardized follow up form and World Health Organization (WHO) grading system for oral mucositis were used for evaluation of patients during 15 days of treatment. Results Severe oral mucositis occurred in 30 (46%) of 65 patients in the test group and in 26 of 65 (40%) patients in the control group. Difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Rate of mild to moderate mucoitis (grade 1 and 2) was significantly lower in patients who used gums (15 % vs. 35%, P < 0.05). Conclusion Our study showed that stimulation of saliva flow by chewing gum could decrease mild to moderate inflammatory injuries of the oral mucosa during chemotherapy. However, it was not effective to subside severe mucositis. PMID:27222697

  20. Efficacy of dexamethasone on postoperative analgesia in children undergoing hypospadias repair

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Mehdi; Mahmoudi, Hilda; Nasihatkon, Behnam; Ghaffaripour, Sina; Eslahi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Management of post operative pain in children undergoing hypospadiasis repair, accounts for optimized surgery outcomes and improved patients’ satisfaction. Thus, various studies have widely investigated the best approaches for the pain management. In this study our aim was to determine the effect of dexamethasone in combination with penile nerve block on the postoperative pain and complications in the children undergoing hypospadias surgery. Methods: In this randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial, after obtaining informed consent from parents or legal guardians, 42 children undergoing surgical treatment of hypospadias were randomized in two groups to receive either IV dexamethasone 0.5 mg/kg (n=23) or placebo (normal saline) (n=19) during the operation. Penile block was performed in both groups using Bupivacaine 0.5% (1mg/kg) at the end of the procedure. By the end of the operation, FLACC (Face, Leg, Activity, Cry, Consolability) pain score was assessed as the primary outcome of the study. Secondary outcomes includes timing and episodes of rescue medication consumption, post operative nausea \\vomiting and bleeding. All the outcomes were assessed in the recovery room and after 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours. Results: The median of FLACC pain scores at the recovery room and 2, 6, 12, and 24 hours post operation was 2, 1, 1, 1, and 2 for the dexamethasone group and 8, 8, 7, 7, and 8 for the placebo group respectively. This were significantly different (P<0.000). The median time of first rescue medication consumption was 8 hours post operation for the dexamethasone group and three hours for the placebo group which was significantly different (z= 4.57, p<0.000). The maximum episode of post operative rescue medication consumption in dexamethasone group was 4 episodes in only one patient and the minimum was one episode in 11 patients. In comparison numbers in placebo group were five episodes in seven patients and three episodes in four

  1. Impact of pre-procedural cardiopulmonary instability in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (from the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial).

    PubMed

    Brener, Sorin J; Brodie, Bruce R; Guerchicoff, Alejandra; Witzenbichler, Bernhard; Guagliumi, Giulio; Xu, Ke; Mehran, Roxana; Stone, Gregg W

    2014-10-01

    Rapid reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention improves survival in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary instability and adverse events (IAE) may delay reperfusion time and worsen prognosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE, door-to-balloon time (DBT), and outcomes in the Harmonizing Outcomes With Revascularization and Stents in AMI (HORIZONS-AMI) trial. Preprocedural cardiopulmonary IAE included sustained ventricular or supraventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring cardioversion or defibrillation, heart block or bradycardia requiring pacemaker implantation, severe hypotension requiring vasopressors or intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation, respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Three-year outcomes of patients with and without IAE according to DBT were compared. Among 3,602 patients, 159 (4.4%) had ≥1 IAE. DBT did not differ significantly in patients with and without IAE; however, patients with IAE were less likely to have Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grade 3 flow after percutaneous coronary intervention. Mortality at 3 years was significantly higher in patients with versus those without IAE (17.0% vs 6.3%, p<0.0001), and IAE was an independent predictor of mortality, whereas DBT was not. However, a significant interaction was present such that 3-year mortality was reduced in patients with DBT<99 minutes (the median) versus ≥99 minutes to a greater extent in patients with IAE (9.9% vs 20.7%, hazard ratio 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.16 to 1.16) compared with those without IAE (5.0% vs 7.2%, hazard ratio 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95) (p for interaction=0.004). In conclusion, IAE before PCI is an independent predictor of death and identifies a high-risk group in whom faster reperfusion may be particularly important to improve survival. PMID

  2. Complementary Therapies for Children Undergoing Stem Cell Transplant: Report of A Multisite Trial

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Sean; Barrera, Maru; Vannatta, Kathryn; Xiong, Xiaoping; Doyle, John J; Alderfer, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children undergoing stem cell transplant (SCT) experience high levels of somatic distress and mood disturbance. This trial evaluated the efficacy of complementary therapies (massage, humor therapy, relaxation/imagery) for reducing distress associated with pediatric SCT. Methods Across 4 sites, 178 pediatric patients scheduled to undergo SCT were randomized to a child-targeted intervention involving massage and humor therapy (HPI-C), the identical child intervention plus a parent intervention involving massage and relaxation/imagery (HPI-CP) or standard care (SC). Randomization was stratified by site, age, and type of transplant. The interventions began at admission and continued through SCT week +3. Primary outcomes included patient and parent reports of somatic distress and mood disturbance obtained weekly from admission through week +6 using the BASES scales. Secondary outcomes included length of hospitalization, time to engraftment, and usage of narcotic analgesic and antiemetic medications. Results A mixed model approach was used to assess longitudinal trends of patient and parent-report outcomes and test differences between groups on these measures. Significant changes across time were observed on all patient and parent-report outcomes. However, no significant differences between treatment arms were found on the primary outcomes. Similarly, no signficant between group differences were noted on any of the medical variables as secondary outcomes. Conclusions Results of this multi-site trial failed to document significant benefits of complementary interventions in the pediatric SCT setting. PMID:20626016

  3. Depressive Symptomatology in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Renal Insufficiency Undergoing Chronic Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Edith G.; Loza, Reyner; Vargas, Horacio; Jara, Mercedes F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive study, using the Birleson Scale to determine the frequency of depressive symptomatology in children and adolescents with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) undergoing hemodialysis (HD) and chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). There were 67 patients (40 female and 27 male) with a mean age of 14.76 ± 2.71 years, duration of illness ≥3 months, 43 (64.18%) patients with CPD and 24 (35.82%) undergoing HD. The frequency of high occurrence, low occurrence, and absence of depressive symptomatology was 10.45% (n = 7), 43.28% (n = 29), and 46.27% (n = 31), respectively; all of the seven (100%) patients with high occurrence of depressive symptomatology were female (P = 0.04), and none of these (0%) had a friend to confide in (P = 0.03). Depressive symptomatology in patients with CPD was associated with a lower weekly Kt/V compared to those without depressive symptomatology (2.15 ± 0.68 versus 2.52 ± 0.65; P = 0.01). There was no association with patient age, caregiver, time and dialysis type, anemia, bone disease, nutritional or financial status, origin, schooling, or employment. PMID:21941654

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation update.

    PubMed

    Lipley, Nick

    2014-11-01

    THE ROYAL College of Nursing (RCN), Resuscitation Council (UK) and British Medical Association (BMA) have issued a new edition of their guidance on when to attempt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). PMID:25369953

  5. An empowerment health education program for children undergoing surgery for congenital heart diseases.

    PubMed

    Ni, Zhihong; Chao, Yannfen; Xue, Xiaoling

    2016-09-01

    Since the surgery for congenital heart disease (CHD) is considered highly risky, appropriate postoperative care is crucial. After the surgery, children are often discharged with unhealed wounds, incomplete recovery, and continuing pain. Health education programs based on empowerment education model can assist clients to develop skills in self-management. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an empowerment health education program for improving caregiving knowledge, caring behaviors, and self-efficacy of parents caring for children after corrective surgery for CHD. This prospective clinical trial enrolled pediatric patients undergoing surgical correction for CHD. Patients were divided into two groups: the control group (n = 42), which received the standard education program, and the intervention group (n = 44), which participated in the empowerment theory-based education program. We collected data on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2); New York Heart Association classification of the patients; and the parents' caregiving knowledge, caring behaviors, and self-efficacy before surgery and one month and three months after surgery. At one month and three months after surgery, the intervention group scored higher than the control group in caregiving knowledge, caring behavior, and self-efficacy. By the third month after surgery, the intervention group had significantly higher values of LVEF and SpO2 than the control group. PMID:26105060

  6. Evolution of weight and height of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Murilo Bertazzo; Croti, Ulisses Alexandre; de Godoy, Moacir Fernandes; Marchi, Carlos Henrique De; Hassem Sobrinho, Sírio; Beani, Lilian; Moscardini, Airton Camacho; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the height and weight development of children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgery with the goal of determining when they reach the threshold of normal development and whether there are differences between patients with developmental pattern below the level of normality preoperatively (z-score<-2 for the analyzed parameter) in comparison to the total group of cardiac patients. Methods We prospectively followed up 27 children undergoing operation into five time periods: preoperatively and at four subsequent outpatient appointments: 1st month, 3rd month, 6th month and 12th month after hospital discharge. The anthropometric parameters used were median z-score (MZ), weight (WAZ), height (HAZ), subscapular skinfold (SSFAZ), upper arm circumference (UAC) and triceps skinfold (TSFAZ). The evolution assessment of the parameters was performed by analysis of variance and comparison with the general normal population from unpaired t test, both in the total group of cardiac patients, and in subgroups with preoperative parameters below the normal level (Zm<-2). Results In the total group there was no significant evolution of MZ of all parameters. WAZ was statistically lower than the normal population until the 1st month of follow-up (P=0.028); HAZ only preoperatively (P=0.044), SSFAZ in the first month (P=0.015) and at 12th month (P=0.038), UAC and TSFAZ were always statistically equal to the general population. In patients whose development was below the level of normality, there were important variation of WAZ (P=0.002), HAZ (P=0.001) and UAC (P=0.031) after the operation, and the WAZ was lower than the normal population until the 3rd month (P=0.015); HAZ and UAC, until the first month (P=0.024 and P=0.039 respectively), SSFAZ, up to the 12th month (P=0.005), the TSFAZ only preoperatively (P=0.011). Conclusion The operation promoted the return to normalcy for those with heart disease in general within up to three months, but for the group of

  7. Anxiety determinants in mothers of children with congenital heart diseases undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rahimianfar, Ali Akbar; Forouzannia, Seyed Khalil; Sarebanhassanabadi, Mohammadtaghi; Dehghani, Hamide; Namayandeh, Syedeh Mahdieh; Khavary, Zohre; Rahimianfar, Fatemeh; Aghbageri, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: The infants with congenital cardiovascular diseases are faced with too much problems in the case of their ongoing life. Mothers’ stress investigation would be important because can receive the stress from his parents. The aim of the following study was determined anxiety in mothers of children undergoing cardiac surgery. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted by an analytical study on 69 infants’ mothers who were operated due to their cardiovascular abnormalities in Yazd Afshar Hospital (2012). In this study, some demographic information and influential factors were recorded germane to mothers’ stress, including residential location, history of infant hospitalization or congenital disease as well as some questions in the case of stimuli of the hospital environment, family support, economic situation and the mothers’ awareness of their stress. Results: There are statistically significant differences between mothers’ stress and their age (P = 0.03) and infants’ age (P < 0.0001). There are not statically significant differences between mothers’ stress score mean and their educational level (P = 0.75), the infants’ hospitalization history (P = 0.57), the history of congenital of disease in family (P = 0.24) and the family support in infant care (P = 0.08). Conclusion: Those mothers who asserted the stimuli of the hospital environment, infant and its mother support, economic situation and the mothers’ awareness lack of disease and infant status as strong stress-making stimuli enjoy a stress high mean. PMID:26918237

  8. The efficacy and cost of aprotinin in children undergoing reoperative open heart surgery.

    PubMed

    D'Errico, C C; Shayevitz, J R; Martindale, S J; Mosca, R S; Bove, E L

    1996-12-01

    We performed a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the efficacy of aprotinin in 61 children (median age 3.7 yr) undergoing reoperative open heart surgery (OHS). Three demographically similar groups were studied: large-dose aprotinin (ALD), small-dose aprotinin (ASD), and placebo (P). Over the first 24 postoperative hours fewer patients in the aprotinin groups received packed red cells (ALD, 53%; ASD, 89%; and P, 95%; P = 0.001), platelets (ALD, 32%; ASD, 50%; and P, 65%; P = 0.04), and fresh frozen plasma (ALD, 16%; ASD, 17%; and P, 60%; P = 0.003) than placebo patients. Most importantly, aprotinin patients had fewer exposures to banked blood components (ALD, median 1 U; and ASD, median 2 U) than P (median 6 U; P = 0.001), with no difference in overall complication rate. Use of aprotinin was associated with a savings in the patient charges for blood components, operating room time, and duration of hospitalization. In conclusion, aprotinin decreased the number of units of banked blood components used during the first 24 postoperative hours in reoperative pediatric OHS. Aprotinin thus decreases the risks associated with exposure to banked blood components and reduces hospital charges. PMID:8942585

  9. Randomized Pilot Study of Mechanical Bowel Preparation for Children Undergoing Elective Colorectal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aldrink, Jennifer H.; McManaway, Cindy; Wang, Wei; Nwomeh, Benedict C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Adult literature supports the elimination of mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) for elective colorectal surgical procedures. Prospective data for the pediatric population regarding the utility of MBP is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to compare infectious complications, specifically anastomotic leak, intraabdominal abscess, and wound infection in patients who received MBP to those who did not. Methods A randomized pilot study comparing MBP with polyethylene glycol to no MBP was performed. Patients 0–21 years old undergoing elective colorectal surgery were eligible, and were randomized within 4 age strata. Statistical analyses was performed using Chi-square or Fisher’s exact test for categorical data and t-test or Wilcoxon two-sample test for continuous data. Results Forty-four patients were enrolled in the study from December 2010 to February 2013, of which 24 (55%) received MBP and 20 (45%) did not. Two patients (5%) had anastomotic leak, 4 (9%) had intraabdominal infection, and 7 (16%) had wound infections. The rate of anastomotic leak, intraabdominal abscess, and wound infection did not differ between the two groups. Conclusion Mechanical bowel preparation for elective colorectal surgery in children does not affect the incidence of infectious complications. A larger multi-institutional study is necessary to validate the results of this single-institution pilot study. PMID:25825853

  10. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    PubMed

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles. PMID:23184062

  11. Cardiopulmonary discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Life sciences research in the cardiopulmonary discipline must identify possible consequences of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system, understand the mechanisms of these effects, and develop effective and operationally practical countermeasures to protect crewmembers inflight and upon return to a gravitational environment. The long-range goal of the NASA Cardiopulmonary Discipline Research Program is to foster research to better understand the acute and long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary adaptation to space and to develop physiological countermeasures to ensure crew health in space and on return to Earth. The purpose of this Discipline Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive area of cardiopulmonary sciences. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas of both cardiovascular and pulmonary function. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational (intramural and extramural) research and development activities in this area.

  12. Cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Pomini, F; Mercogliano, D; Cavalletti, C; Caruso, A; Pomini, P

    1996-01-01

    The cardiopathic patient can sustain acute heart failure during pregnancy. In such cases, if open heart operation is necessary to save the patient's life, the fetus could be seriously compromised after exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. From 1958 to 1992, 69 reports of cardiac operations during pregnancy with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass have been published. Maternal mortality was 2.9%. Embryofetal mortality was 20.2%. Examining only the last 40 patients, maternal and embryofetal mortality were 0.0% and 12.5%, respectively. Embryofetal mortality was 24.0% when hypothermia was used, compared with 0.0% while operating in normothermia. Maternal mortality did not change. The use of hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass provoked uterine contractions in several patients. Hypothermia decreases O2 exchange through the placenta. Pump flow and mean arterial pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass seem to be the most important parameters that influence fetal oxygenation. We speculate that cardiac operation is not a contraindication to pregnancy prolongation. PMID:8561577

  13. Comparison of three supraglottic devices in anesthetised paralyzed children undergoing elective surgery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Bikramjit; Mitra, Subhro; Jamil, Shahin N.; Varshney, Rohit K.

    2012-01-01

    Context: The newest variation of the i-gel supraglottic airway is a pediatric version. Aims: This study was designed to investigate the usefulness of the size 2 i-gel compared with the ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA) and classic laryngeal mask airway (cLMA) of the same size in anesthetized, paralyzed children. Settings and design: A prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods: Ninety ASA grade I–II patients undergoing lower abdominal, inguinal and orthopedic surgery were included in this prospective study. The patients were randomly assigned to the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups (30 patients in each group). Size 2 supraglottic airway was inserted according to the assigned group. We assessed ease of insertion, hemodynamic data, oropharyngeal sealing pressure and postoperative complications. Results: There were no differences in the demographic and hemodynamic data among the three groups. The airway leak pressure of the i-gel group (27.1±2.6 cmH2O) was significantly higher than that of the PLMA group (22.73±1.2 cmH2O) and the cLMA group (23.63±2.3 cmH2O). The success rates for first attempt of insertion were similar among the three devices. There were no differences in the incidence of postoperative airway trauma, sore throat or hoarse cry in the three groups. Conclusions: Hemodynamic parameters, ease of insertion and postoperative complications were comparable among the i-gel, PLMA and cLMA groups, but airway sealing pressure was significantly higher in the i-gel group. PMID:23162394

  14. Traumeel S in preventing and treating mucositis in young patients undergoing SCT: a report of the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Sencer, S F; Zhou, T; Freedman, L S; Ives, J A; Chen, Z; Wall, D; Nieder, M L; Grupp, S A; Yu, L C; Sahdev, I; Jonas, W B; Wallace, J D; Oberbaum, M

    2012-11-01

    Mucositis can be a serious complication of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). A previous phase II trial in 32 children undergoing HSCT reported a beneficial effect of the homeopathic remedy Traumeel S. The Children's Oncology Group sought to replicate the results in a multi-institutional trial. The study was an international multi-center, double-blind, randomized trial comparing Traumeel with placebo in patients aged 3-25 years undergoing myeloablative HSCT. Traumeel/placebo was started on Day -1 as a five-time daily mouth rinse. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed using the modified Walsh scale for mucositis, scored daily from Day -1 to 20 days after HCST. The main outcome was the sum of Walsh scale scores (area-under-the-curve (AUC)) over this period. Other outcomes included narcotic use, days of total parenteral feeding, days of nasogastric feeding and adverse events. In 181 evaluable patients, there was no statistical difference in mucositis (AUC) in the Traumeel group (76.7) compared with placebo (67.3) (P=0.13). There was a trend towards less narcotic usage in the Traumeel patients. No statistically beneficial effect from Traumeel was demonstrated for mucositis. We could not confirm that Traumeel is an effective treatment for mucositis in children undergoing HSCT. PMID:22504933

  15. Postoperative Adiponectin Levels in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Open Heart Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, A.; Kanety, H.; Avni, T.; Mishali, D.; Hemi, R.; Yissaschar, E.; Pariente, C.; Paret, G.; Modan-Moses, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ that secretes cytokines, including adiponectin, levels of which are negatively correlated with the severity of the inflammatory process. Aim. To assess the time course of adiponectin levels following open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and its correlation with early postoperative outcomes. Materials and Methods. Blood samples were obtained from 24 children undergoing cardiac surgery and analyzed for adiponectin, C-reactive protein, and other inflammatory markers. Results. Baseline adiponectin levels were negatively correlated with patients' preoperative weight and age. Postoperative adiponectin levels decreased compared to baseline (P = 0.01) and correlated negatively with duration of cardiopulmonary bypass (r = −0.438, P = 0.037), length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit (r = −0.457, P = 0.025), and the inotropic score (r = −0.471, P = 0.02). Adiponectin levels were positively correlated with sVCAM 1 levels; however, there was no correlation between adiponectin levels and sP selectin, tPA, MCP1, and sCD40. Conclusions. The inflammatory response after open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with a reduction in adiponectin levels. Prolonged or more complicated surgery induced a more substantial inflammatory process characterized by a significant reduction in adiponectin levels over time and a delayed return to baseline levels. PMID:24224162

  16. Can pregnant women be safely placed on cardiopulmonary bypass?

    PubMed Central

    Sepehripour, Amir H.; Lo, Tammy T.; Shipolini, Alex R.; McCormack, David J.

    2012-01-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether cardiopulmonary bypass can be used safely with satisfactory maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 679 papers were found using the reported searches of which 14 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, date, journal, study type, population, main outcome measures and results are tabulated. Reported measures were maternal and foetal mortality and complications, mode of delivery, cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times, perfusate flow rate and temperature and maternal NYHA functional class. The most recent of the best evidence studies, a retrospective observational study of 21 pregnant patients reported early and late maternal mortalities of 4.8 and 14.3%, respectively, and a foetal mortality of 14.3%. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 53 and 35 min, respectively, and the median bypass temperature was 37°C. Three larger retrospective reviews of the literature reported maternal mortality rates of 2.9–5.1% and foetal mortality rates of 19–29%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass times ranged from 50.5 to 77.8 min. Another retrospective observational study reported maternal mortality of 13.3% and foetal mortality of 38.5%. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 89.1 and 62.8 min, respectively, with a mean bypass temperature of 31.8°C. A retrospective case series reported no maternal mortality and one case of foetal mortality. Median cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 101 and 88 min, respectively. Eight case reports described 10 patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. There were no reports of maternal mortality and one report of foetal mortality. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times were 105 and 50 min, respectively. We conclude that while the use of cardiopulmonary bypass

  17. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  18. Judging Pain Intensity in Children with Autism Undergoing Venepuncture: The Influence of Facial Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messmer, Rosemary L.; Nader, Rami; Craig, Kenneth D.

    2008-01-01

    The biasing effect of pain sensitivity information and the impact of facial activity on observers' judgments of pain intensity of children with autism were examined. Observers received information that pain experience in children with autism is either the same as, more intense than, or less intense than children without autism. After viewing six…

  19. Behavioral Distress in Children with Cancer Undergoing Medical Procedures: Developmental Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Ernest R.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The amount of anxiety suggested the need for clinical intervention to reduce procedure-related distress in children with cancer. Younger children exhibited consistently higher levels of distress than older children and displayed a greater variety of anxious responses over a longer time span. (Author/BEF)

  20. Fluid distribution kinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Törnudd, Mattias; Hahn, Robert G.; Zdolsek, Joachim H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the isovolumetric distribution kinetics of crystalloid fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting participated in this prospective observational study. The blood hemoglobin and the serum albumin and sodium concentrations were measured repeatedly during the distribution of priming solution (Ringer's acetate 1470 ml and mannitol 15% 200 ml) and initial cardioplegia. The rate of crystalloid fluid distribution was calculated based on 3-min Hb changes. The preoperative blood volume was extrapolated from the marked hemodilution occurring during the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01115166. RESULTS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's acetate averaged 8 minutes, corresponding to a transcapillary escape rate of 0.38 ml/kg/min. The intravascular albumin mass increased by 5.4% according to mass balance calculations. The preoperative blood volume, as extrapolated from the drop in hemoglobin concentration by 32% (mean) at the beginning of cardiopulmonary bypass, was 0.6-1.2 L less than that estimated by anthropometric methods (p<0.02). The mass balance of sodium indicated a translocation from the intracellular to the extracellular fluid space in 8 of the 10 patients, with a median volume of 236 ml. CONCLUSIONS: The distribution half-time of Ringer's solution during isovolumetric cardiopulmonary bypass was 8 minutes, which is the same as for crystalloid fluid infusions in healthy subjects. The intravascular albumin mass increased. Most patients were hypovolemic prior to the start of anesthesia. Intracellular edema did not occur. PMID:25141112

  1. Epidural analgesia is superior to local infiltration analgesia in children with cerebral palsy undergoing unilateral hip reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kjeldgaard Pedersen, Line; Nikolajsen, Lone; Rahbek, Ole; Uldall Duch, Birgitte; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Treatment of postoperative pain in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a major challenge. We investigated the effect of epidural analgesia, high-volume local infiltration analgesia (LIA), and an approximated placebo control on early postoperative pain in children with CP who were undergoing unilateral hip reconstruction. Patients and methods - Between 2009 and 2014, we included 18 children with CP. The first part of the study was a randomized double-blind trial with allocation to either LIA or placebo for postoperative pain management, in addition to intravenous or oral analgesia. In the second part of the study, the children were consecutively included for postoperative pain management with epidural analgesia in addition to intravenous or oral analgesia. The primary outcome was postoperative pain 4 h postoperatively using 2 pain assessment tools (r-FLACC and VAS-OBS) ranging from 0 to 10. The secondary outcome was opioid consumption over the 21-h study period. Results - The mean level of pain 4 h postoperatively was lower in the epidural group (r-FLACC: 0.7; VAS-OBS: 0.6) than in both the LIA group (r-FLACC: 4.8, p = 0.01; VAS-OBS: 5.2, p = 0.02) and the placebo group (r-FLACC: 5.2, p = 0.01; VAS-OBS: 6.5, p < 0.001). Corrected for body weight, the mean opioid consumption was lower in the epidural group than in the LIA group and the placebo group (both p < 0.001). Interpretation - Epidural analgesia is superior to local infiltration analgesia for early postoperative pain management in children with cerebral palsy who undergo unilateral hip reconstruction. PMID:26541479

  2. Epidural analgesia is superior to local infiltration analgesia in children with cerebral palsy undergoing unilateral hip reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldgaard Pedersen, Line; Nikolajsen, Lone; Rahbek, Ole; Uldall Duch, Birgitte; Møller-Madsen, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Treatment of postoperative pain in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a major challenge. We investigated the effect of epidural analgesia, high-volume local infiltration analgesia (LIA), and an approximated placebo control on early postoperative pain in children with CP who were undergoing unilateral hip reconstruction. Patients and methods — Between 2009 and 2014, we included 18 children with CP. The first part of the study was a randomized double-blind trial with allocation to either LIA or placebo for postoperative pain management, in addition to intravenous or oral analgesia. In the second part of the study, the children were consecutively included for postoperative pain management with epidural analgesia in addition to intravenous or oral analgesia. The primary outcome was postoperative pain 4 h postoperatively using 2 pain assessment tools (r-FLACC and VAS-OBS) ranging from 0 to 10. The secondary outcome was opioid consumption over the 21-h study period. Results — The mean level of pain 4 h postoperatively was lower in the epidural group (r-FLACC: 0.7; VAS-OBS: 0.6) than in both the LIA group (r-FLACC: 4.8, p = 0.01; VAS-OBS: 5.2, p = 0.02) and the placebo group (r-FLACC: 5.2, p = 0.01; VAS-OBS: 6.5, p < 0.001). Corrected for body weight, the mean opioid consumption was lower in the epidural group than in the LIA group and the placebo group (both p < 0.001). Interpretation — Epidural analgesia is superior to local infiltration analgesia for early postoperative pain management in children with cerebral palsy who undergo unilateral hip reconstruction. PMID:26541479

  3. Effect of preoperative oral midazolam sedation on separation anxiety and emergence delirium among children undergoing dental treatment under general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    El Batawi, Hisham Yehia

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible effects of preoperative oral Midazolam on parental separation anxiety, emergence delirium, and post-anesthesia care unit time on children undergoing dental rehabilitation under general anesthesia. Methods: Randomized, prospective, double-blind study. Seventy-eight American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I children were divided into two groups of 39 each. Children of the first group were premedicated with oral Midazolam 0.5 mg/kg, while children of the control group were premedicated with a placebo. Scores for parental separation, mask acceptance, postoperative emergence delirium, and time spent in the post-anesthesia care unit were compared statistically. Results: The test group showed significantly lower parental separation scores and high acceptance rate for anesthetic mask. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding emergence delirium and time spent in post-anesthesia care unit. Conclusions: Preoperative oral Midazolam could be a useful adjunct in anxiety management for children suffering dental anxiety. The drug may not reduce the incidence of postoperative emergence delirium. The suggested dose does not seem to affect the post-anesthesia care unit time. PMID:25992332

  4. Dental management for children with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis therapy.

    PubMed

    Chow, M H; Peterson, D S

    1979-07-01

    Patients with chronic renal failure who are undergoing hemodialysis therapy demonstrate problems of significant importance for dental treatment. A case is presented in which secondard hyperparathyroidism, resulting from renal failure and hemodialysis, was noted in a child. Other relationships between renal failure, hemodialysis, and dental care were also presented. PMID:287985

  5. Comparison of Hypnosis and Distraction in Severely Ill Children Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julien T.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An ethnically diverse sample of high and low hypnotizable children (N=27) suffering from cancer or blood disorders were trained along with their parents to use both distraction and hypnosis to reduce pain and anxiety. Distraction produced significant positive effects for observer-rated distress scores for the low hypnotizable children. Discusses…

  6. Coping by Children Undergoing Stressful Medical Procedures: Some Conceptual, Methodological, and Therapeutic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1989-01-01

    As an example of current trends in research on children's coping, this article reviews a small set of recent pediatric psychology studies that describe children's active, information-seeking styles of coping versus avoidant or information-denying coping. The review highlights the need for tighter, more complete concepts and improved methods.…

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: current guidelines.

    PubMed

    Green, Bart N; Clark, Tammi

    2005-01-01

    It is critical for health care providers to have the skills and composure required to administer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) when necessary. Unfortunately, it is easy to postpone updating one's CPR certification when confronted with the demands of leading a practice. New guidelines for CPR have been in effect since 2000. This clinical update provides a brief overview of the new guidelines, some suggestions for incorporating CPR training into the clinician's practice, and clarification for some common legal misconceptions that doctors may have pertaining to administering CPR. PMID:19674653

  8. Impact of Psychological Interventions on Reducing Anxiety, Fear and the Need for Sedation in Children Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, Maria Pia; Giganti, Fiorenza; Rossi, Arianna; Di Feo, Daniele; Vagnoli, Laura; Calcagno, Giovanna; Defilippi, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging examination frequently experience anxiety and fear before and during the scanning. The aim of the present study was to assess: i) whether and to what extent psychological interventions might reduce anxiety and fear levels; ii) whether the intervention is related to a decrease in the need for sedation. The interventions consisted of three activities: a clown show, dog interaction and live music. The emotional status (anxiety and fear) of the children was evaluated before and after the activities through a rating scale questionnaire. The results showed that the activities had high effectiveness in reducing the level of anxiety and fear and decreased the need for sedation in the experimental group compared to the control group. This approach proved to be a positive patient experience, helping to alleviate children’s anxiety and fear, decreasing the need for sedation, and was cost-effective. PMID:25918624

  9. Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Advances in Science, Techniques, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Topjian, Alexis A.; Berg, Robert A.; Nadkarni, Vinay M.

    2009-01-01

    More than 25% of children survive to hospital discharge after in-hospital cardiac arrests, and 5% to 10% survive after out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. This review of pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation addresses the epidemiology of pediatric cardiac arrests, mechanisms of coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the 4 phases of cardiac arrest resuscitation, appropriate interventions during each phase, special resuscitation circumstances, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The key elements of pathophysiology that impact and match the timing, intensity, duration, and variability of the hypoxic-ischemic insult to evidence-based interventions are reviewed. Exciting discoveries in basic and applied-science laboratories are now relevant for specific subpopulations of pediatric cardiac arrest victims and circumstances (eg, ventricular fibrillation, neonates, congenital heart disease, extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Improving the quality of interventions is increasingly recognized as a key factor for improving outcomes. Evolving training strategies include simulation training, just-in-time and just-in-place training, and crisis-team training. The difficult issue of when to discontinue resuscitative efforts is addressed. Outcomes from pediatric cardiac arrests are improving. Advances in resuscitation science and state-of-the-art implementation techniques provide the opportunity for further improvement in outcomes among children after cardiac arrest. PMID:18977991

  10. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne; Hallan, Cathrine; Friedman, Eliezer; Martinez, Christine

    2005-10-01

    This study included a total of 60 pediatric patients ranging from 1 month through 5 years of age. The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation in infants and toddlers undergoing EEG testing. The results of the study indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective, risk-free alternative to pharmacological sedation. PMID:16246809

  11. Sleep/sedation in children undergoing EEG testing: a comparison of chloral hydrate and music therapy.

    PubMed

    Loewy, Joanne; Hallan, Cathrine; Friedman, Eliezer; Martinez, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This study included a total of 60 pediatric patients ranging from 1 month through 5 years of age. The effects of chloral hydrate and music therapy were evaluated and compared as means of safe and effective ways to achieve sleep/sedation in infants and toddlers undergoing EEG testing. The results of the study indicate that music therapy may be a cost-effective, risk-free alternative to pharmacological sedation. PMID:17285817

  12. Development of an Individualized Yoga Intervention to Address Fatigue in Hospitalized Children Undergoing Intensive Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Diorio, Caroline; Celis Ekstrand, Amanda; Hesser, Tanya; O'Sullivan, Cathy; Lee, Michelle; Schechter, Tal; Sung, Lillian

    2016-09-01

    Purpose Fatigue is an important problem in children receiving intensive chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Exercise may be an effective intervention for fatigue. Individualized yoga represents an ideal intervention because it can be tailored according to an individual child's needs. Little is known about how to structure a standardized yoga program for intensivelytreated children. Therefore, this study describes the development of a yoga program and an approach to monitoring sessions suitable for hospitalized children receiving intensive chemotherapy or HSCT. Methods The yoga program was designed to increase mobility in hospitalized children and to provide children with relaxation techniques that could be used independently in a variety of environments. The program was founded on 4 key tenets: safety, adaptability, environmental flexibility, and appeal to children. We also developed quality and consistency assurance procedures. Results A menu format with a fixed structure was selected for the yoga program. Each yoga session contained up to 6 sections: breathing exercises, warmup exercises, yoga poses, balancing poses, cool-down poses, and final relaxation. Yoga instructors selected specific yoga poses for each session from a predetermined list organized by intensity level (low, moderate, or high). Monitoring procedures were developed using videotaping and multirater adjudication. Conclusion We created a standardized yoga program and an approach to monitoring that are now ready for incorporation in clinical trials. Future work should include the adaptation of the program to different pediatric populations and clinical settings. PMID:27146130

  13. Contact sensitization in 1094 children undergoing patch testing over a 7-year period.

    PubMed

    Seidenari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Pepe, Patrizia; Mantovani, Lucia

    2005-01-01

    Contact sensitization in children is frequent. However, because exposure to sensitizing agents varies rapidly, it is of utmost importance to perform a periodic evaluation of patch test results. Our purpose was to compare our data on contact sensitization in children during the past 7 years to our previous 1988-1994 findings, in order to identify emerging allergens and update our pediatric series. From 1995 to 2001, 1094 consecutive children were examined. Of these, 997 patients were patch tested with our pediatric series, which includes 30 allergens, whereas 97 underwent patch testing with 46 allergens. A total of 570 children proved allergic (52.1%). The highest sensitization rate was observed in children under 3 years of age. No differences between atopic dermatitis patients and nonatopic ones were observed in the sensitization rate. Neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, and ammoniated mercury gave most of the positive responses. With respect to 1988-1995 data, allergy to substances such as neomycin, nickel, wool alcohols, thimerosal, ammoniated mercury, propolis, potassium dichromate, and thiuram mix proved more frequent. In conclusion, as sensitization rates to different allergens show great variations over time, periodic evaluations of patch test results in children is necessary in order to update the test trays. PMID:15660887

  14. Predictive Factors of Postoperative Pain and Postoperative Anxiety in Children Undergoing Elective Circumcision: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tsamoudaki, Stella; Ntomi, Vasileia; Yiannopoulos, Ioannis; Christianakis, Efstratios; Pikoulis, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Although circumcision for phimosis in children is a minor surgical procedure, it is followed by pain and carries the risk of increased postoperative anxiety. This study examined predictive factors of postoperative pain and anxiety in children undergoing circumcision. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of children scheduled for elective circumcision. Circumcision was performed applying one of the following surgical techniques: sutureless prepuceplasty (SP), preputial plasty technique (PP), and conventional circumcision (CC). Demographics and base-line clinical characteristics were collected, and assessment of the level of preoperative anxiety was performed. Subsequently, a statistical model was designed in order to examine predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Assessment of postoperative pain was performed using the Faces Pain Scale (FPS). The Post Hospitalization Behavior Questionnaire study was used to assess negative behavioral manifestations. Results A total of 301 children with a mean age of 7.56 ± 2.61 years were included in the study. Predictive factors of postoperative pain measured with the FPS included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the absence of siblings, and c) the presence of postoperative complications. Predictive factors of postoperative anxiety included a) the type of surgical technique, b) the level of education of mothers, c) the presence of preoperative anxiety, and d) a history of previous surgery. Conclusions Although our study was not without its limitations, it expands current knowledge by adding new predictive factors of postoperative pain and postoperative anxiety. Clearly, further randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm its results. PMID:26495079

  15. A survey of close contact regimes between patients undergoing diagnostic radioisotope procedures and children.

    PubMed

    Greaves, C D; Tindale, W B; Flynn, P J

    1996-07-01

    When following diagnostic radioisotope procedures, UK legislation requires that we advise patients to avoid close contact with children [1, 2]. How does this advice affect the average nuclear medicine patient? Over a 4 month period, 90 patients in contact with children were asked about their home circumstances, how they coped with avoidance of close contact and the problems caused. On average, the patients were in contact with two children with a mean age of 7 years. Thirty-nine per cent of patients spent < 5 h per day and 30% between 5 and 10 h per day in close contact. However, 13% spent 20-24 h in close contact with children. For most patients (55%), it is easy to avoid close contact, but 25% found it difficult or very difficult. The average in-patient received one visit a day from children of 0.5-1 h duration and 65% of children sat on the patient's bed. Restriction of visits was a problem for 14% of patients. Initially, over one-third of the out-patients felt a medium level of anxiety or higher regarding close contact with children. Given more detailed written information and the opportunity to discuss any queries with a member of staff (70% wished to do so), the proportion fell to less than one-tenth. We found it important to question patients carefully, because home circumstances and levels of close contact cannot be deduced from the age of the child or the relationship between the child and the patient. PMID:8843113

  16. Efficacy and safety of oral triclofos as sedative for children undergoing sleep electroencephalogram: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Sharma, Ankita; Goel, Shaiphali; Jose, Anjali; Aneja, Satinder

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Triclofos may be a better sedative in view of better palatability and less gastric irritation as compared to chloral hydrate. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of triclofos (a commonly used sedative in India) as a sedative for sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) study in children. Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care pediatric center. Consecutive children aged 6 months to 5 years referred for sleep EEG evaluation were recruited. Their clinical details were noted in a proforma after an informed consent. After a trial for natural sleep, oral triclofos was administered. Sleep parameters and adverse effects were noted. Results: One-hundred and sixty children were then enrolled. EEG was successfully recorded in 149 (93.1%) children. Median latency of sleep onset was 30 min and median duration of sleep was 90 min. The adverse effects in the following 24 h were mild and included dizziness, irritability, and vomiting. Conclusions: Oral triclofos was found to be an effective sedative for EEG in children with minimal adverse effects.

  17. Effect of body mass in children with hematologic malignancies undergoing allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Aplenc, Richard; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Sung, Lillian; Zhu, Xiaochun; Ho, Vincent T.; Cooke, Kenneth; Dvorak, Christopher; Hale, Gregory; Isola, Luis M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; McCarthy, Philip L.; Olsson, Richard; Pulsipher, Michael; Bunin, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    The rising incidence of pediatric obesity may significantly affect bone marrow transplantation (BMT) outcomes. We analyzed outcomes in 3687 children worldwide who received cyclophosphamide-based BMT regimens for leukemias between 1990 and 2007. Recipients were classified according to age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentiles as underweight (UW), at risk of UW (RUW), normal, overweight (OW), or obese (OB). Median age and race were similar in all groups. Sixty-one percent of OB children were from the United States/Canada. Three-year relapse-free and overall survival ranged from 48% to 52% (P = .54) and 55% to 58% (P = .81) across BMI groups. Three-year leukemia relapses were 33%, 33%, 29%, 25%, and 21% in the UW, RUW, normal, OW, and OB groups, respectively (P < .001). Corresponding cumulative incidences for transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18%, 19%, 21%, 22%, and 28% (P < .01). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a decreased risk of relapse compared with normal BMI (relative risk [RR] = 0.73; P < .01) and a trend toward higher TRM (RR = 1.28; P = .014). BMI in children is not significantly associated with different survival after BMT for hematologic malignancies. Obese children experience less relapse posttransplant compared with children with normal BMI; however, this benefit is offset by excess in TRM. PMID:24711663

  18. Effect of etomidate and propofol induction on hemodynamic and endocrine response in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting/mitral valve and aortic valve replacement surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Ram Prasad; Vatal, Ajay; Pathak, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The concerns for induction of anaesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery include hemodynamic stability, attenuation of stress response and maintenance of balance between myocardial oxygen demand and supply. Various Intravenous anaesthetic agents like Thiopentone, Etomidate, Propofol, Midazolam, and Ketamine have been used for anesthetizing patients for cardiac surgeries. However, many authors have expressed concerns regarding induction with thiopentone, midazolam and ketamine. Hence, Propofol and Etomidate are preferred for induction in these patients. However, these two drugs have different characteristics. Etomidate is preferred for patients with poor left ventricular (LV) function as it provides stable cardiovascular profile. But there are concerns about reduction in adrenal suppression and serum cortisol levels. Propofol, on the other hand may cause a reduction in systemic vascular resistance and subsequent hypotension. Thus, this study was conducted to compare induction with these two agents in cardiac surgeries. Methods: Baseline categorical and continuous variables were compared using Fisher's exact test and student's t test respectively. Hemodynamic variables were compared using student's t test for independent samples. The primary outcome (serum cortisol and blood sugar) of the study was compared using Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. The P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Etomidate provides more stable hemodynamic parameters as compared to Propofol. Propofol causes vasodilation and may result in drop of systematic BP. Etomidate can therefore be safely used for induction in patients with good LV function for CABG/MVR/AVR on CPB without serious cortisol suppression lasting more than twenty-four hours. PMID:25849685

  19. Efficacy of oral ketamine compared to midazolam for sedation of children undergoing laceration repair

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Orit; Barkan, Shiri; Breitbart, Rachelle; Berkovitch, Sofia; Toledano, Michal; Weiser, Giora; Karadi, Natali; Nassi, Anat; Kozer, Eran

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To assess the efficacy of oral ketamine versus oral midazolam for sedation during laceration repair at a pediatric emergency department. Methods: Children between 1 and 10 years requiring laceration repair were randomly assigned to 2 groups, treated either with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg) or with oral ketamine (5 mg/kg). Main outcomes measured were level of pain during local anesthesia, as assessed by the parent on a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the number of children who required intravenous sedation. Secondary outcomes included VAS by physician, pain assessment by child, maximal sedation depth assessed by the University of Michigan Sedation Scale, time until University of Michigan Sedation Scale 2 or more, general satisfaction of a parent and treating physician, length of procedure, total sedation time, and the incidence of any adverse events. Results: Sixty-eight children were recruited of which 33 were girls. Average age was 5.08 ± 2.14 years. Thirty-seven children were treated with ketamine and 31 with midazolam. Parent-assessed VAS in ketamine treated patients was 5.07 ± 0.75 compared with 3.68 ± 0.7 in midazolam treated patients [mean difference = 1.39 95% confidence interval (CI) –0.47 to 3.26]. Twelve (32%) of the children treated with ketamine required the addition of IV sedation compared to only 2 children (6%) of the children treated with midazolam [odds ratio (adjusted for age and gender) 6.1, 95% CI: 1.2 to 30.5]. The rest of the measured variables were similar between the groups, with no statistical significance. Discussion: No difference in the level of pain was found between ketamine and midazolam treated patients. Compared with oral midazolam (0.7 mg/kg), oral ketamine (5 mg/kg) was associated with higher rates of sedation failure, and thus is not recommended as a single agent for oral sedation in children requiring laceration repair. PMID:27368000

  20. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Without Heparin.

    PubMed

    Rehfeldt, Kent H; Barbara, David W

    2016-03-01

    Due to familiarity, short half-life, ease of monitoring, and the availability of a reversal agent, heparin remains the anticoagulant of choice for cardiac operations requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, occasionally patients require CPB but should not receive heparin, most often because of acute or subacute heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). In these cases, if it is not feasible to wait for the disappearance of HIT antibodies, an alternative anticoagulant must be selected. A number of non-heparin anticoagulant options have been explored. However, current recommendations suggest the use of a direct thrombin inhibitor such as bivalirudin. This review describes the use of heparin alternatives for the conduct of CPB with a focus on the direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:26872706

  1. A Stress Inoculation Program for Parents Whose Children Are Undergoing Painful Medical Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jay, Susan M.; Elliott, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    Compared program efficacy in helping parents cope with children's painful medical procedures. Parents (n=72) of pediatric leukemia patients participated in either stress inoculation program or observed child participating in cognitive behavior therapy. Found parents in stress inoculation program reported lower anxiety scores and higher positive…

  2. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  3. Recent New Drug Approvals, Part 2: Drugs Undergoing Active Clinical Studies in Children

    PubMed Central

    Chhim, Rebecca F.; Shelton, Chasity M.; Christensen, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this 2-part review is to provide information about drugs that have been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Part 1 reviewed recently approved drugs with pediatric indications. Part 2 reviews drugs recently approved only in adults and have published or ongoing studies in children. PMID:23616733

  4. Efficacy of tramadol as a preincisional infiltration anesthetic in children undergoing inguinal hernia repair: a prospective randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Numanoğlu, Kemal Varım; Ayoğlu, Hilal; Er, Duygu TatlıEbubekir

    2014-01-01

    Background Preincisional local anesthetic infiltration at the surgical site is a therapeutic option for postoperative pain relief for pediatric inguinal hernia. Additionally, tramadol has been used as an analgesic for postoperative pain in children. Recently, the local anesthetic effects of tramadol have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine both the systemic analgesic and the local anesthetic effects of tramadol and to determine how it differs from bupivacaine when administered preincisionally. Methods Fifty-two healthy children, aged 2–7 years, who were scheduled for elective herniorrhaphy were randomly allocated to receive either preincisional infiltration at the surgical site with 2 mg/kg tramadol (Group T, n=26) or 0.25 mL/kg 0.5% bupivacaine (Group B, n=26). At the time of anesthetic administration, perioperative hemodynamic parameters were recorded. The pain assessments were performed 10 minutes after the end of anesthesia and during the first 6-hour period, using pain scores. The time of first dose of analgesia and need for additional analgesia were recorded. Results Between T and B groups, the anesthesia time, perioperative hemodynamic changes, and pain scores were not statistically different. However, in group B, the postoperative analgesic requirement was higher than in group T. Conclusion Tramadol shows equal analgesic effect to bupivacaine and decreases additional analgesic requirement, when used for preincisional infiltration anesthesia in children undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy. PMID:25285011

  5. Music therapy to reduce pain and anxiety in children with cancer undergoing lumbar puncture: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh Nhan; Nilsson, Stefan; Hellström, Anna-Lena; Bengtson, Ann

    2010-01-01

    A nonpharmacological method can be an alternative or complement to analgesics.The aim of this study was to evaluate if music medicine influences pain and anxiety in children undergoing lumbar punctures. A randomized clinical trial was used in 40 children (aged 7-12 years) with leukemia, followed by interviews in 20 of these participants. The participants were randomly assigned to a music group (n = 20) or control group (n = 20). The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary was heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and oxygen saturation measured before, during, and after the procedure. Anxiety scores were measured before and after the procedure. Interviews with open-ended questions were conducted in conjunction with the completed procedures. The results showed lower pain scores and heart and respiratory rates in the music group during and after the lumbar puncture. The anxiety scores were lower in the music group both before and after the procedure. The findings from the interviews confirmed the quantity results through descriptions of a positive experience by the children, including less pain and fear. PMID:20386063

  6. Retrospective cohort investigation of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway

    PubMed Central

    No, Hyun-Joung; Koo, Bon-Wook; Oh, Ah-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Na, Hyo-Seok; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Lee, Soo-Won

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Desflurane is the most pungent of the currently used volatile anesthetics. We assessed whether the incidence of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway is higher with desflurane than with sevoflurane as maintenance anesthetic. We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the electronic medical records of consecutive children 1 to 15 years of age who underwent general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2013 and June 2015. The patients were assigned to the sevoflurane or desflurane group according to the anesthetic used. The characteristics of the patients were compared. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of upper respiratory events. The incidence of upper respiratory events in the 3439 evaluated patients was 0.43% (12/2777) in the sevoflurane group and 0.30% (2/662) in the desflurane group (P = 0.75; odds ratio = 0.69 [95% confidence interval = 0.16–3.13]). The difference between the 2 groups was not significant. Compared with sevoflurane, desflurane does not increase the risk of perioperative upper respiratory events in children receiving general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway. PMID:27428242

  7. The Coagulative Profile of Cyanotic Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The Role of Whole Blood Preoperative Thromboelastometry on Postoperative Transfusion Requirement.

    PubMed

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Spiezia, Luca; Bortolussi, Giacomo; Marchetti, Marta E; Campello, Elena; Pittarello, Demetrio; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative coagulation pattern and its association to postoperative blood products transfusion in children with congenital heart disease (CHD), focusing on cyanotic patients (oxygen saturation, SATO 2  < 85%). From January to August 2014, preoperative standard coagulation tests and rotational thromboelastometry assays were performed on 81 pediatric patients (<16 years old) who underwent surgery for CHD with the aid of cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty patients (74%) were acyanotic and 21 (26%) cyanotic. Mean age at time of surgery was 7.9 months (interquartile range 2.9-43.6 months). Cyanotic patients had a significantly higher hematocrit (P < 0.001), a reduced prothrombin activity (PT) (P = 0.01) level, and a lower platelet count (P = 0.02) than acyanotic patients. An inverse linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and clot formation time (CFT) (INTEM, P = 0.001, and EXTEM, P < 0.0001). A direct linear association was found between patient's SATO2 and maximum clot firmness (MCF) (INTEM, P = 0.04, and EXTEM, P = 0.05). Preoperative cyanosis was also associated with a lower median MCF in FIBTEM (P = 0.02). Cyanotic patients required more frequent postoperative transfusions of fibrinogen (7/21 patients, 33% vs. 4/60 patients, 6.7%, P = 0.01) and fresh frozen plasma (14/21, 67% vs. 25/60, 42%, P = 0.08). Patients with a lower presurgery PT and platelet count subsequently required more fibrinogen transfusion P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively); the same goes for patients with a longer CFT (INTEM, P = 0.01 and EXTEM, P = 0.03) and a reduced MCF (INTEM, P = 0.02 and FIBTEM, P = 0.01) as well. Cyanotic patients showed significant preoperative coagulation anomalies and required a higher postoperative fibrinogen supplementation. The preoperative MCF FIBTEM has become an important factor in our postoperative thromboelastometry-guided transfusion

  8. The use of play therapy in the preparation of children undergoing MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Pressdee, D; May, L; Eastman, E; Grier, D

    1997-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has become an important technique in the evaluation of a wide range of congenital and acquired conditions in children. The ability to image in multiple anatomic planes without the use of ionizing radiation has particular advantages. However scan times can be long, and the narrow bore and noise generated by most units make the procedure very intimidating to the young child. The use of surface coils may exacerbate this, often necessitating recourse to sedation or anaesthesia. We describe a technique involving play therapy which we have found useful in the preparation of young children for MR imaging and which has reduced the number of non-diagnostic scans and the need for sedation or anaesthesia. PMID:9413970

  9. Peritonitis due to uncommon gram-positive pathogens in children undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dotis, J; Printza, N; Papachristou, F

    2012-01-01

    Peritonitis is still the main complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in children. Staphylococcus, especially Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus, are the predominant species isolated, followed by Streptococcus spp. and by far by gram-negative bacteria and fungi. We describe three cases of PD-related peritonitis in pediatric patients due to uncommon gram-positive pathogens, which were treated with intraperitoneal antibiotic agents. PMID:23935296

  10. Intellectual and academic performance in children undergoing solid organ pretransplant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Reed-Knight, Bonney; Lee, Jennifer L; Cousins, Laura A; Mee, Laura L

    2015-03-01

    Although prior research has shown lower intellectual functioning across pediatric solid organ transplant recipients relative to matched siblings or norm comparisons, few studies have assessed intellectual and academic performance prior to transplant across organ groups. The current data examine intellectual and academic functioning in children being evaluated for kidney, liver, or heart transplant. This investigation included intellectual and academic testing data from 195 children and adolescents between the ages of six and 19 yr evaluated for solid organ transplantation. Across organ groups, patients' intellectual functioning as estimated by the WASI/WASI-II at the time of pretransplant evaluation was within the average range, but lower compared to test norms. Patients demonstrated lower estimates of word reading, math computation, and spelling skills compared to the normal population, with the exception of heart patients' word reading and spelling skills and liver patients' spelling scores. Cognitive and academic impairments exist in children prior to transplantation. Findings emphasize the support that patients may require to manage the complicated medical regimen and succeed academically. Routine cognitive and academic assessment can inform healthcare providers regarding transplant patients' capacity to take on increasing medical responsibility and successfully reintegrate into the school environment. PMID:25389073

  11. The incidence of postoperative aspiration among children undergoing supraglottoplasty for laryngomalacia.

    PubMed

    Anderson de Moreno, Lauren C; Burgin, Sarah J; Matt, Bruce H

    2015-08-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to determine the incidence of aspiration after supraglottoplasty at Riley Hospital for Children in Indianapolis. We reviewed the charts of 468 patients-281 males and 187 females, aged 2 days to 20 years-who had undergone supraglottoplasty for the treatment of laryngomalacia; most patients (69.9%) were aged 28 days to 2 years. A total of 47 patients (10.0%) experienced aspiration after supraglottoplasty; the overall association between supraglottoplasty and aspiration was not statistically significant (p = 0.25). Aspiration was positively correlated with age younger than 18 months, the performance of a revision procedure, the presence of an underlying neuromuscular disorder (n = 20), and the need for a postoperative gastrostomy tube (p < 0.001 for all). When the 20 patients with a neuromuscular disorder were excluded from our data analysis, the incidence of aspiration after supraglottoplasty fell to only 5.8% (27/468). We conclude that supraglottoplasty is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of laryngomalacia. It does not significantly increase the overall incidence of aspiration in children, and thus the risk of aspiration should not be considered a deterrent to surgery, even in children with neuromuscular problems. PMID:26322450

  12. Anesthetic management in children with Hurler's syndrome undergoing emergency ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Rath, Girija Prasad; Bala, Renu; Reddy, Bapura Kiran; Chaturvedi, Arvind

    2012-04-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive multiorgan accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Patients with MPS I (Hurler's syndrome) present as one of the most difficult airway problems to be managed by anesthesiologists. Hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure is a frequent complication seen in these patients. The rarity of the syndrome accounts for the small number of case reports and anecdotal information on the intracranial manifestations of this syndrome. We describe the successful anesthetic management of 2 children with Hurler's syndrome who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for acute hydrocephalus. PMID:22754449

  13. Anesthetic management in children with Hurler's syndrome undergoing emergency ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Rath, Girija Prasad; Bala, Renu; Reddy, Bapura Kiran; Chaturvedi, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of lysosomal storage disorder characterized by progressive multiorgan accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Patients with MPS I (Hurler's syndrome) present as one of the most difficult airway problems to be managed by anesthesiologists. Hydrocephalus with increased intracranial pressure is a frequent complication seen in these patients. The rarity of the syndrome accounts for the small number of case reports and anecdotal information on the intracranial manifestations of this syndrome. We describe the successful anesthetic management of 2 children with Hurler's syndrome who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for acute hydrocephalus. PMID:22754449

  14. Distraction techniques for children undergoing procedures: a critical review of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Koller, Donna; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-12-01

    Pediatric patients are often subjected to procedures that can cause pain and anxiety. Although pharmacologic interventions can be used, distraction is a simple and effective technique that directs children's attention away from noxious stimuli. However, there is a multitude of techniques and technologies associated with distraction. Given the range of distraction techniques, the purpose of this article was to provide a critical assessment of the evidence-based literature that can inform clinical practice and future research. Recommendations include greater attention to child preferences and temperament as a means of optimizing outcomes and heightening awareness around child participation in health care decision making. PMID:21925588

  15. Feasibility and safety of minimized cardiopulmonary bypass in major aortic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Momin, Aziz U.; Sharabiani, Mansour T. A.; Kidher, Emadin; Najefi, Ali; Mulholland, John W.; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Angelini, Gianni D.; Anderson, Jon R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Conventional cardiopulmonary bypass causes haemodilution and is a trigger of systemic inflammatory reactions, coagulopathy and organ failure. Miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass has been proposed as a way to reduce these deleterious effects of conventional cardiopulmonary bypass and to promote a more physiological state. The use of miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass has been reported in low-risk patients undergoing valve and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. However, little is known about its application in major aortic surgery. METHODS From February 2007 to September 2010, 49 patients underwent major aortic surgery using the Hammersmith miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass (ECCO, Sorin). Data were extracted from medical records to characterize preoperative comorbidities (EuroSCORE), perioperative complications and the use of blood products. The same data were collected and described for 328 consecutive patients having similar surgery with conventional cardiopulmonary bypass at the Bristol Heart Institute, our twinned centre, during the same period. RESULTS The miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass group had a median EuroSCORE of 8 [inter-quartile range (IQR): 5–11], 13% had preoperative renal dysfunction and 20% of operations were classified as emergency or salvage. Thirty-day mortalities were 6.4; and 69, 67 and 74% had ≥1 unit of red cells, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets transfused, respectively. Eight percent of patients experienced a renal complication, and 8% a neurological complication. The conventional cardiopulmonary bypass group was similar, with a EuroSCORE of 8 (IQR: 6–10); 30-day mortalities were 9.4; and 68, 62 and 74% had ≥1 unit of red cells, FFP and platelets transfused, respectively. The proportions experiencing renal and neurological complications were 14 and 5%. CONCLUSIONS Our experience suggests that miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass is safe and feasible for use in major aortic cardiac surgery. A

  16. Characteristics of children undergoing dental extractions under general anaesthesia in Wolverhampton: 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Raja, A; Daly, A; Harper, R; Senghore, N; White, D; Ravaghi, V

    2016-04-22

    Introduction Studying characteristics of children requiring extractions under dental general anaesthesia (DGA) can help identify trends, which can be used to facilitate future planning of healthcare services.Objective To report on the profile of children who underwent extractions under DGA between 2007 and 2012 at the New Cross Hospital in Wolverhampton, England.Methods Retrospective analyses of hospital records.Results Of the 2692 patients seen between 2007 and 2012, 49.6% were boys and 50.4% were girls. The mean age was 7.1 and 7 to 12 years was the largest age group (43%). The majority of the sample was White British (67%). Of the 8,286 teeth extracted, 85% were primary teeth and 15% permanent. More teeth were extracted in boys than girls (P = 0.002) and 'Other' ethnicities had a higher mean number of extractions compared to White British (P <0.001) and South Asians (P = 0.046). The mean age of the patients has decreased over the years (P = 0.001) and the mean number of primary teeth extracted has increased (P = 0.001).Conclusions A clear dental public health issue has been reinforced through the relatively high level of DGA activity reported. Though rigorous caries prevention remains the ultimate goal, a better assessment and discharge process may help reduce the need for first time DGAs as well as repeats. PMID:27103291

  17. Demographic and Clinical Findings in Children Undergoing Bronchoscopy for Foreign Body Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mojgan; Manesh, Mohammad Reza Hashemi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Foreign body aspiration (FBA) is a significant cause of airway distress, mortality, and morbidity in children. Diagnosis of FBA can be challenging and is sometimes delayed for weeks or even months. If not diagnosed and treated promptly, FBA can result in serious consequences. Methods: For this retrospective study, we investigated the medical records of 89 children who underwent bronchoscopy for suspected FBA and recorded relevant demographic, clinical, and treatment data. Results: Of the 89 patients identified for this study, 51 had a definitive diagnosis of FBA. Among these patients, choking, chronic cough and wheezing, cyanosis, and dyspnea were the most frequent symptoms of FBA. The foreign bodies were located in the left bronchus (45.1%), the right bronchus (35.3%), the trachea (15.7%), and in both the right and left bronchi (3.9%). Seeds were the most prevalent foreign body, found in 39.2% of the patients. Conclusion: Lack of complete medical history in patients with suspected FBA is one of the main causes of delayed FBA diagnosis. Bronchoscopy is considered the definitive diagnostic method for FBA and should be conducted in all patients with suspected FBA because of the low risk of complications and reduced probability that FBA diagnosis and treatment will be delayed. PMID:27303219

  18. The role of blood lactate clearance as a predictor of mortality in children undergoing surgery for tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Ladha, Suruchi; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Singh, Sarvesh Pal; Kiran, Usha; Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: The identification of biomarkers for predicting morbidity and mortality, particularly in pediatric population undergoing cardiac surgery will contribute toward improving the patient outcome. There is an increasing body of literature establishing the clinical utility of hyperlactatemia and lactate clearance as prognostic indicator in adult cardiac surgical patients. However, the relationship between lactate clearance and mortality risk in the pediatric population remains to be established. Objective: To assess the role of lactate clearance in determining the outcome in children undergoing corrective surgery for tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods and Study Design: A prospective, observational study. Setting: A tertiary care center. Study Population: Two hundred children undergoing elective surgery for TOF. Study Method: Blood lactate levels were obtained as baseline before operation (T0), postoperatively at admission to the cardiac intensive care unit after surgery (T1), and then at every 6 h for the first 24 h of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (T6, T12, T18, and T24, respectively). The lactate clearance in the study is defined by the equation ([lactate initial – lactate delayed]/lactate initial) ×100%. Lactate clearance was determined at T1–T6, T1–T12, T1–T18, and T1–T24 time interval, respectively. The primary outcome measured was mortality. Secondary outcomes measured were the duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of inotropic requirement, and duration of ICU stay. Results: Eleven out of the two hundred patients enrolled in the study died. Nonsurvivors had higher postoperative lactate concentration (P < 0.05) and low-blood lactate clearance rate during 24 h (P < 0.05) in comparison to the survivors. Lactate clearance was significantly higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors for the T1–T6 period (19.55 ± 14.28 vs. 5.24 ± 27.79%, P = 0.009) and remained significantly higher for each studied interval in first 24 h. Multivariate

  19. Very late nonfatal consequences of fractionated TBI in children undergoing bone marrow transplant

    SciTech Connect

    Faraci, Maura; Cohen, Amnon; Lanino, Edoardo; Sacco, Oliviero; Cabria, Manlio; De Marco, Riccardo; Stella, Gilberto; Dallorso, Sandro; Vitale, Vito; Dini, Giorgio

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: To describe long-term late consequences in children who received total body irradiation (TBI) for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 10 years earlier. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 42 children treated with TBI between 1985 and 1993, still alive at least 10 years after fractionated TBI (FTBI), was evaluated. Twenty-five patients received FTBI at 330 cGy/day for 3 days (total dose 990 cGy), whereas 17 children were administered fractions of 200 cGy twice daily for 3 days (total dose 1200 cGy). Twenty-seven patients received autologous and 16 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median age at TBI was 6.3 years, and 18.4 years at most recent follow-up. Results: Cataract was diagnosed in 78% of patients after a median of 5.7 years. Hypothyroidism was detected in 12%, whereas thyroid nodules were observed in 60% of our population after a median interval of 10.2 years. Patients treated with 990 cGy developed thyroid nodules more frequently than those treated with 1200 cGy (p = 0.0002). Thyroid carcinoma was diagnosed in 14% of the total population. Females who received FTBI after menarche more frequently developed temporary ovarian dysfunction than those treated before menarche, but cases of persistent ovarian dysfunction did not differ between the two groups. Indirect signs of germinal testicular dysfunction were detected in 87% of males. Restrictive pulmonary disease was observed in 74% of patients. Osteochondroma was found in 29% of patients after a median interval of 9.2 years. This latter complication appeared more frequently in patients irradiated before the age of 3 years (p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that late effects that are likely permanent, although not fatal, are frequent in survivors 10 years after TBI. However, some of the side effects observed shortly after TBI either disappeared or remained unchanged without signs of evolution. Monitoring is recommended to pursue secondary prevention strategies and counseling

  20. Model of oronasal rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome undergoing rapid maxillary expansion: Research review

    PubMed Central

    Levrini, Luca; Lorusso, Paola; Caprioglio, Alberto; Magnani, Augusta; Diaféria, Giovana; Bittencourt, Lia; Bommarito, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is a widely used practice in orthodontics. Scientific evidence shows that RME can be helpful in modifying the breathing pattern in mouth-breathing patients. In order to promote the restoration of physiological breathing we have developed a rehabilitation program associated with RME in children. The aim of the study was a literature review and a model of orofacial rehabilitation in children with obstructive sleep apnea undergoing treatment with rapid maxillary expansion. Muscular training (local exercises and general ones) is the key factor of the program. It also includes hygienic and behavior instructions as well as other therapeutic procedures such as rhinosinusal washes, a postural re-education (Alexander technique) and, if necessary, a pharmacological treatment aimed to improve nasal obstruction. The program should be customized for each patient. If RME is supported by an adequate functional rehabilitation, the possibility to change the breathing pattern is considerably amplified. Awareness, motivation and collaboration of the child and their parents, as well as the cooperation among specialists, such as orthodontist, speech therapist, pediatrician and otolaryngologist, are necessary conditions to achieve the goal. PMID:26483933

  1. β-d-Glucan Screening for Detection of Invasive Fungal Disease in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koltze, Antonia; Rath, Peter; Schöning, Stefan; Steinmann, Jörg; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.; Bader, Peter; Bochennek, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    While the assessment of β-d-glucan (BDG) levels in adults improves the early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD), data on BDG levels in children are limited. We therefore assessed in a prospective cohort study the value of serial BDG screening for early detection of IFD in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). IFD was defined according to the revised European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycosis Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria, with the necessary modification that BDG was not included as a microbiological criterion. For the analysis, a total of 702 serum samples were obtained in 34 pediatric HSCT recipients. Proven IFD occurred in two patients (fusariosis and Candida sepsis, respectively), and probable invasive aspergillosis was diagnosed in four patients. Analyses including different cutoff values for BDG levels and different definitions of the onset of IFD demonstrated that the BDG assay has a relatively high sensitivity and good negative predictive value, whereas the positive predictive value has major limitations (<30%). Receiver operating characteristic analyses suggested an optimal cutoff between 60 and 70 pg/ml for different definitions of the onset of IFD. Our data show that BDG screening in pediatric HSCT recipients has a low positive predictive value and is therefore of limited usefulness. PMID:26041896

  2. Cardiopulmonary adaptation to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.; Guy, H. J.; Elliott, A. R.; West, J. B.

    1994-01-01

    The lung is profoundly affected by gravity. The absence of gravity (microgravity) removes the mechanical stresses acting on the lung paranchyma itself, resulting in a reduction in the deformation of the lung due to its own weight, and consequently altering the distribution of fresh gas ventilation within the lung. There are also changes in the mechanical forces acting on the rib cage and abdomen, which alters the manner in which the lung expands. The other way in which microgravity affects the lung is through the removal of the gravitationally induced hydrostatic gradients in vascular pressures, both within the lung itself, and within the entire body. The abolition of a pressure gradient within the pulmonary circulation would be expected to result in a greater degree of uniformity of blood flow within the lung, while the removal of the hydrostatic gradient within the body should result in an increase in venous return and intra-thoracic blood volume, with attendant changes in cardiac output, stroke volume, and pulmonary diffusing capacity. During the 9 day flight of Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) we collected pulmonary function test data on the crew of the mission. We compared the results obtained in microgravity with those obtained on the ground in both the standing and supine positions, preflight and in the week immediately following the mission. A number of the tests in the package were aimed at studying the anticipated changes in cardiopulmonary function, and we report those in this communication.

  3. [Cardiovascular impact of end-stage renal insufficiency in children undergoing hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Aggoun, Y; Niaudet, P; Laffont, A; Sidi, D; Kachaner, J; Bonnet, D

    2000-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and arterial dysfunction have been described in end-stage renal disease (ESDR) in adults. The incremental elastic modulus (Einc), is a marker of vascular wall material stiffness and an independant predictor of cardiovascular mortality in adults with ESRD on hemodialysis. The relationship between arterial changes and the heart is unknown in the children with ESRD in the same conditions. Using a high-resolution vascular ultrasound and a computerized system of measurement (Iotec), we assessed noninvasively 10 ESRD patients (mean +/- SD, age, 11.5 +/- 4 years; blood pressure [BP], 120 +/- 10/63 +/- 4 mmHg) and 10 age-, sex-, and BP-matched controls (mean +/- SD, age, 11 +/- 4 years; BP, 114 +/- 8/58 +/- 8 mmHg). The systolic and diastolic diameter of the common carotid artery (CCA), the thickness of the wall (intima-media thickness, IMT), the cross sectional compliance (CSC), the cross sectional distensibility (CSD) and the (Einc) were determined. CSC and CSD were evaluated at the same level of pressure. The CCA pressure waveform was obtained by applanation tonometry to assess the reflected wave by the augmentation index (AI). Further the left ventricular mass index was assessed. The flow mediated dilation (FMD) (endothelium-dependent function) and the vasodilation induced by glyceryl-trinitrate (GTNMD) (GTN, an endothelium-independent dilator) were evaluated at the brachial artery site. Compared to control subjects, ESRD patients have mechanical artery dysfunction with lower CSC and CSD (0.11 +/- 0.04 vs 0.18 +/- 0.05 mm2.mmHg-1; p < 0.01; 0.43 +/- 0.10 vs 0.82 +/- 0.20 mmHg-1.10(-2); p < 0.001) and higher Einc (2.60 +/- 1.00 vs 1.40 +/- 0.30 mmHg.10(3); p < 0.001). Furthermore an earlier return of the reflected pulse wave (AI -0.24 +/- 0.08 vs -0.58 +/- 0.06; p < 0.005) is correlated to LV mass index (r = 0.55, P < 0.01) that is significantly increased (134 +/- 63 vs 69 +/- 25 g/m2; p < 0.005). These patients have an impaired FMD (4 +/- 2 vs 7

  4. Myocardial edema and compromised left ventricular function attributable to dirofilariasis and cardiopulmonary bypass in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rohn, D A; Davis, K L; Mehlhorn, U; Allen, S J; Laine, G A

    1995-02-01

    We investigated the relation between left ventricular dysfunction and myocardial edema in dogs with heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection that were undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Dogs with and without D immitis were anesthetized by continuous thiopental infusion and were mechanically ventilated. Sonomicrometry crystals were placed on the long and short axes of the left ventricle, and a Millar pressure transducer was placed in the left ventricular chamber. Pressure-volume loops were digitized and continuously recorded. Dogs with and without D immitis were placed on standard hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, with 1 hour of aortic cross-clamp. Wet-to-dry weight ratio corrected for residual blood volume was used to quantitate the volume of myocardial edema. Preload recruitable stroke work was used as a preload-independent index of systolic function. Tau, the isovolumic relaxation time constant, was determined to assess diastolic relaxation. Dogs with D immitis had increased baseline myocardial wet-to-dry weight ratio. After cardiopulmonary bypass, myocardial edema increased in all dogs. Acute edema attributable to cardiopulmonary bypass decreased preload recruitable stroke work in all dogs of both groups, and dogs with D immitis could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Myocardial edema increased diastolic relaxation times (tau) in dogs with and without D immitis. We conclude that cardiopulmonary bypass and heartworm infection induce myocardial edema. This edema compromises left ventricular systolic and diastolic function making D immitis an important confounding factor in weaning dogs from cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:7717590

  5. Exposure Risks Among Children Undergoing Radiation Therapy: Considerations in the Era of Image Guided Radiation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hess, Clayton B; Thompson, Holly M; Benedict, Stanley H; Seibert, J Anthony; Wong, Kenneth; Vaughan, Andrew T; Chen, Allen M

    2016-04-01

    Recent improvements in toxicity profiles of pediatric oncology patients are attributable, in part, to advances in the field of radiation oncology such as intensity modulated radiation (IMRT) and proton therapy (IMPT). While IMRT and IMPT deliver highly conformal dose to targeted volumes, they commonly demand the addition of 2- or 3-dimensional imaging for precise positioning--a technique known as image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). In this manuscript we address strategies to further minimize exposure risk in children by reducing effective IGRT dose. Portal X rays and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) are commonly used to verify patient position during IGRT and, because their relative radiation exposure is far less than the radiation absorbed from therapeutic treatment beams, their sometimes significant contribution to cumulative risk can be easily overlooked. Optimizing the conformality of IMRT/IMPT while simultaneously ignoring IGRT dose may result in organs at risk being exposed to a greater proportion of radiation from IGRT than from therapeutic beams. Over a treatment course, cumulative central-axis CBCT effective dose can approach or supersede the amount of radiation absorbed from a single treatment fraction, a theoretical increase of 3% to 5% in mutagenic risk. In select scenarios, this may result in the underprediction of acute and late toxicity risk (such as azoospermia, ovarian dysfunction, or increased lifetime mutagenic risk) in radiation-sensitive organs and patients. Although dependent on variables such as patient age, gender, weight, body habitus, anatomic location, and dose-toxicity thresholds, modifying IGRT use and acquisition parameters such as frequency, imaging modality, beam energy, current, voltage, rotational degree, collimation, field size, reconstruction algorithm, and documentation can reduce exposure, avoid unnecessary toxicity, and achieve doses as low as reasonably achievable, promoting a culture and practice of "gentle IGRT

  6. Acute Kidney Injury and the Risk of Mortality in Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kizilbash, Sarah J; Kashtan, Clifford E; Chavers, Blanche M; Cao, Qing; Smith, Angela R

    2016-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a well-documented complication of pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Dialysis after HSCT is associated with a lower overall survival (OS); however, the association between less severe AKI and OS is unclear. We retrospectively studied 205 consecutive pediatric HSCT patients to determine the incidence and impact of all stages of AKI on OS in pediatric HSCT recipients. We used the peak pRIFLE grade during the first 100 days to classify AKI (ie, R = risk, I = injury, F = failure, L = loss of function, E = end-stage renal disease) and used the modified Schwartz formula to estimate glomerular filtration rate. AKI was observed in 173 of 205 patients (84%). The 1-year OS rate decreased significantly with an increasing severity of pRIFLE grades (P < .01). There was no difference in the OS between patients without AKI and the R/I group. Regardless of the dialysis status, stages F/L/E had significantly lower rates of OS compared with patients without AKI or R/I (P < .01). There was no difference in OS among patients with dialysis and F/L/E without dialysis (P = .65). Stages F/L/E predicted mortality independent of acute graft-versus-host disease, gender, and malignancy. The OS of children after HSCT decreases significantly with an increasing severity of AKI within the first 100 days post-transplant. Although our data did not show an increased risk of mortality with stages R/I, stages F/L/E predicted mortality regardless of dialysis. Prevention and minimization of AKI may improve survival after pediatric HSCT. PMID:27034153

  7. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: new concept.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwangha

    2012-05-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a series of life-saving actions that improve the chances of survival, following cardiac arrest. Successful resuscitation, following cardiac arrest, requires an integrated set of coordinated actions represented by the links in the Chain of Survival. The links include the following: immediate recognition of cardiac arrest and activation of the emergency response system, early CPR with an emphasis on chest compressions, rapid defibrillation, effective advanced life support, and integrated post-cardiac arrest care. The newest development in the CPR guideline is a change in the basic life support sequence of steps from "A-B-C" (Airway, Breathing, Chest compressions) to "C-A-B" (Chest compressions, Airway, Breathing) for adults. Also, "Hands-Only (compression only) CPR" is emphasized for the untrained lay rescuer. On the basis of the strength of the available evidence, there was unanimous support for continuous emphasis on high-quality CPR with compressions of adequate rate and depth, which allows for complete chest recoil, minimizing interruptions in chest compressions and avoiding excessive ventilation. High-quality CPR is the cornerstone of a system of care that can optimize outcomes beyond return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). There is an increased emphasis on physiologic monitoring to optimize CPR quality, and to detect ROSC. A comprehensive, structured, integrated, multidisciplinary system of care should be implemented in a consistent manner for the treatment of post-cardiac arrest care patients. The return to a prior quality and functional state of health is the ultimate goal of a resuscitation system of care. PMID:23101004

  8. The Analgesic Efficacy of Preoperative Oral Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen in Children Undergoing Adenotonsillectomy: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahgoobifard, Maziar; Mirmesdagh, Yalda; Imani, Farsad; Najafi, Atabak; Nataj-Majd, Masoomeh

    2014-01-01

    pain intensity in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy in PACU and ward, compared to ibuprofen and placebo. PMID:24660156

  9. Outcome predictors of pediatric extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert B; Harrison, Rick E

    2010-07-01

    Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) allows clinicians to potentially rescue pediatric patients unresponsive to traditional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Clinical and laboratory variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge are beginning to emerge. In this retrospective, historical cohort case series, clinical, and laboratory data from 31 pediatric patients (<21 years of age) receiving ECPR from March 2000 to April 2006 at our university-affiliated, tertiary-care children's hospital were statistically analyzed in an attempt to identify variables predictive of survival to hospital discharge. Seven patients survived to hospital discharge (23%), and 24 patients died. Survival was independent of gender, age, and CPR duration. ECPR survival was, however, associated with a lower pre-ECPR phosphorus concentration (P = 0.002) and a lower pre-ECPR creatinine concentration (P = 0.05). A classification tree analysis, using, in part, a pre-ECPR phosphorus concentration threshold and a CPR ABG base excess concentration threshold, yielded a 96% nominal accuracy of predicting survival to hospital discharge or death. A large, multicenter, prospective cohort study aimed at validating these predictive variables is needed to guide appropriate ECPR patient selection. This study reveals the potential survival benefit of ECPR for pediatric patients, regardless of CPR duration prior to ECPR cannulation. PMID:20145916

  10. Activation of the lectin pathway of complement by cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Pągowska-Klimek, I; Świerzko, A S; Michalski, M; Głowacka, E; Szala-Poździej, A; Sokołowska, A; Moll, M; Krajewski, W R; Romak, J; Cedzyński, M

    2016-05-01

    The systemic inflammatory response is a challenge in the management of paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although multi-factorial, a contribution by the lectin pathway of complement activation has been postulated. We therefore investigated the changes in serum levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL) and activities of MBL-MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MBL-MASP-2 complexes immediately before and during surgery, throughout the first postoperative day and at discharge from the hospital. These changes were analysed in relation to postoperative complications. Blood samples were obtained from 185 children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical correction with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass: preoperatively (MBL-1), 15 min after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (MBL-E), 30 min (MBL-2), 4 h (MBL-3), 12 h (MBL-4) and 24 h (MBL-5) post-CPB and at discharge from hospital (MBL-K). Alterations in serum MBL levels were calculated as a ratio of its serum level at subsequent time-points (MBL-2, -3, -4, -5) to the preoperative (MBL-1) value. Decreases in MBL and MBL-MASP complexes were observed in all samples, correlating with a decrease in C4 and increase in C4a, confirming activation of the lectin pathway. Changes in MBL levels between children with an uncomplicated postoperative course and those suffering from infection or low cardiac output syndrome did not differ significantly, but significant differences were observed between the SIRS and non-SIRS groups. Paediatric cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass activates the complement system via the lectin pathway and the latter contributes to the development of the post-bypass systemic inflammatory response. PMID:26703090

  11. Role of Information Available Over the Internet: What are the Parents of Children Undergoing Tonsillectomy Likely to Find?

    PubMed Central

    Roshan, A; Agarwal, S; England, RJA

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to assess the quality of information available on the world wide web to parents of children undergoing tonsillectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The main data source was from internet searches using the five most popular search engines and the keyword ‘tonsillectomy’ with default settings. The first 50 web links in each search were evaluated with the LIDA Instrument (assessing accessibility, usability and reliability criteria). We also assessed the readability of the sites using the Flesch reading ease score (FRES). RESULTS Of the 250 possible links, 113 new links were included the remaining being repetitions, inactive links or restricted access sites. The websites had an average accessibility score of 42/63 (66.7%; range, 26–57), a usability score of 29/54 (53.7%; range, 7–49), and are liability score of 17/51 (33.3%; range, 0–49). The Flesch reading ease score was 43.8 (range, 3–84.4). CONCLUSIONS Health information available on the internet varies greatly. Highly ranked websites on popular search engines may not be the most reliable. Overall, the websites had low scores for reliability, with poor engagability, content production and conflict of interest declaration. Patients should be given previously assessed references on the internet to prevent them being misled by in accurate or commercially motivated information. PMID:18701014

  12. Prophylaxis of mucosal toxicity by oral propantheline and cryotherapy in children with malignancies undergoing myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Saisho-Hattori, Takako; Koizumi, Yoshitsugu; Minegishi, Masayoshi; Iinuma, Kazuie; Imaizumi, Masue

    2006-12-01

    Mucosal toxicity is an incapacitating complication of intensive chemo-radiotherapy for children with malignant disorders, and is physically and psychologically distressful. It is therefore important to minimize mucosal toxicity in those patients. In this report, the effects of the combined prophylaxis of oral cooling (cryotherapy) and administration of propantheline, an anticholinergic drug, were studied in patients (aged 2-16 year) with acute leukemias or solid tumors, who underwent myeloablative chemo-radiotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell rescue from 1993 to 1997. Patients were pretreated with the combined prophylaxis (n = 12) or single prophylaxis (n = 5), or left untreated (n = 7). The combined prophylaxis significantly reduced the severe mucositis (combined, 8.3%; single, 20.0%; and untreated, 42.9%) and severe diarrhea (combined, 16.7%; single, 60.0%; and untreated, 57.1%). Moreover, the combined prophylaxis tended to shorten the periods of febrile episodes defined as temperature > 38 degrees C (combined, 3.8 days; single, 4.6 days; and untreated, 5.6 days). Therefore, the combination of propantheline and oral cryotherapy may be feasible and effective for reduction of mucosal toxicity in patients with malignancy who undergo high-dose chemotherapy. PMID:17146197

  13. Sevoflurane-emergence agitation: Effect of supplementary low-dose oral ketamine premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Ahmed Metwally; El-Seify, Zeinab Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    oral ketamine to midazolam-based oral premedication in preschool children undergoing dental surgery reduced sevoflurane-related emergence agitation without delaying discharge. PMID:20532105

  14. The effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Gu; Zhu, Lixia; Chan, Sally Wai Chi; Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; Wang, Wenru

    2015-06-01

    Children undergoing surgical procedures commonly experience stress and anxiety, exhibit negative behaviors, and complain of postoperative pain. Parents also experience anxiety when their children undergo surgery. Therapeutic play intervention has been used to prepare hospitalized children for invasive medical procedures for decades. However, there has been no systematic review to examine the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention for improving children's health-related outcomes such as perioperative anxiety and postoperative pain. The aim of this review was to synthesize current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in reducing perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain in children undergoing elective surgery and in reducing their parents' perioperative anxiety. Systematic searches of electronic databases of the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Scopus, and Web of Science and screening of the reference lists of included articles from these databases identified studies on the topic. Relevant studies were methodologically assessed and appraised by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. Six studies were identified. The outcome measurements were heterogeneous across all six studies. These studies had conflicting outcomes regarding the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain. Two studies showed that the intervention significantly reduced parents' preoperative anxiety. The current empirical evidence on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention in children's perioperative anxiety, negative behaviors, and postoperative pain is inconclusive. More studies on the effectiveness of therapeutic play intervention using rigorous designs and involving parents are needed. PMID

  15. End-of-life experience of children undergoing stem cell transplantation for malignancy: parent and provider perspectives and patterns of care.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Christina K; Dussel, Veronica; Hilden, Joanne M; Sheaffer, Jan W; Lehmann, Leslie; Wolfe, Joanne

    2010-05-13

    The end-of-life (EOL) experience of children who undergo stem cell transplantation (SCT) may differ from that of other children with cancer. To evaluate perspectives and patterns of EOL care after SCT, we surveyed 141 parents of children who died of cancer (response rate, 64%) and their physicians. Chart review provided additional information. Children for whom SCT was the last cancer therapy (n = 31) were compared with those for whom it was not (n = 110). SCT parents and physicians recognized no realistic chance for cure later than non-SCT peers (both P < .001) and were more likely to have a primary goal of cure at death (parents, P < .001; physicians, P = .02). SCT children were more likely to suffer highly from their last cancer therapy and die in the intensive care unit (both P < .001), with less opportunity for EOL preparation. SCT parents who recognized no realistic chance for cure more than 7 days before death along with the physician were more likely to prepare for EOL, and if their primary goal was to reduce suffering, to achieve this (P < .001). SCT is associated with significant suffering and less opportunity to prepare for EOL. Children and families undergoing SCT may benefit from ongoing discussions regarding prognosis, goals, and opportunities to maximize quality of life. PMID:20228275

  16. Observational prospective study of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a 3-year GETMON experience.

    PubMed

    Verdeguer, A; de Heredia, C D; González, M; Martínez, A M; Fernández-Navarro, J M; Pérez-Hurtado, J M; Badell, I; Gómez, P; González, M E; Muñoz, A; Díaz, M A

    2011-01-01

    We studied surveillance, incidence and outcome of viral infections in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the main pediatric transplant units in Spain. We prospectively collected data from first year post-HCT in every consecutive allogeneic HCT performed during 3 years (N = 215): first HCT = 188 and second HCT = 27; median age = 6.6 years (0.1-20.7). Most patients had acute leukemia (N = 137) and 135 recipients (63%) were CMV seropositive. A total of 46 patients underwent cord blood transplant, 133 patients underwent HCT from alternative donors (62%) and 101 patients received anti-thymocyte globulin. Observational time was completed in 137 patients, whereas the remaining 78 died after a median survival time of 99 days (3-352). CMV was monitored in all patients; adenovirus (ADV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) were monitored in 101 and 33 patients, respectively. We found 145 viral infections in 103 patients: CMV (n = 42), ADV (n = 32), HHV-6 (n = 7), polyomavirus (n = 20), EBV (n = 6), VZV (n=17) and others (n = 8). CMV infection was significantly higher in seropositive patients (25 vs 7%) (P = 0.02). Extensive chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was significantly associated with an increased rate of viral infections (12 of 16 patients with cGVHD had infections vs 91 of 199 without GVHD) (P = 0.035). In total, 10 patients (4.6%) died of viral infections (CMV = 5, ADV = 3, respiratory = 2). We found a high incidence of viral infection, but mortality was low. PMID:20228849

  17. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

    2016-03-01

    Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. PMID:26740418

  18. Fetal monitoring during maternal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, K. S.; Friesen, R. M.; Livingstone, R. A.; Peddle, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Fetal cardiac activity was monitored with an external ultrasound transducer in two patients with clinical class III heart disease due to severe mitral stenosis complicated by pulmonary hypertension, undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy. Fetal distress was detected in one patient, who had mitral valvuloplasty, and was corrected by increasing the rate of blood flow, and the other patient had a mitral valve replacement but no fetal distress was noted. The postoperative course of both mothers and fetuses was uneventful. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 FIG. 7 PMID:1125921

  19. Simulated Cardiopulmonary Arrests in a Hospital Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishkin, Barbara H.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes a simulated interdisciplinary role rehearsal for cardiopulmonary arrest to prepare nurses to function effectively. Includes needs analysis, program components, and responses of program participants. (Author)

  20. Comparison of hemodynamic response to adrenaline infiltration in children undergoing cleft palate repair during general anesthesia with sevoflurane and isoflurane

    PubMed Central

    Gunnam, Poojita Reddy; Durga, Padmaja; Gurajala, Indira; Kaluvala, Prasad Rao; Veerabathula, Prardhana; Ramachandran, Gopinath

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Systemic absorption of adrenaline often used for infiltration during cleft palate surgery leads to adverse hemodynamic responses. These hemodynamic responses may be attenuated by the volatile anesthetics. This study aims to compare the hemodynamic responses to adrenaline infiltration during isoflurane (ISO) and sevoflurane (SEVO) anesthesia. Material and Methods: Sixty children aged between 9 months and 48 months, weighing between 8 kg and 20 kg, undergoing primary repair of cleft palate were randomly allocated into two groups: Group ISO - anesthesia maintained with ISO (2 minimum alveolar concentrations [MAC]) and nitrous oxide 50% and group SEVO - maintained on SEVO (2 MAC) and nitrous oxide 50%. Surgical site was infiltrated with 1 ml/kg of 1:200,000 solution of adrenaline with 0.5% lignocaine. Heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were noted at the end of infiltration and every 1 min for 5 min following infiltration. The percentage change of hemodynamic responses from baseline, following infiltration were compared between the two groups. Results: There was no significant change in HR from baseline, and the response was comparable between the agents at all times. The blood pressure (BP) increased from baseline in both the groups but the increase was greater in SEVO than ISO group at 2 and 3 min after infiltration. The maximum change in HR from baseline (group ISO median 10.9% [interquartile range (IQR) 4.5-23.0] vs. group SEVO 26.5% [11.9-44.6]) was comparable in both the groups (P = 0.169). The maximum change in SBP was significantly greater in group SEVO than group ISO (42.8% [IQR 20.0-60.9] vs. 26.0 [11.3-44.5], P = 0.04). The incidence of significant change (>20%) of SBP, DBP, and MAP from baseline was significantly greater in group SEVO after infiltration and 1 min and 2 min after infiltration. There were no arrhythmias in any of the groups. Conclusion

  1. Review and Outcome of Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Youness, Houssein; Al Halabi, Tarek; Hussein, Hussein; Awab, Ahmed; Jones, Kellie; Keddissi, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The maximal duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is unknown. We report a case of prolonged CPR. We have then reviewed all published cases with CPR duration equal to or more than 20 minutes. The objective was to determine the survival rate, the neurological outcome, and the characteristics of the survivors. Measurements and Main Results. The CPR data for 82 patients was reviewed. The median duration of CPR was 75 minutes. Patients mean age was 43 ± 21 years with no significant comorbidities. The main causes of the cardiac arrests were myocardial infarction (29%), hypothermia (21%), and pulmonary emboli (12%). 74% of the arrests were witnessed, with a mean latency to CPR of 2 ± 6 minutes and good quality chest compression provided in 96% of the cases. Adjunct therapy included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (18%), thrombolysis (15.8%), and rewarming for hypothermia (19.5%). 83% were alive at 1 year, with full neurological recovery reported in 63 patients. Conclusion. Patients undergoing prolonged CPR can survive with good outcome. Young age, myocardial infarction, and potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest such as hypothermia and pulmonary emboli predict a favorable result, especially when the arrest is witnessed and followed by prompt and good resuscitative efforts. PMID:26885387

  2. Electroencephalographic seizures during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Stockard, J.; Calanchini, P.; Bickford, R.; Billinger, T.

    1974-01-01

    Eleven cardiac operations are reported in which there was electroencephalographic and/or clinical evidence of seizure activity during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In four patients seizure activity appeared after acute episodes of cerebral ischaemia resulting from either hypotension or pump-generated emboli occurring at the beginning of CPB, or from air embolism occurring at the end of CPB when the myocardium was closed and defibrillated. In the remaining seven patients the seizures appeared to result from the synergistic action of a toxic substance in the perfusate with pre-existing or CPB-induced alterations in cerebral physiology. Images PMID:4819907

  3. Direct Cannulation of the Infrahepatic Vena Cava for Emergent Cardiopulmonary Bypass Support

    PubMed Central

    Gopaldas, Raja R.; Patel, Kirti P.; Livesay, James J.; Cooley, Denton A.

    2009-01-01

    Cannulation for cardiopulmonary bypass, although seemingly routine, can pose technical challenges. In patients undergoing repeat sternotomy, for example, peripherally established cardiopulmonary bypass may be necessary to ensure safe entry into the chest; however, establishing bypass in this way can sometimes be complicated by patients' body habitus. We describe a technique for direct cannulation of the infrahepatic abdominal vena cava that was required for emergent cardiopulmonary bypass. The patient was a 62-year-old woman who had presented with severely symptomatic left main coronary stenosis 3 months after elective aortic valve replacement. She had gone into cardiogenic shock as general anesthesia was being induced for repeat sternotomy and myocardial revascularization. Emergent establishment of femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass was precluded by difficulties in advancing the femoral venous cannula beyond the pelvic brim. Hence, an emergent celiotomy was performed, and the abdominal vena cava was directly cannulated to establish venous drainage for cardiopulmonary bypass. The rest of the operation was uneventful. Our technique for direct cannulation of the infrahepatic abdominal vena cava may be used in exceptional circumstances. Necessary precautions and potential pitfalls are also presented. PMID:19693306

  4. Improving access to preparatory information for children undergoing general anaesthesia for tooth extraction and their families: study protocol for a Phase III randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children can find anaesthesia induction especially distressing and postoperative psychological and physical morbidity are common. Preparation programmes for general anaesthesia (GA) are highly effective in reducing this distress. A Phase II study has already verified the effectiveness of a prototype preoperative GA-coping computer game to help children cope with induction in a dental GA setting. The biggest patient users of pediatric GA services in the UK are children who need to have teeth removed (estimated to be 100,000 yearly). Tooth decay is the most common disease in children worldwide. This study is a Phase III randomized controlled trial (RCT) and will evaluate the effectiveness of the new internet version of this game. Methods/design The Phase III RCT will use a double-blind three-armed design. The clinical trial will recruit up to 210 children and will compare the web-based game against standard care and another non-medical game. At least 53 patients in each group will be required for 90% statistical power. Distress will be assessed through an evaluation of the child’s behaviour during the visit and later parental reports of physical and psychological morbidity. The satisfaction of parents and children will be measured; the mode of usage of the web-based game will be automatically recorded and the impact on the service (for example, recovery time and throughput) will be reported. The Phase III study primary outcome will measure: (1) patient experience: acceptance of anaesthetic induction, child cooperation and distress, reduction of peri- and postoperative morbidity, child and family satisfaction, and (2) service improvement: anaesthetic time and improvement in throughput. Measures will be administered at baseline, at the time of the GA treatment visit, and at 48 hours and one week postoperatively. Discussion This study aims to determine the effectiveness of an online GA-coping game for children and families undergoing tooth extraction under

  5. The Role of Social and Cognitive Processes in the Relationship between Fear Network and Psychological Distress among Parents of Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Gajda, Tina Marie

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether cognitive and social processing variables mediated the relationship between fear network and depression among parents of children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Parents whose children were initiating HSCT (N = 179) completed survey measures including fear network, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), cognitive processing variables (positive reappraisal and self-blame) and social processing variables (emotional support and holding back from sharing concerns). Fear network was positively correlated with depression (p < .001). Self-blame and holding back emerged as individual partial mediators in the relationship between fear network and depression. Together they accounted for 34.3% of the variance in the relationship between fear network and depression. Positive reappraisal and emotional support did not have significant mediating effects. Social and cognitive processes, specifically self-blame and holding back from sharing concerns, play a negative role in parents’ psychological adaptation to fears surrounding a child’s HSCT. PMID:25081956

  6. 21 CFR 880.6080 - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  7. 21 CFR 880.6080 - Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. 880.6080... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6080 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation board. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary... during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4310 - Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure gauge is a device used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to measure the pressure of the blood perfusing... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass coronary pressure...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4380 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump speed control is a... control the speed of blood pumps used in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. Evaluation of existing limited sampling models for busulfan kinetics in children with beta thalassaemia major undergoing bone marrow transplantation.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, P; Chandy, M; Krishnamoorthy, R; Srivastava, A

    2001-11-01

    Busulfan pharmacokinetic parameters are useful in predicting the outcome of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Standard pharmacokinetic measurements require multiple blood samples. Various limited sampling models (LSM) have been proposed for reducing the sample number required for these measurements, essentially for patients with malignant disorders undergoing BMT. This study was undertaken to evaluate the existing LSM for busulfan pharmacokinetics to find out the most suitable method for patients with thalassaemia major undergoing BMT. Busulfan levels in plasma samples were analysed by HPLC. The AUC calculated by non-compartmental analysis using the program 'TOPFIT' was compared with previously published LSMs. Our seven sample pharmacokinetic data for AUC calculation was compared with the published LSMs. The three sample models suggested by Chattergoon et al and Schuler et al showed significant agreement with AUC TOPFIT (R(2) = 0.98 and 0.94, respectively) in our clinical context. Other models resulted in significant over or under representation of observed values (Vassal's model R(2) = 0.61; Chattergoon's two sample model R(2) = 0.84; four sample model R(2) = 0.83; Schuler's two sample model R(2) = 0.79). By these data the three sample LSM proposed by Chattergoon et al and Schuler et al are suitable for calculation of the AUC in patients with thalassaemia major undergoing BMT conditioned with oral busulfan. PMID:11781641

  13. MRI Catheterization in Cardiopulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Toby; Ratnayaka, Kanishka

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and prognostication in patients with complex cardiopulmonary disease can be a clinical challenge. A new procedure, MRI catheterization, involves invasive right-sided heart catheterization performed inside the MRI scanner using MRI instead of traditional radiographic fluoroscopic guidance. MRI catheterization combines simultaneous invasive hemodynamic and MRI functional assessment in a single radiation-free procedure. By combining both modalities, the many individual limitations of invasive catheterization and noninvasive imaging can be overcome, and additional clinical questions can be addressed. Today, MRI catheterization is a clinical reality in specialist centers in the United States and Europe. Advances in medical device design for the MRI environment will enable not only diagnostic but also interventional MRI procedures to be performed within the next few years. PMID:24394821

  14. Embolic Activity During In Vivo Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    DeFoe, Gordon R.; Dame, Norman A.; Farrell, Mark S.; Ross, Cathy S.; Langner, Craig W.; Likosky, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Neurologic injury after cardiac surgery is principally associated with emboli. Although much work has focused on surgical sources of emboli, less attention has been focused on emboli associated with the heart–lung machine. We tested whether emboli are associated with discrete processes during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One hundred patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery were enrolled between April 2008 and May 2011 at a single medical center. During each surgical procedure, emboli were counted in three CPB locations: the venous side (Channel 1), before the arterial line filter (Channel 2), and after the arterial line filter (Channel 3). We used prespecified event markers to identify perfusionist interventions. Identical circuits were used on all patients. Of the 100 patients enrolled, 62 underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 17 underwent isolated valve operations, and 21 underwent CABG plus valve. Median counts across Channels 1, 2, and 3 were 69,853, 3,017, and 1,251, respectively. The greatest contributor to emboli in Channels 1, 2, and 3, respectively, were achieving the calculated CPB flow, opening of the electronic arterial line clamp, and introducing a hemofilter. The circuit technology was efficient in reducing total emboli counts from Channels 1–2 irrespective of the size of the emboli. Nearly 71% of all emboli 30–100 mm in size were removed from the circuit between Channels 2 and 3. No significant association was found between emboli counts and S100B release. Emboli occur frequently during CPB and are predominantly associated with the initiation of bypass, operation of the electronic arterial line clamp, and the initiation of a hemofilter. Continued work to reduce the occurrence of emboli is warranted. PMID:25208432

  15. FNIRS-based evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-03-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2 ± 2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP) was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger tapping task were quantified before, immediately after, and six months after CIMT. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8 ± 1.3 years old) were also imaged at the same time points to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. In children with CP the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted six months later. In contrast to this longer term improvement in localized activation response, the laterality index that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed six months later.

  16. [Local anesthesia in the children undergoing the fibroendoscopic study of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx: are topical anesthetics needed?].

    PubMed

    Soldatsky, Yu L; Denisova, O A; Mazur, E M

    2015-01-01

    This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and larynx of the children. The study included 160 children at the age varying from 3 to 14 (mean 7.4±2.96) years randomly allocated to four statistically comparable groups matched for age and sex. The following preparations were used to treat the children prior to fibroendoscopy: physiological solution (group 1), a 0.05% xylometazoline solution (group 2), a 10% lidocaine solution (group 3), and a mixture of 0.05% xylometazoline and 10% lidocaine solutions (group 4). The evaluation of the tolerance to the pretreatment of the nasal cavity with lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylometazoline (groups 3 and 4) showed that it was significantly (p<0.05) worse than in groups 1 and 2. The subjective tolerance to fibroendoscopy as reported by the patients was on the average similar in the children of all four groups (p>0.05). The doctors found the tolerance of fibroendoscopy to be the worst following pretreatment with the physiological solution (group 1) and the best after pretreatment with a mixture of lidocaine and xylometazoline (group 4) (p=0.03). The children comprising groups 2 and 3 were not significantly different in terms of the tolerance to fibroendoscopy (p>0.05). It is concluded that the pretreatment of the nasal cavity of the children with a 10% lidocaine solution before fibroendoscopy has no advantage over the pretreatment with a 0.05% xylometazoline solution; at the same time, insuflation of lidocaine as an anesthetic induces more pronounced negative emotions compared with the application of 0.05% xylometazoline. PMID:26525473

  17. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  18. Teaching Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carveth, Stephen W.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a key part of emergency cardiac care. It is a basic life support procedure that can be taught in the schools with the assistance of the American Heart Association. (JMF)

  19. PACSIN2 polymorphism is associated with thiopurine-induced hematological toxicity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia undergoing maintenance therapy

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Alenka; Karas-Kuzelicki, Natasa; Jazbec, Janez; Mlinaric-Rascan, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Adequate maintenance therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with 6-mercaptopurine as an essential component, is necessary for retaining durable remission. Interruptions or discontinuations of the therapy due to drug-related toxicities, which can be life threatening, may result in an increased risk of relapse. In this retrospective study including 305 paediatric ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy, we systematically investigated the individual and combined effects of genetic variants of folate pathway enzymes, as well as of polymorphisms in PACSIN2 and ITPA, on drug-induced toxicities by applying a multi-analytical approach including logistic regression (LR), classification and regression tree (CART) and generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). In addition to the TPMT genotype, confirmed to be a major determinant of drug related toxicities, we identified the PACSIN2 rs2413739TT genotype as being a significant risk factor for 6-MP-induced toxicity in wild-type TPMT patients. A gene-gene interaction between MTRR (rs1801394) and MTHFR (rs1801133) was detected by GMDR and proved to have an independent effect on the risk of stomatitis, as shown by LR analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing PACSIN2 genotype association with hematological toxicity in ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy. PMID:27452984

  20. A patient with commotio cordis successfully resuscitated by bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and automated external defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ngai, K Y; Chan, H Y; Ng, F

    2010-10-01

    Sudden deaths of children and adolescents during competitive sports are usually due to congenital heart diseases. Ventricular fibrillation, however, may also occur in individuals with no underlying cardiac disease who have sustained a low-impact chest wall blow. This phenomenon is described as commotio cordis, and the overall survival rate is poor. Successful resuscitation can be achieved by prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation and early defibrillation. We report a teenager who sustained a chest wall blow that resulted in a cardiac arrest during a rugby competition. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was given by bystanders. The ambulance crew arrived with an automated external defibrillator. Ventricular fibrillation was detected and responded to defibrillation. Subsequent investigations including imaging and electrophysiological studies did not reveal any cardiac or brain abnormality, and the patient recovered well neurologically. Accessible cardiopulmonary resuscitation-trained personnel and automated external defibrillators should be present at all organised sporting events. PMID:20890008

  1. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in blood samples from HIV-1-infected children undergoing long-term antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Yabo; Qiao, Luxin; Liu, Kai; Zang, Yunjin; Sun, Yu; Dong, Yaowu; Liu, Daojie; Guo, Xianghua; Wei, Feili; Lin, Minghua; Zhang, Fujie; Chen, Dexi

    2016-07-01

    We have analyzed mutations in whole mitochondrial (mt) genomes of blood samples from HIV-1-infected children treated with long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), who had an excellent virological response. HIV-1-infected children who have undergone ART for 4 y with an excellent virological response (group A; 15 children) and ten healthy children (controls) without HIV-1 infection were enrolled retrospectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained and mt DNA mutations were studied. The total number of mtDNA mutations in group A was 3 H more than in the controls (59 vs. 19, P<0.001) and the same trend was seen in all mtDNA regions. Among these mtDNA mutations, 140 and 28 mutations were detected in group A and the controls, respectively. The D-loop, CYTB and 12s rRNA were the three most common mutation regions in both groups, with significant differences between the groups observed at nucleotide positions C309CC, T489C CA514deletion, T16249C and G16474GG (D-loop); T14783C, G15043A, G15301A, and A15662G (CYTB); and G709A (12s rRNA). G15043A and A15662G had been associated with mitochondrial diseases. Our findings suggest that mtDNA mutations occur frequently in long-term ART-treated, HIV-1-infected children who have an excellent virological response, although they did not have obvious current symptoms. The CYTB region may play an important role in mtDNA mutation during ART, which might contribute to the development of subsequent mitochondrial diseases. PMID:27402477

  2. Cardiopulmonary Bypass Strategy for a Cyanotic Child With Hemoglobin SC Disease.

    PubMed

    Machovec, Kelly A; Jaquiss, Robert D B; Kaemmer, David D; Ames, Warwick A; Homi, Hercilia M; Walczak, Richard J; Lodge, Andrew J; Jooste, Edmund H

    2016-06-01

    Hemoglobin SC (HbSC) disease is a hemoglobinopathy that may produce sickling under conditions of hypoxemia, dehydration, and acidosis. We present a case of HbSC disease and tricuspid atresia, type IB. We describe management by cardiopulmonary bypass CPB using exchange transfusion at initiation of bypass and fractionation of collected blood, allowing platelet and plasma apheresis, as an option for patients unable to undergo this procedure off pump. PMID:27211949

  3. On the development of a decision support intervention for mothers undergoing BRCA1/2 cancer genetic testing regarding communicating test results to their children

    PubMed Central

    Peshkin, Beth N.; DeMarco, Tiffani A.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2013-01-01

    Parent communication of BRCA1/2 test results to minor-age children is an important, yet understudied, clinical issue that is commonly raised in the management of familial cancer risk. Genetic counseling professionals and others who work with parents undergoing this form of testing often confront questions about the risks/benefits and timing of such disclosures, as well as the psychosocial impact of disclosure and nondisclosure on children’s health and development. This paper briefly reviews literature on the prevalence and outcome of parent-child communication surrounding maternal BRCA1/2 test results. It also describes a formative research process that was used to develop a decision support intervention for mothers participating in genetic counseling and testing for BRCA1/2 mutations to address this issue, and highlights the conceptual underpinnings that guided and informed the intervention’s development. The intervention consists of a print-based decision aid to facilitate parent education and counseling regarding if, when, and potentially how to disclose hereditary cancer risk information to children. We conclude with a summary of the role of social, behavioral, and decision science research to support the efforts of providers of familial cancer care regarding this important decision, and to improve the outcomes of cancer genetic testing for tested parents and their nontested children. PMID:19609726

  4. Retrospective cohort investigation of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway: A comparison of sevoflurane and desflurane.

    PubMed

    No, Hyun-Joung; Koo, Bon-Wook; Oh, Ah-Young; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Na, Hyo-Seok; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Lee, Soo-Won

    2016-07-01

    Desflurane is the most pungent of the currently used volatile anesthetics. We assessed whether the incidence of perioperative upper respiratory events in children undergoing general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway is higher with desflurane than with sevoflurane as maintenance anesthetic.We retrospectively reviewed and analyzed the electronic medical records of consecutive children 1 to 15 years of age who underwent general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between June 2013 and June 2015. The patients were assigned to the sevoflurane or desflurane group according to the anesthetic used. The characteristics of the patients were compared. The primary outcome variable was the incidence of upper respiratory events.The incidence of upper respiratory events in the 3439 evaluated patients was 0.43% (12/2777) in the sevoflurane group and 0.30% (2/662) in the desflurane group (P = 0.75; odds ratio = 0.69 [95% confidence interval = 0.16-3.13]). The difference between the 2 groups was not significant.Compared with sevoflurane, desflurane does not increase the risk of perioperative upper respiratory events in children receiving general anesthesia via a supraglottic airway. PMID:27428242

  5. Short-Term Changes in Postoperative Cognitive Function in Children Aged 5 to 12 Years Undergoing General Anesthesia: A Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Aun, Cindy S T; McBride, Catherine; Lee, Anna; Lau, Angel S C; Chung, Raymond C K; Yeung, Chung Kwong; Lai, Kelly Y C; Gin, Tony

    2016-04-01

    Due to the neurotoxicity effects of general anesthesia (GA) and sedatives found in animal studies, there is a general recommendation to avoid nonurgent surgical procedures requiring anesthesia in children younger than 3 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of anesthesia-related postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) on the first day (Day 1) and at 6 weeks after elective noncardiac surgery in school-age children.This was a prospective cohort study of 118 children undergoing GA and 126 age-matched controls of school children aged 5 to 12 years. All children were given a panel of 4 neuropsychological assessments (Hong Kong List Learning for verbal memory, Visual Matching for processing speed, Visual Memory, and General Comprehension Skill from the Hong Kong Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children). The primary outcome was the incidence of POCD on Day 1 and at 6 weeks after surgery. POCD was defined as when at least 2 of the 4 cognitive function tests showed individual Z-scores ≤-1.96 or a combined Z-score ≤-1.96.Using the combined Z-score definition, the incidence of POCD in the GA group on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 5.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.1-10.3) and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.1-8.0), respectively. No POCD was found using the other definition. The incidences of decline and improvement in neuropsychological tests were similar between groups over time except for a higher risk in visual matching impairment in the anesthesia group (11.9%) versus control group (1.6%) on Day 1 (P < 0.01). The adjusted relative risk ratio of postoperative cognitive decline to improvement between groups on Day 1 and at 6 weeks were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.10-7.05) and 0.45 (95% CI: 0.04-4.84), respectively. The observed risk of POCD is assumed to apply to current drugs and techniques used in GA.In conclusion, the incidence of POCD was low. GA was associated with a transient effect on visual matching. When using the widely accepted Z-score definitions and

  6. Cavopulmonary anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass†

    PubMed Central

    Mostafa, Ezzeldin A.; El Midany, Ashraf A.H.; Zalat, Mahmoud M.; Helmy, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is an increasing trend to perform the bidirectional superior cavopulmonary (Glenn) anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass. In this report, we present our results of off-pump bidirectional Glenn operation done without using a venoatrial shunt to decompress the randomized comparative study was superior vena cava during clamping. METHODS A prospective, non-randomized comparative study was conducted in 50 patients with functional single ventricle anomalies who underwent bidirectional Glenn anastomosis without cardiopulmonary bypass. The patients were divided into two groups: Group I (n = 25), where it was done without a veno-atrial shunt, and Group II (n = 25), where it was done with a veno-atrial shunt. Two patients in Group I and 4 patients in Group II had a bilateral bidirectional Glenn shunt. Five patients in Group I and three patients in Group II had a previous left modified Blalock–Taussig shunt. All patients underwent a complete neurological examination both preoperatively as well as postoperatively. RESULTS The early hospital mortality was 4% (2/50), one in each group. The median follow-up was 14 months. The mean internal venous pressure on clamping the superior vena cava was 37.07 ± 7.12 mmHg in Group I and 24 ± 4.4 mmHg in Group II. The mean clamp time was 9.85 ± 3.52 min in Group I and 21.3 ± 4.4 min in Group II. The transcranial pressure gradient was 62.37 ± 15.01 mmHg in Group I, while 65.08 ± 13.89 in Group II. The mean intensive care unit stay was 2.57 ± 75 days in Group I, 3.3 ± 1.09 in Group II. There were no major neurological complications apart from treatable convulsions in one case in Group I (4%), 2 cases in Group II (8%), and delayed recovery in one case (4%) in Group I. CONCLUSIONS Off-pump bidirectional Glenn operation without caval decompression is a safe, simple and more economic procedure. PMID:23335651

  7. Plasma Levels of 2% Lidocaine with 1:100,000 Epinephrine with Young Children Undergoing Dental Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Jurevic, Richard; Milgrom, Peter; Karl, Helen W.; Weinstein, Philip; Coldwell, Susan E.; Kharasch, Evan D.; Mautz, Douglas; Domoto, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Lidocaine levels were determined for 12 children, aged 55 to 150 mo, who received routine dental treatment, including multiple intraoral injections of 2% lidocaine (2.6 to 6.4 mg/kg) with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Peak plasma concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 0.7 to 3.8 μg/ml at 5 to 15 min postinjection. Generally accepted threshold concentrations for the onset of central nervous system toxicity are 5 to 10 μg/ml. In this study, no child approached these levels when given local anesthesia for dental procedures. PMID:19598719

  8. Cardiopulmonary loading in motocross riding.

    PubMed

    Konttinen, Tomi; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2007-07-01

    The present study was designed to examine physiological responses during motocross riding. Nine Finnish A-level motocross riders performed a 15-min ride at a motocross track and a test of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the laboratory. Cardiopulmonary strain was measured continuously during the ride as well as in the VO2max test. During the ride, mean VO2 was 32 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (s = 4), which was 71% (s = 12) of maximum, while ventilation (V(E)) was 73% (s = 15) of its maximum. The relative VO2 and V(E) values during the riding correlated with successful riding performance (r = 0.80, P < 0.01 and r = 0.79, P < 0.01, respectively). Mean heart rate was maintained at 95% (s = 7) of its maximum. Mean blood lactate concentration was 5.0 mmol x l(-1) (s = 2.0) after the ride. A reduction of 16% (P < 0.001) in maximal isometric handgrip force was observed. In conclusion, motocross causes riders great physical stress. Both aerobic and anaerobic metabolism is required for the isometric and dynamic muscle actions experienced during a ride. PMID:17497401

  9. Hypogammaglobulinemia After Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Leslie A; Robert, Stephen M; Atkinson, T. Prescott; Dabal, Robert J; Mahdi, Alla M.; Alten, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypogammaglobulinemia has been reported after cardiac surgery and may be associated with adverse outcomes. We sought to define baseline immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration in neonates and infants with congenital heart disease, determine its course following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and determine if post-CPB hypogammaglobulinemia was associated with increased morbidity. Methods Single center, retrospective analysis of infants who underwent cardiac surgery with CPB between June 2010 and December 2011. Ig concentration obtained from banked plasma of 47 patients from a prior study (pre-CPB, immediately post-CPB, and 24- and 48-hours post-CPB). Additionally, any Ig levels drawn for clinical purposes after CPB were included. Ig levels were excluded if drawn after chylothorax diagnosis or intravenous immunoglobulin G administration. Results Median age was 7 days. Preoperative Ig concentration was similar to that described in healthy children. IgG level fell to less than 50% of preoperative concentration by 24-hr post-CPB and failed to recover by 7 days. 25/47 (53%) patients had low IgG after CPB (<248 mg/dl). Despite no difference in demographics or risk factors between patients with low and normal IgG, low IgG patients had more positive fluid balance at 24-hours, increased pro-inflammatory plasma cytokine levels, duration of mechanical ventilation, and CICU length of stay. Additionally, low IgG patients had increased incidence of post-operative infections (40% vs. 14%, p=0.056). Conclusions Hypogammaglobulinemia occurs in half of infants after CPB. Its association with fluid overload and increased inflammatory cytokines suggests it may result from capillary leak. Postoperative hypogammaglobulinemia is associated with increased morbidity, including more secondary infections. PMID:24035378

  10. Utilising cardiopulmonary bypass for cancer surgery. Malignancy-induced protein C deficiency and thrombophilia.

    PubMed

    Marshall, C

    2007-11-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass has evolved over the last 30 years. It is an important tool for the cardiac surgeon today and also has applications in non-cardiac operations such as surgery to extract tumours. Such patients undergoing surgery for cancer may be at an increased risk of a thromboembolic event post surgery, due to disturbances in the normal clotting pathway leading to hypercoagulability. One such disturbance is malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency. A deficiency of Protein C can cause hypercoagulabitity. Recent studies have examined cardiopulmonary bypass and inherited Protein C deficiency. However, surgery for cancer patients with a malignancy-induced Protein C deficiency involving cardiopulmonary bypass has not been reported. Surgery using CPB in these patients may result in increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this article is to review the literature in order to discuss the occurrence, the aetiology and possible management of cancer patients with malignancy-induced Protein C deficiencies that require cardiopulmonary bypass for their surgery. PMID:18666739

  11. "Orpheus" cardiopulmonary bypass simulation system.

    PubMed

    Morris, Richard W; Pybus, David A

    2007-12-01

    In this paper we describe a high-fidelity perfusion simulation system intended for use in the training and continuing education of perfusionists. The system comprises a hydraulic simulator, an electronic interface unit and a controlling computer with associated real-time computer models. It is designed for use within an actual operating theatre, or within a specialized simulation facility. The hydraulic simulator can be positioned on an operating table and physically connected to the circuit of the institutional heart-lung machine. The institutional monitoring system is used to display the arterial and central venous pressures, the ECG and the nasopharyngeal temperature using appropriate connections. The simulator is able to reproduce the full spectrum of normal and abnormal events that may present during the course of cardiopulmonary bypass. The system incorporates a sophisticated blood gas model that accurately predicts the behavior of a modern, hollow-fiber oxygenator. Output from this model is displayed in the manner of an in-line blood gas electrode and is updated every 500 msecs. The perfusionist is able to administer a wide variety of drugs during a simulation session including: vasoconstrictors (metaraminol, epinephrine and phenylephrine), a vasodilator (sodium nitroprusside), chronotropes (epinephrine and atropine), an inotrope (epinephrine) and modifiers of coagulation (heparin and protamine). Each drug has a pharmacokinetic profile based on a three-compartment model plus an effect compartment. The simulation system has potential roles in the skill training of perfusionists, the development of crisis management protocols, the certification and accreditation of perfusionists and the evaluation of new perfusion equipment and/or techniques. PMID:18293807

  12. Comparison of diclofenac and tenoxicam for postoperative analgesia with and without fentanyl in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy or tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Mendham, J E; Mather, S J

    1996-01-01

    127 children scheduled for elective tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy were studied. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with a volatile agent. At induction the child received either rectal diclofenac 1 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v., or intravenous tenoxicam 0.4 mg.kg-1 with or without fentanyl 0.75 microgram.kg-1 i.v. Blood loss was measured peroperatively. Nausea and vomiting scores, sedation scores and pain scores were recorded in the recovery room, at one, two, four and eight h postoperatively and at discharge. There were no significant differences in blood loss between the groups or between nausea and vomiting scores. Pain scores in the tenoxicam without fentanyl group were significantly higher in recovery (P < 0.05) than the diclofenac group without fentanyl and both fentanyl groups. This group required supplemental analgesia earlier although this was not significant. The pain scores in the diclofenac with fentanyl group were significantly lower at one h and four h than the group receiving diclofenac alone (P = 0.008 and 0.02 respectively). PMID:8936545

  13. Nasopharyngeal vs. adenoid cultures in children undergoing adenoidectomy: prevalence of bacterial pathogens, their interactions and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Korona-Glowniak, I; Niedzielski, A; Kosikowska, U; Grzegorczyk, A; Malm, A

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Staphylococcus aureus colonization of the adenoids and nasopharynx in 103 preschool children who underwent adenoidectomy for recurrent upper respiratory tract infections was examined. Bacterial interactions and risk factors for bacterial colonization of the nasopharynx and adenoids, separately, were analysed statistically. The prevalence of simultaneous isolation from both anatomical sites was 45·6% for S. pneumoniae, 29·1% for H. influenzae, 15·5% for M. catarrhalis and 18·4% for S. aureus. Three pathogens were significantly more frequent together from adenoid samples; nasopharyngeal swabs more often yielded a single organism, but without statistical significance. M. catarrhalis and S. aureus significantly more frequently co-existed with S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae than with each other and a positive association of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in adenoid samples was evident. Several differences between risk factors for nasopharyngeal and adenoid colonization by the individual pathogens were observed. We conclude that the adenoids and nasopharynx appear to differ substantially in colonization by pathogenic microbes but occurrence of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx could be predictive of upper respiratory tract infections. PMID:25703401

  14. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  15. 21 CFR 868.6175 - Cardiopulmonary emergency cart.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... cardiopulmonary resuscitation. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary emergency cart. 868.6175 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Miscellaneous § 868.6175 Cardiopulmonary emergency...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  17. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  18. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  19. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  20. 21 CFR 870.4250 - Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. 870... Cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass temperature controller is a device used to control the temperature of the fluid entering and leaving a heat exchanger....

  1. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4205 - Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector. 870.4205... bypass bubble detector. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass bubble detector is a device used to detect bubbles in the arterial return line of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  7. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  8. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator... Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator is an electrically and pneumatically operated device used to create pulsatile blood flow....

  9. Impact of Obesity on Cardiopulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2016-09-01

    Although there are known detrimental effects of obesity on the heart and lungs, few data exist showing obesity as risk factor for cardiopulmonary disorders in dogs and cats. It is probable that increased abdominal fat is detrimental as it is in humans, and there is evidence of negative effects of increased intrathoracic fat. As well as physical effects of fat, increased inflammatory mediators and neurohormonal effects of obesity likely contribute to cardiopulmonary disorders. Weight loss in overweight individuals improves cardiac parameters and exercise tolerance. Obesity in patients with obstructive airway disorders is recognized to increase disease severity. PMID:27264052

  10. Cardiopulmonary Effects of Constant-Rate Infusion of Lidocaine for Anesthesia during Abdominal Surgery in Goats.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Lais M; Greene, Stephen A; Gay, John M; Grubb, Tammy L

    2016-01-01

    Lidocaine is commonly used in ruminants but has an anecdotal history of being toxic to goats. To evaluate lidocaine's effects on selected cardiopulmonary parameters. Isoflurane-anesthetized adult goats (n = 24) undergoing abdominal surgery received a loading dose of lidocaine (2.5 mg/kg) over 20 min followed by constant-rate infusion of lidocaine (100 μg/kg/min); control animals received saline instead of lidocaine. Data collected at predetermined time points during the 60-min surgery included heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, pO2, and pCO2. According to Welch 2-sample t tests, cardiopulmonary variables did not differ between groups. For example, after administration of the loading dose, goats in the lidocaine group had a mean heart rate of 88 ± 28 bpm, mean arterial blood pressure of 70 ± 19 mm Hg, pCO2 of 65 ± 13 mm Hg, and pO2 of 212 ± 99 mm Hg; in the saline group, these values were 90 ± 16 bpm, 76 ± 12 mm Hg, 61 ± 9 mm Hg, and 209 ± 83 mm Hg, respectively. One goat in the saline group required an additional dose of butorphanol. Overall our findings indicate that, at the dose provided, intravenous lidocaine did not cause adverse cardiopulmonary effects in adult goats undergoing abdominal surgery. Adding lidocaine infusion during general anesthesia is an option for enhancing transoperative analgesia in goats. PMID:27423150

  11. [Tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax following tracheal perforation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

    PubMed

    Buschmann, C T; Tsokos, M; Kurz, S D; Kleber, C

    2015-07-01

    Tension pneumothorax can occur at any time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with external cardiac massage and invasive ventilation either from primary or iatrogenic rib fractures with concomitant pleural or parenchymal injury. Airway injury can also cause tension pneumothorax during CPR. This article presents the case of a 41-year-old woman who suffered cardiopulmonary arrest after undergoing elective mandibular surgery. During CPR the upper airway could not be secured by orotracheal intubation due to massive craniofacial soft tissue swelling. A surgical airway was established with obviously unrecognized iatrogenic tracheal perforation and subsequent development of tension pneumomediastinum and tension pneumothorax during ventilation. Neither the tension pneumomediastinum nor the tension pneumothorax were decompressed and accordingly resuscitation efforts remained unsuccessful. This case illustrates the need for a structured approach to resuscitate patients with ventilation problems regarding decompression of tension pneumomediastinum and/or tension pneumothorax during CPR. PMID:26036317

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Older Adults' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godkin, M. Dianne; Toth, Ellen L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined knowledge, attitudes, and opinions of 60 older adults about cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Most had little or no accurate knowledge of CPR. Knowledge deficits and misconceptions of older adults should be addressed so that they may become informed and active participants in CPR decision-making process. (BF)

  13. Psychological Distress and Psychiatric Diagnoses among Primary Caregivers of Children undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: An Examination of Prevalence, Correlates, and Racial/Ethnic Differences

    PubMed Central

    Virtue, Shannon Myers; Manne, Sharon L.; Mee, Laura; Bartell, Abraham; Sands, Stephen; Gajda, Tina Marie; Darabos, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aims of the study were to examine the prevalence of self-reported psychological distress, examine the prevalence of interview-rated psychiatric diagnoses, identify correlates of psychological distress and psychiatric diagnosis, and examine racial/ethnic group differences on measures of psychological distress among primary caregivers of children preparing to undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Methods Caregivers (N = 215) completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Impact of Events Scale (IES), and a psychiatric interview assessing major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), and panic disorder (PD). Regression analyses examined correlates of distress and psychiatric diagnosis. Comparisons were made between racial/ethnic groups. Results Posttraumatic stress symptoms were reported by 54% of caregivers during the time preparing for the child’s HSCT. Twenty-seven percent of caregivers met diagnostic criteria for at least one of the psychiatric diagnoses during this time. Few factors were associated with distress or psychiatric diagnosis, except the child scheduled for allogeneic transplant, being married, and prior psychological/psychiatric care. Socio-demographic factors accounted for racial/ethnic group differences, except Hispanic/Latino caregivers reported higher BDI scores than non-Hispanic White caregivers. Conclusion Caregivers may be at greater risk of posttraumatic stress symptoms than anxiety or depression. Prior psychological/psychiatric treatment is a risk factor for greater psychological distress and psychiatric diagnosis during this time. Racial differences are mostly due to socio-demographic factors. PMID:25246347

  14. Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether or not recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care, because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable. PMID:24655460

  15. Withholding or termination of resuscitation in pediatric out-of-hospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed

    Fallat, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    This multiorganizational literature review was undertaken to provide an evidence base for determining whether recommendations for out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation could be made for children who are victims of traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. Although there is increasing acceptance of out-of-hospital termination of resuscitation for adult traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest when there is no expectation of a good outcome, children are routinely excluded from state termination-of-resuscitation protocols. The decision to withhold resuscitative efforts in a child under specific circumstances (decapitation or dependent lividity, rigor mortis, etc) is reasonable. If there is any doubt as to the circumstances or timing of the traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest, under the current status of limiting termination of resuscitation in the field to persons older than 18 years in most states, resuscitation should be initiated and continued until arrival to the appropriate facility. If the patient has arrested, resuscitation has already exceeded 30 minutes, and the nearest facility is more than 30 minutes away, involvement of parents and family of these children in the decision-making process with assistance and guidance from medical professionals should be considered as part of an emphasis on family-centered care because the evidence suggests that either death or a poor outcome is inevitable. PMID:24685948

  16. Predictors of Seizure Outcomes in Children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex and Intractable Epilepsy Undergoing Resective Epilepsy Surgery: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fallah, Aria; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Snead, O. Carter; Ebrahim, Shanil; Ibrahim, George M.; Mansouri, Alireza; Reddy, Deven; Walter, Stephen D.; Kulkarni, Abhaya V.; Bhandari, Mohit; Banfield, Laura; Bhatnagar, Neera; Liang, Shuli; Teutonico, Federica; Liao, Jianxiang; Rutka, James T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis to identify preoperative factors associated with a good seizure outcome in children with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex undergoing resective epilepsy surgery. Data Sources Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science), archives of major epilepsy and neurosurgery meetings, and bibliographies of relevant articles, with no language or date restrictions. Study Selection We included case-control or cohort studies of consecutive participants undergoing resective epilepsy surgery that reported seizure outcomes. We performed title and abstract and full text screening independently and in duplicate. We resolved disagreements through discussion. Data Extraction One author performed data extraction which was verified by a second author using predefined data fields including study quality assessment using a risk of bias instrument we developed. We recorded all preoperative factors that may plausibly predict seizure outcomes. Data Synthesis To identify predictors of a good seizure outcome (i.e. Engel Class I or II) we used logistic regression adjusting for length of follow-up for each preoperative variable. Results Of 9863 citations, 20 articles reporting on 181 participants were eligible. Good seizure outcomes were observed in 126 (69%) participants (Engel Class I: 102(56%); Engel class II: 24(13%)). In univariable analyses, absence of generalized seizure semiology (OR = 3.1, 95%CI = 1.2–8.2, p = 0.022), no or mild developmental delay (OR = 7.3, 95%CI = 2.1–24.7, p = 0.001), unifocal ictal scalp electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormality (OR = 3.2, 95%CI = 1.4–7.6, p = 0.008) and EEG/Magnetic resonance imaging concordance (OR = 4.9, 95%CI = 1.8–13.5, p = 0.002) were associated with a good postoperative seizure outcome. Conclusions Small retrospective cohort studies are inherently prone to bias, some of which are overcome

  17. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  18. Neurological complications and risk factors of cardiopulmonary failure of EV-A71-related hand, foot and mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Long, Lili; Xu, Lin; Xiao, Zhenghui; Hu, Shixiong; Luo, Ruping; Wang, Hua; Lu, Xiulan; Xu, Zhiyue; Yao, Xu; Zhou, Luo; Long, Hongyu; Gong, Jiaoe; Song, Yanmin; Zhao, Li; Luo, Kaiwei; Zhang, Mengqi; Feng, Li; Yang, Liming; Sheng, Xiaoqi; Fan, Xuegong; Xiao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    From 2010 to 2012, large outbreaks of EV-A71-related- hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) occurred annually in China. Some cases had neurological complications and were closely associated with fatal cardiopulmonary collapse, but not all children with central nervous system (CNS) involvement demonstrated a poor prognosis. To identify which patients and which neurological complications are more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure, we retrospectively studied 1,125 paediatric inpatients diagnosed with EV-A71-related HFMD in Hunan province, including 1,017 cases with CNS involvement. These patients were divided into cardiopulmonary failure (976 people) group and group without cardiopulmonary failure (149 people). A logistic regression analysis was used to compare the clinical symptoms, laboratory test results, and neurological complications between these two groups. The most significant risk factors included young age, fever duration ≥3 days, coma, limb weakness, drowsiness and ANS involvement. Patients with brainstem encephalitis and more CNS-involved regions were more likely to progress to cardiopulmonary failure. These findings can help front-line clinicians rapidly and accurately determine patient prognosis, thus rationally distributing the limited medical resources and implementing interventions as early as possible. PMID:27001010

  19. Impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on acute kidney injury following coronary artery bypass grafting: a matched pair analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is accepted to contribute to the occurrence of AKI and is of particular importance as it can be avoided by using the off-pump technique. However the renoprotective properties of off-pump (CABG) are controversial. This analysis evaluates the impact of cardiopulmonary bypass on renal function. Methods A matched-pair analysis of 1428 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting was conducted. The patients were stratified according to their preoperative renal function and to risk factors for postoperative AKI. The development of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from before surgery until hospital discharge was analyzed. Incidence of AKI were analyzed. Furthermore the impact of CPB duration on postoperative GFR was assessed. Results The occurrence of AKI increases the risk of thirty-day mortality (odds ratio of 4.3). The postoperative GFR decreases significantly after coronary artery bypass grafting but does not differ between onpump and offpump CABG (60.2 ± 24.5 vs 60.7 ± 24.8; p = 0.54). No difference regarding the incidence (26.6% vs 25%) and severity of AKI between cardiopulmonary bypass and the off-pump technique could be found. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass does not correlate with the decline in postoperative glomerular filtration rate (Pearson Product Moment Correlation; p > 0.050). Conclusion Neither the mere use nor duration of cardiopulmonary bypass proofed to be a risk factor for developing postoperative AKI in CABG patients with a comparable preoperative risk profile for postoperative renal dysfunction. Furthermore, the severity of postoperative AKI is not affected by the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:24438155

  20. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: risks and benefits of ventilation].

    PubMed

    Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Garelli, Valentina; Lyazidi, Aissam; Suppan, Laurent; Savary, Dominique; Brochard, Laurent; Richard, Jean-Christophe M

    2013-12-11

    Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms that govern cardiopulmonary interactions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) allows to better assess risks and benefits of ventilation. Ventilation is required to maintain gas exchange, particularly when CPR is prolonged. Nevertheless, conventional ventilation (bag mask or mechanical ventilation) may be harmful when excessive or when chest compressions are interrupted. In fact large tidal volume and/or rapid respiratory rate may adversely compromise hemodynamic effects of chest compressions. In this regard, international recommendations that give the priority to chest compressions, are meaningful. Continuous flow insufflation with oxygen that generates a moderate positive airway pressure avoids any interruption of chest compressions and prevents the risk of lung injury associated with prolonged resuscitation. PMID:24416979

  1. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, Lars J.; Keller, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis.

  2. Artificial neural network cardiopulmonary modeling and diagnosis

    DOEpatents

    Kangas, L.J.; Keller, P.E.

    1997-10-28

    The present invention is a method of diagnosing a cardiopulmonary condition in an individual by comparing data from a progressive multi-stage test for the individual to a non-linear multi-variate model, preferably a recurrent artificial neural network having sensor fusion. The present invention relies on a cardiovascular model developed from physiological measurements of an individual. Any differences between the modeled parameters and the parameters of an individual at a given time are used for diagnosis. 12 figs.

  3. Management of Cardiopulmonary Complications of Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Prabha; Vashishtha, C.; Nasa, M.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced portal hypertension accompanying end-stage liver disease results in an altered milieu due to inadequate detoxification of blood from splanchnic circulation by the failing liver. The portosystemic shunts with hepatic dysfunction result in an increased absorption and impaired neutralisation of the gastrointestinal bacteria and endotoxins leads to altered homeostasis with multiorgan dysfunction. The important cardiopulmonary complications are cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, portopulmonary hypertension, and right-sided hydrothorax. PMID:21994850

  4. Association of Definition of Acute Kidney Injury by Cystatin C Rise With Biomarkers and Clinical Outcomes in Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Zappitelli, Michael; Greenberg, Jason H.; Coca, Steven G.; Krawczeski, Catherine D.; Li, Simon; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather R.; Bennett, Michael R.; Devarajan, Prasad; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    kidney injury molecule 1, the odds ratios were 16.19 (95% CI, 3.55–73.93) and 6.93 (95% CI, 1.88–25.59), respectively, for CysC-defined AKI vs 6.60 (95% CI, 2.76–15.76) and 2.04 (95% CI, 0.94–4.38), respectively, for SCr-defined AKI. Neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin and liver fatty acid–binding protein associations with both definitions were similar. The CysC definitions and SCr definitions were similarly associated with clinical outcomes of resource use. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Compared with the SCr-based definition, the CysC-based definition is more strongly associated with urine interleukin 18 and kidney injury molecule 1 in children undergoing cardiac surgery. Consideration should be made for defining AKI based on CysC in clinical care and future studies. PMID:25844892

  5. Comparison of current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran with American Society of Extracorporeal Technology’s standards

    PubMed Central

    Faravan, Amir; Mohammadi, Nooredin; Alizadeh Ghavidel, Alireza; Toutounchi, Mohammad Zia; Ghanbari, Ameneh; Mazloomi, Mehran

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Standards have a significant role in showing the minimum level of optimal optimum and the expected performance. Since the perfusion technology staffs play an the leading role in providing the quality services to the patients undergoing open heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass machine, this study aimed to assess the standards on how Iranian perfusion technology staffs evaluate and manage the patients during the cardiopulmonary bypass process and compare their practice with the recommended standards by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Methods: In this descriptive study, data was collected from 48 Iranian public hospitals and educational health centers through a researcher-created questionnaire. The data collection questionnaire assessed the standards which are recommended by American Society of Extracorporeal Technology. Results: Findings showed that appropriate measurements were carried out by the perfusion technology staffs to prevent the hemodilution and avoid the blood transfusion and unnecessary blood products, determine the initial dose of heparin based on one of the proposed methods, monitor the anticoagulants based on ACT measurement, and determine the additional doses of heparin during the cardiopulmonary bypass based on ACT or protamine titration. It was done only in 4.2% of hospitals and health centers. Conclusion: Current practices of cardiopulmonary perfusion technology in Iran are inappropriate based on the standards of American Society of Cardiovascular Perfusion. This represents the necessity of authorities’ attention to the validation programs and development of the caring standards on one hand and continuous assessment of using these standards on the other hand. PMID:27489600

  6. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Outcomes after Cardiopulmonary Arrest in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Robert S.; Scott, Bryonnie; Carter, Simon J.; Taylor, Matthew; Peirce, Eleanor; Davies, Patrick; Maconochie, Ian K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiopulmonary arrest in children is an uncommon event, and often fatal. Resuscitation is often attempted, but at what point, and under what circumstances do continued attempts to re-establish circulation become futile? The uncertainty around these questions can lead to unintended distress to the family and to the resuscitation team. Objectives To define the likely outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in children, within different patient groups, related to clinical features. Data Sources MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-Process & Other non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, Cochrane database of systematic reviews and Cochrane central register of trials, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), the Health Technology Assessment database, along with reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included articles. Study Eligibility Criteria Prospective cohort studies which derive or validate a clinical prediction model of outcome following cardiopulmonary arrest. Participants and Interventions Children or young people (aged 0 – 18 years) who had cardiopulmonary arrest and received an attempt at resuscitation, excluding resuscitation at birth. Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods Risk of bias assessment developed the Hayden system for non-randomised studies and QUADAS2 for decision rules. Synthesis undertaken by narrative, and random effects meta-analysis with the DerSimonian-Laird estimator. Results More than 18,000 episodes in 16 data sets were reported. Meta-analysis was possible for survival and one neurological outcome; others were reported too inconsistently. In-hospital patients (average survival 37.2% (95% CI 23.7 to 53.0%)) have a better chance of survival following cardiopulmonary arrest than out-of-hospital arrests (5.8% (95% CI 3.9% to 8.6%)). Better neurological outcome was also seen, but data were too scarce for meta-analysis (17% to 71% ‘good’ outcomes, compared with 2.8% to 3.2%). Limitation Lack of consistent outcome reporting and

  7. MEASUREMENT OF CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION BY REBREATHING METHODOLOGY IN PIGLETS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of a multiple gas rebreathing method for the measurement of cardiopulmonary function in mechanically ventilated neonates was evaluated. The following indices of cardiopulmonary function were assessed in 20 piglets (mean weight, 2.3 kg): (1) pulmonary capillary blood flow ...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  9. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  10. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  11. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  12. 21 CFR 870.4280 - Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary prebypass filter. 870.4280 Section... prebypass filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary prebypass filter is a device used during priming of... bypass. The device is not used to filter blood. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  13. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4400 - Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir. 870.4400... bypass blood reservoir. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass blood reservoir is a device used in conjunction with short-term extracorporeal circulation devices to hold a reserve supply of blood in the...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4420 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy return sucker. 870.4420 Section 870.4420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4420 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4390 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing. 870.4390 Section 870.4390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... bypass pump tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass pump tubing is polymeric tubing which...

  4. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, John J; Blackman, Virginia Schmied

    2007-01-01

    In the 43 years since it was first described, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has grown from an obscure medical theory to a basic first aid skill taught to adults and is now the near-universal technique used in CPR instruction. This article provides insight into the history of CPR. We explore the phenomenon of sudden cardiac arrest, the historical roots of CPR, current practice data and recommendations, and the society's role in the development of this life-saving technique. We conclude with a review of CPR's economic impact on the healthcare system and the ethical and policy issues surrounding CPR. PMID:17179837

  5. Cardiopulmonary bypass: development of John Gibbon's heart-lung machine

    PubMed Central

    Passaroni, Andréia Cristina; Silva, Marcos Augusto de Moraes; Yoshida, Winston Bonetti

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide a brief review of the development of cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods A review of the literature on the development of extracorporeal circulation techniques, their essential role in cardiovascular surgery, and the complications associated with their use, including hemolysis and inflammation. Results The advancement of extracorporeal circulation techniques has played an essential role in minimizing the complications of cardiopulmonary bypass, which can range from various degrees of tissue injury to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Investigators have long researched the ways in which cardiopulmonary bypass may insult the human body. Potential solutions arose and laid the groundwork for development of safer postoperative care strategies. Conclusion Steady progress has been made in cardiopulmonary bypass in the decades since it was first conceived of by Gibbon. Despite the constant evolution of cardiopulmonary bypass techniques and attempts to minimize their complications, it is still essential that clinicians respect the particularities of each patient's physiological function. PMID:26107456

  6. Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Inflammation and How to Defy it: Focus on Pharmacological Interventions.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Ali; Rajaei, Samira; Bahadori Monfared, Ayad; Keramatinia, Ali Asghar; Omidi, Korosh

    2012-01-01

    One of the most common health problems are diseases of the cardiovascular system with a great bulk of disease burden; while a considerable number of cardiac patients undergo cardiac surgery; cardiac surgical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are nowadays among the top list of surgical procedures. More than half of a century has passed since the introduction of total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One of the main untoward effects of CPB is systemic inflammation; causing an "acute phase reaction" responsible for the production of other unwanted postoperative complications. The humoral and cellular components of the immune system are among the main parts of these compensatory mechanisms. There are a number of therapeutic agents used to suppress this inflammatory process. Since CPB is composed of a multitude of items, there are many studies assessing the possible methods and therapeutics for prevention or treatment of inflammation in patients undergoing CPB. According to a conventional classification, the anti-inflammatory methods are classified as either pharmacologic strategies or technical strategies. The pharmacologic strategies are those with the usage of one or more therapeutic agents; while the technical strategies are those that try to modify the CPB techniques. However, in this manuscript, the main pharmacological strategies are discussed. PMID:24250497

  7. Cardiopulmonary Bypass, Inflammation and How to Defy it: Focus on Pharmacological Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Dabbagh, Ali; Rajaei, Samira; Bahadori Monfared, Ayad; Keramatinia, Ali Asghar; Omidi, Korosh

    2012-01-01

    One of the most common health problems are diseases of the cardiovascular system with a great bulk of disease burden; while a considerable number of cardiac patients undergo cardiac surgery; cardiac surgical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are nowadays among the top list of surgical procedures. More than half of a century has passed since the introduction of total cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). One of the main untoward effects of CPB is systemic inflammation; causing an “acute phase reaction” responsible for the production of other unwanted postoperative complications. The humoral and cellular components of the immune system are among the main parts of these compensatory mechanisms. There are a number of therapeutic agents used to suppress this inflammatory process. Since CPB is composed of a multitude of items, there are many studies assessing the possible methods and therapeutics for prevention or treatment of inflammation in patients undergoing CPB. According to a conventional classification, the anti-inflammatory methods are classified as either pharmacologic strategies or technical strategies. The pharmacologic strategies are those with the usage of one or more therapeutic agents; while the technical strategies are those that try to modify the CPB techniques. However, in this manuscript, the main pharmacological strategies are discussed. PMID:24250497

  8. Fat embolism with the use of intraosseous infusion during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Fiallos, M; Kissoon, N; Abdelmoneim, T; Johnson, L; Murphy, S; Lu, L; Masood, S; Idris, A

    1997-08-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to assess the incidence and magnitude of fat emboli after cardiopulmonary resuscitation and intraosseous infusions. An animal laboratory at a university center was used to study 33 mixed-breed piglets. The piglets underwent hypoxic cardiac arrest followed by chest compressions and mechanical ventilation for a minimum of 30 minutes. The animals were divided in groups: group 1 (n = 5), which had no intraosseous cannulas, group 2 (n = 6), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion, groups 3 (n = 6), 4 (n = 6), and 5 (n = 8), which had intraosseous cannulas with infusion of epinephrine, normal saline, and sodium bicarbonate respectively, and group 6 (n = 2), which was a sham group with no intraosseous cannulas and no cardiopulmonary resuscitation. At cessation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, representative lung samples were collected from upper and lower lobes of each lung and observed for fat globules and bone marrow elements. Fat globules were seen in the peribronchial blood vessels and intravascular areas throughout all lung fields of groups 1 through 5. There was no difference in appearance or distribution of fat globules among the 5 treatment groups. Analysis of variance showed no statistical significance (P < 0.05) within or among groups 1 through 5. The use of the intraosseous cannula for infusion of emergency drugs and fluids did not increase the magnitude of fat embolization over cardiopulmonary resuscitation alone in this animal model. The benefits of using this procedure in critically ill children as a means of rapid vascular access for resuscitation is well established. However, the risk of fat embolism in this population needs further study. PMID:9258208

  9. Educational aspects of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, S J

    1990-03-01

    The knowledge and skills surrounding the practice of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have become essential to intensive care nurses and to nurses in general. With formalized training and refresher courses becoming more common in this country, it is evident that after relatively short periods of time the knowledge and skills acquired at such courses may be lost. While much consideration has been given to the content of both Basic and Advanced Cardiac Life Support (BCLS and ACLS) courses, relatively little attention has been paid to the educational issues surrounding CPR training. This paper explores some of these issues from the perspective of adult learning (andragogy). Research is cited from a wide range of sources to illustrate that CPR skill and knowledge deterioration is not unique to nursing, and that educational techniques exist which may improve current educational practices. PMID:2329270

  10. Trilinolein improves erythrocyte deformability during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, S K; Chan, P; Lee, T Y; Yung, J M; Hong, C Y

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro effect of trilinolein, a triglyceride with linoleic acid as the major fatty acid residue in the esterified positions of glycerol, on erythrocyte deformability was studied in blood samples collected from 12 patients before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Erythrocyte deformability was measured with a filtration method and expressed as red cell filtration rate (RFR). RFR was reduced after CPB and the reduction was time dependent. Trilinolein at a concentration of 10(-7) M significantly reversed the CPB-induced reduction of RFR when it was mixed with blood samples collected 30, 60 and 90 min from the start of CPB. This study confirmed the effect of CPB on erythrocyte deformability and showed that this damage could be significantly improved by mixing blood with trilinolein. PMID:8054252

  11. Factor V Leiden and Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Uppal, Victor; Rosin, Mark; Marcoux, Jo-Anne; Olson, Marnie; Bezaire, Jennifer; Dalshaug, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: We present a case of a patient with factor V Leiden with an antithrombin III activity of 67% who received a successful aortic valve replacement supported by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A safe level of anticoagulation was achieved by monitoring activated clotting time (ACT) and heparin concentration ensuring adequate anticoagulation throughout the procedure. Results from ACT, heparin dose response, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography are given. Factor V Leiden patients can be safely anti-coagulated using heparin for CPB procedures when monitored with ACT, heparin protamine titration, and thrombelastography. Postoperative chest tube losses were 360 mL, less than half our institutional average. Anticoagulation for the pre-and post-operative phase is also discussed. PMID:26834284

  12. Automated cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Jon; Theodosiou, Maria; Doshi, Sagar

    2014-02-01

    Rates of survival after cardiac arrest are low and correlate with the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Devices that deliver automated CPR (A-CPR) can provide sustained and effective chest compressions, which are especially useful during patient transfer and while simultaneous invasive procedures are being performed. The use of such devices can also release members of resuscitation teams for other work. This article presents a case study involving a man with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. It describes how ED nursing and medical teams worked together to deliver A-CPR, discusses the use of A-CPR devices in a tertiary cardiac centre, and highlights the advantages of using such devices. PMID:24494769

  13. Miniaturized cardiopulmonary bypass: the Hammersmith technique

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional Cardiopulmonary Bypass (cCPB) is a trigger of systemic inflammatory reactions, hemodilution, coagulopathy, and organ failure. Miniaturised Cardiopulmonary Bypass (mCPB) has the potential to reduce these deleterious effects. Here, we describe our standardised ‘Hammersmith’ mCPB technique, used in all types of adult cardiac operations including major aortic surgery. Methods The use of mCPB remains limited by the diversity of technologies which range from extremely complex, micro systems to ones very similar to cCPB. Our approach is designed around the principle of balancing the benefits of miniaturisation; reducing foreign surface area while maintaining patient safety. Results From January 2010 to March 2011, a single surgeon performed 184 consecutive operations (Euro score Logistic 8.4+/-9.9): 61 aortic valve replacements, 78 CABGs, 25 aortic valve replacement and CABG and 17 other procedures (major aortic surgery, re-do operations or double/triple valve replacements). Our clinical experience suggests that: i. Venous drainage is optimally maintained using kinetic energy. ii. Venous collapse pressure depends on the patient’s anatomy and cannula size, but most importantly on the negative pressure generated by venous drainage. iii. The patient-prime interaction is optimised with antegrade and retrograde autologous priming, which mixes the blood and prime away from the tissues and results in a reduced oncotic destabilization. iv. mCPB is a safe and reproducible technique Conclusion The Hammersmith mCPB is a “next generation” system which uses standard commercially available components. It aims to maintain safety margin and the benefit of miniaturised system whilst reducing the human factor demands. PMID:23731623

  14. Elimination of Gaseous Microemboli from Cardiopulmonary Bypass using Hypobaric Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Keith E.; Rosinski, David J.; Schonberger, Robert B.; Kubera, Cathryn; Mathew, Eapen S.; Nichols, Frank; Dyckman, William; Courtin, Francois; Sherburne, Bradford; Bordey, Angelique F; Gross, Jeffrey B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous gaseous microemboli (GME) are delivered into the arterial circulation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). These emboli damage end organs through multiple mechanisms that are thought to contribute to neurocognitive deficits following cardiac surgery. Here, we use hypobaric oxygenation to reduce dissolved gases in blood and greatly reduce GME delivery during CPB. Methods Variable subatmospheric pressures were applied to 100% oxygen sweep gas in standard hollow fiber microporous membrane oxygenators to oxygenate and denitrogenate blood. GME were quantified using ultrasound while air embolism from the surgical field was simulated experimentally. We assessed end organ tissues in swine postoperatively using light microscopy. Results Variable sweep gas pressures allowed reliable oxygenation independent of CO2 removal while denitrogenating arterial blood. Hypobaric oxygenation produced dose-dependent reductions of Doppler signals produced by bolus and continuous GME loads in vitro. Swine were maintained using hypobaric oxygenation for four hours on CPB with no apparent adverse events. Compared with current practice standards of O2/air sweep gas, hypobaric oxygenation reduced GME volumes exiting the oxygenator (by 80%), exiting the arterial filter (95%), and arriving at the aortic cannula (∼100%), indicating progressive reabsorption of emboli throughout the CPB circuit in vivo. Analysis of brain tissue suggested decreased microvascular injury under hypobaric conditions. Conclusions Hypobaric oxygenation is an effective, low-cost, common sense approach that capitalizes on the simple physical makeup of GME to achieve their near-total elimination during CPB. This technique holds great potential for limiting end-organ damage and improving outcomes in a variety of patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation. PMID:24206970

  15. Tissue Oxygenation Response to Mild Hypercapnia during Cardiopulmonary Bypass with Constant Pump Output

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Ozan; Sessler, Daniel I; DeLong, Diane; Keijner, Raymond; Ganzel, Brian; Doufas, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Background Tissue oxygenation is the primary determinant of wound infection risk. Mild hypercapnia markedly improves cutaneous, subcutaneous, and muscular tissue oxygenation in volunteers and patients. However, relative contributions of increased cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation to this response remains unknown. We thus tested the hypothesis that increased cardiac output is the dominant mechanism. Methods We recruited 10 ASA III patients, aged 40–65 years, undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass for this crossover trial. After induction of anaesthesia, a Silastic tonometer was inserted subcutaneously in the upper arm. Subcutaneous tissue oxygen tension was measured with both polarographic electrode and fluorescence-based systems. Oximeter probes were placed bilaterally on the forehead to monitor cerebral oxygenation. After initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, in random order patients were exposed to two arterial CO2 partial pressures for 30 minutes each: 35 (normocapnia) or 50 mmHg (hypercapnia). Bypass pump flow was kept constant throughout the measurement periods. Results Hypercapnia during bypass had essentially no effect on PaO2, mean arterial pressure, or tissue temperature. PaCO2 and pH differed significantly. Subcutaneous tissue oxygenation was virtually identical during the two PaCO2 periods (139 [50,163] vs. 145 [38,158], P=0.335) (median [range]). In contrast, cerebral oxygen saturation (our positive control measurement) was significantly less during normocapnia (57 [28,67]%) than hypercapnia (64 [37,89]%, P=0.025). Conclusions Mild hypercapnia, which normally markedly increases tissue oxygenation, did not do so during cardiopulmonary bypass with fixed pump output. This suggests that hypercapnia normally increases tissue oxygenation by increasing cardiac output rather than direct dilation of peripheral vessels. PMID:16675511

  16. A Comfortability Level Scale for Performance of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otten, Robert Drew

    1984-01-01

    This article discusses the development of an instrument to appraise the comfortability level of college students in performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methodology and findings of data collection are given. (Author/DF)

  17. Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

  18. [Preliminary study of colloid osmotic pressure for cardiopulmonary bypass].

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Xiang, L; Luo, J

    1996-12-01

    The ideal colloid osmotic pressure is beneficial to decrease the fluid accumulated in the pulmonary and other tissue during cardiopulmonary bypass. Schupbach reported the proper colloidosmotic pressure for cardiopulmonary bypass was 2.1 kPa (16 mmHg). Colloid osmotic pressures of blood and priming fluid during cardiopulmonary bypass were measured in 28 patients with heart disease by using colloid osmotic pressure detection apparatus. The value of colloid osmotic pressure suitable for the designed standard was apparently different among the Gelofusine group and other groups. P value was 0.005. Priming fluid for cardiopulmonary bypass needs to satisfy the quality and the quantity of colloid osmotic pressure. Using Albumin isn't economical. Whole blood and plazma are not suitable for increasing colloid osmotic pressure. Hydroxyethyl starch or Gelofusine is best choice in priming to get designed standard of colloid osmotic pressure. The ratio of hydroxyethyl starch or Gelofusine in priming fluid should beyond 1/2. PMID:9590779

  19. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice... May 28, 1976. Any other cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator shall have an approved PMA...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4320 - Cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Class III (premarket approval). (c) Date PMA or notice of completion of PDP is required. A PMA or notice... May 28, 1976. Any other cardiopulmonary bypass pulsatile flow generator shall have an approved PMA...

  1. [Full Recovery from Cardiopulmonary Arrest caused by Traumatic Asphyxia].

    PubMed

    Hirade, Tomohiro; Murata, Susumu; Saito, Tsukasa; Ogawa, Kohei; Kodani, Nobuhiro; Sakakibara, Manabu; Hirade, Ritsuko; Kushizaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Minami, Kotaro; Nikai, Tetsuro; Nishina, Masayoshi

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic asphyxia is a crush injury of the chest characterized by facial edema, cyanosis, conjunctival hemorrhage, and petechiae on the face and chest. The prognosis depends on the duration of chest compression and early cardiopulmonary resuscitation after cardiopulmonary arrest. Here we report a case of full recovery from cardiopulmonary arrest caused by traumatic asphyxia. The chest of a 56-year-old man was compressed by a machine while working. Immediately, his colleague started cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which was successful. When he was admitted to our hospital, his consciousness level was E1V2M2(Glasgow coma scale). Our treatment included therapeutic hypothermia, the duration of which was 24 hours at 34 °C. Rewarming his body to 36 °C took place over 48 hours. Thereafter, he recovered completely and was discharged on the 12th hospital day without neurologic sequela. Therapeutic hypothermia was possibly effective in this case. PMID:25743548

  2. 21 CFR 870.4350 - Cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bypass oxygenator. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass oxygenator is a device used to exchange gases between blood and a gaseous environment to satisfy the gas exchange needs of a patient during...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4240 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heat exchanger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Surgical Devices § 870.4240 Cardiopulmonary..., consisting of a heat exchange system used in extracorporeal circulation to warm or cool the blood...

  8. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment.

    PubMed

    Durukan, Ahmet Baris; Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-06-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  9. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: a critical moment

    PubMed Central

    Gurbuz, Hasan Alper; Ozcelik, Gokhan; Yorgancioglu, Cem

    2016-01-01

    Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass is a crisis situation for the cardiac surgical team. Fortunately, it has a low incidence with low morbidity and mortality rates. Notwithstanding, institutional preventative and management measures should be taken. Here, we report a case of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass, which was successfully managed during the surgery, allowing the patient to recover uneventfully. These unwanted complications can only be managed by promoting awareness and putting in place strategies against them. PMID:27516788

  10. Immune-Mediated Metabolic Kynurenine Pathways Are Involved in the Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Yi, Shuang Qiang; Yang, Mi; Duan, Kai Ming

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after cardiopulmonary bypass is a serious complication that can lead to personality changes, memory loss, reduction in the ability to learn, and other central nervous system dysfunctions. In recent years, there have been improvements in measures to protect the brain during surgery, although the incidence of cognitive dysfunction after cardiac surgery remains high (33 to 83% short-term and 20 to 60% long-term cognitive dysfunction). Despite the large amount of basic and clinical research on the incidence of POCD, its exact pathogenesis and complexity are not clear. Many studies have shown that the kynurenine pathway (KP) and cognitive function in humans are closely related. Some reports also show that the imbalance of some metabolites of the KP such as kynurenic acid and quinolinic acid (QUIN), which act in dynamic equilibrium under physiologic conditions, have effects on the central nervous system and can significantly affect cognitive function. Further studies have shown that inflammatory mediators may act on key enzymes of the KP causing KP-induced disorders. Severe inflammatory reaction occurs in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, which triggers metabolic pathways that are closely related to changes in cognitive function. In this review, we summarize that inflammation-induced metabolic kynurenine (KYN) pathway disorders are likely to have an important role in incidence of POCD after CPB surgery. PMID:25893921

  11. The hemodynamic effects of methylene blue when administered at the onset of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Andrew D; Stearns, Gary; Butala, Parag; Batula, Parag; Schwartz, Carl S; Gough, Jeffrey; Singh, Arun K

    2006-07-01

    Hypotension occurs during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), in part because of induction of the inflammatory response, for which nitric oxide and guanylate cyclase play a central role. In this study we examined the hemodynamic effects of methylene blue (MB), an inhibitor of guanylate cyclase, administered during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) to patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were randomized to receive either MB (3 mg/kg) or saline (S) after institution of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. CPB was managed similarly for all study patients. Hemodynamic data were assessed before, during, and after CPB. The use of vasopressors was recorded. All study patients experienced a similar reduction in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) with the onset of CPB and cardioplegic arrest. MB increased MAP and SVR and this effect lasted for 40 minutes. The saline group demonstrated a persistently reduced MAP and SVR throughout CPB. The saline group received phenylephrine more frequently during CPB, and more norepinephrine after CPB to maintain a desirable MAP. The MB group recorded significantly lower serum lactate levels despite equal or greater MAP and SVR. In conclusion, administration of MB after institution of CPB for patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors increased MAP and SVR and reduced the need for vasopressors. Furthermore, serum lactate levels were lower in MB patients, suggesting more favorable tissue perfusion. PMID:16790616

  12. Cardiopulmonary involvement in Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hantavirus infections cause potentially life-threatening disease in humans world-wide. Infections with American hantaviruses may lead to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome characterised by severe cardiopulmonary distress with high mortality. Pulmonary involvement in European Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection has been reported, whereas knowledge of potential cardiac manifestations is limited. We aimed to comprehensively investigate cardiopulmonary involvement in patients with PUUV-infection. Methods Twenty-seven hospitalised patients with PUUV-infection were examined with lung function tests, chest high-resolution CT (HRCT), echocardiography including speckle tracking strain rate analysis, ECG and measurements of cardiac biomarkers N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-ProBNP) and troponin T. Patients were re-evaluated after 3 months. Twenty-five age and sex-matched volunteers acted as controls for echocardiography data. Results Two-thirds of the patients experienced respiratory symptoms as dry cough or dyspnoea. Gas diffusing capacity was impaired in most patients, significantly improving at follow-up but still subnormal in 38%. HRCT showed thoracic effusions or pulmonary oedema in 46% of the patients. Compared to controls, the main echocardiographic findings in patients during the acute phase were significantly higher pulmonary vascular resistance, higher systolic pulmonary artery pressure, lower left ventricular ejection fraction and impaired left atrial myocardial motion. Pathological ECG, atrial fibrillation or T-wave changes, was demonstrated in 26% of patients. NT-ProBNP concentrations were markedly increased and were inversely associated with gas diffusing capacity but positively correlated to pulmonary vascular resistance. Furthermore, patients experiencing impaired general condition at follow-up had significantly lower gas diffusing capacity and higher pulmonary vascular resistance, compared to those feeling fully recovered. Conclusions In

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the MRI environment.

    PubMed

    Lafountain, Richard A; da Silveira, Juliana Serafim; Varghese, Juliet; Mihai, Georgeta; Scandling, Debbie; Craft, Jason; Swain, Carmen B; Franco, Veronica; Raman, Subha V; Devor, Steven T; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2016-04-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]max) measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) is the gold standard for assessment of cardiorespiratory fitness. Likewise, cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is the gold standard for quantification of cardiac function. The combination of CPX and CMR may offer unique insights into cardiopulmonary pathophysiology; however, the MRI-compatible equipment needed to combine these tests has not been available to date. We sought to determine whether CPX testing in the MRI environment, using equipment modified for MRI yields results equivalent to those obtained in standard exercise physiology (EP) lab. Ten recreationally trained subjects completed [Formula: see text]max tests in different locations; an EP laboratory and an MRI laboratory, using site specific equipment. CMR cine images of the heart were acquired before and immediately after maximal exercise to measure cardiac function. Subjects in all tests met criteria indicating that peak exercise was achieved. Despite equipment modifications for the MRI environment, [Formula: see text]max was nearly identical between tests run in the different labs (95% lower confidence limit (LCL)  =  0.8182). The mean difference in [Formula: see text]max was less than 3.40 ml (kg/min)(-1), within the variability expected for tests performed on different days, in different locations, using different metabolic carts. MRI performed at rest and following peak exercise stress indicated cardiac output increased from 5.1  ±  1.0 l min(-1) to 16.4  ±  5.6 l min(-1), LVEF increased from 65.2  ±  3.3% to 78.4  ±  4.8%, while RVEF increased from 52.8  ±  5.3% to 63.4  ±  5.3%. Regression analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between [Formula: see text]max and stroke volume (R  =  0.788, P  =  0.006), while the correlation with cardiac output did not reach statistical significance (R

  14. Comparative study of ultrasound-guided paravertebral block with ropivacaine versus bupivacaine for post-operative pain relief in children undergoing thoracotomy for patent ductus arteriosus ligation surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chalam, Kolli S; Patnaik, Sathya Swaroop; Sunil, C; Bansal, Tripti

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Thoracotomy incision following patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) ligation surgery is often associated with severe post-operative pain that has deleterious effects on respiratory function. We aimed to assess pain relief with thoracic paravertebral block using either bupivacaine or ropivacaine in these surgeries. Methods: One hundred paediatric patients of age group between 2 and 10 years undergoing PDA ligation surgery were randomised either to bupivacaine or ropivacaine group in this prospective double-blinded study. After induction of general anaesthesia, the ultrasound-guided paravertebral block was carried out using 0.25% bupivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group B patients and 0.2% ropivacaine 0.4 ml/kg in Group R patients. Monitoring included minimum mandatory monitoring with pulse rate, pulseoximetry (SpO2), electrocardiogram, blood pressure, temperature during surgery and also in Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Additionally, modified objective pain score (MOPS) was used in ICU for assessment of pain for 12 h after surgery. Incidence of complications was noted. Results: Mean values of MOPSs were comparable in both the groups. The time to rescue analgesic was 8 to 10 h in over 80% of patients in both the groups. More patients had hypotension and bradycardia in bupivacaine group compared to ropivacaine group. Conclusion: Paravertebral injection of 0.4 ml/kg of either 0.2% ropivacaine or 0.25% bupivacaine provided equipotent analgesia, but ropivacaine had a better side effect profile. Ultrasound-guided paravertebral block is a safe and effective mode of analgesia in paediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy. PMID:26379293

  15. Immunological characteristics and T-cell receptor clonal diversity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Pesenacker, Anne M; Stansfield, Alka; King, Douglas; Barge, Dawn; Foster, Helen E; Abinun, Mario; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2014-01-01

    Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA), the most severe subtype of JIA, are at risk from destructive polyarthritis and growth failure, and corticosteroids as part of conventional treatment can result in osteoporosis and growth delay. In children where there is failure or toxicity from drug therapies, disease has been successfully controlled by T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). At present, the immunological basis underlying remission after ASCT is unknown. Immune reconstitution of T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells and monocytes, in parallel with T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity by analysis of the β variable region (TCRVb) complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) using spectratyping and sequencing, were studied in five children with sJIA before and after ASCT. At time of follow up (mean 11·5 years), four patients remain in complete remission, while one child relapsed within 1 month of transplant. The CD8+ TCRVb repertoire was highly oligoclonal early in immune reconstitution and re-emergence of pre-transplant TCRVb CDR3 dominant peaks was observed after transplant in certain TCRVb families. Further, re-emergence of pre-ASCT clonal sequences in addition to new sequences was identified after transplant. These results suggest that a chimeric TCR repertoire, comprising T-cell clones developed before and after transplant, can be associated with clinical remission from severe arthritis. PMID:24405357

  16. Immunological characteristics and T-cell receptor clonal diversity in children with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis undergoing T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Pesenacker, Anne M; Stansfield, Alka; King, Douglas; Barge, Dawn; Foster, Helen E; Abinun, Mario; Wedderburn, Lucy R

    2014-06-01

    Children with systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (sJIA), the most severe subtype of JIA, are at risk from destructive polyarthritis and growth failure, and corticosteroids as part of conventional treatment can result in osteoporosis and growth delay. In children where there is failure or toxicity from drug therapies, disease has been successfully controlled by T-cell-depleted autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). At present, the immunological basis underlying remission after ASCT is unknown. Immune reconstitution of T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells and monocytes, in parallel with T-cell receptor (TCR) diversity by analysis of the β variable region (TCRVb) complementarity determining region-3 (CDR3) using spectratyping and sequencing, were studied in five children with sJIA before and after ASCT. At time of follow up (mean 11.5 years), four patients remain in complete remission, while one child relapsed within 1 month of transplant. The CD8(+) TCRVb repertoire was highly oligoclonal early in immune reconstitution and re-emergence of pre-transplant TCRVb CDR3 dominant peaks was observed after transplant in certain TCRVb families. Further, re-emergence of pre-ASCT clonal sequences in addition to new sequences was identified after transplant. These results suggest that a chimeric TCR repertoire, comprising T-cell clones developed before and after transplant, can be associated with clinical remission from severe arthritis. PMID:24405357

  17. The potential of the novel leukocyte removal filter in cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is indispensable for cardiac surgery but leads to systemic inflammatory responses and leukocyte activation, possibly due to blood contact with the surface of the CPB unit, surgical, ischemic reperfusion injury, etc. Systemic inflammatory responses during CPB result in increased morbidity and mortality. Activation of leukocytes is an important part of this process and directly contributes to coagulopathy and hemorrhage. This inflammatory response may contribute to the development of postoperative complications, including myocardial dysfunction, respiratory failure, renal and neurologic dysfunction, altered liver function and ultimately, multiple organ failure. Various pharmacologic and mechanical strategies have been developed to minimize the systemic inflammatory response during CPB. For example, leukocyte removal filters were developed in the 1990s for incorporation into the CPB circuit. However, studies of this approach have yielded conflicting findings. The purpose of this was to review the studies of a novel leukocyte removal filter in patients undergoing CPB. PMID:26613267

  18. Cutaneous microcirculation and blood rheology following cardiopulmonary bypass. Laser Doppler flowmetric and blood cell rheologic studies.

    PubMed

    al-Khaja, N; Belboul, A; Bergman, P; Roberts, D; William-Olsson, G

    1988-01-01

    In 23 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, measurements of cutaneous blood flow were made with laser doppler flowmetry. Simultaneously blood was sampled for measurement of red cell filtration rate (RFR) and plasma-white cell filtration rate (P-WFR). The cutaneous blood flow showed significant overall reduction postoperatively. When the saphenous vein or internal mammary artery was used as bypass graft, the reduction in skin blood flow at the sites from which the vessels were taken was significantly greater than in contralateral, undisturbed sites. RFR and P-WFR were also significantly reduced postoperatively, and these changes showed significant concomitance with the fall in laser doppler flow (LDF%). On postoperative day 6 there was some improvement in LDF% and RFR but further slight deterioration in P-WFR. The study indicated that surgical trauma locally reduces cutaneous blood flow and that trauma to blood cells following cardiopulmonary bypass can contribute to this reduction. PMID:2970114

  19. Cardiopulmonary monitoring in intra-abdominal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Ameloot, Koen; Gillebert, Carl; Cheatham, Michael L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiopulmonary dysfunction and failure are commonly encountered in the patient with intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome. Accurate assessment and optimization of preload, contractility, and afterload in conjunction with appropriate goal-directed resuscitation and assessment of fluid responsiveness are essential to restore end-organ perfusion. In patients with IAH, the traditional "barometric" preload indicators such as pulmonary artery occlusion pressure and central venous pressure are erroneously increased. Volumetric monitoring techniques have been proven to be superior in directing the appropriate resuscitation together with targeted abdominal perfusion pressure. If such limitations are not recognized, misinterpretation of the patient's cardiac status is likely, resulting in inappropriate and potentially detrimental therapy. IAH also markedly affects the mechanical properties of the chest wall and consequently also the respiratory function. Altered mechanical properties of the chest wall may limit ventilation, influence the work of breathing, affect the interaction between the respiratory muscles, hasten the development of respiratory failure, and interfere with gas exchange. Pulmonary monitoring is important to understand the relationships between intra-abdominal pressure and chest wall mechanics and the impact of IAH on ventilator-induced lung injury, lung distention, recruitment, and lung edema. PMID:21944448

  20. Possible SARS Coronavirus Transmission during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; McDonald, L. Clifford; Martinez, Kenneth F.; Ofner, Mariana; Wong, Tom; Wallington, Tamara; Gold, Wayne L.; Mederski, Barbara; Green, Karen; Low, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    Infection of healthcare workers with the severe acute respiratory syndrome–associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is thought to occur primarily by either contact or large respiratory droplet transmission. However, infrequent healthcare worker infections occurred despite the use of contact and droplet precautions, particularly during certain aerosol-generating medical procedures. We investigated a possible cluster of SARS-CoV infections in healthcare workers who used contact and droplet precautions during attempted cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a SARS patient. Unlike previously reported instances of transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, the index case-patient was unresponsive, and the intubation procedure was performed quickly and without difficulty. However, before intubation, the patient was ventilated with a bag-valve-mask that may have contributed to aerosolization of SARS-CoV. On the basis of the results of this investigation and previous reports of SARS transmission during aerosol-generating procedures, a systematic approach to the problem is outlined, including the use of the following: 1) administrative controls, 2) environmental engineering controls, 3) personal protective equipment, and 4) quality control. PMID:15030699

  1. Evaluation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation techniques in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Gosbee, John; Krupa, Debra T.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) techniques were investigated in microgravity with specific application to planned medical capabilities for Space Station Freedom (SSF). A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed with the goal of evaluating and quantifying the efficacy of different types of microgravity CPR techniques. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola. Three experiments were involved chosen for their clinical background, certification, and practical experience in prior KC-135 parabolic flight. The CPR evaluation was performed using a standard training mannequin (recording resusci-Annie) which was used in practice prior to the actual flight. Aboard the KC-135, the prototype medical restraint system (MRS) for the SSF Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) was used for part of the study. Standard patient and crew restraints were used for interface with the MRS. During the portion of study where CPR was performed without MRS, a set of straps for crew restraint similar to those currently employed for the Space Shuttle program were used. The entire study was recorded via still camera and video.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Rajeev; Bakken, Kristian; D'Elia, Emilia; Lewis, Gregory D

    2016-08-01

    Exercise intolerance, indicated by dyspnea and fatigue during exertion, is a cardinal manifestation of heart failure (HF). Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) precisely defines maximum exercise capacity through measurement of peak oxygen uptake (VO2). Peak VO2 values have a critical role in informing patient selection for advanced HF interventions such as heart transplantation and ventricular assist devices. Oxygen uptake and ventilatory patterns obtained during the submaximal portion of CPET are also valuable to recognize because of their ease of ascertainment during low-level exercise, relevance to ability to perform activities of daily living, independence from volitional effort, and strong relationship to prognosis in HF. The ability of peak VO2 and other CPET variables to be measured reproducibly and to accurately reflect HF severity is increasingly recognized and endorsed by scientific statements. Integration of CPET with invasive hemodynamic monitoring and cardiac imaging during exercise provides comprehensive characterization of multisystem reserve capacity that can inform prognosis and the need for cardiac interventions. Here, we review both practical aspects of conducting CPETs in patients with HF for clinical and research purposes as well as interpretation of gas exchange patterns across the spectrum of preclinical HF to advanced HF. PMID:27289406

  3. Cardiopulmonary effects of intermittent mandatory ventilation.

    PubMed

    Douglas, M E; Downs, J B

    1980-01-01

    IMV is a combination of spontaneous and mechanical ventilation. For numerous reasons, IMV is potentially more advantageous than conventional techniques. By maintaining spontaneous breathing, mechanical augmentation can be titrated to adjust alveolar minute ventilation levels to normal, thereby decreasing the incidence of respiratory alkalemia. There are major differences between the cardiopulmonary effects of IMV and conventional mechanical ventilation. Spontaneous inspiration decreases Ppl and results in better distribution of inspired gas, a better V/Q, and less physiological dead space. In addition, transmural filling pressures, venous return, and cardiac output are more normal than during conventional mechanical ventilation. Maintenance of spontaneous ventilation lowers mean Paw and pulmonary vascular resistance. If venous admixture occurs, it can be minimized by titrating PEEP. Thus, more effective therapy for hypoxemia is possible. If spontaneous breathing is to persist and be efective, work-of-breathing must be minimized. This can be accomplished best when a continuous flow of gas provides optimal CPAP to maintain FRC and to minimize the effects of decreased compliance without depressing cardiac function. PMID:7007253

  4. Comparative effects of propofol and nitroglycerine on efficacy of rewarming in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Bhupesh; Chauhan, Prerana; Thinganam, K. S. Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the effects of propofol and nitroglycerine (NTG) on the efficacy of rewarming, extra volume added during cardiopulmonary bypass and extravascular lung water (EVLW) in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized, blinded trial, twenty adult patients were randomly assigned to receive either NTG infusion (NTG group) or propofol infusion (propofol group) during rewarming. Results: After drop in temperature at the end of surgery and till 24 h were significantly less in propofol group compare to NTG group (P < 0.025). Extra volume added during cardiopulmonary bypass and net crystalloid balance till 24 h was less in the propofol group (P < 0.003). There was no difference in EVLW and postoperative outcome. Conclusions: Propofol use during moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass is associated with less after drop in temperature and less requirement of extra fluid during the perioperative period. PMID:25849681

  5. Association of ITPA Genotype with Event-Free Survival and Relapse Rates in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Undergoing Maintenance Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Alenka; Karas-Kuzelicki, Natasa; Milek, Miha; Jazbec, Janez; Mlinaric-Rascan, Irena

    2014-01-01

    Although the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved significantly over recent decades, failure due to treatment-related toxicities and relapse of the disease still occur in about 20% of patients. This retrospective study included 308 pediatric ALL patients undergoing maintenance therapy and investigated the effects of genetic variants of enzymes involved in the 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) metabolism and folate pathway on survival and relapse rates. The presence of at least one of the non-functional ITPA alleles (94C>A and/or IVS2+21A>C variant) was associated with longer event-free survival compared to patients with the wild-type ITPA genotype (p = 0.033). Furthermore, patients carrying at least one non-functional ITPA allele were shown to be at a lower risk of suffering early (p = 0.003) and/or bone marrow relapse (p = 0.017). In conclusion, the ITPA genotype may serve as a genetic marker for the improvement of risk stratification and therapy individualization for patients with ALL. PMID:25303517

  6. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity.

  7. Evaluation of cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy undergoing constraint-induced movement therapy based on functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jianwei; Khan, Bilal; Hervey, Nathan; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Roberts, Heather; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Shagman, Laura; MacFarlane, Duncan; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Sensorimotor cortex plasticity induced by constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT) in six children (10.2±2.1 years old) with hemiplegic cerebral palsy was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The activation laterality index and time-to-peak/duration during a finger-tapping task and the resting-state functional connectivity were quantified before, immediately after, and 6 months after CIMT. These fNIRS-based metrics were used to help explain changes in clinical scores of manual performance obtained concurrently with imaging time points. Five age-matched healthy children (9.8±1.3 years old) were also imaged to provide comparative activation metrics for normal controls. Interestingly, the activation time-to-peak/duration for all sensorimotor centers displayed significant normalization immediately after CIMT that persisted 6 months later. In contrast to this improved localized activation response, the laterality index and resting-state connectivity metrics that depended on communication between sensorimotor centers improved immediately after CIMT, but relapsed 6 months later. In addition, for the subjects measured in this work, there was either a trade-off between improving unimanual versus bimanual performance when sensorimotor activation patterns normalized after CIMT, or an improvement occurred in both unimanual and bimanual performance but at the cost of very abnormal plastic changes in sensorimotor activity. PMID:25900145

  8. Blood transfusion therapy for traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Tahara, Yoshio; Iwashita, Masayuki; Kosuge, Takayuki; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Arata, Shinju; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background: Blood transfusion therapy (BTT), which represents transplantation of living cells, poses several risks. Although BTT is necessary for trauma victims with hemorrhagic shock, it may be futile for patients with blunt traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest (BT-CPA). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively examined the medical records of consecutive patients with T-CPA. The study period was divided into two periods: The first from 1995-1998, when we used packed red cells (PRC) regardless of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), and the second from 1999-2004, when we did not use PRC before ROSC. The rates of ROSC, admission to the ICU, and survival-to-discharge were compared between these two periods. Results: We studied the records of 464 patients with BT-CPA (175 in the first period and 289 in the second period). Although the rates of ROSC and admission to the ICU were statistically higher in the first period, there was no statistical difference in the rate of survival-to-discharge between these two periods. In the first period, the rate of ROSC was statistically higher in the non-BTT group than the BTT group. However, for cases in which ROSC was performed and was successful, there were no statistical differences in the rate of admission and survival-to-discharge between the first and second group, and between the BTT and non-BTT group. Conclusion: Our retrospective consecutive study shows the possibility that BTT before ROSC for BT-CPA and a treatment strategy that includes this treatment improves the success rate of ROSC, but not the survival rate. BTT is thought to be futile as a treatment for BT-CPA before ROSC. PMID:23493056

  9. A Snapshot of Coagulopathy After Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Höfer, Judith; Fries, Dietmar; Solomon, Cristina; Velik-Salchner, Corinna; Ausserer, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is often associated with important blood loss, allogeneic blood product usage, morbidity, and mortality. Coagulopathy during CPB is complex, and the current lack of uniformity for triggers and hemostatic agents has led to a wide variability in bleeding treatment. The aim of this review is to provide a simplified picture of the data available on patients' coagulation status at the end of CPB in order to provide relevant information for the development of tailored transfusion algorithms. A nonsystematic literature review was carried out to identify changes in coagulation parameters during CPB. Both prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time increased during CPB, by a median of 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. However, there was marked variability across the published studies, indicating these tests may be unreliable for guiding hemostatic therapy. Some thrombin generation (TG) parameters were affected, as indicated by a median increase in TG lag time of 55.0%, a decrease in TG peak of 17.5%, and only a slight decrease in endogenous thrombin potential of 7%. The most affected parameters were fibrinogen levels and platelet count/function. Both plasma fibrinogen concentration and FIBTEM maximum clot firmness decreased during CPB (median change of 36.4% and 33.3%, respectively) as did platelet count (44.5%) and platelet component (34.2%). This review provides initial information regarding changes in coagulation parameters during CPB but highlights the variability in the reported results. Further studies are warranted to guide physicians on the parameters most appropriate to guide hemostatic therapy. PMID:27268940

  10. Gravity and Development of Cardiopulmonary Reflex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Shunji; Eno, Yuko; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    Cardio-pulmonary reflex, which our cardiac activity is synchronized to the respiration by autonomic nervous system regulation, is called as "respiratory sinus arrhythmia" and commonly found in adult. The physiological function of the espiratory sinus arrhythmia is considered to maximize the gas exchange during respiration cycle. This respiration induced heart rate variability (RHRV) is only found in mammals and avian showing a remarkable postnatal development, whereas no RHRV in aquatic species such as fish or amphibian. To elucidate our hypothesis that gravity exposure may plays a key role in the postnatal development of RHRV as well as its evolutional origin in these ground animals, we have studied effects of hypergravity (2G) on the postnatal development of RHRV using rat. Pregnant Wister rats were kept in centrifugal cages system for 38 days from 6th days of pregnant mother to have neonates until 23 days old. Electrocardiograph was recorded from the neonates in 2 to 23 days old in 2G group with simultaneous control (1G) group. The RHRV analysis was performed by calculating a component of Fourier power spectral coincide with the respiration frequency. In both groups, averaged resting heart rate gradually increase from 2 to 23 days old. When comparing the heart rate between the two groups, the 2G group indicated significantly lower (240± 8 bpm) than 1G control (326±21 bpm, p¡0.001) in 2 days old, where as no significance in 23 days old. The RHRV of 2 days old neonates in both groups indicated very small magnitude but significantly lower in 2G group than 1G control (p¡0.01). The RHRV gradually increase during the first 2 weeks and then rapid increased to reached 45 fold of magnitude in 1G control, whereas 69 fold in 2G group. The results strongly suggested that the postnatal innervation from respiration to cardiovascular centers was gravity dependent.

  11. Efficacy of cardiopulmonary resuscitation using intratracheal insufflation.

    PubMed

    Brochard, L; Boussignac, G; Adnot, S; Bertrand, C; Isabey, D; Harf, A

    1996-11-01

    The effects of constant-flow insufflation (CFI) of air in the trachea at the distal end of a modified endotracheal tube as the sole mode of ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) were studied in pigs. The ventilatory effect of CFI (15 +/- 2 L/min) generating a positive pressure of about 10 cm H2O with concomitant chest compression was studied first. In nine sedated, paralyzed animals disconnected from the ventilator, CFI alone did not significantly alter the decrease in PaO2 and the rise in PaCO2 observed during apnea. By contrast, the combination of precordial compression and CFI (CFI-CPR) maintained arterial blood gases over a 4-min period at the level obtained during mechanical ventilation. In the second part of the study, ventricular fibrillation was induced and CFI-CPR was compared with standard CPR using conventional mechanical ventilation during two successive 4-min periods, in random order. Ventilatory parameters were identical in the two situations, whereas hemodynamic parameters were similar or better with CFI-CPR than with standard CPR. Significant differences were observed between standard CPR and CFI-CPR for systolic aortic pressure (72 +/- 22 versus 82 +/- 27 mm Hg, respectively; p < 0.02) and for systolic (322 +/- 216 versus 431 +/- 237 ml/s; p < 0.01) and mean (116 +/- 106 versus 143 +/- 108 ml/s; p < 0.01) common carotid blood flows. The ease of use of CFI together with its beneficial hemodynamic effects suggests that CFI deserves to be investigated further as a mode of ventilation during CPR. PMID:8912743

  12. Ambient oxygen concentrations during simulated cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Robertshaw, H; McAnulty, G

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen concentrations were measured at 12 points around a cardiopulmonary resuscitation practice mannequin following simulated ventilation with a self-inflating bag, a 'Waters' bag and a ventilator to determine whether increased oxygen concentrations may contribute to the risk of combustion from arcing defibrillator paddles. Ventilation was simulated using either a mask or via a tracheal tube fitted to the airway. The head of the mannequin rested upon a 10-cm-high pillow. Gas sampling took place after 5 min of ventilation with subsequent removal of the ventilatory device and placement on the pillow to the left of the mouth, with the tubing of the device removed to a point 1 m behind the mouth and with the device left connected to the tracheal tube. Gas was sampled after using all devices at oxygen flows of 10l.min-1 and 15l.min-1. Slightly increased oxygen concentrations were noted over the anterior chest after placement of all devices on the pillow at the higher flow. Concentrations of greater than 30% were measured in the left axilla after placement of all devices on the pillow at both flows. No increase in oxygen concentration was seen when the devices were either left connected to the tracheal tube or removed to a distance of 1 m. It would appear that leaving a patient connected to a ventilator poses no increase in risk of fire from ignition of combustible material in an oxygen-enriched atmosphere during defibrillation. Disconnecting any device which continues to discharge oxygen and leaving it on the pillow before defibrillation is dangerous. PMID:9771170

  13. Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Predictors of Survival

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in the setting of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has shown improved outcomes compared with conventional CPR. The aim of this study was to determine factors predictive of survival in extracorporeal CPR (E-CPR). Methods Consecutive 85 adult patients (median age, 59 years; range, 18 to 85 years; 56 males) who underwent E-CPR from May 2005 to December 2012 were evaluated. Results Causes of arrest were cardiogenic in 62 patients (72.9%), septic in 18 patients (21.2%), and hypovolemic in 3 patients (3.5%), while the etiology was not specified in 2 patients (2.4%). The survival rate in patients with septic etiology was significantly poorer compared with those with another etiology (0% vs. 24.6%, p=0.008). Septic etiology (hazard ratio [HR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 5.44; p=0.002) and the interval between arrest and ECLS initiation (HR, 1.05 by 10 minutes increment; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.09; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for mortality. When the predictive value of the E-CPR timing for in-hospital mortality was assessed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method, the greatest accuracy was obtained at a cutoff of 60.5 minutes (area under the curve, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.80; p=0.032) with 47.8% sensitivity and 88.9% specificity. The survival rate was significantly different according to the cutoff of 60.5 minutes (p=0.001). Conclusion These results indicate that efforts should be made to minimize the time between arrest and ECLS application, optimally within 60 minutes. In addition, E-CPR in patients with septic etiology showed grave outcomes, suggesting it to be of questionable benefit in these patients. PMID:27525236

  14. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration.

    PubMed

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-06-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  15. A Review of Carbon Dioxide Monitoring During Adult Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Pantazopoulos, Charalampos; Xanthos, Theodoros; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis; Papalois, Apostolos; Kouskouni, Evangelia; Iacovidou, Nicoletta

    2015-11-01

    Although high quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation is one of the most significant factors related to favourable outcome, its quality depends on many components, such as airway management, compression depth and chest recoil, hands-off time, and early defibrillation. The most common way of controlling the resuscitation efforts is monitoring of end-tidal carbon dioxide. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation suggests this method both for in-hospital and out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. However, despite the abundant human and animal studies supporting the usefulness of end-tidal carbon dioxide, its optimal values during cardiopulmonary resuscitation remain controversial. In this review, the advantages and effectiveness of end-tidal carbon dioxide during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are discussed and specific target values are suggested based on the available literature. PMID:26150002

  16. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome successfully treated with high-volume hemofiltration

    PubMed Central

    Bugedo, Guillermo; Florez, Jorge; Ferres, Marcela; Roessler, Eric; Bruhn, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome has a high mortality rate, and early connection to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been suggested to improve outcomes. We report the case of a patient with demonstrated Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and refractory shock who fulfilled the criteria for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and responded successfully to high volume continuous hemofiltration. The implementation of high volume continuous hemofiltration along with protective ventilation reversed the shock within a few hours and may have prompted recovery. In patients with Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome, a short course of high volume continuous hemofiltration may help differentiate patients who can be treated with conventional intensive care unit management from those who will require more complex therapies, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. PMID:27410413

  17. Three-year follow-up of clinical and inflammation parameters in children monosensitized to mites undergoing sub-lingual immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marcucci, F; Sensi, L; Di Cara, G; Salvatori, S; Bernini, M; Pecora, S; Burastero, S E

    2005-09-01

    Parallel follow-up of clinical and inflammatory markers during sub-lingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is highly beneficial. Twenty-four children (age 4-16) monosensitized to house dust mite were randomized to receive either active or placebo SLIT for 1 yr in a double-blind placebo controlled design (Marcucci et al., Allergy 2003: 58: 657-62). Thereafter, for 2 yr they all received active treatment. Symptom scores for rhinitis, asthma, and drug usage were daily recorded. Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and tryptase in sputum and nasal secretions, serum and nasal mite-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) were recorded before treatment and at 10-12 months intervals. Nasal ECP and nasal tryptase after specific nasal provocation tests were significantly reduced as compared to baseline values (p = 0.0043 and 0.0195, respectively) in the third year of active treatment. None of the other inflammatory parameters was increased. In placebo treated patients all these parameters tended to decrease only after switching to active treatment. Clinical scores did not improve in treated vs. placebo patients in the double-blind placebo-controlled phase of the study. In both cohorts a clinical benefit was observed as intra-group score reduction as compared to baseline. A significant difference was reached in patients treated for 2 yr for rhinitis and asthma (p = 0.0009 and 0.0019, respectively) but not for drug usage and in patients treated for 3 yr for rhinitis, asthma, and drug usage (p = 0.0105, 0.0048, and 0.02, respectively). SLIT in children monosensitized to mites reverted the spontaneous increase in nasal IgE and in local parameters of allergic inflammation. These outcomes were followed by a consolidated clinical improvement in the second and third year of treatment. PMID:16176400

  18. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  10. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  11. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4370 - Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. 870... Roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A roller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a revolving roller mechanism to pump the blood through...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4330 - Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor... Cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass on-line blood gas monitor is a device used in conjunction with a blood gas sensor to measure the level of gases in the...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4360 - Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump... Nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump. (a) Identification. A nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump is a device that uses a method other than revolving rollers to pump the blood...

  19. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  20. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  1. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  2. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  3. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  4. 21 CFR 870.4220 - Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console... Cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine console. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass heart-lung machine... heart-lung machine. The console is designed to interface with the basic units used in a gas...

  5. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  6. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  7. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  8. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and... Devices § 870.4340 Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control is a device used to monitor and/or control the...

  9. 21 CFR 870.4340 - Cardiopulmonary bypass level sensing monitor and/or control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

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  10. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

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  11. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  12. 21 CFR 870.4410 - Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor... Cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass in-line blood gas sensor is a transducer that measures the level of gases in the blood. (b) Classification. Class...

  13. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., or tubing. 870.4210 Section 870.4210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery...

  14. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., or tubing. 870.4210 Section 870.4210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., or tubing. 870.4210 Section 870.4210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., or tubing. 870.4210 Section 870.4210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4210 - Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., or tubing. 870.4210 Section 870.4210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4210 Cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass vascular catheter, cannula, or tubing is a device used in cardiopulmonary surgery...

  18. Bivalirudin as an adjunctive anticoagulant to heparin in the treatment of heparin resistance during cardiopulmonary bypass-assisted cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    McNair, E; Marcoux, J-A; Bally, C; Gamble, J; Thomson, D

    2016-04-01

    Heparin resistance (unresponsiveness to heparin) is characterized by the inability to reach acceptable activated clotting time values following a calculated dose of heparin. Up to 20% of the patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass using unfractionated heparin (UFH) for anticoagulation experience heparin resistance. Although UFH has been the "gold standard" for anticoagulation, it is not without its limitations. It is contraindicated in patients with confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and heparin or protamine allergy. The safety and efficacy of the use of the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin for anticoagulation during cardiac surgery has been reported. However, there have been no reports on the treatment of heparin resistance with bivalirudin during CPB. In this review, we report the favorable outcome of our single-center experience with the alternative use of bivalirudin in the management of anticoagulation of heparin unresponsive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. PMID:25934498

  19. Synchronization and Cardio-pulmonary feedback in Sleep Apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Limei; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hu, Kun; Paydarfar, David; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2004-03-01

    Findings indicate a dynamical coupling between respiratory and cardiac function. However, the nature of this nonlinear interaction remains not well understood. We investigate transient patterns in the cardio-pulmonary interaction under healthy conditions by means of cross-correlation and nonlinear synchronization techniques, and we compare how these patterns change under pathologic conditions such as obstructive sleep apnea --- a periodic cessation of breathing during sleep. We find that during apnea episodes the nonlinear features of cardio-pulmonary interaction change intermittently, and can exhibit variations characterized by different time delays in the phase synchronization between breathing and heartbeat dynamics.

  20. Serum Krebs Von Den Lungen-6 as a Biomarker for Early Detection of Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome in Children Undergoing Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gassas, Adam; Schechter, Tal; Krueger, Joerg; Craig-Barnes, Hayley; Sung, Lillian; Ali, Muhammad; Dell, Sharon; Egeler, R Maarten; Zaidman, Irina; Palaniyar, Nades

    2015-08-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a devastating complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Early identification of high-risk patients is pivotal for success. Lung proteins, KL-6, CCSP, SP-A, and SP-D, measured in the serum may identify high-risk patients for BOS earlier than pulmonary function tests (PFTs) can identify changes or clinical symptoms. Lung proteins were measured in patients' serum at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months after transplantation along with history, clinical examination, and PFTs. Serum levels of lung proteins were also measured in healthy control subjects. The primary endpoint was the development of BOS confirmed by pathological biopsy or National Institutes of Health criteria. Between September 2009 and September 2011, 39 patients were enrolled. Six children developed BOS at a median time of 200 days (range, 94 to 282). KL-6 levels were low in control subjects, at a median of .1 U/mL (range, .1 to 1.5). Pre-SCT and 1-month KL-6 levels were significantly higher in surviving patients who developed BOS (n = 6) versus those who did not (n = 18) (pre-SCT: mean, 32.6 U/mL [IQR, 9.7 to 89.3] versus 5.8 U/mL [IQR, 2.1 to 12.6], P = .03; at 1 month: mean, 52.5 U/mL [IQR, 20.2 to 121.3] versus 11.4 U/mL [IQR, 5.7 to 36.0], P = .04). Three- and 6-month KL-6 levels continued to be higher in BOS group but were not statistically significant. CCSP, SP-A, and SP-D were not predictive. KL-6 measured in the serum of children receiving allo-SCT may identify patients at high risk for the development of BOS. These patients will benefit from intensive surveillance protocol and early therapy before irreversible lung damage. PMID:25963919

  1. Increased risk of infections and infection-related mortality in children undergoing haematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared to conventional anticancer therapy: a multicentre nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Styczynski, J; Czyzewski, K; Wysocki, M; Gryniewicz-Kwiatkowska, O; Kolodziejczyk-Gietka, A; Salamonowicz, M; Hutnik, L; Zajac-Spychala, O; Zaucha-Prazmo, A; Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, L; Siewiera, K; Fraczkiewicz, J; Malas, Z; Tomaszewska, R; Irga-Jaworska, N; Plonowski, M; Ociepa, T; Pierlejewski, F; Gamrot, Z; Urbanek-Dadela, A; Gozdzik, J; Stolpa, W; Dembowska-Baginska, B; Perek, D; Matysiak, M; Wachowiak, J; Kowalczyk, J; Balwierz, W; Kalwak, K; Chybicka, A; Badowska, W; Szczepanski, T; Drozynska, E; Krawczuk-Rybak, M; Urasinski, T; Mlynarski, W; Woszczyk, M; Karolczyk, G; Sobol-Milejska, G; Gil, L

    2016-02-01

    This nationwide multicentre study analysed the epidemiology of bacterial, viral and fungal infections in paediatric haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and paediatric haematology and oncology (PHO) patients over a period of 24 consecutive months, including incidence, hazard risk and outcome of infections as well as occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. During this period, 308 HSCTs were performed and 1768 children were newly diagnosed for malignancy. Compared to PHO, the risk in HSCT patients was significantly higher for all infections (hazard ratio (HR) 2.7), bacterial (HR 1.4), fungal (HR 3.5) and viral (HR 15.7) infections. The risk was higher in allo- than auto-HSCT for bacterial (HR 1.4), fungal (HR 3.2) and viral (HR 17.7) infections. The incidence of resistant bacteria was higher in HSCT than in PHO patients for both G-negative (72.5% vs. 59.2%) and G-positive (41.4% vs. 20.5%) strains. Cumulative incidence of bacterial, fungal and viral infections in HSCT patients was 33.9, 22.8 and 38.3%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of viral infections in allo-HSCT was 28.0% for cytomegalovirus, 18.5% for BK virus, 15.5% for Epstein-Barr virus, 9.5% for adenovirus, 2.6% for varicella zoster virus, 0.9% for influenza, 0.9% for human herpesvirus 6 and 0.3% for hepatitis B virus. Survival rates from infections were lower in HSCT than in PHO patients in bacterial (96.0 vs. 98.2%), fungal (75.5 vs. 94.6%) and most viral infections. In conclusion, the risk of any infections and the occurrence of resistant bacterial strains in allo-HSCT patients were higher than in auto-HSCT and PHO patients, while the outcome of infections was better in the PHO setting. PMID:26493843

  2. A National Survey of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Tomasetti, James A.

    1983-01-01

    Responses to a national survey by regional directors of the American Heart Association, American National Red Cross, and continuing education programs for the deaf indicated that little is done to train the deaf in cardiopulmonary resuscitation and that communication barriers and inadequate training resources are major reasons. (Author)

  3. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills by Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fossel, Michael; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A study of preclinical medical students' cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills showed students had a very recent CPR course had a significantly lower failure rate than those with courses one or two years previously. The most frequent errors were in chest compression rate and inability to adhere to the single-rescuer compression-to-ventilation…

  4. Retention of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills in Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objective: For effective bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), retention of CPR skills after the training is central. The objective of this study was to find out how much of the CPR skills a group of Nigerian secondary school students would retain six weeks after their first exposure to the conventional CPR training. Materials…

  5. Efficacy of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Smith L.; Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Gilmore, Stevan M.

    2001-01-01

    End tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO 2) has been previously shown to be an effective non-invasive tool for estimating cardiac output during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Animal models have shown that this diagnostic adjunct can be used as a predictor of survival when EtCO 2 values are maintained above 25% of prearrest values.

  6. Transfusion-free arterial switch operation in a 1.7-kg premature neonate using a new miniature cardiopulmonary bypass system.

    PubMed

    Huebler, Michael; Redlin, Matthias; Boettcher, Wolfgang; Koster, Andreas; Berger, Felix; Peters, Björn; Hetzer, Roland

    2008-01-01

    In cardiac surgery, the potentially detrimental effects of transfusions on patient outcome are increasingly appreciated. Therefore, at our institution there are continuing efforts to modify our surgical, perfusion, and blood management strategies with the aim of transfusion-free cardiac surgery even in neonates and small children. Stringent improvement of these strategies, particularly the downsizing of the cardiopulmonary bypass system, have now enabled a transfusion-free arterial switch operation in a 1700-gram prematurely born neonate. PMID:18598328

  7. Effect of Pressurized Cement Insertion on Cardiopulmonary Parameters during Cemented Hip Hemiarthroplasty: A Randomized Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Woo Suk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Oh, Sang Hoon; Park, Sub Ri; Park, Byoung Hark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the cardiopulmonary effects of pressurized cement insertion in elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized prospective study on elderly patients undergoing cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Patients were divided into pressurized and non-pressurized groups based on the pressure application during cement insertion. We measured mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), arterial blood gases and serotonin concentration in blood. These variables were measured before bone cement insertion, and 3 and 5 minute after insertion. They were also measured immediately and 15 minutes after reduction. Results In cemented hip hemiarthroplasty, there were no significant change in MAP (P=0.92), SBP (P=0.85), DBP (P=0.98), HR (P=0.97) and serotonin concentration over time. There were no statistically significant difference between the two groups in MAP, SBP, DBP, HR, PO2, PaCO2, SaO2 and serotonin concentration, though three minutes after cement insertion, both groups showed decreases in SBP, DBP and MBP. Conclusion The pressurization method in cemented hip hemiarthroplasty was not found to be related with development of bone cement syndromes in elderly patients.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Samir, A.; Gandreti, N.; Madhere, M.; Khan, A.; Brown, M.; Loomba, V.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Propofol has been suggested as a useful adjunct to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of its potential protective effect on the heart mediated by a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation at clinically relevant concentrations. In view of these potentially protective properties, which modulate many of the deleterious mechanism of inflammation attributable to reperfusion injury and CPB, we sought to determine whether starting a low dose of propofol infusion at the beginning of CPB would decrease inflammation as measured by pro-inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 24 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The study group received propofol at rate of 120 mcg/kg/min immediately after starting CPB and was maintained throughout the surgery and for the following 6 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU). The control group received propofol dose of 30-50 mcg/kg/min which was started at the time of chest closure with wires and continued for the next 6 hours in the ICU. Interleukins (IL) -6, -8 and -10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were assayed. Result: The most significant difference was in the level of IL-6 which had a P value of less than 0.06. Starting a low dose propofol early during the CPB was not associated with significant hemodynamic instability in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that propofol may be suitable as an anti-inflammatory adjunct for patients undergoing CABG. PMID:26440235

  9. Atrial Fibrillation, Neurocognitive Decline and Gene Expression After Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Rahul S.; Sabe, Ashraf A.; Elmadhun, Nassrene Y.; Ramlawi, Basel; Sellke, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline are common complications after cardiopulmonary bypass. By utilizing genomic microarrays we investigate whether gene expression is associated with postoperative atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline. METHODS Twenty one cardiac surgery patients were prospectively matched and underwent neurocognitive assessments pre-operatively and four days postoperatively. The whole blood collected in the pre-cardiopulmonary bypass, 6 hours after-cardiopulmonary bypass, and on the 4th postoperative day was hybridized to Affymetrix Gene Chip U133 Plus 2.0 Microarrays. Gene expression in patients who developed postoperative atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline (n=6; POAF+NCD) was compared with gene expression in patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation and normal cognitive function (n=5; POAF+NORM) and patients with sinus rhythm and normal cognitive function (n=10; SR+NORM). Regulated genes were identified using JMP Genomics 4.0 with a false discovery rate of 0.05 and fold change of >1.5 or <-1.5. RESULTS Eleven patients developed postoperative atrial fibrillation. Six of these also developed neurocognitive decline. Of the 12 patients with sinus rhythm, only 2 developed neurocognitive decline. POAF+NCD patients had unique regulation of 17 named genes preoperatively, 60 named genes six hours after cardiopulmonary bypass, and 34 named genes four days postoperatively (P<0.05) compared with normal patients. Pathway analysis demonstrated that these genes are involved in cell death, inflammation, cardiac remodeling and nervous system function. CONCLUSION Patients who developed postoperative atrial fibrillation and neurocognitive decline after cardiopulmonary bypass may have differential genomic responses compared to normal patients and patients with only postoperative atrial fibrillation, suggesting common pathophysiology for these conditions. Further exploration of these genes may provide insight into the

  10. Comparison of end-tidal carbon dioxide levels with cardiopulmonary resuscitation success presented to emergency department with cardiopulmonary arrest.

    PubMed Central

    Akinci, Emine; Ramadan, Hayri; Yuzbasioglu, Yucel; Coskun, Figen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To measure end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PetCO2) in preset interval in order to evaluate the efficiency of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) performed on patients in cardiopulmonary arrest, evaluate the validity of PetCO2 in predicting the mortality and finally assess the PetCO2 levels of the patients in cardiopulmonary arrest based on the initial presenting rhythm. Methods: This prospective study was conducted at the Ankara Training and Research Hospital on patients who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. Standard ACLS (Advanced Cardiac Life Support) protocols were performed. Patients were categorized in two groups based on their rhythms as Ventricular Fibrillation and Asystole. Patients’ PetCO2 values were recorded. Results: PetCO2 levels of the Return of Spontaneous Circulation (ROSC) group in the 5th, 10th, 15th and 20th minutes were significantly higher compared to the exitus group (p<0.001). In distinguishing ROSC and exitus, PetCO2 measurements within 5-20 minute intervals showed highest performance on the 20th and lowest on the 5th minutes. Conclusion: PetCO2 values are higher in the ROSC group. During the CPR, the most reliable time for ROSC estimation according to PetCO2 values is 20th minute. None of the patients who had PetCO2 levels less than 14 mmHg survived. PMID:24639823

  11. Classification and discrimination of pediatric patients undergoing open heart surgery with and without methylprednisolone treatment by cytomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocsi, Jozsef; Mittag, Anja; Pierzchalski, Arkadiusz; Osmancik, Pavel; Dähnert, Ingo; Tárnok, Attila

    2011-02-01

    Introduction: Methylprednisolone (MP) is frequently preoperatively administered in children undergoing open heart surgery. The aim of this medication is to inhibit overshooting immune responses. Earlier studies demonstrated cellular and humoral immunological changes in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgeries with and without MP administration. Here in a retrospective study we investigated the modulation of the cellular immune response by MP. The aim was to identify suitable parameters characterizing MP effects by cluster analysis. Methods: Blood samples were analysed from two aged matched groups with surgical correction of septum defects. Group without MP treatment consisted of 10 patients; MP was administered on 21 patients (median dose: 11mg/kg) before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). EDTA anticoagulated blood was obtained 24 h preoperatively, after anesthesia, at CPB begin and end (CPB2), 4h, 24h, 48h after surgery, at discharge and at out-patient followup (8.2; 3.3-12.2 month after surgery; median and IQR). Flow cytometry showed the biggest MP relevant changes at CPB2 and 4h postoperatively. They were used for clustering analysis. Classification was made by discriminant analysis and cluster analysis by means of Genes@work software. Results & conclusion: 146 parameters were obtained from analysis. Cross-validation revealed several parameters being able to discriminate between MP groups and to identify immune modulation. MP administration resulted in a delayed activation of monocytes, increased ratio of neutrophils, reduced T-lymphocytes counts. Cluster analysis demonstrated that classification of patients is possible based on the identified cytomics parameters. Further investigation of these parameters might help to understand the MP effects in pediatric open heart surgery.

  12. Severe tracheobronchial compression in a patient with Turner's syndrome undergoing repair of a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm: anesthesia perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Christopher C C; Stewart, Jeremie; Dennie, Carole; Malas, Tarek; Boodhwani, Munir

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of severe tracheobronchial compression from a complex aorto-subclavian aneurysm in a patient with Turner's syndrome undergoing open surgical repair. Significant airway compression is a challenging situation and requires careful preoperative preparation, maintenance of spontaneous breathing when possible, and consideration of having an alternative source of oxygenation and circulation established prior to induction of general anesthesia. Cardiopulmonary monitoring is essential for safe general anesthesia and diagnosis of unexpected intraoperative events. PMID:25281630

  13. Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest due to penetrating cardiac injury treated by percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in the emergency room: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, Yoshihiko; Kano, Hitoshi; Yama, Naoya; Nara, Satoshi; Hase, Mamoru; Asai, Yasufumi

    2007-01-01

    Penetrating cardiac injury tends to generally be repaired without cardiopulmonary bypass in the operating room. We herein report the case of penetrating cardiac injury repaired using percutaneous cardiopulmonary support in an emergency room. A 57-year-old man attempted suicide by stabbing himself in the left anterior chest with a knife. Although the patient suffered cardiopulmonary arrest for 7 min in the ambulance, spontaneous circulation was restored following pericardiotomy through emergency left thoracotomy in the emergency room. To prevent coronary artery injury and control the massive bleeding, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was instituted without systemic heparinization and the cardiac injury was repaired in the emergency room. The patient was then transferred to another hospital on day 46 for further rehabilitation. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support might be helpful for treating critical patients in an emergency room, even in the case of trauma patients. PMID:17342366

  14. Pleural effusions in children undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Talwar, Sachin; Agarwala, Sandeep; Mittal, Chander Mohan; Choudhary, Shiv Kumar; Airan, Balram

    2010-01-01

    Persistent pleural effusions are a source of significant morbidity and mortality following surgery in congenital heart disease. In this review, we discuss the etiology, pathophysiology, and management of this common complication. PMID:20814477

  15. Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) study: a protocol for an international multicentre prospective cohort study of cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to major non-cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pearse, Rupert M; Shulman, Mark A; Abbott, Tom E F; Torres, Elizabeth; Croal, Bernard L; Granton, John T; Thorpe, Kevin E; Grocott, Michael P W; Farrington, Catherine; Myles, Paul S; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preoperative functional capacity is considered an important risk factor for cardiovascular and other complications of major non-cardiac surgery. Nonetheless, the usual approach for estimating preoperative functional capacity, namely doctors’ subjective assessment, may not accurately predict postoperative morbidity or mortality. 3 possible alternatives are cardiopulmonary exercise testing; the Duke Activity Status Index, a standardised questionnaire for estimating functional capacity; and the serum concentration of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP), a biomarker for heart failure and cardiac ischaemia. Methods and analysis The Measurement of Exercise Tolerance before Surgery (METS) Study is a multicentre prospective cohort study of patients undergoing major elective non-cardiac surgery at 25 participating study sites in Australia, Canada, New Zealand and the UK. We aim to recruit 1723 participants. Prior to surgery, participants undergo symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer, complete the Duke Activity Status Index questionnaire, undergo blood sampling to measure serum NT pro-BNP concentration and have their functional capacity subjectively assessed by their responsible doctors. Participants are followed for 1 year after surgery to assess vital status, postoperative complications and general health utilities. The primary outcome is all-cause death or non-fatal myocardial infarction within 30 days after surgery, and the secondary outcome is all-cause death within 1 year after surgery. Both receiver-operating-characteristic curve methods and risk reclassification table methods will be used to compare the prognostic accuracy of preoperative subjective assessment, peak oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing, Duke Activity Status Index scores and serum NT pro-BNP concentration. Ethics and dissemination The METS Study has received research ethics board approval at all sites

  16. Climate Change. A Global Threat to Cardiopulmonary Health

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, George D.; Balmes, John R.; Pinkerton, Kent E.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health. We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies. PMID:24400619

  17. Glycemic control and outcome related to cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Thiessen, Steven; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-06-01

    Perioperative hyperglycemia, aggravated by cardiopulmonary bypass, is associated with adverse outcome in adult and pediatric patients. Whereas hyperglycemia was originally perceived as an adaptive response to surgical stress, it is now clear that glycemic control is a strategy to reduce adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. The optimal blood glucose target, whether or not glycemic control should be initiated already intraoperatively, and whether or not perioperative glucose administration affects the impact of glycemic control on ischemia-reperfusion damage remain open questions. Hypoglycemia, the risk of which is increased with glycemic control, is also associated with adverse outcomes. However, it remains controversial whether brief episodes of hypoglycemia, rapidly corrected during glycemic control, have adverse effects on outcome. This review gives an overview of the currently available literature on glycemic control during and after cardiac surgery and focuses on the indicated open questions about this intervention for this specific patient population. PMID:26060029

  18. Climate change. A global threat to cardiopulmonary health.

    PubMed

    Rice, Mary B; Thurston, George D; Balmes, John R; Pinkerton, Kent E

    2014-03-01

    Recent changes in the global climate system have resulted in excess mortality and morbidity, particularly among susceptible individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary disease. These weather patterns are projected to continue and intensify as a result of rising CO2 levels, according to the most recent projections by climate scientists. In this Pulmonary Perspective, motivated by the American Thoracic Society Committees on Environmental Health Policy and International Health, we review the global human health consequences of projected changes in climate for which there is a high level of confidence and scientific evidence of health effects, with a focus on cardiopulmonary health. We discuss how many of the climate-related health effects will disproportionally affect people from economically disadvantaged parts of the world, who contribute relatively little to CO2 emissions. Last, we discuss the financial implications of climate change solutions from a public health perspective and argue for a harmonized approach to clean air and climate change policies. PMID:24400619

  19. Role of cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors in the postural regulation of renin

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.A.; Marco, E.J.; Oliveri, C.; Otero, F.J.; Degrossi, O.; Moledo, L.I.; Julius, S.

    1987-04-01

    To change the stretch on cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors, large shifts of blood in the capacity space were elicited by tilting and by exerting positive lower body pressure in the tilted position. Twelve volunteers underwent invasive hemodynamic studies and in 10 other subjects cardiac size was determined by radionuclide cardiography. In all 22 subjects tilting caused the expected increase of renin, which was abolished by lower body compression. Decompression caused renin to increase again. Right atrial pressure in invasive studies and end-systolic and end-diastolic counts in noninvasive studies showed a significant and strong negative correlation with renin and norepinephrine levels. Thus, the degree of stretch of the cardiopulmonary mechanoreceptors is a major determinant of reflex regulation of renin release in humans.

  20. Technique of Automated Control Over Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh; Kiseleva, E. Yu; Kutsov, M. S.; Zhdanov, D. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes a technique of automated control over cardiopulmonary resuscitation procedures on the basis of acoustic data. The research findings have allowed determining the primary important characteristics of acoustic signals (sounds of blood circulation in the carotid artery and respiratory sounds) and proposing a method to control the performance of resuscitation procedures. This method can be implemented as a part of specialized hardware systems.

  1. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li; Lu, Yuan-Qiang

    2015-07-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them. PMID:26380744

  2. Strategy analysis of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training in the community

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin; Ma, Li

    2015-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a crucial therapy for sudden cardiac arrest. This appreciation produced immense efforts by professional organizations to train laypeople for CPR skills. However, the rate of CPR training is low and varies widely across communities. Several strategies are used in order to improve the rate of CPR training and are performed in some advanced countries. The Chinese CPR training in communities could gain enlightenment from them. PMID:26380744

  3. The effects of space flight on the cardiopulmonary system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Gaffney, F. Andrew; Garshnek, Victoria

    1989-01-01

    Alterations of the human cardiopulmonary system in space flight are examined, including fluid shifts, orthostatic intolerance, changes in cardiac dynamics and electromechanics, and changes in pulmonary function and exercise capacity. Consideration is given to lower body negative pressure data from Skylab experiments and studies on the Space Shuttle. Also, echocardiography, cardiac dysrhythmias during spaceflight, and the role of neural mechanisms in circulatory control after spaceflight are discussed.

  4. Blood gas strategies and management during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee Ann

    2005-01-01

    Blood gas management during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass may be corrected by pH stat or alpha stat strategy. The pH stat philosophy is to maintain the blood pH constant at any temperature. Carbon dioxide must be introduced to the oxygenator in order to maintain the pH and pCO2 during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Conversely, during alpha stat blood gas management pH is maintained according to 37 degrees C despite the patient temperature. Alpha stat management preserves intracellular pH and autoregulation of cerebral vasculature by following the natural shift of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. In-line blood gas analysis is a practical tool in assessing adequate blood gas management, because this technology provides immediate detection for modification of air/oxygen/carbon dioxide parameters. Results from several studies favor the pH stat strategy during neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass. This strategy increases tissue oxygenation and cerebral blood flow while cooling. Data also suggest that pH stat management results in better outcomes with shorter ventilation times and intensive care unit stays after pediatric cardiac surgery. PMID:16322734

  5. Management of Anesthesia under Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Support in an Infant with Severe Subglottic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Soeda, Rie; Taniguchi, Fumika; Sawada, Maiko; Hamaoka, Saeko; Shibasaki, Masayuki; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Hashimoto, Satoru; Sawa, Teiji; Nakayama, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant who weighed 3.57 kg with severe subglottic stenosis underwent tracheostomy under extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support. First, we set up extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support to the infant and then successfully intubated an endotracheal tube with a 2.5 mm inner diameter before tracheostomy by otolaryngologists. Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary support is an alternative for maintenance of oxygenation in difficult airway management in infants. PMID:26989518

  6. Cardiopulmonary Safety of Propofol Versus Midazolam/Meperidine Sedation for Colonoscopy: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blinded Study

    PubMed Central

    Gurbulak, Bunyamin; Uzman, Sinan; Kabul Gurbulak, Esin; Gul, Yasar Gokhan; Toptas, Mehmet; Baltali, Sevim; Anil Savas, Osman

    2014-01-01

    Background: Different levels of pharmacological sedation ranging from minimal to general anesthesia are often used to increase patient tolerance for a successful colonoscopy. However, sedation increases the risk of respiratory depression and cardiovascular complications during colonoscopy. Objectives: We aimed to compare the propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation methods for colonoscopy procedures with respect to cardiopulmonary safety, procedure-related times, and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study, in which 124 consecutive patients undergoing elective outpatient diagnostic colonoscopies were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation groups (n: 62, m/f ratio: 26/36, mean age: 46 ± 15 for the propofol group; n: 62, m/f ratio: 28/34, mean age: 49 ± 15 for the midazolam/meperidine group) by computer-generated randomization. The frequency of cardiopulmonary events (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia), procedure-related times (duration of colonoscopy, time to cecal intubation, time to ileal intubation, awakening time, and time to hospital discharge) and patients’ evaluation results (pain assessment, quality of sedation, and recollection of procedure) were compared between the groups. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, the frequency of hypotension, hypoxemia or bradycardia, cecal and ileal intubation times, and the duration of colonoscopy. The logistic regression analysis indicated that the development of cardiopulmonary events was not associated with the sedative agent used or the characteristics of the patients. The time required for the patient to be fully awake and the time to hospital discharge was significantly longer in the propofol group (11 ± 8 and 37 ± 11 minutes, respectively) than the midazolam/meperidine group (8 ± 6 and 29 ± 12 minutes

  7. Asexual metazoans undergo senescence.

    PubMed

    Martínez, D E; Levinton, J S

    1992-10-15

    August Weismann popularized the notion that metazoans have a potentially immortal germ line separated from a mortal soma, and evolutionary biologists regard senescence as an evolved characteristic of the soma. Many have claimed that metazoans that do not sequester their germ line have no clear distinction between germ line and soma, and consequently they should lack senescence. Here we present experimental evidence that senescence occurs in the asexually reproducing marine oligochaete Paranais litoralis. We also analyze data reported in Sonneborn's classical study and show that the rhabdocoel Stenostomum incaudatum undergoes senescence. We argue that the stability of commitment to somatic function and the fact that asexual metazoans form their germ cells from undifferentiated stem cells are sufficient to allow for senescence of the asexual metazoan's soma. Thus the evolution of somatic differentiation, and not germ-line sequestration, would be the necessary condition for the evolution of senescence. PMID:11607334

  8. Cardiovascular devices; reclassification of nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass; effective date of requirement for premarket approval for nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pumps for temporary ventricular support. Final order.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final order to reclassify nonroller-type cardiopulmonary bypass blood pump (NRP) devices for cardiopulmonary and circulatory bypass, a preamendments class III device, into class II (special controls), and to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) for NRP devices for temporary ventricular support. FDA is also revising the title and identification of the regulation for NRP devices in this order. PMID:26054096

  9. Clinical applications of retrograde autologous priming in cardiopulmonary bypass in pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fu, G.W.; Nie, Y.F.; Jiao, Z.Y.; Zhao, W.Z.

    2016-01-01

    Retrograde autologous priming (RAP) has been routinely applied in cardiac pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, this technique is performed in pediatric patients weighing more than 20 kg, and research about its application in pediatric patients weighing less than 20 kg is still scarce. This study explored the clinical application of RAP in CPB in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Sixty pediatric patients scheduled for cardiac surgery were randomly divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group was treated with CPB using RAP, while the control group was treated with conventional CPB (priming with suspended red blood cells, plasma and albumin). The hematocrit (Hct) and lactate (Lac) levels at different perioperative time-points, mechanical ventilation time, hospitalization duration, and intraoperative and postoperative blood usage were recorded. Results showed that Hct levels at 15 min after CPB beginning (T2) and at CPB end (T3), and number of intraoperative blood transfusions were significantly lower in the experimental group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in CPB time, aortic blocking time, T2-Lac value or T3-Lac between the two groups (P>0.05). Postoperatively, there were no significant differences in Hct (2 h after surgery), mechanical ventilation time, intensive care unit time, or postoperative blood transfusion between two groups (P>0.05). RAP can effectively reduce the hemodilution when using less or not using any banked blood, while meeting the intraoperative perfusion conditions, and decreasing the perioperative blood transfusion volume in pediatric patients. PMID:27119427

  10. Repeated vital capacity manoeuvres after cardiopulmonary bypass: effects on lung function in a pig model.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, L; Wicky, S; Tydén, H; Hedenstierna, G

    1998-05-01

    Respiratory failure following cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a major complication after cardiac surgery. A vital capacity inflation of the lungs, performed before the end of CPB, may improve gas exchange, but the necessity to repeat it is unclear. Therefore, we studied 18 pigs undergoing hypothermic CPB. A vital capacity manoeuvre (VCM) was performed in two groups and consisted of inflating the lungs for 15 s to 40 cm H2O at the end of CPB. In one group, VCM was repeated every hour. The third group served as controls. Atelectasis was studied by CT scan. Intrapulmonary shunt increased after bypass in the controls and improved spontaneously 3 h later without returning to baseline values. From 3 to 6 h after CPB, there was no more improvement and more than 10% atelectasis remained at 6 h. In contrast, the two groups treated before termination of CPB with VCM showed only minor atelectasis and no abnormal changes in gas exchange directly after bypass or later. We conclude that the protective effect of VCM remained for 6 h after bypass, and there was no extra benefit on gas exchange by repeating the VCM. PMID:9691879

  11. The efficacy of post-cardiopulmonary bypass dosing of vancomycin in cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Raikhelkar, Jayashree K; Reich, David L; Schure, Rebecca; Varghese, Robin; Bodian, Carol; Scurlock, Corey

    2010-12-01

    Objective. Vancomycin is administered widely to patients undergoing cardiac surgery as prophylaxis against resistant Gram-positive sternal wound and venous donor site infections. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of a standardized prebypass and postbypass dosing regimen of vancomycin by assessing plasma concentrations in the immediate postoperative period and postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs). Design. Retrospective cohort study. Setting . Cardiothoracic surgical intensive care unit in a tertiary care academic medical center. Methods. A total of 34 consecutive adult patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed retrospectively. Each patient received 1000 mg of vancomycin administered over 1 hour around the time of induction of anesthesia and 500 mg after discontinuation of CPB. Trough vancomycin levels were sampled in the intensive care unit 12 hours after the last dose given in the operating room. Along with patient characteristics, postoperative readmission rates and SSIs were recorded for 1 year after surgery. Results. The nadir serum vancomycin level before the next dose was 9.3 ± 4.5 µg/mL (mean ± standard deviation). One superficial SSI was noted. Readmission rate for SSIs was 2.94%. Conclusion . Vancomycin concentrations in the serum were greater than the minimum inhibitory concentration for most staphylococci ranging from 4 to 19.3 µg/mL producing acceptable therapeutic serum concentrations and low rate of infectious complications. Thus postbypass dosing is acceptable in vancomycin cardiac surgical prophylaxis. PMID:20841364

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects of using carbon dioxide for laparoscopic surgery in cats.

    PubMed

    Beazley, Shannon G; Cosford, Kevin; Duke-Novakovski, Tanya

    2011-09-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of capnoperitoneum were investigated in 8 spontaneously breathing, young adult female cats undergoing laparoscopic pancreatic biopsy (intra-abdominal pressure 12 mmHg). Cats were premedicated with acepromazine and hydromorphone, induced with ketamine and diazepam, and maintained using an end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.13% in 100% oxygen. Direct systemic arterial blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO(2)), and isoflurane were recorded every 5 min before insufflation (baseline), during insufflation of the abdomen with CO(2), and following desufflation. Arterial blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 10 and 30 min of insufflation, and 5 min after desufflation for blood gases. The significant findings (P < 0.05) were as follows: insufflation produced an increase in heart rate (5 to 15 min and at 30 min), mean arterial blood pressure (25 to 30 min), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (10 to 30 min). After desufflation, respiratory rate increased for 15 min. The changes were within physiologically acceptable limits in these healthy, anesthetized cats despite no artificial maintenance of minute ventilation. PMID:22379196

  13. Early outcomes of coronary artery bypass with and without cardiopulmonary bypass in octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Nagpal, AD; Bhatnagar, G; Cutrara, CA; Ahmed, SM; McKenzie, N; Quantz, M; Kiaii, B; Menkis, A; Fox, S; Stitt, L; Novick, RJ

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND Off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) surgery has been successfully used in diverse patient populations and has been postulated to be safer than conventional coronary artery bypass (CCAB) surgery in some high-risk patients, including the elderly. OBJECTIVE To compare the safety of OPCAB surgery versus CCAB surgery in the octogenarian population of two large southwestern Ontario cardiac surgical units. RESULTS Two hundred thirty-six consecutive octogenarians underwent primary isolated coronary artery bypass sugery from November 2000 to March 2005. Patients undergoing OPCAB surgery tended to have higher Parsonnet scores, while patients undergoing CCAB surgery had a greater number of emergent operations. The Canadian Cardiovascular Network predicted that mortality risk was similar in both groups. In-hospital mortality was similar between groups, as was postoperative myocardial infarction and new onset of renal dysfunction. However, in the OPCAB group, there was a decreased incidence of postoperative neurological dysfunction (2.3% in the OPCAB group versus 10.5% in the CCAB group, P=0.01), in particular cerebrovascular accidents (1.5% in the OPCAB group versus 7.6% in the CCAB group, P=0.05), and a decreased incidence of prolonged intubation (5.3% in the OPCAB group versus 13.3% in the CCAB group, P=0.04). Multivariable analysis found that cardiopulmonary bypass had no significant impact on mortality or length of stay. CONCLUSIONS In octogenarian patients, OPCAB surgery is as safe as CCAB surgery in terms of mortality and major morbidity. Furthermore, a significant reduction in neurological dysfunction and prolonged intubation was seen in the OPCAB group compared with the CCAB group. PMID:16957802

  14. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  15. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  16. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  17. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  18. 21 CFR 870.4270 - Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... blood filter. 870.4270 Section 870.4270 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 870.4270 Cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass cardiotomy suction line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange...

  19. Autoperfused working heart-lung preparation versus hypothermic cardiopulmonary preservation for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Adachi, H; Fraser, C D; Kontos, G J; Borkon, A M; Hutchins, G M; Galloway, E; Brawn, J; Reitz, B A; Baumgartner, W A

    1987-01-01

    The effects of preserving the heart and lungs with an autoperfused working heart-lung preparation or simple hypothermia via cardiopulmonary bypass were studied in 18 dairy calves that had combined heart-lung transplantation. Group 1 (n = 6) served as the control group in which animals were cooled with cardiopulmonary bypass and immediately had allotransplantations. In group 2 (n = 6), cardiopulmonary function was maintained in the autoperfusion circuit for 4 hours, followed by transplantation. In group 3 (n = 6), the organs were harvested after cooling by cardiopulmonary bypass, stored in cold (4 degrees C) saline solution for 4 hours, and then transplanted. Cardiopulmonary function was compared between the three groups for 6 hours after implantation. Cardiac function was determined by the ratio of the end-systolic pressure to end-systolic dimension. Pulmonary function was evaluated by the measurement of extravascular lung water, arterial oxygenation on 100% inspired oxygen static lung compliance, and histologic lung injury score. All measurements in groups 2 and 3 were similar to those of the control group at 6 hours after implantation. One may use either the hypothermic cardiopulmonary preservation method after cardiopulmonary bypass or the autoperfused working heart-lung preparation for distant organ procurement and expect adequate cardiopulmonary function after transplantation. PMID:3119800

  20. Dysregulated arginine metabolism and cardiopulmonary dysfunction in patients with thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Morris, Claudia R; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S; Wood, John; Porter, John B; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-min-walk-test, Borg Dyspnoea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanisms of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ≥ 2·5 m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including LDH, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ≥ 2·5 m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in β-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  1. Cardiopulmonary effects of high-impulse noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Dodd, K T; Mundie, T G; Lagutchik, M S; Morris, J R

    1997-10-01

    In high-energy impulse noise environments, the biomechanical coupling process between the external forces and the pathophysiology of cardiopulmonary injury is not well understood. A 12-in-diameter compressed air-driven shock tube with reflector plate was used to induce three levels of pulmonary contusion injury in a large animal model. Twenty-one anesthetized sheep were exposed to the various levels of impulse noise generated by the shock tube, with six additional sheep serving as a control group. Pathologic evaluations, performed 3 hours after exposure, showed pulmonary contusion ranging from minor petechial changes on the surface of the lung parenchyma to diffuse ecchymoses affecting as much as 60% of the lung. The gross pathologic observations of injury produced by exposure to the impulse noise produced by the shock tube were similar to those reported for blunt impact trauma or exposure to chemical or grain-dust explosions. The extent of lung injury (lung injury index) was quantitatively assessed. A semilogarithmic relationship between the lung injury index and the measured peak pressure was demonstrated. A significant linear correlation was demonstrated between lung injury index and lung weight-to-body weight ratio. Significant cardiopulmonary changes were also observed as a result of exposure to high-impulse noise. Although in most cases the degree of change was related to the severity of the injury, significant cardiopulmonary function changes were also observed in the absence of significant grossly observable pulmonary injury. Cardiac injury was indicated by decreased cardiac output and hypotension at all levels of injury and might be the result of myocardial contusion or air emboli. Pulmonary injury was demonstrated by respiratory acidosis, increases in lung resistance, and decreases in lung compliance and lung volume. Arterial PO2 appeared to be the most sensitive parameter of injury and was decreased for all measurement intervals for all exposure groups

  2. Dysregulated Arginine Metabolism and Cardiopulmonary Dysfunction in Patients with Thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Claudia R.; Kim, Hae-Young; Klings, Elizabeth S.; Wood, John; Porter, John B.; Trachtenberg, Felicia; Sweeters, Nancy; Olivieri, Nancy F; Kwiatkowski, Janet L; Virzi, Lisa; Hassell, Kathryn; Taher, Ali; Neufeld, Ellis J; Thompson, Alexis A.; Larkin, Sandra; Suh, Jung H.; Vichinsky, Elliott P; Kuypers, Frans A.

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) commonly develops in thalassaemia syndromes, but is poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the cardiopulmonary and biological profile of patients with thalassaemia at risk for PH. A case-control study of thalassaemia patients at high versus low PH-risk was performed. A single cross-sectional measurement for variables reflecting cardiopulmonary status and biological pathophysiology were obtained, including Doppler-echocardiography, 6-minute-walk-test, Borg Dyspnea Score, New York Heart Association functional class, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), chest-computerized tomography, pulmonary function testing and laboratory analyses targeting mechanism of coagulation, inflammation, haemolysis, adhesion and the arginine-nitric oxide pathway. Twenty-seven thalassaemia patients were evaluated, 14 with an elevated tricuspid-regurgitant-jet-velocity (TRV) ≥2.5m/s. Patients with increased TRV had a higher frequency of splenectomy, and significantly larger right atrial size, left atrial volume and left septal-wall thickness on echocardiography and/or MRI, with elevated biomarkers of abnormal coagulation, lactate dehydrogenase levels and arginase concentration, and lower arginine-bioavailability compared to low-risk patients. Arginase concentration correlated significantly to several echocardiography/MRI parameters of cardiovascular function in addition to global-arginine-bioavailability and biomarkers of haemolytic rate, including lactate dehydrogenase, haemoglobin and bilirubin. Thalassaemia patients with a TRV ≥2.5m/s have additional echocardiography and cardiac-MRI parameters suggestive of right and left-sided cardiac dysfunction. In addition, low arginine bioavailability may contribute to cardiopulmonary dysfunction in β-thalassaemia. PMID:25907665

  3. Subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction in stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexander; Otto, James; Whittle, John; Stephens, Robert C M; Martin, Daniel S; Prowle, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective Reduced exercise capacity is well documented in end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), preceded by changes in cardiac morphology in CKD stage 3. However, it is unknown whether subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction occurs in CKD stage 3 independently of heart failure. Methods Prospective observational cross-sectional study of exercise capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in 993 preoperative patients. Primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Anaerobic threshold (AT), oxygen pulse and exercise-evoked measures of autonomic function were analysed, controlling for CKD stage 3, age, gender, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Results CKD stage 3 was present in 93/993 (9.97%) patients. Diabetes mellitus (RR 2.49 (95% CI 1.59 to 3.89); p<0.001), and hypertension (RR 3.20 (95% CI 2.04 to 5.03); p<0.001)) were more common in CKD stage 3. Cardiac failure (RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.30 to 2.24); p=0.70) and ischaemic heart disease (RR 1.40 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.02); p=0.09) were not more common in CKD stage 3. Patients with CKD stage 3 had lower predicted VO2peak (mean difference: 6% (95% CI 1% to 11%); p=0.02), lower peak heart rate (mean difference:9 bpm (95% CI 3 to 14); p=0.03)), lower AT (mean difference: 1.1 mL/min/kg (95% CI 0.4 to 1.7); p<0.001) and impaired heart rate recovery (mean difference: 4 bpm (95% CI 1 to 7); p<0.001)). Conclusions Subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction in CKD stage 3 is common. This study suggests that maladaptive cardiovascular/autonomic dysfunction may be established in CKD stage 3, preceding pathophysiology reported in end-stage CKD. PMID:27127638

  4. Regional blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Luce, J M; Rizk, N A; Niskanen, R A

    1984-10-01

    We studied regional blood flow (QR) using radiolabeled microspheres in 12 anesthetized dogs during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A circumferential vest and abdominal binder were used with a mechanical ventilator to deliver 30 simultaneous chest compressions and ventilations per minute. When this device was modified to increase aortic pressure (Pao) during compression and the aortic-to-right atrial pressure gradient (Pao-Pra) during relaxation, cerebral and myocardial QR increased significantly. These findings suggest that QR during CPR can be improved by augmenting perfusion-pressure gradients across the cerebral and coronary circulations. PMID:6488828

  5. A method of automatic control procedures cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureev, A. Sh.; Zhdanov, D. S.; Kiseleva, E. Yu.; Kutsov, M. S.; Trifonov, A. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The study is to present the results of works on creation of methods of automatic control procedures of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A method of automatic control procedure of CPR by evaluating the acoustic data of the dynamics of blood flow in the bifurcation of carotid arteries and the dynamics of air flow in a trachea according to the current guidelines for CPR is presented. Evaluation of the patient is carried out by analyzing the respiratory noise and blood flow in the interspaces between the chest compressions and artificial pulmonary ventilation. The device operation algorithm of automatic control procedures of CPR and its block diagram has been developed.

  6. Case report on effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a pregnant woman

    PubMed Central

    Sharan, Radhe; Madan, Anita; Makkar, Vega; Attri, Joginder Pal

    2016-01-01

    The management of cardiac arrest in pregnancy is an important task for the emergency physicians. Some reasons for cardiac arrest are reversible and should be recognized and managed promptly. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation follows general advanced cardiac life support guidelines with several modifications for pregnant women, taking into account the lives of both mother and fetus. Here, we present the case of 23-year-old pregnant patient who came to Guru Nanak Dev Hospital, Amritsar; in shock, had a cardiac arrest, successfully resuscitated in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), delivered by emergency cesarean section and was discharged from ICU on 9th day in healthy state. PMID:26957705

  7. Cerebral blood flow and autoregulation during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, P.; Messeter, K.; Ryding, E.; Nordstroem, L.S.; Stahl, E.

    1987-04-01

    Mean hemispheric cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied following intravenous or intraarterial administration of xenon-133, in 10 men admitted for coronary artery bypass grafting. Repeated CBF measurements were performed to evaluate autoregulation before, during, and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). During CPB mean CBF remained unchanged compared with the pre-CPB level, without evidence of cerebral hyperemia or impairment of autoregulation. A marked increase in CBF occurred after CPB and was followed by a time-dependent reduction toward the pre-CPB level. The data support the alpha-stat regulation theory but cannot explain the cerebral vasodilation observed after CPB.

  8. Predictors of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462

  9. Cardiopulmonary Circuit Models for Predicting Injury to the Heart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Richard; Wing, Sarah; Bassingthwaighte, James; Neal, Maxwell

    2004-11-01

    Circuit models have been used extensively in physiology to describe cardiopulmonary function. Such models are being used in the DARPA Virtual Soldier (VS) Project* to predict the response to injury or physiological stress. The most complex model consists of systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a four-chamber heart sub-model. This model also includes baroreceptor feedback, airway mechanics, gas exchange, and pleural pressure influence on the circulation. As part of the VS Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been evaluating various cardiopulmonary circuit models for predicting the effects of injury to the heart. We describe, from a physicist's perspective, the concept of building circuit models, discuss both unstressed and stressed models, and show how the stressed models are used to predict effects of specific wounds. *This work was supported by a grant from the DARPA, executed by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command/TATRC Cooperative Agreement, Contract # W81XWH-04-2-0012. The submitted manuscript has been authored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed for the U.S. DOE by UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a non-exclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purpose.

  10. Gravity and the Evolution of Cardiopulmonary Morphology in Snakes

    PubMed Central

    Lillywhite, Harvey B.; Albert, James S.; Sheehy, Coleman M.; Seymour, Roger S.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological investigations of snakes have established the importance of heart position and pulmonary structure in contexts of gravity effects on blood circulation. Here we investigate morphological correlates of cardiopulmonary physiology in contexts related to ecology, behavior and evolution. We analyze data for heart position and length of vascular lung in 154 species of snakes that exhibit a broad range of characteristic behaviors and habitat associations. We construct a composite phylogeny for these species, and we codify gravitational stress according to species habitat and behavior. We use conventional regression and phylogenetically independent contrasts to evaluate whether trait diversity is correlated with gravitational habitat related to evolutionary transitions within the composite tree topology. We demonstrate that snake species living in arboreal habitats, or which express strongly climbing behaviors, possess relatively short blood columns between the heart and the head, as well as relatively short vascular lungs, compared to terrestrial species. Aquatic species, which experience little or no gravity stress in water, show the reverse – significantly longer heart–head distance and longer vascular lungs. These phylogenetic differences complement the results of physiological studies and are reflected in multiple habitat transitions during the evolutionary histories of these snake lineages, providing strong evidence that heart–to–head distance and length of vascular lung are co–adaptive cardiopulmonary features of snakes. PMID:22079804

  11. Cardiopulmonary laboratory biomarkers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Natalie R; Dietz, Brett W; Liang, Jackson J

    2016-01-01

    Dyspnea is a common chief complaint in the emergency department, with over 4 million visits annually in the US. Establishing the correct diagnosis can be challenging, because the subjective sensation of dyspnea can result from a wide array of underlying pathology, including pulmonary, cardiac, neurologic, psychiatric, toxic, and metabolic disorders. Further, the presence of dyspnea is linked with increased mortality in a variety of conditions, and misdiagnosis of the cause of dyspnea leads to poor patient-level outcomes. In combination with the history and physical, efficient, and focused use of laboratory studies, the various cardiopulmonary biomarkers can be useful in establishing the correct diagnosis and guiding treatment decisions in a timely manner. Use and interpretation of such tests must be guided by the clinical context, as well as an understanding of the current evidence supporting their use. This review discusses current standards and research regarding the use of established and emerging cardiopulmonary laboratory markers in the evaluation of acute dyspnea, focusing on recent evidence assessing the diagnostic and prognostic utility of various tests. These markers include brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone (NT-proBNP), mid-regional peptides proatrial NP and proadrenomedullin, cardiac troponins, D-dimer, soluble ST2, and galectin 3, and included is a discussion on the use of arterial and venous blood gases. PMID:27307771

  12. Effects of resistance exercise on cardiopulmonary factors in sedentary individuals

    PubMed Central

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Thayon, Methiya; Bushong, Wanwisa; Jaikla, Nussamol; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of resistance exercise on cardiopulmonary functions in young sedentary subjects. [Subjects] Forty-two young and healthy subjects with a sedentary lifestyle were included in this study. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and experimental. The control group (n=21) received health education and continued with normal activities of daily living. The experimental group (n=21) underwent resistance training, health education, and continued with normal activities of daily living. The resistance exercise program consisted of 3 postural exercises: chest press, dumbbell pullover, and flat-bench dumbbell fly. The subjects received this intervention 3 times/week for 8 weeks. [Results] The baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. The 6-minute-walk test score, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansions were significantly improved post-intervention in the experimental group and between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Cardiopulmonary functions in young sedentary subjects were significantly improved with the 8-week resistance exercise program. PMID:26957760

  13. Effects of inosine on reperfusion injury after cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective Inosine, a break-down product of adenosine has been recently shown to exert inodilatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Furthermore inosine might be a key substrate of pharmacological post-conditioning. In the present pre-clinical study, we investigated the effects of inosine on cardiac function during reperfusion in an experimental model of cardioplegic arrest and extracorporal circulation. Methods Twelve anesthetized dogs underwent hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. After 60 minutes of hypothermic cardiac arrest, reperfusion was started after application of either saline vehicle (control, n = 6), or inosine (100 mg/kg, n = 6). Left ventricular end-systolic pressure volume relationship (ESPVR) was measured by a combined pressure-volume-conductance catheter at baseline and after 60 minutes of reperfusion. Left anterior descendent coronary blood flow (CBF), endothelium-dependent vasodilatation to acetylcholine (ACh) and endothelium-independent vasodilatation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were also determined. Results The administration of inosine led to a significantly better recovery (given as percent of baseline) of ESPVR 90 ± 9% vs. 46 ± 6%, p < 0.05. CBF and was also significantly higher in the inosine group (56 ± 8 vs. 23 ± 4, ml/min, p < 0.05). While the vasodilatatory response to SNP was similar in both groups, ACh resulted in a significantly higher increase in CBF (58 ± 6% vs. 25 ± 5%, p < 0.05) in the inosine group. Conclusions Application of inosine improves myocardial and endothelial function after cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic cardiac arrest. PMID:21059208

  14. Effects of resistance exercise on cardiopulmonary factors in sedentary individuals.

    PubMed

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Thayon, Methiya; Bushong, Wanwisa; Jaikla, Nussamol; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of resistance exercise on cardiopulmonary functions in young sedentary subjects. [Subjects] Forty-two young and healthy subjects with a sedentary lifestyle were included in this study. [Methods] The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: control and experimental. The control group (n=21) received health education and continued with normal activities of daily living. The experimental group (n=21) underwent resistance training, health education, and continued with normal activities of daily living. The resistance exercise program consisted of 3 postural exercises: chest press, dumbbell pullover, and flat-bench dumbbell fly. The subjects received this intervention 3 times/week for 8 weeks. [Results] The baseline characteristics were comparable between the 2 groups. The 6-minute-walk test score, peak expiratory flow, forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, maximal voluntary ventilation, and chest expansions were significantly improved post-intervention in the experimental group and between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Cardiopulmonary functions in young sedentary subjects were significantly improved with the 8-week resistance exercise program. PMID:26957760

  15. Age-related changes in chest geometry during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Dean, J M; Koehler, R C; Schleien, C L; Michael, J R; Chantarojanasiri, T; Rogers, M C; Traystman, R J

    1987-06-01

    We studied alterations of chest geometry during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in anesthetized immature swine. Pulsatile force was applied to the sternum in increments to determine the effects of increasing compression on chest geometry and intrathoracic vascular pressures. In 2-wk- and 1-mo-old piglets, permanent changes in chest shape developed due to incomplete recoil of the chest along the anteroposterior axis, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were generated. In 3-mo-old animals, permanent chest deformity did not develop, and large intrathoracic vascular pressures were not produced. We propose a theoretical model of the chest as an elliptic cylinder. Pulsatile displacement along the minor axis of an ellipse produces a greater decrease in cross-sectional area than displacement of a circular cross section. As thoracic cross section became less circular due to deformity, greater changes in thoracic volume, and hence pressure, were produced. With extreme deformity at high force, pulsatile displacement became limited, diminishing pressure generation. We conclude that changes in chest geometry are important in producing intrathoracic intravascular pressure during conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation in piglets. PMID:3610916

  16. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis: the role of invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    PubMed Central

    Kradin, Richard L.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Josanna M.; Channick, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) characterized by pulmonary capillary proliferation and pseudoinvasion of collagenous septal structures. PCH is often accompanied by veno-occlusive changes and pulmonary hypertensive arterial remodeling. The clinical and pathological diagnosis of PCH can be subtle and easily missed. Most reported cases of PCH have been associated with resting PAH. We report the cases of 3 patients who initially presented with exertional dyspnea with normal to mildly elevated resting pulmonary arterial pressures and marked intrapulmonary shunting. In all 3 patients, invasive cardiopulmonary exercise testing was suggestive of pulmonary vascular disease. Owing to abnormalities on invasive exercise testing, lung biopsies were performed; these were diagnostic of PCH, and the patients were referred for lung transplantation. We describe unique features of these 3 cases—including novel pathological findings and the presence of intrapulmonary shunting in all 3 patients—and we discuss the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the evaluation of PCH. PMID:26401260

  17. Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice

    PubMed Central

    Matte, Gregory S.; Connor, Kevin R.; Liu, Hua; DiNardo, James A.; Faraoni, David; Pigula, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Gaseous microemboli (GME) are known to be delivered to the arterial circulation of patients during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). An increased number of GME delivered during adult CPB has been associated with brain injury and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The GME load in children exposed to CPB and its consequences are not well characterized. We sought to establish a baseline of arterial limb emboli counts during the conduct of CPB for our population of patients requiring surgery for congenital heart disease. We used the emboli detection and counting (EDAC) device to measure GME activity in 103 consecutive patients for which an EDAC machine was available. Emboli counts for GME <40 μ and >40 μ were quantified and indexed to CPB time (minutes) and body surface area (BSA) to account for the variation in patient size and CPB times. Patients of all sizes had a similar embolic burden when indexed to bypass time and BSA. Furthermore, patients of all sizes saw a three-fold increase in the <40 μ embolic burden and a five-fold increase in the >40 μ embolic burden when regular air was noted in the venous line. The use of kinetic venous-assisted drainage did not significantly increase arterial limb GME. Efforts for early identification and mitigation of venous line air are warranted to minimize GME transmission to congenital cardiac surgery patients during CPB. PMID:27134302

  18. Arterial Limb Microemboli during Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Observations from a Congenital Cardiac Surgery Practice.

    PubMed

    Matte, Gregory S; Connor, Kevin R; Liu, Hua; DiNardo, James A; Faraoni, David; Pigula, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Gaseous microemboli (GME) are known to be delivered to the arterial circulation of patients during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). An increased number of GME delivered during adult CPB has been associated with brain injury and postoperative cognitive dysfunction. The GME load in children exposed to CPB and its consequences are not well characterized. We sought to establish a baseline of arterial limb emboli counts during the conduct of CPB for our population of patients requiring surgery for congenital heart disease. We used the emboli detection and counting (EDAC) device to measure GME activity in 103 consecutive patients for which an EDAC machine was available. Emboli counts for GME <40 μ and >40 μ were quantified and indexed to CPB time (minutes) and body surface area (BSA) to account for the variation in patient size and CPB times. Patients of all sizes had a similar embolic burden when indexed to bypass time and BSA. Furthermore, patients of all sizes saw a three-fold increase in the <40 μ embolic burden and a five-fold increase in the >40 μ embolic burden when regular air was noted in the venous line. The use of kinetic venous-assisted drainage did not significantly increase arterial limb GME. Efforts for early identification and mitigation of venous line air are warranted to minimize GME transmission to congenital cardiac surgery patients during CPB. PMID:27134302

  19. Successful extended hypothermic cardiopulmonary preservation for heart-lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bando, K; Teramoto, S; Tago, M; Teraoka, H; Seno, S; Senoo, Y

    1989-07-01

    The inability to obtain sufficiently extended hypothermic organ preservation is a major restriction on clinical heart-lung transplantation. We used core cooling, nonrecirculating retrograde heart perfusion, and lung immersion with liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase in an attempt to provide effective 12-hour cardiopulmonary preservation. Donor dogs supported by cardiopulmonary bypass were rapidly cooled to 15 degrees C with cardioplegic arrest, and heterotopic heart and unilateral left lung transplantations were performed. In control dogs (n = 7), hearts and lungs, harvested after core cooling and cardioplegic arrest, were transplanted with a total mean ischemic time of 88 +/- 5 minutes. In group II (n = 7), heart-lung blocks were similarly excised but preserved at 4 degrees C for 12 hours (756 +/- 30 minutes) and then transplanted. During preservation, the lungs were immersed in hyperosmolar extracellular solution. For the heart, retrograde coronary sinus perfusion was performed with intracellular solution containing perfluorochemicals at a temperature of 4 degrees C and a rate of 30 ml/hr for 12 hours. In group III (n = 7), donor organs were similarly excised and preserved for 12 hours (726 +/- 39 minutes), except that liposomal recombinant human superoxide dismutase was administered during harvest, preservation, and reperfusion. Myocardial function, assessed by the ratio of end-systolic pressure to end-systolic dimension, after the 12-hour preservation period in both experimental groups was similar to that of the control group 4 and 6 hours after transplantation. The mean arterial oxygen capacity of the transplanted left lung during ventilation with an inspired oxygen concentration of 40% was also similar in each group. In contrast, the 12-hour preservation of pulmonary function assessed by pulmonary vascular resistance, the accumulation of extravascular lung water, and histologic evidence of alveolar wall injury, interstitial edema, and

  20. Cardiopulmonary effects of intramuscular xylazine-ketamine in calves.

    PubMed Central

    Rings, D M; Muir, W W

    1982-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary effects of an intramuscular xylazine (0.088 mg/kg)-ketamine (4.4 mg/kg) drug combination were evaluated in calves. Heart rate, central venous and mean pulmonary artery blood pressures, and cardiac output did not change after drug administration. Mean arterial blood pressure decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) 15 minutes after drug administration. Respiratory frequency increased significantly (P less than 0.05) whereas arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) decreased significantly (P less than 0.05) after drug administration. The duration of lateral recumbency was 55.7 +/- 10.4 minutes. Immediate or long-term adverse effects were not observed. PMID:7172103

  1. [Emphysematous Pyelonephritis with Cardio-Pulmonary Arrest : A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Yamamichi, Gaku; Tsutahara, Koichi; Kuribayashi, Sohei; Kawamura, Masataka; Nakano, Kosuke; Kishimoto, Nozomu; Tanigawa, Go; Matsushima, Asako; Fujimi, Satoshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    A 40-year-old woman withuntreated type II diabetes mellitus was discovered withcardiopulmonary arrest in her room. On admission, she had ventricular fibrillation. After cardiopulmonary resuscitation, her own pulse restarted. The plasma glucose was 722 mg/dl and venous PH was 6.704. Abdominal computed tomography revealed gas within the parenchyma of the left kidney. We diagnosed her with emphysematous pyelonephritis and conducted emergency nephrectomy. Urinary and blood cultures were positive for Escherichia coli. Antibiotic therapy was initiated with doripenem and she was restrictively treated with intravenous insulin to control her plasma glucose. On the 8th day of hospital stay, she underwent resection of the small intestine because of necrosis. After multidisciplinary therapy, she was discharged with complete resolution of the infection. PMID:27624108

  2. Extracorporeal Life Support for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation for Adults: Evolving Evidence.

    PubMed

    Kehrl, Thompson; Kaczorowski, David J

    2016-01-01

    For years, conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been the cornerstone of treatment for cardiac arrest. However, the survival of patients that suffer a cardiac arrest is unsatisfactory despite the use of CPR. The use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) to aid in the resuscitation of patients in cardiac arrest has the potential benefit of immediate restoration of circulation. Previously, several case reports and small series have suggested that ECLS might provide benefit for patients with refractory cardiac arrest. Several recent larger series, including a number of prospective studies, have emerged that provide further evidence for the utility of emergent institution of ECLS as an adjunct to conventional CPR in the management of cardiac arrest. These studies, which are reviewed here, have provided useful insight into the role of ECLS in cardiac arrest and have set the stage for randomized controlled trials. Ongoing ECLS trials, logistical issues, and future direction of ECLS are reviewed as well. PMID:26919179

  3. Vacuum-assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass: advantages and disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho Filho, Élio Barreto; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; da Costa, Loredana Nilkenes Gomes; Antunes, Nilson

    2014-01-01

    Systematic review of vacuum assisted drainage in cardiopulmonary bypass, demonstrating its advantages and disadvantages, by case reports and evidence about its effects on microcirculation. We conducted a systematic search on the period 1997-2012, in the databases PubMed, Medline, Lilacs and SciELO. Of the 70 selected articles, 26 were included in the review. Although the vacuum assisted drainage has significant potential for complications and requires appropriate technology and professionalism, prevailed in literature reviewed the concept that vacuum assisted drainage contributed in reducing the rate of transfusions, hemodilutions, better operative field, no significant increase in hemolysis, reduced complications surgical, use of lower prime and of smaller diameter cannulas. PMID:25140478

  4. Cardiopulmonary arrest induced by anaphylactoid reaction with contrast media.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Iwao; Hori, Shingo; Funabiki, Tomohiro; Sekine, Kazuhiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Fujishima, Seitaro; Aoki, Katsunori; Kuribayashi, Sachio; Aikawa, Naoki

    2002-05-01

    Anaphylactoid reactions to iodinated contrast media can cause life-threatening events and even death. A 44-year-old woman presented with cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) immediately following the administration of nonionic iodinated contrast media for an intravenous pyelography. Her cardiac rhythm during CPA was asystole. She was successfully resuscitated by the radiologists supported by paged emergency physicians using the prompt intravenous administration of 1 mg of epinephrine. Neither laryngeal edema nor bronchial spasm was observed during the course of treatment, and she was discharged on the 4th day without any complications. The patient did not have a history of allergy, but had experienced a myocardial infarction and aortitis. She had undergone 11 angiographies and had been taking a beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Planned emergency medical backup is advisable to ensure resuscitation in the event of an anaphylactoid reaction to the use of contrast media in-hospital settings. PMID:12009227

  5. Myhre syndrome: Clinical features and restrictive cardiopulmonary complications.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lois J; Grange, Dorothy K; Delaney, Jeffrey W; Yetman, Anji T; Hammel, James M; Sanmann, Jennifer N; Perry, Deborah A; Schaefer, G Bradley; Olney, Ann Haskins

    2015-12-01

    Myhre syndrome, a connective tissue disorder characterized by deafness, restricted joint movement, compact body habitus, and distinctive craniofacial and skeletal features, is caused by heterozygous mutations in SMAD4. Cardiac manifestations reported to date have included patent ductus arteriosus, septal defects, aortic coarctation and pericarditis. We present five previously unreported patients with Myhre syndrome. Despite varied clinical phenotypes all had significant cardiac and/or pulmonary pathology and abnormal wound healing. Included herein is the first report of cardiac transplantation in patients with Myhre syndrome. A progressive and markedly abnormal fibroproliferative response to surgical intervention is a newly delineated complication that occurred in all patients and contributes to our understanding of the natural history of this disorder. We recommend routine cardiopulmonary surveillance for patients with Myhre syndrome. Surgical intervention should be approached with extreme caution and with as little invasion as possible as the propensity to develop fibrosis/scar tissue is dramatic and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. PMID:26420300

  6. Interdisciplinary Simulation Using the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Simulator (CPBS)©

    PubMed Central

    Mendel, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Interdisciplinary education offerings between students of cardiovascular science and nurse anesthesia are uncommon despite the collaborative nature of these disciplines. The dual purpose of this article is to describe a method for interdisciplinary simulation and to report survey responses provided by participants. An interdisciplinary simulation session using concurrent use of the cardiopulmonary bypass simulator and the emergency care simulator is described. Interdisciplinary perceptions before and after the event were surveyed using the revised Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Statistically significant differences between baseline and final survey responses were observed in the total score and within the areas of competency and perception of cooperation. Emerging simulation technologies and novel combinations of existing devices can facilitate meaningful interdisciplinary educational opportunities for health science students. PMID:26357799

  7. Neonatal Cardio-pulmonary Arrest: Emergency Catheterization of Umbilical Vein

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Bosco A.; Blatz, Susan; Kraftcheck, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    In an emergency, the physician responsible for neonatal care must be skilled in umbilical catheterization. Several drugs can be given through an endotracheal tube, but some require intravenous administration. The umbilical vein is a better route of administration than peripheral veins because it is easily located and can be entered readily. It allows immediate access to the central circulation, enhancing drug distribution. The authors outline the procedure in a step-by-step description. This pictorial article can be used as a handy reference by physicians needing to administer fluids and drugs during cardio-pulmonary arrest in neonates. Imagesp1136-ap1136-bp1136-cp1136-dp1137-ap1137-bp1137-cp1137-dp1137-ep1138-ap1138-bp1138-cp1138-dp1139-ap1139-bp1139-cp1139-dp1140-ap1140-bp1140-cp1140-d PMID:21233982

  8. Interdisciplinary Simulation Using the Cardiopulmonary Bypass Simulator (CPBS)?

    PubMed

    Mendel, Shaun

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary education offerings between students of cardiovascular science and nurse anesthesia are uncommon despite the collaborative nature of these disciplines. The dual purpose of this article is to describe a method for interdisciplinary simulation and to report survey responses provided by participants. An interdisciplinary simulation session using concurrent use of the cardiopulmonary bypass simulator and the emergency care simulator is described. Interdisciplinary perceptions before and after the event were surveyed using the revised Interdisciplinary Education Perception Scale. Statistically significant differences between baseline and final survey responses were observed in the total score and within the areas of competency and perception of cooperation. Emerging simulation technologies and novel combinations of existing devices can facilitate meaningful interdisciplinary educational opportunities for health science students. PMID:26357799

  9. Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Headley, Clea; Campbell, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined primary school teachers' knowledge of anxiety and excessive anxiety symptoms in children. Three hundred and fifteen primary school teachers completed a questionnaire exploring their definitions of anxiety and the indications they associated with excessive anxiety in primary school children. Results showed that teachers had…

  10. Coronary blood flow during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in swine

    SciTech Connect

    Bellamy, R.F.; DeGuzman, L.R.; Pedersen, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Recent papers have raised doubt as to the magnitude of coronary blood flow during closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We will describe experiments that concern the methods of coronary flow measurement during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Nine anesthetized swine were instrumented to allow simultaneous measurements of coronary blood flow by both electromagnetic cuff flow probes and by the radiomicrosphere technique. Cardiac arrest was caused by electrical fibrillation and closed-chest massage was performed by a Thumper (Dixie Medical Inc., Houston). The chest was compressed transversely at a rate of 66 strokes/min. Compression occupied one-half of the massage cycle. Three different Thumper piston strokes were studied: 1.5, 2, and 2.5 inches. Mean aortic pressure and total systemic blood flow measured by the radiomicrosphere technique increased as Thumper piston stroke was lengthened (mean +/- SD): 1.5 inch stroke, 23 +/- 4 mm Hg, 525 +/- 195 ml/min; 2 inch stroke, 33 +/- 5 mm Hg, 692 +/- 202 ml/min; 2.5 inch stroke, 40 +/- 6 mm Hg, 817 +/- 321 ml/min. Both methods of coronary flow measurement (electromagnetic (EMF) and radiomicrosphere (RMS)) gave similar results in technically successful preparations (data expressed as percent prearrest flow mean +/- 1 SD): 1.5 inch stroke, EMF 12 +/- 5%, RMS 16 +/- 5%; 2 inch stroke, EMF 30 +/- 6%, RMS 26 +/- 11%; 2.5 inch stroke, EMF 50 +/- 12%, RMS 40 +/- 20%. The phasic coronary flow signal during closed-chest compression indicated that all perfusion occurred during the relaxation phase of the massage cycle. We concluded that coronary blood flow is demonstrable during closed-chest massage, but that the magnitude is unlikely to be more than a fraction of normal.

  11. Gastroenterology case report of mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrusquía, José; Pérez-Martínez, Isabel; Gómez de la Torre, Ricardo; Fernández-Almira, María Luisa; de Francisco, Ruth; Rodrigo, Luis; Riestra, Sabino

    2015-01-01

    Mesalazine is a 5-aminosalicylic acid derivative that has been widely used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Accumulating evidence indicates that mesalazine has a very low rate of adverse drug reactions and is well tolerated by patients. However, a few cases of pulmonary and cardiac disease related to mesalazine have been reported in the past, though infrequently, preventing clinicians from diagnosing the conditions early. We describe the case of a 32-year-old man with ulcerative colitis who was admitted with a two-month history of persistent fever following mesalazine treatment initiated 14 mo earlier. At the time of admission, mesalazine dose was increased from 1.5 to 3.0 g/d, and antibiotic therapy was started with no improvement. Three weeks after admission, the patient developed dyspnea, non-productive cough, and chest pain. Severe eosinophilia was detected in laboratory tests, and a computed tomography scan revealed interstitial infiltrates in both lungs, as well as a large pericardial effusion. The bronchoalveolar lavage reported a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.5, and an increased eosinophil count. Transbronchial biopsy examination showed a severe eosinophilic infiltrate of the lung tissue. Mesalazine-induced cardiopulmonary hypersensitivity was suspected after excluding other possible etiologies. Consequently, mesalazine treatment was suspended, and corticosteroid therapy was initiated, resulting in resolution of symptoms and radiologic abnormalities. We conclude that mesalazine-induced pulmonary and cardiac hypersensitivity should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of unexplained cardiopulmonary symptoms and radiographic abnormalities in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25852295

  12. Assessing Late Cardiopulmonary Function in Patients with Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Using Exercise Cardiopulmonary Function Test and Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Chun-An; Chiu, Hsin-Hui; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Wang, Jou-Kou; Lin, Ming-Tai; Chiu, Shuenn-Nan; Lu, Chun-Wei; Huang, Shu-Chien; Wu, Mei-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) usually experience progressive right ventricle (RV) dysfunction due to pulmonary regurgitation (PR). This could further worsen the cardiopulmonary function. This study aimed to compare the changes in patient exercise cardiopulmonary test and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and consider the implication of these changes. Methods Our study examined repaired TOF patients who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) to obtain maximal (peak oxygen consumption, peak VO2) and submaximal parameters (oxygen uptake efficiency plateau, oxygen uptake efficiency plateau (OUEP), and ratio of minute ventilation to carbon dioxide production, VE/VCO2 slope). Additionally, the hemodynamic status was assessed by using cardiac magnetic resonance. Criteria for exclusion included TOF patients with pulmonary atresia, atrioventricular septal defect, or absence of pulmonary valve syndrome. Results We enrolled 158 patients whose mean age at repair was 7.8 ± 9.1 years (range 0.1-49.2 years) and the mean patient age at CPET was 29.5 ± 12.2 years (range 7.0-57.0 years). Severe PR (PR fraction ≥ 40%) in 53 patients, moderate in 55, and mild (PR fraction < 20%) in 50 patients were noted. The mean RV end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVi) was 113 ± 35 ml/m2, with 7 patients observed to have a RVEDVi > 163 ml/m2. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 63 ± 8%, left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi) was 65 ± 12 ml/m2, and LVESVi was 25 ± 14 ml/m2. CPET revealed significantly decreased peak VO2 (68.5 ± 14.4% of predicted), and fair OUEP (90.3 ± 14.1% of predicted) and VE/VCO2 slope (27.1 ± 5.3). PR fraction and age at repair were negatively correlated with maximal and submaximal exercise indicators (peak VO2 and OUEP). Left ventricular (LV) function and size were positively correlated with peak VO2 and OUEP. Conclusions The results of CPET showed that patients with repaired TOF had a low

  13. Urine Output During Cardiopulmonary Bypass Predicts Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Song, Young; Kim, Dong Wook; Kwak, Young Lan; Kim, Beom Seok; Joo, Hyung Min; Ju, Jin Woo; Yoo, Young Chul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Urine output is closely associated with renal function and has been used as a diagnostic criterion for acute kidney injury (AKI). However, urine output during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has never been identified as a predictor of postoperative AKI. Considering altered renal homeostasis during CPB, we made a comprehensible approach to CPB urine output and evaluated its predictability for AKI. Patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with the use of CPB, between January 2009 and December 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥0.3 mg/dL in the first postoperative 48 hours. We extrapolated a possible optimal amount of urine output from the plot of probability of AKI development according to CPB urine output. After separating patients by the predicted optimal value, we performed stepwise logistic regression analyses to find potential predictors of AKI in both subgroups. A total of 696 patients were analyzed. The amount of CPB urine output had a biphasic association with the incidence of AKI using 4 mL/kg/h as a boundary value. In a multivariate logistic regression to find predictors for AKI in entire patients, CPB urine output did not show statistical significance. After separating patients into subgroups with CPB urine output below and over 4 mL/kg/h, it was identified as an independent predictor for AKI with the odds ratio of 0.43 (confidence interval 0.30–0.61) and 1.11 (confidence interval 1.02–1.20), respectively. The amount of urine output during CPB with careful analysis may serve as a simple and feasible method to predict the development of AKI after cardiac surgery at an early time point. PMID:27258505

  14. Improved red blood cell survival after cardiac operations with administration of urea during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, D.; Bake, B.; William-Olsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma hemoglobin and red blood cell survival (half-life of /sup 51/Cr) was studied in 48 patients undergoing single valve replacement or coronary artery bypass graft. Urea or placebo was administered during cardiopulmonary bypass in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner to test the potential effect on mechanical hemolysis. The mean plasma hemoglobin level at the end of extracorporeal circulation was significantly lower in the urea-treated groups (coronary artery bypass 342 mg/L; valve replacement 364 mg/L) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 635 mg/L, valve replacement 518 mg/L. The half-life of /sup 51/Cr was significantly longer in the urea-treated patients (coronary artery bypass 18 days; valve replacement 16 days) than in the control groups (coronary artery bypass 12.4 days; valve replacement 12.7 days) but still below the normal reference value (29 +/- 4 days). The plasma hemoglobin returned to near normal values (50 mg/L) the day after operation (day 1) and remained low with no differences between control and urea-treated groups. The total blood hemoglobin was followed for 2 weeks after operation and showed significantly less anemia in the urea-treated group. The lowest mean blood hemoglobin level was noted between days 5 and 9-114 (coronary artery bypass) and 107 (valve replacement) gm/L in the urea-treated patients compared to 92.3 gm/L in the control subjects. The reduction in the severity of the anemia led to less transfusion in the urea-treated patients (approximately 0.5 unit/patient) than in the control subjects (approximately 1 unit/patient) between days 3 and 14.

  15. Cardiopulmonary bypass with modified fluid gelatin and heparin-coated circuits.

    PubMed

    Jansen, P G; te Velthuis, H; Wildevuur, W R; Huybregts, M A; Bulder, E R; van der Spoel, H I; Sturk, A; Eijsman, L; Wildevuur, C R

    1996-01-01

    We have assessed the efficacy of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) using normal colloid oncotic pressure (COP) in a randomized, controlled study of 20 patients undergoing elective coronary artery surgery using heparin-coated circuits. For CPB, we used either crystalloid priming 1650 ml (n = 10) or colloid priming 1650 ml (2.4% modified fluid gelatin, n = 10). While COP did not change during bypass in the colloid group, a decline was observed in the crystalloid group (P = 0.005). By the end of bypass, the decrease in COP compared with baseline (delta COP) was 8.5 (S.D. 1.1) mm Hg in the crystalloid group compared with 1.5 (2.1) mm Hg in the colloid group (P = 0.0001). delta COP correlated positively with fluid balance during bypass (r2 = 0.41, P = 0.002). Similar increments in complement factors C3b/c and C4b/c, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and neutrophil elastase, but not endotoxins, were found in both groups as indicators of a systemic inflammatory response. A clinical performance score composed of fluid balance, postoperative duration of intubation and the difference between rectal temperature and skin temperature was more favourable in patients treated with colloid priming (P = 0.03). Median postoperative hospital stay was 7 (range 5-16) days in the crystalloid group compared with 5 (4-8) days in the colloid group (P = 0.016). Regression analysis indicated that CPB time, fluid balance during operation and postoperative PO2/FlO2 ratio were independent factors that predicted postoperative hospital stay. From these preliminary results we conclude that in the absence of endotoxaemia, use of a normal COP during CPB with modified fluid gelatin in heparin-coated circuits resulted in an improved postoperative course an a reduction in hospital stay. PMID:8672354

  16. Development of our TAVI protocol for emergency initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cleland, A; Bainbridge, D; Jones, P M; Chu, M W A; Kiaii, B

    2015-01-01

    All transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) cases are done in our hybrid operating room with a multidisciplinary team and a primed cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit on pump stand-by. We decided that we would resuscitate all patients undergoing a TAVI procedure via a transfemoral, transapical or transaortic approach, if required. Perfusion plays an essential role in providing rescue CPB for patient salvage when catastrophic complications occur. To coordinate the multidisciplinary effort, we have developed a written safety checklist that assigns a pre-determined role for team members for the rapid sequence initiation of CPB. Although many TAVI patients are not candidates for conventional aortic valve replacements, we feel strongly that rescue CPB should be offered to all TAVI patients to allow the correction of potentially reversible complications. This protocol is included in every surgical "Time Out" involving a TAVI procedure (Figure 1). The protocol has led to rapid and safe CPB initiation in less than five minutes of cardiac arrest. It has also led to a coordinated and consistent team, with pre-specified roles and improved communication. We discuss a case series of four TAVI patients who required emergent use of CPB. The first few cases did not have a written protocol. The experience from these cases led to the development of our protocol. We identified a lack of coordination, wasted movements, unnecessary delayed resuscitation and overall chaos, each of which was targeted for correction with the protocol. We will discuss the merits of the protocol in two recent TAVI cases which required emergent CPB. PMID:25143415

  17. Hemodynamic performance and histamine levels after desmopressin acetate administration following cardiopulmonary bypass in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Jahr, J S; Marquez, J; Cottington, E; Cook, D R

    1991-04-01

    Sixteen patients undergoing cardiac surgical procedures were prospectively randomized into two groups to study the hemodynamic and histamine-releasing effects of desmopressin acetate (DDAVP) administration after cardiopulmonary bypass. Ten minutes after administration of protamine for reversal of heparin, DDAVP, 0.3 microgram/kg, was infused intravenously over 5 seconds in group 1, and the same dose of DDAVP was administered over 5 minutes as an infusion in group 2. There were no statistical differences between baseline values in groups 1 and 2. DDAVP decreased mean arterial pressure by 30% and 25% in groups 1 and 2 (69 +/- 5 mm Hg to 52 +/- 8 mm Hg, P less than 0.005, and 79 +/- 20 mm Hg to 55 +/- 8 mm Hg, P less than 0.005), respectively. The hypotension in both groups was related to decreases in systemic vascular resistance (1,616 +/- 262 dyne.s.cm-5 to 1,073 +/- 199 dyne.s.cm-5, P less than 0.005, and 1,850 +/- 541 dyne.s.cm-5 to 1,144 +/- 214 dyne.s.cm-5, P less than 0.005). Phenylephrine infusion successfully treated the DDAVP-induced hypotension in all patients. Arterial histamine levels at 3 and 5 minutes after infusion of DDAVP did not differ significantly from baseline values. It is concluded that DDAVP at 0.3 microgram/kg is a potent vasodilator when administered intravenously and that histamine is not involved in producing its hypotensive effects. PMID:1863724

  18. An Up-To-Date View of Cardiopulmonary Resusciation Instruction in Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkelman, Jack L.

    1977-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation instruction can and should be included as part of first aid and emergency care courses in colleges and universities. Close working relationships with voluntary health organizations that sponsor such courses should be established. (MJB)

  19. Reversibility of cardiopulmonary impairment after laparoscopic repair of large hiatal hernia

    PubMed Central

    Asti, Emanuele; Bonavina, Luigi; Lombardi, Massimo; Bandera, Francesco; Secchi, Francesco; Guazzi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Giant hiatus hernia with or without intrathoracic gastric volvulus often presents with symptoms suggestive of both cardiac and pulmonary compression. Cardiopulmonary impairment may be reversible in these patients by laparoscopic crural repair and fundoplication as shown in this case report. Cardiac magnetic resonance and the cardiopulmonary exercise test may help selecting patients for surgery. These preliminary findings led us to start a prospective study using this multimodality diagnostic approach. PMID:26210719

  20. Alkaline Phosphatase, Soluble Extracellular Adenine Nucleotides, and Adenosine Production after Infant Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jesse A.; Urban, Tracy; Tong, Suhong; Twite, Mark; Woodruff, Alan

    2016-01-01

    -operative alkaline phosphatase activity leads to impaired capacity to clear adenosine monophosphate. AP supplementation improves serum clearance of adenosine monophosphate to adenosine. These findings represent a potential therapeutic mechanism for alkaline phosphatase infusion during cardiac surgery. New and Noteworthy We identify alkaline phosphatase (AP) as the primary soluble ectonucleotidase in infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass and show decreased capacity to clear AMP when AP activity decreases post-bypass. Supplementation of AP ex vivo improves this capacity and may represent the beneficial therapeutic mechanism of AP infusion seen in phase 2 studies. PMID:27384524

  1. Neuropsychological Status in Children After Repair of Acyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Quartermain, Michael D.; Ittenbach, Richard F.; Flynn, Thomas B.; Gaynor, J. William; Zhang, Xuemei; Licht, Daniel J.; Ichord, Rebecca N.; Nance, Michael L.; Wernovsky, Gil

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The majority of previous studies that described the neuropsychological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in children were performed after surgery in infancy for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). We sought to limit confounding variables and isolate potential independent effects of CPB by describing neuropsychological function in school-aged children after repair of acyanotic CHD. METHODS This was a prospective study of patients who were aged 5 to 18 years and undergoing repair of acyanotic CHD. Neuropsychological testing battery included assessment of intelligence, memory, motor, attention, executive function, and behavior before and 6 months after CPB. The independent effects of anesthesia, surgery, and hospitalization on neuropsychological function were assessed by testing a surgical control group of patients who were undergoing repair of pectus deformities. In addition, an outpatient group of children with mild CHD were enrolled to assess the practice effects of serial testing. RESULTS Patients included CPB (n = 35), surgical control (n = 19), and nonsurgical (n = 12). Groups were comparable in age, gender, and race and demonstrated similar unadjusted group mean scores on baseline and 6-month follow-up neuropsychological testing. When adjusted for practice effects, the CPB group performed similar to the non-CPB groups in all assessed neuropsychological domains, with the exception of 1 of 4 tests of executive function. CONCLUSIONS When controlling for the non-CPB effects of surgery (eg, hospitalization, anesthesia, thoracotomy) and the practice effects of serial testing, there were no consistent independent effects of CPB on neuropsychological status in a cohort of children and adolescents 6 months after repair of acyanotic CHD. PMID:20660542

  2. Diabetic patients have abnormal cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    SciTech Connect

    Croughwell, N.; Lyth, M.; Quill, T.J.; Newman, M.; Greeley, W.J.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G. )

    1990-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with coronary artery bypass graft surgery experience altered coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption. In a study of 23 patients (11 diabetics and 12 age-matched controls), cerebral blood flow was measured using 133Xe clearance during nonpulsatile, alpha-stat blood gas managed cardiopulmonary bypass at the conditions of hypothermia and normothermia. In diabetic patients, the cerebral blood flow at 26.6 +/- 2.42 degrees C was 25.3 +/- 14.34 ml/100 g/min and at 36.9 +/- 0.58 degrees C it was 27.3 +/- 7.40 ml/100 g/min (p = NS). The control patients increased cerebral blood flow from 20.7 +/- 6.78 ml/100 g/min at 28.4 +/- 2.81 degrees C to 37.6 +/- 8.81 ml/100 g/min at 36.5 +/- 0.45 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.005). The oxygen consumption was calculated from jugular bulb effluent and increased from hypothermic values of 0.52 +/- 0.20 ml/100 g/min in diabetics to 1.26 +/- 0.28 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.001) at normothermia and rose from 0.60 +/- 0.27 to 1.49 +/- 0.35 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.0005) in the controls. Thus, despite temperature-mediated changes in oxygen consumption, diabetic patients did not increase cerebral blood flow as metabolism increased. Arteriovenous oxygen saturation gradients and oxygen extraction across the brain were calculated from arterial and jugular bulb blood samples. The increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference between temperature conditions in diabetic patients and controls was significantly different (p = 0.01). These data reveal that diabetic patients lose cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and compensate for an imbalance in adequate oxygen delivery by increasing oxygen extraction.

  3. Pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane after cardiopulmonary resuscitation reduces myocardial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we sought to examine whether pharmacological postconditioning with sevoflurane (SEVO) is neuro- and cardioprotective in a pig model of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Methods Twenty-two pigs were subjected to cardiac arrest. After 8 minutes of ventricular fibrillation and 2 minutes of basic life support, advanced cardiac life support was started. After successful return of spontaneous circulation (N = 16), animals were randomized to either (1) propofol (CONTROL) anesthesia or (2) SEVO anesthesia for 4 hours. Neurological function was assessed 24 hours after return of spontaneous circulation. The effects on myocardial and cerebral damage, especially on inflammation, apoptosis and tissue remodeling, were studied using cellular and molecular approaches. Results Animals treated with SEVO had lower peak troponin T levels (median [IQR]) (CONTROL vs SEVO = 0.31 pg/mL [0.2 to 0.65] vs 0.14 pg/mL [0.09 to 0.25]; P < 0.05) and improved left ventricular systolic and diastolic function compared to the CONTROL group (P < 0.05). SEVO was associated with a reduction in myocardial IL-1β protein concentrations (0.16 pg/μg total protein [0.14 to 0.17] vs 0.12 pg/μg total protein [0.11 to 0.14]; P < 0.01), a reduction in apoptosis (increased procaspase-3 protein levels (0.94 arbitrary units [0.86 to 1.04] vs 1.18 arbitrary units [1.03 to 1.28]; P < 0.05), increased hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein expression (P < 0.05) and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (P < 0.05). SEVO did not, however, affect neurological deficit score or cerebral cellular and molecular pathways. Conclusions SEVO reduced myocardial damage and dysfunction after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the early postresuscitation period. The reduction was associated with a reduced rate of myocardial proinflammatory cytokine expression, apoptosis, increased HIF-1α expression and increased activity of matrix metalloproteinase 9. Early administration of SEVO may not

  4. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Palifermin in Children and Adolescents with Acute Leukemias Undergoing Myeloablative Therapy and Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: A Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium Trial.

    PubMed

    Morris, Joan; Rudebeck, Mattias; Neudorf, Steven; Moore, Theodore; Duerst, Reggie; Shah, Ami J; Graham, Michael; Aquino, Victor; Morris, Christopher; Olsson, Birgitta

    2016-07-01

    Currently, effective pharmacologic treatment to reduce severe oral mucositis (OM) resulting from high-dose myeloablative cytotoxic therapy in the pediatric population is not available. Palifermin has been proven to decrease the incidence and duration of severe OM in adults with hematologic malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). In the pediatric population, however, data on palifermin treatment are limited. A phase I dose-escalation study of palifermin in pediatric patients with acute leukemias undergoing myeloablative HSCT with total body irradiation, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide was performed to determine a safe and tolerable dose and to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile and efficacy of palifermin. Twenty-seven patients in 3 age groups (1 to 2, 3 to 11, and 12 to 16 years) and 3 dose levels (40, 60, and 80 μg/kg/day) were studied. There were no deaths, dose-limiting toxicities, or treatment-related serious adverse events. Long-term safety outcomes did not differ from what would be expected in this population. PK data showed no differences between the 3 age groups. Exposure did not increase with increase in dose. The maximum severity of OM (WHO grade 4) occurred in 6 patients (22%), none of whom was in the 80-μg/kg/day dosing group. This study showed that all doses were well tolerated and a good safety profile in all 3 pediatric age groups was seen. PMID:26968792

  5. Effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response syndrome after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Vretzkakis, Giorgos; Mikroulis, Dimitris; Mpakas, Andreas; Kesisis, Georgios; Arikas, Stamatis; Kolettas, Alexandros; Moschos, Giorgios; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Siminelakis, Stavros; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background The establishment of Extracorporeal Circulation (EC) significantly contributed to improvement of cardiac surgery, but this is accompanied by harmful side-effects. The most important of them is systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Many efforts have been undertaken to minimize this problem but unfortunately without satisfied solution to date. Materials and methods Lornoxicam is a non steroid anti-inflammatory drug which temporally inhibits the cycloxygenase. In this clinical trial we study the effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In our study we conclude 14 volunteers patients with ischemic coronary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with EC. In seven of them 16 mg lornoxicam was administered iv before the anesthesia induction and before the connection in heart-lung machine. In control group (7 patients) we administered the same amount of normal saline. Results Both groups are equal regarding pro-operative and intra-operative parameters. The inflammatory markers were calculated by Elisa method. We measured the levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, e-Selectin, p-Selectin) and matrix metaloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) just after anesthesia induction, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, just after the patients administration in ICU and after 8 and 24 hrs. In all patients we estimated the lung’s inflammatory reaction with lung biopsy taken at the begging and at the end of the operation. We calculated hemodynamics parameters: Cardiac Index (CI), Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI), Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI), Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI), Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI), and the Pulmonary arterial pressure, and respiratory parameters too: alveolo-arterial oxygen difference D (A-a), intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) and pulmonary Compliance. IL-6 levels of lornoxicam group were statistical

  6. Efficacy of combined modified and conventional ultrafiltration during cardiac surgery in children.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Naresh Kumar; Das, Sambhu Nath; Sharma, Gautam; Kiran, Usha

    2007-01-01

    Thirty children undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were prospectively studied to assess beneficial effects of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) over and above conventional ultrafiltration (CUF). Transoesophaegeal echocardiography determined ejection fraction (EF), fractional area change (FAC) and posterior wall thickness in end-diastole and end-systole were measured and compared in two groups undergoing CUF (group I) and CUF plus MUF (group II). Haemodynamic data, haematocrit, temperature drift, postoperative chest tube drainage in first 48 hours, ventilation and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were also recorded. Within group data were analysed by general linear trend and intergroup comparisons were made with t-test. EF and FAC decreased at 0 min after CPB in both groups, but both recovered at 10 and 30 min after CPB in group II. Increase in EF and FAC in group II was about 12-15 % and 3-5 % from 0 min respectively. There was also significant improvement in posterior wall thickness and haematocrit (P<0.05) in group II. Patients in group II maintained better systolic blood pressure and heamoglobin after CPB. Chest tube drainage in first 48 hours was significantly less in group 1I (100 -18 verses 85 +/-20 ml, P<0.05), but ventilation and ICU stay were not different between the two groups. Combined ultrafiltration has beneficial effect an haemodynamics with improvement in EF and FAC. It improves haematocrit and decreases chest pulse drainage. PMID:17455405

  7. A patent ductus arteriosus complicating cardiopulmonary bypass for combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement only discovered by computed tomography 3D reconstruction.

    PubMed

    van Middendorp, Lars B; Maessen, Jos G; Sardari Nia, Peyman

    2014-12-01

    We describe the case of a 59-year old male patient undergoing combined coronary artery bypass grafting and aortic valve replacement. Manipulation of the heart during cardiopulmonary bypass significantly decreased venous return. Several measures were necessary to improve venous return to a level at which continuation of the procedure was safe. Based on the initial troubles with venous return, we decided to selectively cross-clamp the aorta. This resulted in a large amount of backflow of oxygenated blood from the left ventricle, necessitating additional vents in the pulmonary artery and directly in the left ventricle. The procedure was continued uneventfully, and postoperative recovery was without significant complications. Postoperative 2D computed tomography did not show any signs of a shunt, but 3D reconstruction showed a small patent ductus arteriosus. PMID:25164136

  8. A Novel Rotary Pulsatile Flow Pump for Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Teman, Nicholas R.; Mazur, Daniel E.; Toomasian, John; Jahangir, Emilia; Alghanem, Fares; Goudie, Marcus; Rojas-Peña, Alvaro; Haft, Jonathan W.

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that pulsatile blood flow is superior to continuous flow in cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, adoption of pulsatile flow (PF) technology has been limited due to practically and complexity of creating a consistent physiologic pulse. A pediatric pulsatile rotary ventricular pump (PRVP) was designed to address this problem. We evaluated the PRVP in an animal model, and determined its ability to generate PF during CPB. The PRVP (modified peristaltic pump, with tapering of the outlet of the pump chamber) was tested in 4 piglets (10-12kg). Cannulation was performed with right atrial and aortic cannulae, and pressure sensors were inserted into the femoral arteries. Pressure curves were obtained at different levels of flow and compared with both the animal's baseline physiologic function and a continuous flow (CF) roller pump. Pressure and flow waveforms demonstrated significant pulsatility in the PRVP setup compared to CF at all tested conditions. Measurement of hemodynamic energy data, including the percent pulsatile energy and the surplus hydraulic energy, also revealed a significant increase in pulsatility with the PRVP (p <0.001). PRVP creates physiologically significant PF, similar to the pulsatility of a native heart, and has the potential to be easily implemented in pediatric CPB. PMID:24625536

  9. A pulsatile pump for cardiopulmonary bypass and its clinical use.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Y; Kawai, T; Nishiyama, K; Murayama, Y; Toda, S; Wada, T; Kitaura, K; Sato, S; Kadowaki, M; Kanki, Y

    1988-09-01

    A pulsatile pump driven by a coil spring, which was designed and constructed by us, is described in this report. It consists of two main parts, a disposable blood chamber and a driving section. The blood chamber has two leaflet valves and a piston, which is covered with two bellofram rolling diaphragms and moves into the housing to draw in and eject the blood. The driving section consists of three cams, an electric motor and a coil spring. The ejection force is wholly produced by the compressed coil spring and is transmitted to the piston in the blood chamber by a rod. This pump allows the ejection pressure, the beat rates, and the stroke volume all to be changed independently. The performance of the pump was tested by using a circulation model where the beat rate was adjusted from 30 to 250 bpm. The output subsequently increased from 0.8 l/min to 5.7 l/min and the stroke volume, from 20.4 ml to 36.7 ml. This new pump has been used for clinical cardiopulmonary bypasses in 24 patients of open heart surgery and the pressure traces during perfusion resembled those of the patients' own hearts. PMID:3230723

  10. Chronic Severe Hyponatremia and Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Avoiding Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Canaday, Susan; Rompala, John; Rowles, John; Fisher, Josh; Holt, David

    2015-12-01

    Serum sodium concentration affects every cell in the body with respect to cellular tonicity. Hyponatremia is the most frequent electrolyte abnormality encountered, occurring at clinical admission in 22% of elderly patients. Any rapid correction of chronic severe hyponatremia can result in rapid cellular shrinking due to loss of intracellular free water. This is commonly associated with paralysis and severe brain damage due to osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS). ODS occurs because the body has the ability to compensate for cellular fluid shifts due to chronic hyponatremia (by a decrease in brain concentration of several ions, amino acids, and organic osmolytes). Thus, the neurons are often at a functional state of fluid balance despite the sodium imbalance. The initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can introduce between 1 and 2 L of priming solution containing a normal sodium concentration creating a rapid rise in sodium concentration within the extracellular fluid. This abrupt change establishes a situation where intracellular free water can be lost resulting in cellular shrinking and ODS. In presenting this case study, we hope to add to the current literature with a specific isotonic approach to treating the chronically severe hyponatremic patient pre-CPB, during CPB, and post-CPB. PMID:26834285

  11. Use of the impedance threshold device in cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Demestiha, Theano D; Pantazopoulos, Ioannis N; Xanthos, Theodoros T

    2010-01-01

    Although approximately one million sudden cardiac deaths occur yearly in the US and Europe, cardiac arrest (CA) remains a clinical condition still characterized by a poor prognosis. In an effort to improve the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) technique, the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for CPR gave the impedance threshold device (ITD) a Class IIa recommendation. The AHA recommendation means that there is strong evidence to demonstrate that ITD enhances circulation, improves hemodynamics and increases the likelihood of resuscitation in patients in CA. During standard CPR, venous blood return to the heart relies on the natural elastic recoil of the chest which creates a transient decrease in intrathoracic pressure. The ITD further decreases intrathoracic pressure by preventing respiratory gases from entering the lungs during the decompression phase of CPR. Thus, although ITD is placed into the respiratory circuit it works as a circulatory enhancer device that provides its therapeutic benefit with each chest decompression. The ease of use of this device, its ability to be incorporated into a mask and other airway devices, the absence of device-related adverse effects and few requirements in additional training, suggest that ITD may be a favorable new device for improving CPR efficiency. Since the literature is short of studies with clinically meaningful outcomes such as neurological outcome and long term survival, further evidence is still needed. PMID:21160680

  12. Acute cardiopulmonary toxicity of inhaled aldehydes: role of TRPA1.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J

    2016-06-01

    Inhalation of high-level volatile aldehydes, as present in smoke from wildfires and in tobacco smoke, is associated with both acute and chronic cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) protein forms a cation channel (irritant receptor) that mediates tobacco smoke-induced airway and lung injury, yet the role of TRPA1 in the cardiovascular toxicity of aldehyde exposure is unclear. Physiologically, airway-located TRPA1 activation triggers an irritant response (e.g., coughing and "respiratory braking") that alters the rate and depth of breathing to reduce exposure. Acrolein (2-propenal), a volatile, unsaturated aldehyde, activates TRPA1. Acrolein was used as a chemical weapon in World War I and is present at high levels in wildfires and tobacco smoke. Acrolein is thought to contribute to pulmonary and cardiovascular injury caused by tobacco smoke exposure, although the role of TRPA1 in cardiovascular toxicity is unclear. This minireview addresses this gap in our knowledge by exploring literature and recent data indicating a connection between TRPA1 and cardiovascular as well as pulmonary injury due to inhaled aldehydes. PMID:27152448

  13. [Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in occupational medical fitness examination and assessment].

    PubMed

    Preisser, A M; Ochmann, U

    2011-11-01

    Medical expert opinion by occupational physicians and pneumologists has two main objectives: making a diagnosis with probability bordering on certainty and clarifying a causal relationship to a present or former occupational exposure to irritant toxic, allergenic or fibrosing dusts, gases, welding fumes or mineral fibres. Especially for conditions that are associated with exertional dyspnea, the diagnosis at rest using spirometry, body plethysmography, pulmonary function test, blood gas analysis, electrocardiogram and echocardiography is of limited use. This paper identifies the indications for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in occupational medicine, explains the related measurements and their differential diagnostic value with special consideration of the flow-volume curve under exercise as well as the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient. Diagnostic statements on the relevance of oxygen uptake measured at continuous and peak load compared to the wattage ascertained on the bicycle ergometer are presented. Characteristic CPET findings are explained in terms of their differential diagnostic significance. Furthermore, the importance of CPET for the assessment of occupational disease-related functional loss (clinical proportions in the reduction of working capacity) is shown. PMID:22083292

  14. Family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: who should decide?

    PubMed

    Lederman, Zohar; Garasic, Mirko; Piperberg, Michelle

    2014-05-01

    Whether to allow the presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) has been a highly contentious topic in recent years. Even though a great deal of evidence and professional guidelines support the option of family presence during resuscitation (FPDR), many healthcare professionals still oppose it. One of the main arguments espoused by the latter is that family members should not be allowed for the sake of the patient's best interests, whether it is to increase his chances of survival, respect his privacy or leave his family with a last positive impression of him. In this paper, we examine the issue of FPDR from the patient's point of view. Since the patient requires CPR, he is invariably unconscious and therefore incompetent. We discuss the Autonomy Principle and the Three-Tiered process for surrogate decision making, as well as the Beneficence Principle and show that these are limited in providing us with an adequate tool for decision making in this particular case. Rather, we rely on a novel principle (or, rather, a novel specification of an existing principle) and a novel integrated model for surrogate decision making. We show that this model is more satisfactory in taking the patient's true wishes under consideration and encourages a joint decision making process by all parties involved. PMID:23557910

  15. Rhythm analysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Gauna, Sofia; Irusta, Unai; Ruiz, Jesus; Ayala, Unai; Aramendi, Elisabete; Eftestøl, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest depends largely on two factors: early cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and early defibrillation. CPR must be interrupted for a reliable automated rhythm analysis because chest compressions induce artifacts in the ECG. Unfortunately, interrupting CPR adversely affects survival. In the last twenty years, research has been focused on designing methods for analysis of ECG during chest compressions. Most approaches are based either on adaptive filters to remove the CPR artifact or on robust algorithms which directly diagnose the corrupted ECG. In general, all the methods report low specificity values when tested on short ECG segments, but how to evaluate the real impact on CPR delivery of continuous rhythm analysis during CPR is still unknown. Recently, researchers have proposed a new methodology to measure this impact. Moreover, new strategies for fast rhythm analysis during ventilation pauses or high-specificity algorithms have been reported. Our objective is to present a thorough review of the field as the starting point for these late developments and to underline the open questions and future lines of research to be explored in the following years. PMID:24527445

  16. An expanding role for cardiopulmonary bypass in trauma

    PubMed Central

    Chughtai, Talat S.; Gilardino, Miroslav S.; Fleiszer, David M.; Evans, David C.; Brown, Rea A.; Mulder, David S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives To analyze experience at the McGill University Health Centre with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in trauma, complemented by a review of the literature to define its role globally and outline indications for its expanded use in trauma management. Data sources All available published English-language articles from peer reviewed journals, located using the MEDLINE database. Chapters from relevant, current textbooks were also utilized. Study selection Nine relevant case reports, original articles or reviews pertaining to the use of CPB in trauma. Data extraction Original data as well as authors’ opinions pertinent to the application of CPB to trauma were extracted, incorporated and appropriately referenced in our review. Data synthesis Overall mortality in the selected series of CPB used in the trauma setting was 44.4%. Four of 5 survivors had CPB instituted early (first procedure in operative management) whereas 3 of 4 deaths involved late institution of CPB. Conclusions Although CPB has traditionally been used in the setting of cardiac trauma alone, a better understanding of its potential benefit in noncardiac injuries will likely make for improved outcomes in the increasingly diverse number of severely injured patients seen in trauma centres today. Further studies by other trauma centres will allow for standardized indications for the use of CPB in trauma. PMID:11939667

  17. [Out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation needs the ventilation].

    PubMed

    Bao, Fang-ping; Pan, Yuan-min; Zheng, Shu-sen

    2014-09-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is series of rescue measures for saving cardiac arrest patients. Early initiation and good quality of CPR is crucial for increasing chance of survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. In recent years, the CPR guidelines have changed a lot, especially in basic life support. The guideline now pays more attention on chest compression and less to ventilation. CPR with chest compression only and without mouth-to-mouth ventilation is more popular. In this article, we outline the development and recent researches of CPR. As depriving oxygen from a collapsed patient for 6 min may result in poor outcome, the average time for ambulance transport is longer (about 10 to 16 min) in China, which makes rescuers easy to feel fatigue, chest compression only CPR is not suitable in China. Though non-professional rescuers have difficulty to perform mouth-to-mouth ventilation, they generally show a willingness to do so. To strengthen public standard CPR training including mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compression, is most important to promote CPR in China. PMID:25372633

  18. Trainers' Attitudes towards Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation, Current Care Guidelines, and Training

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, M.; Castrén, M.; Nurmi, J.; Niemi-Murola, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Studies have shown that healthcare personnel hesitate to perform defibrillation due to individual or organisational attitudes. We aimed to assess trainers' attitudes towards cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (CPR-D), Current Care Guidelines, and associated training. Methods. A questionnaire was distributed to CPR trainers attending seminars in Finland (N = 185) focusing on the updated national Current Care Guidelines 2011. The questions were answered using Likert scale (1 = totally disagree, 7 = totally agree). Factor loading of the questionnaire was made using maximum likelihood analysis and varimax rotation. Seven scales were constructed (Hesitation, Nurse's Role, Nontechnical Skill, Usefulness, Restrictions, Personal, and Organisation). Cronbach's alphas were 0.92–0.51. Statistics were Student's t-test, ANOVA, stepwise regression analysis, and Pearson Correlation. Results. The questionnaire was returned by 124/185, 67% CPR trainers, of whom two-thirds felt that their undergraduate training in CPR-D had not been adequate. Satisfaction with undergraduate defibrillation training correlated with the Nontechnical Skills scale (p < 0.01). Participants scoring high on Hesitation scale (p < 0.01) were less confident about their Nurse's Role (p < 0.01) and Nontechnical Skills (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Quality of undergraduate education affects the work of CPR trainers and some feel uncertain of defibrillation. The train-the-trainers courses and undergraduate medical education should focus more on practical scenarios with defibrillators and nontechnical skills. PMID:27144027

  19. Capnography during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current evidence and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Bhavani Shankar; Urman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Capnography continues to be an important tool in measuring expired carbon dioxide (CO2). Most recent Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) guidelines now recommend using capnography to ascertain the effectiveness of chest compressions and duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Based on an extensive review of available published literature, we selected all available peer-reviewed research investigations and case reports. Available evidence suggests that there is significant correlation between partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2) and cardiac output that can indicate the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Additional evidence favoring the use of capnography during CPR includes definitive proof of correct placement of the endotracheal tube and possible prediction of patient survival following cardiac arrest, although the latter will require further investigations. There is emerging evidence that PETCO2 values can guide the initiation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in refractory cardiac arrest (RCA). There is also increasing recognition of the value of capnography in intensive care settings in intubated patients. Future directions include determining the outcomes based on capnography waveforms PETCO2 values and determining a reasonable duration of CPR. In the future, given increasing use of capnography during CPR large databases can be analyzed to predict outcomes. PMID:25400399

  20. 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of pediatric and neonatal patients: pediatric basic life support.

    PubMed

    2006-05-01

    This publication presents the 2005 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and emergency cardiovascular care (ECC) of the pediatric patient and the 2005 American Academy of Pediatrics/AHA guidelines for CPR and ECC of the neonate. The guidelines are based on the evidence evaluation from the 2005 International Consensus Conference on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations, hosted by the American Heart Association in Dallas, Texas, January 23-30, 2005. The "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" contain recommendations designed to improve survival from sudden cardiac arrest and acute life-threatening cardiopulmonary problems. The evidence evaluation process that was the basis for these guidelines was accomplished in collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR). The ILCOR process is described in more detail in the "International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations." The recommendations in the "2005 AHA Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care" confirm the safety and effectiveness of many approaches, acknowledge that other approaches may not be optimal, and recommend new treatments that have undergone evidence evaluation. These new recommendations do not imply that care involving the use of earlier guidelines is unsafe. In addition, it is important to note that these guidelines will not apply to all rescuers and all victims in all situations. The leader of a resuscitation attempt may need to adapt application of the guidelines to unique circumstances. The following are the major pediatric advanced life support changes in the 2005 guidelines: There is further caution about the use of endotracheal tubes. Laryngeal mask airways are acceptable when used by experienced

  1. Basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation - guidelines of the Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils 2010.

    PubMed

    Tibballs, James; Aickin, Richard; Nuthall, Gabrielle

    2012-07-01

    Guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been revised by Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils. Changes encourage CPR out-of-hospital and aim to improve the quality of CPR in-hospital. Features of basic CPR include: omission of abdominal thrusts for foreign body airway obstruction; commencement with chest compression followed by ventilation in a ratio of 30:2 or compression-only CPR if the rescuer is unwilling/unable to give expired-air breathing when the victim is 'unresponsive and not breathing normally'. Use of automated external defibrillators is encouraged. Features of advanced CPR include: prevention of cardiac arrest by rapid response systems; restriction of pulse palpation to 10 s to diagnosis cardiac arrest; affirmation of 15:2 compression-ventilation ratio for children and for infants other than newly born; initial bag-mask ventilation before tracheal intubation; a single direct current shock of 4 J/kg for ventricular fibrillation (VF) and pulseless ventricular tachycardia followed by immediate resumption of CPR for 2 min without analysis of cardiac rhythm and avoidance of unnecessary interruption of continuous external cardiac compressions. Monitoring of exhaled carbon dioxide is recommended to detect non-tracheal intubation, assess quality of CPR, and to help match ventilation to reduced cardiac output. The intraosseous route is recommended if immediate intravenous access is impossible. Amiodarone is strongly favoured over lignocaine for refractory VF and adrenaline over atropine for severe bradycardia, asystole and pulseless electrical activity. Family presence at resuscitation is encouraged. Therapeutic hypothermia is acceptable after resuscitation to improve neurological outcome. Extracorporeal circulatory support for in-hospital cardiac arrest may be used in equipped centres. PMID:22017373

  2. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    2015-02-01

    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, -2 and -3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and -3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P < 0.0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio®-coated circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P < 0.0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P < 0.0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin-coated bypass circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures. PMID:25174443

  3. Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits selectively deplete the pattern recognition molecule ficolin-2 of the lectin complement pathway in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hein, E; Munthe-Fog, L; Thiara, A S; Fiane, A E; Mollnes, T E; Garred, P

    2015-01-01

    The complement system can be activated via the lectin pathway by the recognition molecules mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and the ficolins. Ficolin-2 exhibits binding against a broad range of ligands, including biomaterials in vitro, and low ficolin-2 levels are associated with increased risk of infections. Thus, we investigated the biocompatibility of the recognition molecules of the lectin pathway in two different types of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits. Bloods were drawn at five time-points before, during and postoperatively from 30 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized into two groups using different coatings of cardiopulmonary bypass circuits, Phisio® (phosphorylcholine polymer coating) and Bioline® (albumin-heparin coating). Concentrations of MBL, ficolin-1, −2 and −3 and soluble C3a and terminal complement complex (TCC) in plasma samples were measured. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was evaluated with C4, C3 and TCC as output. There was no significant difference between the two circuit materials regarding MBL, ficolin-1 and −3. In the Bioline® group the ficolin-2 levels decreased significantly after initiation of surgery (P < 0·0001) and remained reduced throughout the sampling period. This was not seen for Phisio®-coated circuits. Ficolin-3-mediated complement activation potential was reduced significantly in both groups after start of operation (P < 0·0001), whereas soluble C3a and TCC in the samples were increased (P < 0·0001). Ficolin-2 was depleted from plasma during cardiac surgery when using heparin-coated bypass circuits and did not reach baseline level 24 h postoperation. These findings may have implications for the postoperative susceptibility to infections in patients undergoing extracorporeal circulation procedures. PMID:25174443

  4. The combination of mannitol and albumin in the priming solution reduces positive intraoperative fluid balance during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, I R; Curtis, A P

    1995-09-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) an adequate reservoir volume is maintained by the addition of crystalloid, colloid or packed cells to the reservoir. This volume contributes to the overall perioperative positive fluid balance. We studied the effect of the preoperative addition of either 75 g albumin, or 50 g mannitol followed by 50 g at commencement of rewarming or both of the above to a bypass circuit prime of lactated Ringer's solution (LR) on intraoperative fluid balance, postoperative indices of oxygenation and time to extubation. The study was a prospective, randomized, single-blinded controlled trial of 103 patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring CPB. There was a large and highly significant reduction in volume of fluid added to the reservoir during CPB (2137 +/- 1499 ml versus 144 +/- 230 ml), the fluid balance during bypass, including prime volume (3236 +/- 650 ml versus 5876 +/- 1465 ml), and perioperative fluid balance (4470 +/- 936 ml versus 7023 +/- 1760 ml) in the group receiving both mannitol and albumin in the pump prime compared with the group receiving only lactated Ringer's solution. There were no differences between the groups with respect to both measured indices of oxygenation measured on return to ICU (alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (DA-aO2) or arterial oxygen tension to inspired oxygen fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2), or time from ICU admission to extubation. PMID:8601041

  5. PMEA coating of pump circuit and oxygenator may attenuate the early systemic inflammatory response in cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Ueyama, K; Nishimura, K; Nishina, T; Nakamura, T; Ikeda, T; Komeda, M

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of coating a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit and oxygenator with poly-2-methoxy-ethyl acrylate (PMEA) on the systemic inflammatory response during and after CPB. Thirty patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery were randomized into three groups (each group n = 10): noncoated (group N), heparin coated (group H), and PMEA coated circuit and oxygenator (group X). Bradykinin (BK), complement 3 activation (C3a) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured as early phase indicators of inflammatory response, as were maximum C reactive proteins (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels. The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-a DO2) was measured as a parameter of respiratory function. IL-6 levels after CPB were significantly higher in group N than in groups H and X (p < 0.05). Serum BK and C3a levels showed similar patterns in all groups. A-a DO2 was lower at the end of and 3 hours after CPB in groups H and X than in group N (p < 0.05). Maximum CRP levels were lower in group X than in groups N (p < 0.05). This prospective study suggests that PMEA coated CPB may improve respiratory function and decrease systemic inflammatory response after cardiac surgery, possibly because this circuit is as biocompatible as heparin coated CPB circuit. PMID:15307550

  6. Physiological basis of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in patients with lung or heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Louvaris, Zafeiris

    2015-01-01

    Educational Aims To illustrate the common mechanisms limiting exercise tolerance in patients with chronic lung and heart disease To highlight the impact of lung and heart disease on daily physical activity levels To outline the effects of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation on functional capacity in patients with chronic lung and heart disease To discuss an innovative tele-rehabilitation intervention using information and communications technologies to improve functional capacity in patients with chronic lung and heart disease Summary Shortness of breath associated with cardiorespiratory abnormalities and peripheral muscle discomfort are the major factors that limit exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and those with congestive heart failure (CHF). Both of these symptoms negatively impact on patients’ daily physical activity levels. In turn, poor daily physical activity is commonly associated with increased rates of morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes partially reverse muscle weakness and dysfunction and increase functional capacity in both COPD and CHF. However, benefits gained from participation in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes are regressing soon after the completion of these programmes. Moreover, several barriers limit access and uptake of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation programmes by eligible patients. A potential solution to the underutilisation of cardiopulmonary rehabilitation is the implementation of tele-rehabilitation interventions at home using information and communications technologies. Thus, tele-rehabilitation may be useful to encourage and educate patients with COPD or CHF on how best to maintain and/or further enhance daily physical activity levels. PMID:26306112

  7. A systematic review of intensive cardiopulmonary management after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Casha, Steven; Christie, Sean

    2011-08-01

    Intensive cardiopulmonary management is frequently undertaken in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly due to the occurrence of neurogenic shock and ventilatory insufficiency and in an attempt to reduce secondary injury. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the evidence that intensive care management improves outcome after SCI and to attempt to define key parameters for cardiopulmonary support/resuscitation. We review the literature in five areas: management of SCI patients in specialized centers, risk in SCI patients of cardiopulmonary complications, parameters for blood pressure and oxygenation/ventilation support following SCI, risk factors for cardiopulmonary insufficiency requiring ICU care after SCI, and preventative strategies to reduce the risks of cardiopulmonary complications in SCI patients. The literature supports that, in light of the significant incidence of cardiorespiratory complications, SCI patients should be managed in a monitored special care unit. There is weak evidence supporting the maintenance of MAP >85 mmHg for a period extending up to 1 week following SCI. PMID:20030558

  8. Rodent models of cardiopulmonary disease: their potential applicability in studies of air pollutant susceptibility.

    PubMed Central

    Kodavanti, U P; Costa, D L; Bromberg, P A

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms by which increased mortality and morbidity occur in individuals with preexistent cardiopulmonary disease following acute episodes of air pollution are unknown. Studies involving air pollution effects on animal models of human cardiopulmonary diseases are both infrequent and difficult to interpret. Such models are, however, extensively used in studies of disease pathogenesis. Primarily they comprise those developed by genetic, pharmacologic, or surgical manipulations of the cardiopulmonary system. This review attempts a comprehensive description of rodent cardiopulmonary disease models in the context of their potential application to susceptibility studies of air pollutants regardless of whether the models have been previously used for such studies. The pulmonary disease models include bronchitis, emphysema, asthma/allergy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, interstitial fibrosis, and infection. The models of systemic hypertension and congestive heart failure include: those derived by genetics (spontaneously hypertensive, Dahl S. renin transgenic, and other rodent models); congestive heart failure models derived by surgical manipulations; viral myocarditis; and cardiomyopathy induced by adriamycin. The characteristic pathogenic features critical to understanding the susceptibility to inhaled toxicants are described. It is anticipated that this review will provide a ready reference for the selection of appropriate rodent models of cardiopulmonary diseases and identify not only their pathobiologic similarities and/or differences to humans but also their potential usefulness in susceptibility studies. Images Figure 2 PMID:9539009

  9. A Systematic Review of Intensive Cardiopulmonary Management after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Intensive cardiopulmonary management is frequently undertaken in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), particularly due to the occurrence of neurogenic shock and ventilatory insufficiency and in an attempt to reduce secondary injury. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to examine the evidence that intensive care management improves outcome after SCI and to attempt to define key parameters for cardiopulmonary support/resuscitation. We review the literature in five areas: management of SCI patients in specialized centers, risk in SCI patients of cardiopulmonary complications, parameters for blood pressure and oxygenation/ventilation support following SCI, risk factors for cardiopulmonary insufficiency requiring ICU care after SCI, and preventative strategies to reduce the risks of cardiopulmonary complications in SCI patients. The literature supports that, in light of the significant incidence of cardiorespiratory complications, SCI patients should be managed in a monitored special care unit. There is weak evidence supporting the maintenance of MAP >85 mmHg for a period extending up to 1 week following SCI. PMID:20030558

  10. [Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases--'cardiopulmonary continuum'].

    PubMed

    Batura-Gabryel, Halina; Grabicki, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent airflow limitation and extrapulmonary comorbidities, which contribute to the overall severity. Some risk factors, with tobacco smoking as the most serious one, lead to a chronic, systemic inflammation that plays the main role in the pathogenesis of COPD and comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The course of COPD is diverse; it depends on pathologies in the respiratory system and on other organ dysfunctions. CVDs are the most commonly recognised comorbidities in COPD patients. The severity and natural course of COPD, as well as quality of the patient's life, are influenced by them. CVDs are frequently the reason for hospitalisation and may lead to death. They are also an important prognostic factor. Comorbidities may prolong exacerbation of COPD. On the other hand, COPD is an independent risk factor of CVD. The prevalence of COPD is high in patients suffering from coronary artery disease, and airflow limitation is a major risk factor for chronic heart failure. These complex interactions between heart and lung can be denoted as 'cardiopulmonary continuum'. These dependencies are not recognised in detail. Currently research is being done, which attempts to explain these complicated relations. For many years COPD and CVD were not connected. Today it is known that patients suffering from COPD must be provided comprehensive care. It is necessary to monitor the risk of CVD and their influence on the COPD course. Careful and proper treatment of all diseases is essential. An interdisciplinary team with good cooperation should prepare a plan of COPD treatment with simultaneous therapy of comorbidities. PMID:25339571

  11. Delivery of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barratt, M. R.; Billica, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The microgravity environment presents several challenges for delivering effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Chest compressions must be driven by muscular force rather than by the weight of the rescuer's upper torso. Airway stabilization is influenced by the neutral body posture. Rescuers will consist of crew members of varying sizes and degrees of physical deconditioning from space flight. Several methods of CPR designed to accommodate these factors were tested in the one G environment, in parabolic flight, and on a recent shuttle flight. Methods: Utilizing study participants of varying sizes, different techniques of CPR delivery were evaluated using a recording CPR manikin to assess adequacy of compressive force and frequency. Under conditions of parabolic flight, methods tested included conventional positioning of rescuer and victim, free floating 'Heimlich type' compressions, straddling the patient with active and passive restraints, and utilizing a mechanical cardiac compression assist device (CCAD). Multiple restrain systems and ventilation methods were also assessed. Results: Delivery of effective CPR was possible in all configurations tested. Reliance on muscular force alone was quickly fatiguing to the rescuer. Effectiveness of CPR was dependent on technique, adequate restraint of the rescuer and patient, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR was adequate but rapidly fatiguing. The CCAD was able to provide adequate compressive force but positioning was problematic. Conclusions: Delivery of effective CPR in microgravity will be dependent on adequate resuer and patient restraint, technique, and rescuer size and preference. Free floating CPR may be employed as a stop gap method until patient restraint is available. Development of an adequate CCAD would be desirable to compensate for the effects of deconditioning.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Lunar and Martian Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarkar, Subhajit

    2004-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is required training for all astronauts. No studies thus far have investigated how chest compressions may be affected in lunar and Martian gravities. Therefore a theoretical quantitative study was performed. The maximum downward force an unrestrained person can apply is mg N (g(sub Earth) = 9.78 ms(sup -2), g(sub moon) = 1.63 ms(sup -2), g(sub Mars) = 3.69 ms(sup -2). Tsitlik et a1 (Critical Care Medicine, 1983) described the human sternal elastic force-displacement relationship (compliance) by: F = betaD(sub s) + gammaD(sub s)(sup 2) (beta = 54.9 plus or minus 29.4 Ncm(sup -1) and gamma = 10.8 plus or minus 4.1 Ncm(sup -2)). Maximum forces in the 3 gravitational fields produced by 76 kg (US population mean), 41 kg and 93 kg (masses derived from the limits for astronaut height), produced solutions for compression depth using Tsitlik equations for chests of: mean compliance (beta = 54.9, gamma = 10.8), low compliance (beta = 84.3, gamma = 14.9) and high compliance (beta = 25.5, gamma = 6.7). The mass for minimum adequate adult compression, 3.8 cm (AHA guidelines), was also calculated. 76 kg compresses the mean compliance chest by: Earth, 6.1 cm, Mars, 3.2 cm, Moon, 1.7 cm. In lunar gravity, the high compliance chest is compressed only 3.2 cm by 93 kg, 120 kg being required for 3.8 cm. In Martian gravity, on the mean chest, 93 kg compresses 3.6 cm; 99 kg is required for 3.8 cm. On Mars, the high compliance chest is compressed 4.8 cm with 76 kg, 5.5 cm with 93 kg, with 52 kg required for 3.8 cm.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide improves neural function in rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    LIN, JI-YAN; ZHANG, MIN-WEI; WANG, JIN-GAO; LI, HUI; WEI, HONG-YAN; LIU, RONG; DAI, GANG; LIAO, XIAO-XING

    2016-01-01

    The alleviation of brain injury is a key issue following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is hypothesized to be involved in the pathophysiological process of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and exerts a protective effect on neurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of H2S on neural functions following cardiac arrest (CA) in rats. A total of 60 rats were allocated at random into three groups. CA was induced to establish the model and CPR was performed after 6 min. Subsequently, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), hydroxylamine or saline was administered to the rats. Serum levels of H2S, neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100β were determined following CPR. In addition, neurological deficit scoring (NDS), the beam walking test (BWT), prehensile traction test and Morris water maze experiment were conducted. Neuronal apoptosis rates were detected in the hippocampal region following sacrifice. After CPR, as the H2S levels increased or decreased, the serum NSE and S100β concentrations decreased or increased, respectively (P<0.0w. The NDS results of the NaHS group were improved compared with those of the hydroxylamine group at 24 h after CPR (P<0.05). In the Morris water maze experiment, BWT and prehensile traction test the animals in the NaHS group performed best and rats in the hydroxylamine group performed worst. At day 7, the apoptotic index and the expression of caspase-3 were reduced in the hippocampal CA1 region, while the expression of Bcl-2 increased in the NaHS group; and results of the hydroxylamine group were in contrast. Therefore, the results of the present study indicate that H2S is able to improve neural function in rats following CPR. PMID:26893650

  14. Chest Compression With Personal Protective Equipment During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jie; Lu, Kai-Zhi; Yi, Bin; Chen, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Following a chemical, biological, radiation, and nuclear incident, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) procedure is essential for patients who suffer cardiac arrest. But CPR when wearing personal protection equipment (PPE) before decontamination becomes a challenge for healthcare workers (HCW). Although previous studies have assessed the impact of PPE on airway management, there is little research available regarding the quality of chest compression (CC) when wearing PPE. A present randomized cross-over simulation study was designed to evaluate the effect of PPE on CC performance using mannequins. The study was set in one university medical center in the China. Forty anesthesia residents participated in this randomized cross-over study. Each participant performed 2 min of CC on a manikin with and without PPE, respectively. Participants were randomized into 2 groups that either performed CC with PPE first, followed by a trial without PPE after a 180-min rest, or vice versa. CPR recording technology was used to objectively quantify the quality of CC. Additionally, participants’ physiological parameters and subjective fatigue score values were recorded. With the use of PPE, a significant decrease of the percentage of effective compressions (41.3 ± 17.1% with PPE vs 67.5 ± 15.6% without PPE, P < 0.001) and the percentage of adequate compressions (67.7 ± 18.9% with PPE vs 80.7 ± 15.5% without PPE, P < 0.001) were observed. Furthermore, the increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and subjective fatigue score values were more obvious with the use of PPE (all P < 0.01). We found significant deterioration of CC performance in HCW with the use of a level-C PPE, which may be a disadvantage for enhancing survival of cardiac arrest. PMID:27057878

  15. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved. PMID:20064238

  16. Cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival due to penetrating trauma

    PubMed Central

    Moriwaki, Yoshihiro; Sugiyama, Mitsugi; Toyoda, Hiroshi; Kosuge, Takayuki; Tahara, Yoshio; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to clarify the outcome of patients with cardiopulmonary arrest on arrival due to penetrating trauma (PT-CPA) and to establish the treatment strategy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The clinical course of 29 patients with PT-CPA over the past 10 years was examined. We have taken three approaches to these patients: (i) an aggressive treatment strategy; (ii) an in-hospital system supporting this aggressive resuscitation; and (iii) the pre-hospital emergency medical service (EMS) system in our city. RESULTS Although the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was established in 59% of patients, only 17% survived for 7 days, 14% were discharged, and 7% were neurologically intact. Of 10 patients showing pulseless electrical activity (PEA) on the scene, ROSC was established in 100% and 30% were discharged; however, of 12 patients showing asystole, ROSC was established in 33% and no patient could be discharged. There was no difference in the time interval from the arrival at the emergency department to ROSC between discharged patients and patients who died. The time interval from collapse to arrival at the emergency department in discharged patients and patients who went to the intensive care unit was shorter than that of patients who died in the emergency department with and without ROSC. CONCLUSIONS We cannot decide to give up and terminate resuscitation in any PT-CPA patients and cannot define salvageable patients. However, our data show that 30-min resuscitation is thought to be relevant and that we should not give up on resuscitation because of the time interval without ROSC after arrival at the hospital. PMID:20353643

  17. Monitoring microemboli during cardiopulmonary bypass with the EDAC quantifier.

    PubMed

    Lynch, John E; Wells, Christopher; Akers, Tom; Frantz, Paul; Garrett, Donna; Scott, M Lance; Williamson, Lisa; Agnew, Barbara; Lynch, John K

    2010-09-01

    Gaseous emboli may be introduced into the bypass circuit both from the surgical field and during perfusionist interventions. While circuits provide good protection against massive air embolism, they do not remove gaseous microemboli (GME) from the bypass circuit. The purpose of this preliminary study is to assess the incidence of GME during bypass surgery and determine if increased GME counts were associated with specific events during bypass surgery. In 30 cases divided between 15 coronary artery bypass grafts and 15 valve repairs, GME were counted and sizedt the three locations on the bypass circuit using the EDAC" Quantifier (Luna Innovations, Roanoke, VA). A mean of 45,276 GME were detected after the arterial line filter during these 30 cases, with significantly more detected (p = .04) post filter during valve cases (mean = 72,137 +/- 22,113) than coronary artery bypass graft cases (mean = 18,416 +/- 7831). GME detected post filter were significantly correlated in time with counts detected in the venous line (p < .001). Specific events associated with high counts included the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, heart manipulations, insertion and removal of clamps, and the administration of drugs. Global factors associated with increased counts post filter included higher venous line counts and higher post reservoir/bubble trap counts. The mean number of microemboli detected during bypass surgery was much higher than reported in other studies of emboli incidence, most likely due to the increased sensitivity of the EDAC Quantifier compared to other detection modalities. The results furthermore suggest the need for further study of the clinical significance of these microemboli and what practices may be used to reduce GME incidence. Increased in vitro testing of the air handling capability of different circuit designs, along with more clinical studies assessing best clinical practices for reducing GME activity, is recommended. PMID:21114224

  18. VentSim: a simulation model of cardiopulmonary physiology.

    PubMed Central

    Rutledge, G. W.

    1994-01-01

    VentSim is a quantitative model that predicts the effects of alternative ventilator settings on the cardiopulmonary physiology of critically ill patients. VentSim is an expanded version of the physiologic model in VentPlan, an application that provides ventilator-setting recommendations for patients in the intensive care unit. VentSim includes a ventilator component, an airway component, and a circulation component. The ventilator component predicts the pressures and airflows that are generated by a volume-cycled, constant-flow ventilator. The airway component has anatomic and physiologic deadspace compartments, and two alveolar compartments that participate in gas exchange with two pulmonary blood-flow compartments in the circulatory component. The circulatory component also has a shunt compartment that allows a fraction of blood flow to bypass gas exchange in the lungs, and a tissue compartment that consumes oxygen and generates carbon dioxide. The VentSim model is a set of linked first-order difference equations, with control variables that correspond to the ventilator settings, dependent variables that correspond to the physiologic state, and one independent variable, time. Because the model has no steady state solution, VentSim solves the equations by numeric integration, which is computation intensive. Simulation results demonstrate that VentSim predicts the effects of a variety of physiologic abnormalities that cannot be represented in less complex models such as the VentPlan model. For a ventilator-management application, the time-critical nature of ventilator-setting decisions limits the use of complex models. Advanced ventilator-management applications may include a mechanism to select patient-specific models that balance the trade-off of benefit of model detail and cost of computation delay. PMID:7950050

  19. Cardiopulmonary effects of three different anaesthesia protocols in cats.

    PubMed

    Akkerdaas, L C; Mioch, P; Sap, R; Hellebrekers, L J

    2001-11-01

    To develop an alternative anaesthetic regimen for cats with cardiomyopathy, the cardiopulmonary effects of three different premedication-induction protocols, followed by one hour maintenance with isoflurane in oxygen: air were evaluated in six cats. Group I: acepromazine (10 microg/kg) + buprenorphine (10 microg/kg) IM, etomidate (1-2 mg/kg) IV induction. Group II: midazolam (1 mg/kg) + ketamine (10 mg/kg) IM induction. Group III: medetomidine (1.5 mg/m2 body surface) IM, propofol (1-2 mg/kg) IV induction. Heart rate, arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases, respiration rate, and temperature were recorded for the duration of the experiment. In group I the sedative effect after premedication was limited. In the other groups the level of sedation was sufficient. In all groups premedication resulted in a reduced blood pressure which decreased further immediately following induction. The reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached statistical significance in group I (142+/-22 to 81+/-14 mmHg) and group II (153+/-28 to 98+/-20 mmHg) but not in group III (165+/-24 to 134+/-29 mmHg). Despite the decrease in blood pressure, MAP was judged to have remained within an acceptable range in all groups. During maintenance of anaesthesia, heart rate decreased significantly in group III (from 165+/-24 to 125+/-10 b.p.m. at t=80 min). During anaesthesia the PCO2 and PO2 values increased significantly in all groups. On the basis of the results, the combination acepromazine-buprenorphine is preferred because heart rate, MAP, and respiration are acceptable, it has a limited sedative effect but recovery is smooth. PMID:11765236

  20. Extended effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary mortality in Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Rabczenko, Daniel; Moshammer, Hanns

    BackgroundCurrent standards for fine particulates and nitrogen dioxide are under revision. Patients with cardiovascular disease have been identified as the largest group which need to be protected from effects of urban air pollution. MethodsWe sought to estimate associations between indicators of urban air pollution and daily mortality using time series of daily TSP, PM 10, PM 2.5, NO 2, SO 2, O 3 and nontrauma deaths in Vienna (Austria) 2000-2004. We used polynomial distributed lag analysis adjusted for seasonality, daily temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure and incidence of influenza as registered by sentinels. ResultsAll three particulate measures and NO 2 were associated with mortality from all causes and from ischemic heart disease and COPD at all ages and in the elderly. The magnitude of the effect was largest for PM 2.5 and NO 2. Best predictor of mortality increase lagged 0-7 days was PM 2.5 (for ischemic heart disease and COPD) and NO 2 (for other heart disease and all causes). Total mortality increase, lagged 0-14 days, per 10 μg m -3 was 2.6% for PM 2.5 and 2.9% for NO 2, mainly due to cardiopulmonary and cerebrovascular causes. ConclusionAcute and subacute lethal effects of urban air pollution are predicted by PM 2.5 and NO 2 increase even at relatively low levels of these pollutants. This is consistent with results on hospital admissions and the lack of a threshold. While harvesting (reduction of mortality after short increase due to premature deaths of most sensitive persons) seems to be of minor importance, deaths accumulate during 14 days after an increase of air pollutants. The limit values for PM 2.5 and NO 2 proposed for 2010 in the European Union are unable to prevent serious health effects.

  1. Cardiopulmonary Responses to Supine Cycling during Short-Arm Centrifugation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vener, J. M.; Simonson, S. R.; Stocks, J.; Evettes, S.; Bailey, K.; Biagini, H.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiopulmonary responses to supine cycling with concomitant +G(sub z) acceleration using the NASA/Ames Human Powered Short-Arm Centrifuge (HPC). Subjects were eight consenting males (32+/-5 yrs, 178+/-5 cm, 86.1+/- 6.2 kg). All subjects completed two maximal exercise tests on the HPC (with and without acceleration) within a three-day period. A two tailed t-test with statistical significance set at p less than or equal to 0.05 was used to compare treatments. Peak acceleration was 3.4+/-0.1 G(sub z), (head to foot acceleration). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2(sub peak) was not different between treatment groups (3.1+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) vs. 3.2+/-0.1 Lmin(exp -1) for stationary and acceleration trials, respectively). Peak HR and pulmonary minute ventilation (V(sub E(sub BTPS))) were significantly elevated (p less than or equal to 0.05) for the acceleration trial (182+/-3 BPM (Beats per Minute); 132.0+/-9.0 Lmin(exp -1)) when compared to the stationary trial (175+/-3 BPM; 115.5+/-8.5 Lmin(exp -1)). Ventilatory threshold expressed as a percent of VO2(sub peak) was not different for acceleration and stationary trials (72+/-2% vs. 68+/-2% respectively). Results suggest that 3.4 G(sub z) acceleration does not alter VO2(sub peak) response to supine cycling. However, peak HR and V(sub E(sub BTPS)) response may be increased while ventilatory threshold response expressed as a function of percent VO2(sub peak) is relatively unaffected. Thus, traditional exercise prescription based on VO2 response would be appropriate for this mode of exercise. Prescriptions based on HR response may require modification.

  2. The efficacy of parecoxib on systemic inflammatory response associated with cardiopulmonary bypass during cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qingping; Purusram, Gunsham; Wang, Huiqing; Yuan, Ruixia; Xie, Wanli; Gui, Ping; Dong, Nianguo; Yao, Shanglong

    2013-01-01

    Aims Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery is well known to be associated with the development of a systemic inflammatory response. The efficacy of parecoxib in attenuating this systemic inflammatory response is still unknown. Methods Patients undergoing elective mitral valve replacement with CPB were assessed, enrolled and randomly allocated to receive parecoxib (80 mg) or placebo. Blood samples were collected in EDTA vials for measuring serum cytokine concentrations, troponin T, creatinekinase myocardial‐brain isoenzyme CK‐MB concentrations and white cell counts. Results Compared with the control group, IL‐6 and IL‐8‐values in the parecoxib group increased to a lesser extent, peaking at 2 h after the end of CPB (IL‐6 31.8 pg ml−1 ± 4.7 vs. 77.0 pg ml−1 ± 14.1, 95% CI −47.6, −42.8, P < 0.001; IL‐8 53.6 pg ml−1 ± 12.6 vs. 105.7 pg ml−1 ± 10.8, 95% CI −54.8, −49.4, P < 0.001). Peak concentrations of anti‐inflammatory cytokine IL‐10 occurred immediately after termination of CPB and were higher in the parecoxib group (115.7 pg ml−1 ± 10.5 vs. 88.4 pg ml−1 ± 12.3, 95% CI 24.7, 29.9, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the increase in neutrophil counts caused by CPB during cardiac surgery was inhibited by parecoxib. The increases in serum troponin T and CK‐MB concentrations were also significantly attenuated by parecoxib in the early post‐operative days. Peak serum concentrations of CK‐MB in both groups occurred at 24 h post‐CPB (17.4 μg l−1 ± 5.2 vs. 26.9 μg l−1 ± 6.9, 95% CI −10.9, −8.1, P < 0.001). Peak troponin T concentrations occurred at 6 h post‐bypass (2 μg l−1 ± 0.62 vs. 3.5 μg l−1 ± 0.78, 95% CI −1.7, −1.3, P < 0.001). Conclusion Intra‐operative parecoxib attenuated the systemic inflammatory response associated with CPB during cardiac surgery and lowered the biochemical markers of myocardial injury. PMID:22835079

  3. Impact of modifying priming components and fluid administration using miniaturized circuitry in neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Darling, E; Harris-Holloway, S; Kern, F H; Ungerleider, R; Jaggers, J; Lawson, S; Shearer, I

    2000-01-01

    Following a succession of changes in circuitry and priming additives between 1993 and 1998, a comprehensive re-evaluation of neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) practice was undertaken. Samples from 10 infants (Group 1) undergoing CPB were evaluated for osmolality, oncotic pressure, total protein, hematocrit, glucose, and electrolytes (Na+, K+, iCa2+). These samples were tested at six measurement points: (1) after priming, (2) patient pre-CPB, (3) CPB-start, (4) CPB-mid, (5) CPB-end, and (6) post-modified ultrafiltration (MUF). Prime volumes were also carefully measured as well as the type and amount of volume given during CPB. After evaluating the initial data, changes in protocol regarding mannitol, calcium correction, and oncotic strength on CPB were made. Following implementation of these protocol changes, a second set (Group 2) of 10 infants was identically evaluated. Group 1 prime osmolality was 379 +/- 44 mOsm/kg, while Group 2 prime osmolality was 324 +/- 14 mOsm/kg (p = 0.003). There were no differences in osmolality between groups during bypass and osmolality was unaffected by modified ultrafiltration. Ionized calcium levels were significantly different at the end of bypass between Group 1, 0.6 +/- 0.1 mmol/l; and Group 2, 1.17 +/- 0.24 mmol/l (p < 0.001). In Group 1, there was a 40% drop (p = 0.001) in colloid osmotic pressure (COP) levels from pre-CPB (13.3 +/- 3.4 mmHg) to CPB-end (8.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg). In Group 2, there were no differences in COP during CPB. COP levels of Group 1 and Group 2 at CPB-end were 8.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg and 14 +/- 1.9, respectively (p < 0.0001). Total volume addition during bypass for Group 1 was 363.5 +/- 148.7 ml and for Group 2 was 245.1 +/- 92.2 ml (p < 0.05). In conclusion, progressive changes in neonatal circuits and techniques can have potentially wide-ranging effects on electrolyte and osmotic/oncotic homeostasis. An audit of perfusion management through expanded laboratory tests is recommended, especially in periods of

  4. An initial evaluation of post-cardiopulmonary bypass acute kidney injury in swine☆

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Gavin J.; Lin, Hua; Coward, Richard J.; Toth, Tibor; Holmes, Robin; Hall, David; Angelini, Gianni D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) post-cardiac surgery is associated with mortality rates approaching 20%. The development of effective treatments is hindered by the poor homology between rodent models, the mainstay of research into AKI, and that which occurs in humans. This pilot study aims to characterise post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) AKI in an animal model with potentially greater homology to cardiac surgery patients. Methods and results Adult pigs, weighing 50–75 kg, underwent 2.5 h of CPB. Pigs undergoing saphenous vein grafting procedures served as controls. Pre-CPB measures of porcine renal function were within normal ranges for adult humans. The effect of CPB on renal function; a 25% reduction in 51Cr-EDTA clearance ( p = 0.068), and a 33% reduction in creatinine clearance (p = 0.043), was similar to those reported in clinical studies. CPB resulted in tubular epithelial injury (median NAG/creatinine ratio 2.6 u mmol−1 (interquartile range (IQR): 0.81–5.43) post-CPB vs 0.48 u mmol−1 (IQR: 0.37–0.97) pre-CPB, p = 0.043) as well as glomerular and/or proximal tubular injury (median albumin/creatinine ratio 6.8 mg mmol−1 (IQR: 5.45–13.06) post-CPB vs 1.10 mg mmol−1 (IQR: 0.05–2.00) pre-CPB, p = 0.080). Tubular injury scores were significantly higher in kidneys post-CPB (median score 2.0 (IQR: 1.0–2.0) relative to vein graft controls (median score 1.0 (IQR 1.0–1.0), p = 0.019). AKI was associated with endothelial injury and activation, as demonstrated by reduced DBA (dolichos biflorus agglutinin) lectin and increased endothelin-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) staining. Conclusions The porcine model of post-CPB AKI shows significant homology to AKI in cardiac surgical patients. It links functional, urinary and histological measures of kidney injury and may offer novel insights into the mechanisms underlying post-CPB AKI. PMID:19692256

  5. Hemoglobin Concentration Affects Electroencephalogram During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: An Indication for Neuro-Protective Values.

    PubMed

    Del Felice, Alessandra; Tessari, Maddalena; Formaggio, Emanuela; Menon, Tiziano; Petrilli, Giuseppe; Gamba, Gianluigi; Scarati, Simona; Masiero, Stefano; Bortolami, Oscar; Faggian, Giuseppe

    2016-02-01

    Hemodilution during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is widely used to decrease transfusion and improve microcirculation but has drawbacks, such as diminished hemoglobin levels. Among others, reduced brain oxygenation accounts for neurological adverse outcomes after CPB. The aim of the present study was to ascertain if and how continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) during CPB is affected by hematocrit level and what should be the minimum value to avoid significant frequency band shifts on the EEG. A comparative study design was used with 16 subjects undergoing elective mitral valve repair/replacement. EEG was continuously recorded during the surgical procedure (from anesthesia induction to 20 min after CPB end). Data were marked at relevant time points (T0: before CPB start; T1: after 30 min from CPB beginning; T2: at CPB end), and the following 2 min EEG analyzed with a fast Fourier transform to obtain relative power for delta, theta, alpha, and beta bands. A general linear model for repeated measure was used to study interactions of time (T0, T1, and T2, EEG frequency band, and topographical distribution. The relative powers for each electrode were calculated and represented using topographic maps. Power spectrum differences between time points (T2-T1; T2-T0; T1-T0) were calculated for each electrode, and differences >10%, considered indicative of neuronal sufferance, were included in further analysis. Cutoff hemoglobin values that maximize the proportion of correctly classified EEG band shifts were obtained by previous definition were obtained. At T2, diffuse EEG slowing in delta and theta bands was detected; a minor slowing over anterior regions was evident at T1 for the theta band. Decrements in EEG power greater than 10% were detected only for the delta band at T2. Hemoglobin concentration levels at which no slowing increase was evident were 9.4 mg/dL (Ht: 28.2%) at T1 and 9.2 mg/dL (Ht: 27.6%) at T2. EEG burst-suppression pattern related to a lesser degree of

  6. Combination of biomarkers for diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Prowle, John Richard; Calzavacca, Paolo; Licari, Elisa; Ligabo, E Valentina; Echeverri, Jorge E; Bagshaw, Sean M; Haase-Fielitz, Anja; Haase, Michael; Ostland, Vaughn; Noiri, Eisei; Westerman, Mark; Devarajan, Prasad; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2015-04-01

    Novel acute kidney injury (AKI) biomarkers offer promise of earlier diagnosis and risk stratification, but have yet to find widespread clinical application. We measured urinary α and π glutathione S-transferases (α-GST and π-GST), urinary l-type fatty acid-binding protein (l-FABP), urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), urinary hepcidin and serum cystatin c (CysC) before surgery, post-operatively and at 24 h after surgery in 93 high risk patient undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and assessed the ability of these biomarkers alone and in combination to predict RIFLE-R defined AKI in the first 5 post-operative days. Twenty-five patients developed AKI. π-GST (ROCAUC = 0.75), lower urine Hepcidin:Creatine ratio at 24 h (0.77), greater urine NGAL:Cr ratio post-op (0.73) and greater serum CysC at 24 h (0.72) best predicted AKI. Linear combinations with significant improvement in AUC were: Hepcidin:Cr 24 h + post-operative π-GST (AUC = 0.86, p = 0.01), Hepcidin:Cr 24 h + NGAL:Cr post-op (0.84, p = 0.03) and CysC 24 h + post-operative π-GST (0.83, p = 0.03), notably these significant biomarkers combinations all involved a tubular injury and a glomerular filtration biomarker. Despite statistical significance in receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) analysis, when assessed by ability to define patients to two groups at high and low risk of AKI, combinations failed to significantly improve classification of risk compared to the best single biomarkers. In an alternative approach using Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis a model involving NGAL:Cr measurement post-op followed by Hepcidin:Cr at 24 h was developed which identified high, intermediate and low risk groups for AKI. Regression tree analysis has the potential produce models with greater clinical utility than single combined scores. PMID:25585949

  7. Separation of craniopagus Siamese twins using cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Cameron, D E; Reitz, B A; Carson, B S; Long, D M; Dufresne, C R; Vander Kolk, C A; Maxwell, L G; Tilghman, D M; Nichols, D G; Wetzel, R C

    1989-11-01

    Occipitally joined craniopagus Siamese twins were separated with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest. The 7-month-old infants shared a large sagittal venous sinus that precluded conventional neurosurgical approach because of risk of exsanguination and air embolism. After craniotomy and preliminary exposure of the sinus, each twin underwent sternotomy and total cardiopulmonary bypass with deep hypothermia. Hypothermic circulatory arrest allowed safe division and subsequent reconstruction of the sinus remnants. Several unusual problems were encountered, including transfusion of a large blood volume from one extracorporeal circuit to the other through the common venous sinus, deleterious warming of the exposed brain during circulatory arrest, and thrombosis of both pump oxygenators. Both infants survived, although recovery was complicated in each by neurologic injury, cranial wound infection, and hydrocephalus. This case demonstrates the valuable supportive role of cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermic circulatory arrest in the management of complex surgical problems of otherwise inoperable patients. PMID:2682024

  8. Basic life support knowledge of secondary school students in cardiopulmonary resuscitation training using a song

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca del Pozo, Francisco Javier; Canales Velis, Nancy Beatriz; Andrade Barahona, Mario Miguel; Siggers, Aidan; Lopera, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effectiveness of a “cardiopulmonary resuscitation song” in improving the basic life support skills of secondary school students. Methods This pre-test/post-test control design study enrolled secondary school students from two middle schools randomly chosen in Córdoba, Andalucia, Spain. The study included 608 teenagers. A random sample of 87 students in the intervention group and 35 in the control group, aged 12-14 years were selected. The intervention included a cardiopulmonary resuscitation song and video. A questionnaire was conducted at three-time points: pre-intervention, one month and eight months post-intervention. Results On global knowledge of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, there were no significant differences between the intervention group and the control group in the trial pre-intervention and at the month post-intervention. However, at 8 months there were significant differences with a p-value = 0.000 (intervention group, 95% CI: 6.39 to 7.13 vs. control group, 95% CI: 4.75 to 5.92), (F (1,120)=16.644, p= 0.000). In addition, significant differences about students’ basic life support knowledge about chest compressions at eight months post-intervention (F(1,120)=15.561, p=0.000) were found. Conclusions Our study showed that incorporating the song component in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching increased its effectiveness and the ability to remember the cardiopulmonary resuscitation algorithm. Our study highlights the need for different methods in the cardiopulmonary resuscitation teaching to facilitate knowledge retention and increase the number of positive outcomes after sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:27442599

  9. A simple technique can reduce cardiopulmonary bypass use during lung transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Samano, Marcos N; Iuamoto, Leandro R; Fonseca, Hugo V S; Fernandes, Lucas M; Abdalla, Luis G; Jatene, Fabio B; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M

    2016-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes an inflammatory response and consumption of coagulation factors, increasing the risk of bleeding and neurological and renal complications. Its use during lung transplantation may be due to pulmonary hypertension or associated cardiac defects or just for better exposure of the pulmonary hilum. We describe a simple technique, or open pericardium retraction, to improve hilar exposure by lifting the heart by upward retraction of the pericardial sac. This technique permits lung transplantation without cardiopulmonary bypass when bypass use is recommended only for better exposure. PMID:27166775

  10. A simple technique can reduce cardiopulmonary bypass use during lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Samano, Marcos N; Iuamoto, Leandro R; Fonseca, Hugo V S; Fernandes, Lucas M; Abdalla, Luis G; Jatene, Fabio B; Pêgo-Fernandes, Paulo M

    2016-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass causes an inflammatory response and consumption of coagulation factors, increasing the risk of bleeding and neurological and renal complications. Its use during lung transplantation may be due to pulmonary hypertension or associated cardiac defects or just for better exposure of the pulmonary hilum. We describe a simple technique, or open pericardium retraction, to improve hilar exposure by lifting the heart by upward retraction of the pericardial sac. This technique permits lung transplantation without cardiopulmonary bypass when bypass use is recommended only for better exposure. PMID:27166775

  11. Use of Doppler ultrasound in the management of uteroplacental perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mandel, D C; Pryde, P G; Shah, D M; Iruretagoyena, J I

    2016-08-01

    Cardiopulmonary bypass, the extreme of non-obstetric surgery during pregnancy, presents unique challenges to minimize maternal and fetal risk. We present our experience with a woman who was diagnosed with a left atrial myxoma following an ischemic cerebrovascular accident. We discuss clinical management specific to cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy and delivery in the context of a multidisciplinary team approach. We recommend using intermittent Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive real-time assessment of uteroplacental perfusion during non-obstetric surgery in pregnancy. Monitoring of perfusion facilitates active feedback for appropriate in utero resuscitation in these cases. PMID:27021885

  12. Predictive value of rotational thromboelastometry during cardiopulmonary bypass for thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Sung-Mi; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Nam, Jae-Sik; Yun, Hye-Joo; Choi, Jeong-Hyun; Choi, In-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Background The early detection of coagulopathy helps guide decisions regarding optimal transfusion management during cardiac surgery. This study aimed to determine whether rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) analysis during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) could predict thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after CPB. Methods We analyzed 138 cardiac surgical patients for whom ROTEM tests and conventional laboratory tests were performed simultaneously both during and after CPB. An extrinsically activated ROTEM test (EXTEM), a fibrin-specific ROTEM test (FIBTEM) and PLTEM calculated by subtracting FIBTEM from EXTEM were evaluated. Correlations between clot amplitude at 10 min (A10), maximal clot firmness, platelet count, and fibrinogen concentrations at each time point were calculated. A receiver operating characteristic analysis with area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess the thresholds of EXTEM, PLTEM and FIBTEM parameters during CPB and for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB. Results The A10 on EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM during CPB showed a good correlation with platelet counts (r = 0.622 on EXTEM and r = 0.637 on PLTEM; P < 0.0001 for each value) and fibrinogen levels (r = 0.780; P < 0.0001) after CPB. A10 on a FIBTEM threshold of 8 mm during the CPB predicted a fibrinogen concentration < 150 mg/dl (AUC = 0.853) after CPB. Additionally, the threshold level of A10 on EXTEM during CPB for predicting platelet counts < 100,000 /µl after CPB was 42 mm (AUC = 0.768). Conclusions EXTEM, PLTEM, and FIBTEM parameters during CPB may be useful for predicting thrombocytopenia and hypofibrinogenemia after weaning of CPB. PMID:26045926

  13. Prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in heart failure patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Dominika; Bellwon, Jerzy; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej; Elkady, Mohamed Amr

    2013-01-01

    Background. The prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is known, but the predictive value of 6MWT in patients with heart failure (HF) and patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is not established yet. Objective. We conducted a systematic review exploring the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The aim was to find out whether the change in the distance walked during follow-up visits was associated with prognosis. Data Source. We searched "PubMed" from January 1990 to December 2012 for any review articles or experimental studies investigating the prognostic value of 6MWT in HF patients and patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Results. 53 studies were included in the review, and they explored the role of 6MWT in cardiology, cardiac surgery, and rehabilitation. The results did not show the relation between the six-minute walk distance and adverse events after CABG. The predictive power of the distance walked for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery was not found. It is not yet proved if the change in the six-minute walk distance is associated with prognosis. The predictive power of the six-minute walk distance for death in HF patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. PMID:23984074

  14. Comparison of the Effect of Anesthesia With Midazolam-Fentanyl Versus Propofol-Remifentanil on Bispectral Index in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Hemmati, Naser; Zokaei, Abdol Hamid

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of anesthesia with midazolam-fentanyl versus propofol-remifentanil on the BIS (bispectral index) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Sixty-four patients undergoing CABG were randomly assigned to one of two study groups: midazolam-fentanyl (MF, N= 32) or propofol-remifentanil (PR, N= 32). The BIS was measured before induction of anesthesia, five minutes after induction of anesthesia, at skin incision, sternotomy, pericardiotomy, aorta cannulation, onset of cardiopulmonary bypass, during rewarming, five minutes after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass, at thorax closure, and at the end of the surgery. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to age and gender. The difference in mean BIS between the two groups was significant (P < 0.05) at all times, except before induction, five minutes after induction, at skin incision and on rewarming. Changes in the BIS were lower in the PR group than in the MF group. Both techniques can provide adequate anesthesia in patients undergoing CABG. However, the probability of awareness during anesthesia is lower with propofol-remifentanil than with midazolam-fentanyl. PMID:26156911

  15. A Curriculum-Based Health Service Program in Hypertension, Diabetes, Venereal Diseases and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coker, Samuel T.; Janer, Ann L.

    1978-01-01

    Special screening and education courses in hypertension, diabetes, venereal disease, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation were added as electives at the Auburn University School of Pharmacy. Applied learning experiences for students and services to the community are achieved. Course goals and content and behavioral objectives in each area are…

  16. Analysis of circulatory mitochondrial DNA level after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass and potential prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chaoyi; Gu, Jun; Qian, Hong; Meng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Our research letter found that circulatory mtDNA level increased after the end of CPB and positive correlations between mtDNA and peak CRP level, peak BNP level, and peak PCT level, which revealed the prognostic role of perioperative circulatory mtDNA level in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:27316503

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF CARDIOPULMONARY RESPONSE IN AWAKE RATS DURING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO NEAR AMBIENT CONCENTRATIONS OF OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although rodents are the most commonly studied animal species for ozone (O3) research, no acute cardiopulmonary function studies during exposure have been reported. wake Fischer-344 rats were exposed to )3 and response was evaluated before, during and after the exposure using a p...

  18. CARDIOPULMONARY EFFECTS IN AWAKE RATS FOUR AND SIX MONTHS AFTER EXPOSURE TO METHYL ISOCYANATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cardiopulmonary function was assessed four and six months after Fischer-344 rats were exposed for 2 hr to 0, 3, or 10 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC). Minute ventilation (VE) during CO2 challenge was increased in MIC-treated rats compared to controls suggesting a ventilation/perfusio...

  19. Comparative cardiopulmonary toxicity of soy biofuel and diesel exhaust in healthy and hypertensive rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased use of renewable energy sources raise concerns about health effects of emissions from such sources. We conducted a comprehensive analysis of relative cardiopulmonary health effects of exhausts from 1) 100% soy biofuel (B100), 2) 20% soy biofuel + 80% low sulfur petroleu...

  20. A Comparative Analysis of Student Learning with a Collaborative Computer Simulation of the Cardiopulmonary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyser, Diane

    2010-01-01

    To design a series of assessments that could be used to compare the learning gains of high school students studying the cardiopulmonary system using traditional methods to those who used a collaborative computer simulation, called "Mr. Vetro". Five teachers and 264 HS biology students participated in the study. The students were in regular…

  1. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

  2. Modifying effect of the County Level Health Indices on Cardiopulmonary Effects Associated with Wildfire Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background and Aims: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a known risk factor for cardiopulmonary health and some studies suggest SES may be an effect modifier for health effects associated with exposure to air pollution. We investigated the synergistic impact of health disparities on ...

  3. AGONIST-MEDIATED AIRWAY CHALLENGE: CARDIOPULMONARY INTERACTIONS MODULATE GAS EXCHANGE AND RECOVERY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    To better understand the early phase response (0-60 minutes) to airway challenge, we examined cardiopulmonary reactions during ovalbumin (OVA), histamine, and methacholine aerosol challenge tests in guinea pigs. Propranolol and 100% O2 were used to modify the reacti...

  4. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  5. Understanding the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training on Participants' Perceived Confidence Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordheim, Shawn M.

    2013-01-01

    This pre-experimental, participatory action research study investigated the impact of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) training on participants' perceived confidence and willingness to initiate CPR. Parents of seventh and eighth grade students were surveyed. Parent participants were asked to watch the American Heart Association's Family and…

  6. Cardiopulmonary Laboratory Specialist, 10-6. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These instructor and student materials for a postsecondary level course for cardiopulmonary laboratory specialist training comprise one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in a civilian setting. The purpose stated for the course is to train students to…

  7. Cardiopulmonary Toxicity of Size-Fractionated Particulate Matter Obtained at Different Distances from a Highway

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was initiated to determine the effect of size fractionated particulate matter (PM) obtained at different distances from a highway on acute cardiopulmonary toxicity in mice. PM was collected for 2 weeks using a three-stage (ultrafine: <0.1µm; fine: 0.1-2.5µm; and coarse...

  8. CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICULATES (CAPS) STUDIES TO ADDRESS SOURCE-ATTRIBUTED EFFECTS ON CARDIOPULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of ambient particulate matter (PM) in several venues around the world have shown consistent health impacts vis-a-vis mortality and morbidity. However, recent studies have reported varied and sometimes disparate outcomes with respect to observed effects on cardiopulmonary ...

  9. Cardiopulmonary data acquisition system. Version 2.0, volume 2: Detailed software/hardware documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Detailed software and hardware documentation for the Cardiopulmonary Data Acquisition System is presented. General wiring and timing diagrams are given including those for the LSI-11 computer control panel and interface cables. Flowcharts and complete listings of system programs are provided along with the format of the floppy disk file.

  10. Inflammatory Lung Injury After Cardiopulmonary Bypass is Attenuated by Adenosine A2A Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lisle, Turner C; Gazoni, Leo M; Fernandez, Lucas G; Sharma, Ashish K; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Schifflett, Grant D; Laubach, Victor E; Kron, Irving L

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Cardiopulmonary bypass has been shown to exert an inflammatory response within the lung, often resulting in postoperative pulmonary dysfunction. Several studies have shown that adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) activation attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury, however the effect of A2AR activation on cardiopulmonary bypass-induced lung injury has not been studied. We hypothesized that specific A2AR activation by ATL313 would attenuate inflammatory lung injury following cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: 1) SHAM group (underwent cannulation+heparinization only); 2) CONTROL group (underwent 90-minutes of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with normal whole-blood priming solution; 3) ATL group (underwent 90-minutes of normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass with ATL313 added to the normal priming solution). Results There was significantly less pulmonary edema and lung injury in the ATL group compared to the CONTROL group. The ATL group had significant reductions in bronchoalveolar lavage interleukin-1, interleukin-6, interferon-γ and myeloperoxidase levels compared to the CONTROL group. Similarly, lung tissue interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ were significantly decreased in the ATL group compared to the CONTROL group. There was no significant difference between the SHAM and ATL groups in the amount of pulmonary edema, lung injury, or levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions The addition of a potent A2AR agonist to the normal priming solution prior to the initiation of CPB significantly protects the lung from the inflammatory effects of CPB and reduces the amount of lung injury. A2AR agonists could represent a new therapeutic strategy for reducing the potentially devastating consequences of the inflammatory response associated with CPB. Ultra-mini Abstract Pharmacologic activation of the adenosine A2A receptor during cardiopulmonary bypass resulted in

  11. Analysis of memory-like natural killer cells in human cytomegalovirus-infected children undergoing αβ+T and B cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Muccio, Letizia; Bertaina, Alice; Falco, Michela; Pende, Daniela; Meazza, Raffaella; Lopez-Botet, Miguel; Moretta, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Franco; Moretta, Alessandro; Della Chiesa, Mariella

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed the impact of human cytomegalovirus infection on the development of natural killer cells in 27 pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies, who had received a HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, depleted of both α/β+ T cells and B cells. In line with previous studies in adult recipients of umbilical cord blood transplantation, we found that human cytomegalovirus reactivation accelerated the emergence of mature natural killer cells. Thus, most children displayed a progressive expansion of a memory-like natural killer cell subset expressing NKG2C, a putative receptor for human cytomegalovirus, and CD57, a marker of terminal natural killer cell differentiation. NKG2C(+)CD57(+) natural killer cells were detectable by month 3 following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and expanded until at least month 12. These cells were characterized by high killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and leukocyte inhibitory receptor 1 (LIR-1) and low Siglec-7, NKG2A and Interleukin-18Rα expression, killed tumor targets and responded to cells expressing HLA-E (a NKG2C ligand). In addition, they were poor Interferon-γ producers in response to Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-18. The impaired response to these cytokines, together with their highly differentiated profile, may reflect their skewing toward an adaptive condition specialized in controlling human cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, in pediatric patients receiving a type of allograft different from umbilical cord blood transplantation, human cytomegalovirus also induced memory-like natural killer cells, possibly contributing to controlling infections and reinforcing anti-leukemia effects. PMID:26659918

  12. Analysis of memory-like natural killer cells in human cytomegalovirus-infected children undergoing αβ+T and B cell-depleted hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Muccio, Letizia; Bertaina, Alice; Falco, Michela; Pende, Daniela; Meazza, Raffaella; Lopez-Botet, Miguel; Moretta, Lorenzo; Locatelli, Franco; Moretta, Alessandro; Chiesa, Mariella Della

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the impact of human cytomegalovirus infection on the development of natural killer cells in 27 pediatric patients affected by hematological malignancies, who had received a HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, depleted of both α/β+ T cells and B cells. In line with previous studies in adult recipients of umbilical cord blood transplantation, we found that human cytomegalovirus reactivation accelerated the emergence of mature natural killer cells. Thus, most children displayed a progressive expansion of a memory-like natural killer cell subset expressing NKG2C, a putative receptor for human cytomegalovirus, and CD57, a marker of terminal natural killer cell differentiation. NKG2C+CD57+ natural killer cells were detectable by month 3 following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and expanded until at least month 12. These cells were characterized by high killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) and leukocyte inhibitory receptor 1 (LIR-1) and low Siglec-7, NKG2A and Interleukin-18Rα expression, killed tumor targets and responded to cells expressing HLA-E (a NKG2C ligand). In addition, they were poor Interferon-γ producers in response to Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-18. The impaired response to these cytokines, together with their highly differentiated profile, may reflect their skewing toward an adaptive condition specialized in controlling human cytomegalovirus. In conclusion, in pediatric patients receiving a type of allograft different from umbilical cord blood transplantation, human cytomegalovirus also induced memory-like natural killer cells, possibly contributing to controlling infections and reinforcing anti-leukemia effects. PMID:26659918

  13. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise. Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5–18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (<5 y, n = 12) and KD group 3 (≥5 y, n = 51) according to time interval between KD onset to when patients received test. Control groups were matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Max-Z of CA was defined as the maximal Z-score of the proximal LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator. All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = −0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = −0.309). Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it

  14. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (<5 y, n = 12) and KD group 3 (≥5 y, n = 51) according to time interval between KD onset to when patients received test. Control groups were matched by age, sex, and body mass index. Max-Z of CA was defined as the maximal Z-score of the proximal LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator.All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to

  15. Feasibility of measuring superior mesenteric artery blood flow during cardiac surgery under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using transesophageal echocardiography: An observational study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Naveen G.; Nagaraja, P. S.; Gopal, Divya; Manjunath, V.; Nagesh, K. S.; Manjunatha, N.; Patel, Guru Police; Mishra, Satish Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Abdominal complications being rare but results in high mortality, commonly due to splanchnic organ hypoperfusion during the perioperative period of cardiac surgery. There are no feasible methods to monitor intraoperative superior mesenteric artery blood flow (SMABF). Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and to measure SMABF using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during cardiac surgery under hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Methodology: Thirty-five patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery under CPB were enrolled. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), SMABF, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) diameter, superior mesentric artery blood flow over cardiac output (SMA/CO) ratio and arterial blood lactates were recorded at three time intervals. T0: before sternotomy, T1: 30 min after initiation of CPB and T2: after sternal closure. Results: SMA was demonstrated in 32 patients. SMABF, SMA diameter, SMA/CO, MAP and CO decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) between T0 and T1, increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001) between T0 and T2. Lactates increased progressively from T0 to T2. Conclusion: Study shows that there is decrease in SMABF during CPB and returns to baseline after CPB. Hence, it is feasible to measure SMABF using TEE in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under hypothermic CPB. TEE can be a promising tool in detecting and preventing splanchnic hypoperfusion during perioperative period. PMID:27397442

  16. Conventional hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass increases the serum lactate level in adult cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Rabie; Fouad, Eman; Belghith, Makhlouf; Abdelmageed, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass on lactate level in adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Design: An observational study. Setting: Prince Sultan cardiac center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Participants: The study included 283 patients classified into two groups: Hemofiltration group (n=138), hemofiltration was done during CPB. Control group (n = 145), patients without hemofiltration. Interventions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements and Main Results: Monitors included hematocrit, lactate levels, mixed venous oxygen saturation, amount of fluid removal during hemofiltration and urine output. The lactate elevated in group H than group C (P < 0.05), and the PH showed metabolic acidosis in group H (P < 0.05). The mixed venous oxygen saturation decreased in group H than group C (P < 0.05). The number of transfused packed red blood cells was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05). The hematocrit was higher in group H than group C (P < 0.05). The urine output was lower in group H than group C (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Hemofiltration during cardiopulmonary bypass leads to hemoconcentration, elevated lactate level and increased inotropic support. There are some recommendations for hemofiltration: First; Hemofiltration should be limited for patients with impaired renal function, positive fluid balance, reduced response to diuretics or prolonged bypass time more than 2 hours. Second; Minimal amount of fluids should be administered to maintain adequate cardiac output and reduction of priming volumes is preferable to maintain controlled hemodilution. Third; it should be done before weaning of or after cardiopulmonary bypass and not during the whole time of cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26750673

  17. Effects of Heart Bypass Surgery on Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 Levels in Infants and Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yaoqin; Shi, Shanshan; Liu, Xiwang; Hu, Zhiyong; Huang, Wenfang; Wang, Dongpi; Xu, Jianguo; Cheng, Baoli; Fang, Xiangming; Shu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease. Aβ levels in animals and adults were reported to be associated with postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Our goal was to determine the plasma levels of Aβ in infants and young children after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Forty-two infants and young children aged from 1 to 35 months undergoing cardiac surgery with general anesthetics were prospectively enrolled from January to June 2014 at a tertiary medical center. Perioperative plasma samples were obtained, and Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels were measured using ELISA. Other clinical characteristics of the patients were also recorded. Plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 decreased dramatically 2 hours after surgery and remained significantly lower 6 hours after operation. Baseline Aβ42 level correlated significantly with surgical intensive care unit (SICU) length of stay (LOS) and was an independent predictor for SICU LOS on multivariate analysis. Cardiac surgery with CPB decreases plasma Aβ levels. Plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 might be used as novel biomarkers for predicting outcomes in the patient population. PMID:26871797

  18. Does removing Mannitol and Voluven from the priming fluid of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit have clinical effects?

    PubMed

    Haydock, Matthew D; Kruger, Cornelis; Willcox, Timothy; Haydock, David A

    2014-03-01

    The Auckland Hospital cardiothoracic unit recently removed Mannitol and Voluven from its Plasma-lyte-based cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) priming fluid. Like with any change to practice, a comprehensive audit should be performed to identify positive or negative effects. The aim of this retrospective analysis was to investigate the effect of changing the CPB prime constituents on fluid balance and clinical outcome parameters. Clinical records were reviewed for 100 consecutive patients undergoing primary, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), 50 patients before the prime change and 50 after. All data were collated into a central database for analysis. Mean arterial pressure while on bypass was higher in the new prime group (61.5 mmHg versus 57.5 mmHg, p = .002). There was no significant difference in hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum sodium, serum potassium, or creatinine postoperatively between groups. In regard to important outcomes such as postoperative weight and fluid balance, time on ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) or hospital, and mortality, there were no significant differences. Interestingly, new prime group spent a smaller proportion of their time in the ICU on mechanical ventilation (23% versus 36%, p = .022). Mannitol and Voluven, like with all drugs, carry their own potential adverse effects. This study demonstrates that removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluid did not have any detrimental effect on electrolytes, fluid status, and other important outcomes in this consecutive series of patients having primary isolated CABG surgery. The risk-benefit balance combined with the obvious economic benefit clearly favors removing Mannitol and Voluven from priming fluids. PMID:24779123

  19. Non-invasive cardiac index monitoring during cardiopulmonary functional testing provides additional prognostic value in patients after acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ming-Feng; Chen, Wei-Siang; Fu, Tieh-Cheng; Liu, Min-Hui; Wang, Jong-Shyan; Hsu, Chih-Chin; Huang, Yu-Yen; Cherng, Wen-Jin; Wang, Chao-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The prognostic value of parameters derived from a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) is well established in patients stabilized after acute heart failure (HF). Under multidisciplinary disease management, this study sought to test whether noninvasive cardiac output (CO) monitoring (NICOM) during the CPET provides additional prognostic value. In total, 131 patients stabilized after acute HF agreed to undergo the CPET with NICOM. Outcome follow-up focused on composite events of death and HF-related rehospitalization. Patients with a peak cardiac index (CI) of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (n = 32), compared to those with a peak CI of > 4.5 L/minute/m(2) (n = 99), had higher incidences of diabetes mellitus (DM) and hypertension, but had lower hemoglobin levels, estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR), oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), and peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)). During the 1.2 ± 0.7 years of follow-up, there were 8 (6.1%) deaths, and 16 (12.2%) HF-related rehospitalizations. In a Cox univariable analysis, a lower event-free survival was associated with a history of DM, a higher Ve/VCO(2) slope, lower peak VCO(2) and eGFR, and a peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/ m(2) (P < 0.05). The Cox multivariable analysis showed that the Ve/VCO(2) slope (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01~1.16, P = 0.02) and peak CI of ≤ 4.5 L/minute/m(2 )(HR = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.18~9.01, P = 0.02) were significant independent predictors. In conclusion, NICOM during the CPET was demonstrated to provide prognostic information in addition to traditional risk factors, biomarkers, and other well-established CPET parameters. PMID:23258137

  20. Association of Hematocrit and Red Blood Cell Transfusion with Outcomes in Infants Undergoing Norwood Operation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Punkaj; King, Caitlin; Benjamin, Lisle; Goodhart, Timothy; Robertson, Michael J; Gossett, Jeffrey M; Pesek, Gina A; DasGupta, Rahul

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and hematocrit values with outcomes in infants undergoing Norwood operation. This study included infants ≤2 months of age who underwent Norwood operation with either a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt or a right ventricle-pulmonary artery shunt. Demographics, preoperative, operative, daily laboratory data, and postoperative variables were collected. The primary outcome measures evaluated included mortality, ICU length of stay, length of mechanical ventilation, and days to chest closure. The secondary outcome measures evaluated included lactate levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and inotrope score in the first 14 days after heart operation. Cox proportional hazard models were fitted to study the probability of study outcomes as a function of hematocrit values and RBC transfusions after operation. Eighty-nine patients qualified for inclusion. With a median hematocrit of 46 (IQR 44, 49), and a median RBC transfusion of 92 ml/kg (IQR 31, 384) in the first 14 days after operation, 81 (91 %) patients received RBC transfusions. A multivariable analysis adjusted for risk factors, including the age, weight, prematurity, cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time, and postoperative need for nitric oxide and dialysis, demonstrated no association between hematocrit and RBC transfusion with majority of study outcomes. This single-center study found that higher hematocrit values and increasing RBC transfusions are not associated with improved outcomes in infants undergoing Norwood operation. PMID:25773580